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Sample records for albeit ultraviolet bright

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  2. DUST-SCATTERED ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND BRIGHT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn

    2011-06-10

    We have discovered ultraviolet (UV) halos extending as far as 5 deg. around four (of six) bright UV stars using data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. These halos are due to scattering of the starlight from nearby thin, foreground dust clouds. We have placed limits of 0.58 {+-} 0.12 and 0.72 {+-} 0.06 on the phase function asymmetry factor (g) in the FUV (1521 A) and NUV (2320 A) bands, respectively. We suggest that these halos are a common feature around bright stars and may be used to explore the scattering function of interstellar grains at small angles.

  3. Observations of ultraviolet-bright stars in globular clusters with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke Dixon, W.; Davidsen, Arthur F.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    1994-01-01

    Two UV-bright stars in globular clusters, UV5 in NGC 1851 and vZ 1128 in M3, were observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) during the Astro-1 space shuttle mission in 1990 December. The stars' spectra show weak absorption features and no significant emission features other than well known geocoronal lines. Detailed fitting of Kurucz (1991) stellar atmosphere models using a chi(sup 2) minimization technique indicates T(sub eff) = 16 000 K, log g = 2.5, and abundance (-1.0) (logarithm of abundance of elements heavier than helium relative to solar) for UV5, and T(sub eff) = 35 000 K, log g = 4.0, and abundance (-3.5) for vZ 1128. The Kurucz model which best fits vZ 1128 overpredicts the flux in the region below approximately 1000 A, an effect seen in previous models of O-type stars. Our results are robust (to within approximately 1000 K) with respect to uncertainties in interstellar reddening and atomic and molecular hydrogen column densities. We do not see significant molecular hydrogen absorption, which might have indicated material in a circumstellar shell, in either star's spectrum. We estimate the stellar luminosities to be log L/solar luminosity = 3.33 +/- 0.15 for UV5 and log L/solar luminosity = 3.21 +/- 0.12 for vZ 1128. These atmospheric parameters place both stars on the Schoenberner (post-AGB) tracks, though the stellar masses derived from the best-fitting Kurucz models are somewhat less than those predicted by the Schoenberner models. Examination of individual absorption line strengths reveals no significant abundance anomalies in either star.

  4. Numerical evaluation of a 13.5-nm high-brightness microplasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Hiroyuki Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Jiang, Weihua; Miura, Taisuke; Endo, Akira; Ejima, Takeo; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-11-21

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission and its spatial distribution as well as plasma parameters in a microplasma high-brightness light source are characterized by the use of a two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulation. The expected EUV source size, which is determined by the expansion of the microplasma due to hydrodynamic motion, was evaluated to be 16 μm (full width) and was almost reproduced by the experimental result which showed an emission source diameter of 18–20 μm at a laser pulse duration of 150 ps [full width at half-maximum]. The numerical simulation suggests that high brightness EUV sources should be produced by use of a dot target based microplasma with a source diameter of about 20 μm.

  5. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hayato; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Miura, Taisuke; Mocek, Tomas; Endo, Akira

    2014-08-18

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18 μm was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  6. EXTENDED ULTRAVIOLET DISKS AND ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT DISKS IN LOW-MASS E/S0 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Baker, Andrew J.; Laine, Seppo

    2012-01-20

    We have identified 15 extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks in a largely field sample of 38 E/S0 galaxies that have stellar masses primarily below {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and comparable numbers on the red and blue sequences. We use a new purely quantitative XUV-disk definition designed with reference to the 'Type 1' XUV-disk definition found in the literature, requiring UV extension relative to a UV-defined star formation threshold radius. The 39% {+-} 9% XUV-disk frequency for these E/S0s is roughly twice the {approx}20% reported for late-type galaxies (although differences in XUV-disk criteria complicate the comparison), possibly indicating that XUV disks are preferentially associated with galaxies experiencing weak or inefficient star formation. Consistent with this interpretation, we find that the XUV disks in our sample do not correlate with enhanced outer-disk star formation as traced by blue optical outer-disk colors. However, UV-Bright (UV-B) disk galaxies with blue UV colors outside their optical 50% light radii do display enhanced optical outer-disk star formation as well as enhanced atomic gas content. UV-B disks occur in our E/S0s with a 42{sup +9}{sub -8}% frequency and need not coincide with XUV disks; thus their combined frequency is 61% {+-} 9%. For both XUV and UV-B disks, UV colors typically imply <1 Gyr ages, and most such disks extend beyond the optical R{sub 25} radius. XUV disks occur over the full sample mass range and on both the red and blue sequences, suggesting an association with galaxy interactions or another similarly general evolutionary process. In contrast, UV-B disks favor the blue sequence and may also prefer low masses, perhaps reflecting the onset of cold-mode gas accretion or another mass-dependent evolutionary process. Virtually all blue E/S0s in the gas-rich regime below stellar mass M{sub t} {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} (the 'gas-richness threshold mass') display UV-B disks

  7. Note: Development of a volume-limited dot target for a high brightness extreme ultraviolet microplasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Thanh Hung Suzuki, Yuhei; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ohashi, Hayato; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2014-11-15

    We report on production of volume-limited dot targets based on electron beam lithographic and sputtering technologies for use in efficient high brightness extreme ultraviolet microplasma sources. We successfully produced cylindrical tin (Sn) targets with diameters of 10, 15, and 20 μm and a height of 150 nm. The calculated spectrum around 13.5 nm was in good agreement with that obtained experimentally.

  8. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Ulonska, Stefan; Robinson, Joseph S.; Ranitovic, Predrag; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  9. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Ulonska, Stefan; Robinson, Joseph S.; Ranitovic, Predrag; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. Here, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s−1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10−5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications. PMID:26067922

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Bright CEMP-s Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan; Imig, Julie A.; Roederer, Ian U.; Abate, Carlo; Hansen, Terese; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako; Smith, Verne V.; Bolte, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars HD 196944 (V=8.40, [Fe/H] = -2.41) and HD 201626 (V=8.16, [Fe/H] = -1.51), based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Both of these stars belong to the sub-class CEMP-s, and exhibit clear over-abundances of heavy elements associated with production by the slow neutron-capture process. HD 196944 has been well-studied in the optical region, but we add abundance results for six species (Ge, Nb, Mo, Lu, Pt, and Au) that are only accessible in the NUV. In addition, we provide the first determination of its orbital period, P = 1325 days. HD 201626 has only a limited number of abundance results based on previous optical work—here we add five new species from the NUV, including Pb. We compare these results with models of binary-system evolution and s-process element production in stars on the asymptotic giant branch, with the goal of explaining their origin and evolution. Our best-fitting models for HD 196944 ({M}1,i=0.9{M}⊙ , {M}2,i=0.86{M}⊙ , for [Fe/H] = -2.2), and HD 201626 ({M}1,i=0.9{M}⊙ , {M}2,i=0.76{M}⊙ , for [Fe/H] = -2.2; {M}1,i=1.6{M}⊙ , {M}2,i=0.59{M}⊙ , for [Fe/H] = -1.5) are consistent with the current accepted scenario for the formation of CEMP-s stars. The data presented herein were obtained with the (i) NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. (These observations are associated with program GO-12554, data sets OBQ601010-30 and OBQ602010-30.); and (ii) W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (The Observatory was made

  11. BRIGHT RAY-LIKE FEATURES IN THE AFTERMATH OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: WHITE LIGHT VERSUS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaravella, A.; Webb, D. F.; Giordano, S.; Raymond, J. C.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets (CSs) are important signatures of magnetic reconnection in the eruption of confined solar magnetic structures. Models of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a CS connecting the ejected flux rope with the post-eruption magnetic loops. CSs have been identified in white light (WL) images of CMEs as narrow rays trailing the outward moving CME core, and in ultraviolet spectra as narrow bright features emitting the [Fe XVIII] line. In this work, samples of rays detected in WL images or in ultraviolet spectra have been analyzed. Temperatures, widths, and line intensities of the rays have been measured, and their correlation to the CME properties has been studied. The samples show a wide range of temperatures with hot, coronal, and cool rays. In some cases, the UV spectra support the identification of rays as CSs, but they show that some WL rays are cool material from the CME core. In many cases, both hot and cool material are present, but offset from each other along the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer slit. We find that about 18% of the WL rays show very hot gas consistent with the CS interpretation, while about 23% show cold gas that we attribute to cool prominence material draining back from the CME core. The remaining events have ordinary coronal temperatures, perhaps because they have relaxed back to a quiescent state.

  12. EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD AND FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE STRUCTURES OF BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, Kazutaka; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Shang, Hsien; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko

    2013-03-20

    The bright-rimmed cloud SFO 22 was observed with the 45 m telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory in the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0), {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0), and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) lines, where well-developed head-tail structure and small line widths were found. Such features were predicted by radiation-driven implosion models, suggesting that SFO 22 may be in a quasi-stationary equilibrium state. We compare the observed properties with those from numerical models of a photoevaporating cloud, which include effects of magnetic pressure and heating due to strong far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from an exciting star. The magnetic pressure may play a more important role in the density structures of bright-rimmed clouds than the thermal pressure that is enhanced by the FUV radiation. The FUV radiation can heat the cloud surface to near 30 K; however, its effect is not enough to reproduce the observed density structure of SFO 22. An initial magnetic field of 5 {mu}G in our numerical models produces the best agreement with the observations, and its direction can affect the structures of bright-rimmed clouds.

  13. Visual and ultraviolet flux variability of the bright CP star θ Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Lüftinger, T.; Jagelka, M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Chemically peculiar stars of the upper part of the main sequence show periodical variability in line intensities and continua, modulated by the stellar rotation, which is attributed to the existence of chemical spots on the surface of these stars. The flux variability is caused by the changing redistribution rate of the radiative flux predominantly from the short-wavelength part of the spectra to the long-wavelength part, which is a result of abundance anomalies. Many details of this process are still unknown. Aims: We study the nature of the multi-spectral variability of one of the brightest chemically peculiar stars, θ Aur. Methods: We predict the flux variability of θ Aur from the emerging intensities calculated for individual surface elements of the star taking into account horizontal variation of chemical composition. The surface chemical composition was derived from Doppler abundance maps. Results: The simulated optical variability in the Strömgren photometric system and the ultraviolet flux variability agree well with observations. The IUE flux distribution is reproduced in great detail by our models in the near ultraviolet region. A minor disagreement remains between the observed and predicted fluxes in the far ultraviolet region. The resonance lines of magnesium and possibly also some lines of silicon are relatively weak in the ultraviolet domain, which indicates non-negligible vertical abundance gradients in the atmosphere. We also derive a new period of the star, P = 3.618 664(10) d, from all available photometric and magnetic measurements and show that the observed rotational period is constant over decades. Conclusions: The ultraviolet and visual variability of θ Aur is mostly caused by silicon bound-free absorption and chromium and iron line absorption. Manganese also contributes to the variability, but to a lesser extent. These elements redistribute the flux mainly from the far-ultraviolet region to the near-ultraviolet and optical

  14. The ultraviolet-bright stars of Omega Centauri, M3, and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Whitney, Jonathan H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hill, Robert S.; Maran, Stephen P.; Parise, Ronald A.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew A.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new UV-bright stars detected within 2 arcmin of the center of Omega Cen are spectroscopically investigated with the short-wavelength spectrograph of the IUE. The IUE spectra of the UV-bright stars UIT-1 and UIT-2 in the core of Omega Cen superficially resemble those of Population I mid-B stars. The absorption lines of the core UV-bright stars are significantly weaker than in Population I stars, consistent with their membership in the cluster. Synthetic spectra calculated from low-metallicity Kurucz model stellar atmospheres are compared with the spectra. These objects are insufficiently luminous to be classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars. They may be evolved hot horizontal branch stars which have been brightened by more than 3 mag since leaving the zero-age horizontal branch. It is inferred from the spectra and luminosity of the core UV-bright stars that similar objects could provide the source of the UV light in elliptical galaxies.

  15. Bright Points and Subflares in Ultraviolet Lines and X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovira, M.; Schmieder, B.; Demoulin, P.; Simnett, G. M.; Hagyard, M. J.; Reichmann, E.; Reichmann, E.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed an active region which was observed in H.alpha (Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass Spectrograph), in UV lines (SMM/UVSP), and in X-rays (SMM/HXIS). In this active region there were only a few subflares and many small bright points visible in UV and in X-rays. Using an extrapolation based on the Fourier transform, we have computed magnetic field lines connecting different photospheric magnetic polarities from ground-based magnetograms. Along the magnetic inversion lines we find two different zones: (1) a high-shear region (> 70 deg) where subflares occur, and (2) a low-shear region along the magnetic inversion line where UV bright points are observed. In these latter regions the magnetic topology is complex with a mixture of polarities. According to the velocity field observed in the Si IV lamda.1402 line and the extrapolation of the magnetic field, we notice that each UV bright point is consistent with emission from low-rising loops with downflows at both ends. We notice some hard X-ray emissions above the bright-point regions with temperatures up to 8 x 10(exp 6) K, which suggests some induced reconnection due to continuous emergence of new flux. This reconnection is also enhanced by neighboring subflares.

  16. Bright subcycle extreme ultraviolet bursts from a single dense relativistic electron sheet.

    PubMed

    Ma, W J; Bin, J H; Wang, H Y; Yeung, M; Kreuzer, C; Streeter, M; Foster, P S; Cousens, S; Kiefer, D; Dromey, B; Yan, X Q; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J; Zepf, M; Schreiber, J

    2014-12-01

    Double-foil targets separated by a low density plasma and irradiated by a petawatt-class laser are shown to be a copious source of coherent broadband radiation. Simulations show that a dense sheet of relativistic electrons is formed during the interaction of the laser with the tenuous plasma between the two foils. The coherent motion of the electron sheet as it transits the second foil results in strong broadband emission in the extreme ultraviolet, consistent with our experimental observations.

  17. Bright subcycle extreme ultraviolet bursts from a single dense relativistic electron sheet.

    PubMed

    Ma, W J; Bin, J H; Wang, H Y; Yeung, M; Kreuzer, C; Streeter, M; Foster, P S; Cousens, S; Kiefer, D; Dromey, B; Yan, X Q; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J; Zepf, M; Schreiber, J

    2014-12-01

    Double-foil targets separated by a low density plasma and irradiated by a petawatt-class laser are shown to be a copious source of coherent broadband radiation. Simulations show that a dense sheet of relativistic electrons is formed during the interaction of the laser with the tenuous plasma between the two foils. The coherent motion of the electron sheet as it transits the second foil results in strong broadband emission in the extreme ultraviolet, consistent with our experimental observations. PMID:25526132

  18. Dynamics of laser-produced Sn microplasma for a high-brightness extreme ultraviolet light source

    SciTech Connect

    Yuspeh, S.; Tao, Y.; Burdt, R. A.; Tillack, M. S.; Ueno, Y.; Najmabadi, F.

    2011-05-16

    The effect of laser focal spot diameters of 26 and 150 {mu}m on 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is investigated. Simulations show that the smaller spot size has a shorter electron plasma density scale length and deeper and denser laser energy deposition region. This results in additional time required for plasma expansion and radiation transport to efficiently emit EUV light. This is experimentally observed as an increase in the delay between the EUV emission and the laser pulse. The shorter scale length plasma reabsorbs less EUV light, resulting in a higher conversion efficiency, smaller and slightly brighter light source.

  19. BRIGHT ULTRAVIOLET REGIONS AND STAR FORMATION CHARACTERISTICS IN NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Melena, Nicholas W.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Zernow, Lea; Elmegreen, Bruce G. E-mail: dah@lowell.edu E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com

    2009-11-15

    We compare star formation in the inner and outer disks of 11 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIm) within 3.6 Mpc. The regions are identified on Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-UV images, and modeled with UV, optical, and near-IR colors to determine masses and ages. A few galaxies have made 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M {sub sun} complexes in a starburst phase, while others have not formed clusters in the last 50 Myr. The maximum region mass correlates with the number of regions as expected from the size-of-sample effect. We find no radial gradients in region masses and ages, even beyond the realm of H{alpha} emission, although there is an exponential decrease in the luminosity density and number density of the regions with radius. H{alpha} is apparently lacking in the outer parts only because nebular emission around massive stars is too faint to see. The outermost regions for the five galaxies with H I data formed at average gas surface densities of 1.9-5.9 M {sub sun} pc{sup -2}. These densities are at the low end of commonly considered thresholds for star formation and imply either that local gas densities are higher before star formation begins or subthreshold star formation is possible. The first case could be explained by supernovae triggering and other local processes, while the second case could be explained by gravitational instabilities with angular momentum loss in growing condensations. The distribution of regions on a log(mass) - log(age) plot is examined. The distribution is usually uniform along log(age) for equal intervals of log(mass) and this implies a region count that varies as 1/age. This variation results from either an individual region mass that varies as 1/age or a region disruption probability that varies as 1/age. A correlation between fading-corrected surface brightness and age suggests the former. The implied loss of mass is from fading of region envelopes below the surface brightness limit.

  20. Young, Ultraviolet-bright Stars Dominate Dust Heating in Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A.

    2011-09-01

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region—the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  1. YOUNG, ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STARS DOMINATE DUST HEATING IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A. E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu

    2011-09-10

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region-the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  2. Observations of the bright novalike variable IX Velorum with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Knox S.; Wade, Richard A.; Blair, William P.; Davidsen, Arthur F.; Hubeny, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, an experiment flown on the Space Shuttle as part of the Astro-1 mission, was used to obtain a spectrum of the novalike variable IX Vel (= CPD -48 deg 1577) in the wavelength range 830-1860 A. The observation revealed a rich absorption-line and continuum spectrum that peaks near 1050 A at a flux of 1.6 x 10(exp -11) ergs/sq cm/s/A. In the sub-Lyman-alpha region, some of the more prominent absorption lines are S VI lambda lambda-933, 945, C III lambda-977, Lyman-beta, O VI lambda lambda-1032, 1038, P V lambda lambda-1118, 1128, and C III lambda-1176. No emission was detected below the Lyman limit. The overall continuum shape of IX Vel in the FUV can be approximated using models of an optically thick accretion disk in which the integrated spectrum has been constructed by summing model stellar atmospheres or proper disk model spectra. However, if the distance to IX Vel is approximately 95 pc, standard disk models without reddening cannot simultaneously reproduce the color and flux in the UV. While interstellar reddening can reconcile this difference, the amount of reddening appears inconsistent with the absence of a 2200 A bump in the spectrum and the very low H I column density measured along the line of sight. Improved fits to the data can be obtained by modifying the accretion disk stucture within three white dwarf radii. None of the models reproduces the profiles of the Li- and Na-like ions, which are observed as strong but relatively narrow absorption lines, and which are almost surely due to a wind above the disk.

  3. Sparkling extreme-ultraviolet bright dots observed with Hi-C

    SciTech Connect

    Régnier, S.; Alexander, C. E.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; Korreck, K. E.; Weber, M.; Mitchell, N.; Platt, S.; De Pontieu, B.; Title, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Kuzin, S.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-04-01

    Observing the Sun at high time and spatial scales is a step toward understanding the finest and fundamental scales of heating events in the solar corona. The high-resolution coronal (Hi-C) instrument has provided the highest spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in the EUV wavelength range to date. Hi-C observed an active region on 2012 July 11 that exhibits several interesting features in the EUV line at 193 Å. One of them is the existence of short, small brightenings 'sparkling' at the edge of the active region; we call these EUV bright dots (EBDs). Individual EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength; however, they can be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA, which suggests a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on their frequency in the Hi-C time series, we define four different categories of EBDs: single peak, double peak, long duration, and bursty. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale, trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV heating events at the base of these coronal loops, which have a free magnetic energy of the order of 10{sup 26} erg.

  4. STEREOSCOPIC DETERMINATION OF HEIGHTS OF EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHT POINTS USING DATA TAKEN BY SECCHI/EUVI ABOARD STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Chae, Jongchul; Zhang Jie

    2010-05-01

    We measure the heights of EUV bright points (BPs) above the solar surface by applying a stereoscopic method to the data taken by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory/SECCHI/Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI). We have developed a three-dimensional reconstruction method for point-like features such as BPs using the simple principle that the position of a point in the three-dimensional space is specified as the intersection of two lines of sight. From a set of data consisting of EUVI 171 A, 195 A, 284 A, and 304 A images taken on 11 days arbitrarily selected during a period of 14 months, we have identified and analyzed 210 individual BPs that were visible on all four passband images and smaller than 30 Mm. The BPs seen in the 304 A images have an average height of 4.4 Mm, and are often associated with the legs of coronal loops. In the 171 A, 195 A, and 284 A images the BPs appear loop-shaped, and have average heights of 5.1, 6.7, and 6.1 Mm, respectively. Moreover, there is a tendency that overlying loops are filled with hotter plasmas. The average heights of BPs in 171 A, 195 A, and 284 A passbands are roughly twice the corresponding average lengths. Our results support the notion that an EUV BP represents a system of small loops with temperature stratification like flaring loops, being consistent with the magnetic reconnection origin.

  5. Differential responses to high- and low-dose ultraviolet-B stress in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shinya; Kojo, Kei H.; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Endo, Masaki; Toki, Seiichi; Isoda, Hiroko; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation leads to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and cell death. To evaluate the UV-B stress–induced changes in plant cells, we developed a model system based on tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. Both low-dose UV-B (low UV-B: 740 J m−2) and high-dose UV-B (high UV-B: 2960 J m−2) inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death; these effects were more pronounced at high UV-B. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest within 1 day after UV-B irradiation; neither low- nor high-UV-B–irradiated cells entered mitosis within 12 h. Cell cycle progression was gradually restored in low-UV-B–irradiated cells but not in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. UV-A irradiation, which activates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase, reduced inhibition of cell proliferation by low but not high UV-B and suppressed high-UV-B–induced cell death. UV-B induced CPD formation in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of CPDs decreased gradually within 3 days in low-UV-B–irradiated cells, but remained elevated after 3 days in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Low UV-B slightly increased the number of DNA single-strand breaks detected by the comet assay at 1 day after irradiation, and then decreased at 2 and 3 days after irradiation. High UV-B increased DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay 1 and 3 days after irradiation. Caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases, reduced the rate of cell death in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Our data suggest that low-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks inhibit DNA replication and proliferation of BY-2 cells, whereas larger contents of high-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks lead to cell death. PMID:25954287

  6. Three-Dimensional Structure and Evolution of Extreme-Ultraviolet Bright Points Observed by STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Ryun Young; Chae, Jongchul; Davila, Joseph M.; Zhang, Jie; Moon, Yong-Jae; Poomvises, Watanachak; Jones, Shaela I.

    2012-01-01

    We unveil the three-dimensional structure of quiet-Sun EUV bright points and their temporal evolution by applying a triangulation method to time series of images taken by SECCHI/EUVI on board the STEREO twin spacecraft. For this study we examine the heights and lengths as the components of the three-dimensional structure of EUV bright points and their temporal evolutions. Among them we present three bright points which show three distinct changes in the height and length: decreasing, increasing, and steady. We show that the three distinct changes are consistent with the motions (converging, diverging, and shearing, respectively) of their photospheric magnetic flux concentrations. Both growth and shrinkage of the magnetic fluxes occur during their lifetimes and they are dominant in the initial and later phases, respectively. They are all multi-temperature loop systems which have hot loops (approx. 10(exp 6.2) K) overlying cooler ones (approx 10(exp 6.0) K) with cool legs (approx 10(exp 4.9) K) during their whole evolutionary histories. Our results imply that the multi-thermal loop system is a general character of EUV bright points. We conclude that EUV bright points are flaring loops formed by magnetic reconnection and their geometry may represent the reconnected magnetic field lines rather than the separator field lines.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHT POINTS OBSERVED BY STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Poomvises, Watanachak; Chae, Jongchul; Davila, Joseph M.; Jones, Shaela I.; Zhang Jie; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2012-10-01

    We unveil the three-dimensional structure of quiet-Sun EUV bright points and their temporal evolution by applying a triangulation method to time series of images taken by SECCHI/EUVI on board the STEREO twin spacecraft. For this study we examine the heights and lengths as the components of the three-dimensional structure of EUV bright points and their temporal evolutions. Among them we present three bright points which show three distinct changes in the height and length: decreasing, increasing, and steady. We show that the three distinct changes are consistent with the motions (converging, diverging, and shearing, respectively) of their photospheric magnetic flux concentrations. Both growth and shrinkage of the magnetic fluxes occur during their lifetimes and they are dominant in the initial and later phases, respectively. They are all multi-temperature loop systems which have hot loops ({approx}10{sup 6.2} K) overlying cooler ones ({approx}10{sup 6.0} K) with cool legs ({approx}10{sup 4.9} K) during their whole evolutionary histories. Our results imply that the multi-thermal loop system is a general character of EUV bright points. We conclude that EUV bright points are flaring loops formed by magnetic reconnection and their geometry may represent the reconnected magnetic field lines rather than the separator field lines.

  8. Observations of the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray brightness profiles of Fe, Ni, and Ge in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.; Fournier, K. B.; Goldstein, W. H.; Mattioli, M.; Pacella, D.; Mazzitelli, G.; Leigheb, M.; Gabellieri, L.

    2001-09-01

    The spatial brightness profiles of emission lines for the K-like through He-like ionization states of Fe, Ge, and Ni have been measured during a set of experiments in which Fe and Ge were introduced into FTU tokamak plasmas by using the laser blowoff technique. Nickel was an intrinsic impurity observed during these experiments that was sputtered from the inconel limiter. The brightness profiles were measured by spatially scanable, photometrically calibrated vaccum ultraviolet and x-ray spectrometers that covered the 1 to 1700 {angstrom} region. Simulations of these profiles and the time evolution of the laser blowoffs were performed with the MIST transport code using several sets of atomic physics compilations [ADPAK (originally in MIST), Arnaud and Raymond (AR92), Arnaud and Rothenflug (AR85), Mazzotta , and Mattioli (an extension to Mazzotta)]. The goal was to determine which set of available rates could best simulate the measured spatial brightness profiles and the charge state balance in the plasma. The Mazzotta (for Fe and Ni), the Mattioli (for Ge), and the AR92 (for Fe only) rates adequately simulated the He-, Li-, Be-, Na-, Mg-like ionization states. The F- to B-like charge states could not be simulated by these compilations unless the relevant dielectronic rates were multiplied by a factor of 2. The ADPAK rates could not adequately predict any of the charge states of Fe, Ge, or Ni.

  9. RESONANCES IN THE PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS OF ATOMIC NITROGEN SHAPE THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF THE BRIGHT STAR IN 47 TUCANAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre E-mail: chayer@stsci.edu

    2013-08-10

    The far-ultraviolet spectrum of the Bright Star (B8 III) in 47 Tuc (NGC 104) shows a remarkable pattern: it is well fit by local thermodynamic equilibrium models at wavelengths longer than Ly{beta}, but at shorter wavelengths it is fainter than the models by a factor of two. A spectrum of this star obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer shows broad absorption troughs with sharp edges at 995 and 1010 A and a deep absorption feature at 1072 A; none of which are predicted by the models. We find that these features are caused by resonances in the photoionization cross sections of the first and second excited states of atomic nitrogen (2s {sup 2} 2p {sup 3} {sup 2} D {sup 0} and {sup 2} P {sup 0}). Using cross sections from the Opacity Project, we can reproduce these features, but only if we use the cross sections at their full resolution, rather than the resonance-averaged cross sections usually employed to model stellar atmospheres. These resonances are strongest in stellar atmospheres with enhanced nitrogen and depleted carbon abundances, a pattern typical of post-asymptotic giant branch stars.

  10. Resonances in the Photoionization Cross Sections of Atomic Nitrogen Shape the Far-ultraviolet Spectrum of the Bright Star in 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    The far-ultraviolet spectrum of the Bright Star (B8 III) in 47 Tuc (NGC 104) shows a remarkable pattern: it is well fit by local thermodynamic equilibrium models at wavelengths longer than Lyβ, but at shorter wavelengths it is fainter than the models by a factor of two. A spectrum of this star obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer shows broad absorption troughs with sharp edges at 995 and 1010 Å and a deep absorption feature at 1072 Å none of which are predicted by the models. We find that these features are caused by resonances in the photoionization cross sections of the first and second excited states of atomic nitrogen (2s 2 2p 3 2 D 0 and 2 P 0). Using cross sections from the Opacity Project, we can reproduce these features, but only if we use the cross sections at their full resolution, rather than the resonance-averaged cross sections usually employed to model stellar atmospheres. These resonances are strongest in stellar atmospheres with enhanced nitrogen and depleted carbon abundances, a pattern typical of post-asymptotic giant branch stars.

  11. Hubble space telescope near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the bright cemp-no star BD+44°493

    SciTech Connect

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Smith, Verne V.; Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Filler, Dan; Ivans, Inese I.; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako

    2014-07-20

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the extremely metal-poor star BD+44°493 a ninth magnitude subgiant with [Fe/H] =–3.8 and enhanced carbon, based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This star is the brightest example of a class of objects that, unlike the great majority of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, does not exhibit over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). In this paper, we validate the abundance determinations for a number of species that were previously studied in the optical region, and obtain strong upper limits for beryllium and boron, as well as for neutron-capture elements from zirconium to platinum, many of which are not accessible from ground-based spectra. The boron upper limit we obtain for BD+44°493, log ε (B) <–0.70, the first such measurement for a CEMP star, is the lowest yet found for very and extremely metal-poor stars. In addition, we obtain even lower upper limits on the abundances of beryllium, log ε (Be) <–2.3, and lead, log ε (Pb) <–0.23 ([Pb/Fe] <+1.90), than those reported by previous analyses in the optical range. Taken together with the previously measured low abundance of lithium, the very low upper limits on Be and B suggest that BD+44°493 was formed at a very early time, and that it could well be a bona-fide second-generation star. Finally, the Pb upper limit strengthens the argument for non-s-process production of the heavy-element abundance patterns in CEMP-no stars.

  12. The ultraviolet-bright, slowly declining transient PS1-11af as a partial tidal disruption event

    SciTech Connect

    Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Czekala, I.; Dittmann, J.; Drout, M.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Gezari, S.; Rest, A.; Riess, A. G.; Chomiuk, L.; Huber, M. E.; Lawrence, A.; and others

    2014-01-01

    We present the Pan-STARRS1 discovery of the long-lived and blue transient PS1-11af, which was also detected by Galaxy Evolution Explorer with coordinated observations in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. PS1-11af is associated with the nucleus of an early type galaxy at redshift z = 0.4046 that exhibits no evidence for star formation or active galactic nucleus activity. Four epochs of spectroscopy reveal a pair of transient broad absorption features in the UV on otherwise featureless spectra. Despite the superficial similarity of these features to P-Cygni absorptions of supernovae (SNe), we conclude that PS1-11af is not consistent with the properties of known types of SNe. Blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with the cooling, expanding ejecta of a SN, and the velocities of the absorption features are too high to represent material in homologous expansion near a SN photosphere. However, the constant blue colors and slow evolution of the luminosity are similar to previous optically selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The shape of the optical light curve is consistent with models for TDEs, but the minimum accreted mass necessary to power the observed luminosity is only ∼0.002 M {sub ☉}, which points to a partial disruption model. A full disruption model predicts higher bolometric luminosities, which would require most of the radiation to be emitted in a separate component at high energies where we lack observations. In addition, the observed temperature is lower than that predicted by pure accretion disk models for TDEs and requires reprocessing to a constant, lower temperature. Three deep non-detections in the radio with the Very Large Array over the first two years after the event set strict limits on the production of any relativistic outflow comparable to Swift J1644+57, even if off-axis.

  13. The Ultraviolet-bright, Slowly Declining Transient PS1-11af as a Partial Tidal Disruption Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Gezari, S.; Zauderer, B. A.; Rest, A.; Chomiuk, L.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Czekala, I.; Dittmann, J.; Drout, M.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Huber, M. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lawrence, A.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Riess, A. G.; Roth, K. C.; Sanders, N. E.; Scolnic, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Martin, D. C.; Neill, J. D.; Price, P. A.; Wainscoat, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Pan-STARRS1 discovery of the long-lived and blue transient PS1-11af, which was also detected by Galaxy Evolution Explorer with coordinated observations in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. PS1-11af is associated with the nucleus of an early type galaxy at redshift z = 0.4046 that exhibits no evidence for star formation or active galactic nucleus activity. Four epochs of spectroscopy reveal a pair of transient broad absorption features in the UV on otherwise featureless spectra. Despite the superficial similarity of these features to P-Cygni absorptions of supernovae (SNe), we conclude that PS1-11af is not consistent with the properties of known types of SNe. Blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with the cooling, expanding ejecta of a SN, and the velocities of the absorption features are too high to represent material in homologous expansion near a SN photosphere. However, the constant blue colors and slow evolution of the luminosity are similar to previous optically selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The shape of the optical light curve is consistent with models for TDEs, but the minimum accreted mass necessary to power the observed luminosity is only ~0.002 M ⊙, which points to a partial disruption model. A full disruption model predicts higher bolometric luminosities, which would require most of the radiation to be emitted in a separate component at high energies where we lack observations. In addition, the observed temperature is lower than that predicted by pure accretion disk models for TDEs and requires reprocessing to a constant, lower temperature. Three deep non-detections in the radio with the Very Large Array over the first two years after the event set strict limits on the production of any relativistic outflow comparable to Swift J1644+57, even if off-axis.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Near-ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Bright CEMP-no Star BD+44°493

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Filler, Dan; Ivans, Inese I.; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako; Smith, Verne V.

    2014-07-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the extremely metal-poor star BD+44°493 a ninth magnitude subgiant with [Fe/H] =-3.8 and enhanced carbon, based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This star is the brightest example of a class of objects that, unlike the great majority of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, does not exhibit over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). In this paper, we validate the abundance determinations for a number of species that were previously studied in the optical region, and obtain strong upper limits for beryllium and boron, as well as for neutron-capture elements from zirconium to platinum, many of which are not accessible from ground-based spectra. The boron upper limit we obtain for BD+44°493, log epsilon (B) <-0.70, the first such measurement for a CEMP star, is the lowest yet found for very and extremely metal-poor stars. In addition, we obtain even lower upper limits on the abundances of beryllium, log epsilon (Be) <-2.3, and lead, log epsilon (Pb) <-0.23 ([Pb/Fe] <+1.90), than those reported by previous analyses in the optical range. Taken together with the previously measured low abundance of lithium, the very low upper limits on Be and B suggest that BD+44°493 was formed at a very early time, and that it could well be a bona-fide second-generation star. Finally, the Pb upper limit strengthens the argument for non-s-process production of the heavy-element abundance patterns in CEMP-no stars. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-12554, and we also make use of data taken in program GO-12268.

  15. High brightness extreme ultraviolet (at 13.5 nm) emission from time-of-flight controlled discharges with coaxial fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Yokoyama, Takuma; Zhidkov, Alexei; Sato, Hiroto; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Eiki

    2008-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from discharge produced plasma with the coaxial injection of fuel vapor (tin and lithium) produced by laser ablation is experimentally studied. Multiple plasma pinches preceding a strong and long recombination radiation of EUV are observed in the first half cycle of a sinusoidal discharge current. Due to the time-of-flight control type of the discharge, the shape of pinch radiation pulses is almost identical. With the coaxial injection of time-of-flight controlled discharges, the highest brightness of EUV emission (maximum extracted energy of 244.3 mJ/2π sr per pulse with the emitter size of ˜1×0.3 mm2 in full width at half maximum) is provided with efficiency exceeding 2% of deposited energy into the plasma (or 1% of dissipated energy in the discharge) due to a much better matching with the optimal plasma parameters in the recombination regime and a decrease in the off-duty factor. Stability of emitting plasma of the repetitive pinches is essentially improved with use of a second laser pulse.

  16. Heavy element abundances in Ap stars from ultraviolet data. I - The bright reference stars Alpha Lyrae and Alpha Canis Majoris A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boiarchuk, A. A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Curve-of-growth analysis is used to derive chemical abundances in Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa, based on ultraviolet spectra obtained with Copernicus. This analysis is part of a program to study the abundances of the heavy elements mercury and platinum and the short-lived element technetium in the atmospheres of Ap and Am stars. Ultraviolet Fe II lines are used to establish the curves of growth for Alpha Lyr and Alpha CMa A; abundances of a variety of elements, along with upper limits on Hg, Pt, and Tc, are derived. In cases where previous studies based on visual spectra have included elements in common with the present analysis, the agreement is good within the known uncertainties. One new element, cadmium, is observed for these two stars. The upper limits on Pt and Hg, as well as Tc, show that these elements are probably not enhanced in Alpha CMa A by more than about one order of magnitude.

  17. UV-bright stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights globular cluster studies with Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in three areas: the discrepancy between observed ultraviolet HB magnitudes and predictions of theoretical HB models; the discovery of two hot subdwarfs in NGC 1851, a globular not previously known to contain such stars; and spectroscopic follow up of newly identified UV-bright stars in M79 and w Cen. I also present results of a recent observation of NGC 6397 with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer.

  18. Rainbow brightness.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, S D

    1982-08-15

    A theory for the brightness of rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer consists of a beam of singly scattered sunlight, originating from the directly illuminated portion of a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its path through the atmosphere. The model incorporates the relevant features of cloud geometry and solar position in relation to the observer appropriate to rainbows. The model helps explain why the bottom (or near-horizon portion) of the rainbow tends to be both brighter and redder than the top (or horizontal portion furthest above the ground) when the sun is near the horizon. The greater brightness of the bottom of the bow derives principally from the greater length of the directly illuminated part of the rainswath near the horizon, while the increased redness of the bow's bottom is due to the severe depletion of the short-wavelength contribution to the rainbow beam in its passage through the atmosphere. PMID:20396168

  19. Ultraviolet Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molde, Trevor

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the discovery and nature of ultraviolet light, discusses some applications for these wavelengths, and describes a number of experiments with ultraviolet radiation suitable for secondary school science classes. (JR)

  20. Ultraviolet observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Houck, T. E.; Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The first observations of a comet in the vacuum ultraviolet were obtained on January 14, 1970, when OAO-2 recorded the spectrum of the bright comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g). The observations revealed, among other things, the predicted extensive hydrogen Lyman alpha halo. OAO-2 continued to collect spectrophotometric measurements of this comet throughout January of that year; a photograph of the nucleus in Lyman alpha revealed finer scale structures. In February of 1970, the bright comet Bennet (1969i) became favorable for space observations. On the basis of the OAO discovery, OGO-V made several measurements of comet Bennet with low spatial resolution photometers. Comet Enke was detected by OGO in January of 1971 at a large heliocentric distance from its Lyman alpha emission.

  1. THE LBT BOOeTES FIELD SURVEY. I. THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET AND NEAR-INFRARED LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND CLUSTERING OF BRIGHT LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT Z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dave, Romeel; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F.; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    2013-09-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U{sub spec}-band imaging survey (9 deg{sup 2}) covering the NOAO Booetes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx} 3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by {>=}3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of z {approx} 3 quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z {approx} 3 LBGs based on the R-band and [4.5 {mu}m]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z {approx} 7 and z {approx} 3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR), which follows the trend predicted by the baryonic accretion rate onto the halo, suggesting that the star formation in LBGs is fueled by baryonic accretion through the cosmic web. By comparing the SFRs with the total baryonic accretion rates, we find that cosmic star formation efficiency is about 5%-20% and it does not evolve significantly with redshift, halo mass, or galaxy luminosity.

  2. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  3. The LBT Boötes Field Survey. I. The Rest-frame Ultraviolet and Near-infrared Luminosity Functions and Clustering of Bright Lyman Break Galaxies at Z ~ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Fuyan; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F.; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Davé, Romeel

    2013-09-01

    We present a deep LBT/LBC U spec-band imaging survey (9 deg2) covering the NOAO Boötes field. A total of 14,485 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3 are selected, which are used to measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF). The large sample size and survey area reduce the LF uncertainties due to Poisson statistics and cosmic variance by >=3 compared to previous studies. At the bright end, the LF shows excess power compared to the best-fit Schechter function, which can be attributed to the contribution of z ~ 3 quasars. We compute the rest-frame near-infrared LF and stellar mass function (SMF) of z ~ 3 LBGs based on the R-band and [4.5 μm]-band flux relation. We investigate the evolution of the UV LFs and SMFs between z ~ 7 and z ~ 3, which supports a rising star formation history in the LBGs. We study the spatial correlation function of two bright LBG samples and estimate their average host halo mass. We find a tight relation between the host halo mass and the galaxy star formation rate (SFR), which follows the trend predicted by the baryonic accretion rate onto the halo, suggesting that the star formation in LBGs is fueled by baryonic accretion through the cosmic web. By comparing the SFRs with the total baryonic accretion rates, we find that cosmic star formation efficiency is about 5%-20% and it does not evolve significantly with redshift, halo mass, or galaxy luminosity. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University

  4. Ultraviolet Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Side-by-Side Comparison Click on image for larger view

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, also know as Messier 83 or M83. It is located 15 million light-years away in the southern constellation Hydra.

    Ultraviolet light traces young populations of stars; in this image, young stars can be seen way beyond the main spiral disk of M83 up to 140,000 light-years from its center. Could life exist around one of these far-flung stars? Scientists say it's unlikely because the outlying regions of a galaxy are lacking in the metals required for planets to form.

    The image was taken at scheduled intervals between March 15 and May 20, 2007. It is one of the longest-exposure, or deepest, images ever taken of a nearby galaxy in ultraviolet light. Near-ultraviolet light (or longer-wavelength ultraviolet light) is colored yellow, and far-ultraviolet light is blue.

    What Lies Beyond the Edge of a Galaxy The side-by-side comparison shows the Southern Pinwheel galaxy, or M83, as seen in ultraviolet light (right) and at both ultraviolet and radio wavelengths (left). While the radio data highlight the galaxy's long, octopus-like arms stretching far beyond its main spiral disk (red), the ultraviolet data reveal clusters of baby stars (blue) within the extended arms.

    The ultraviolet image was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer between March 15 and May 20, 2007, at scheduled intervals. Back in 2005, the telescope first photographed M83 over a shorter period of time. That picture was the first to reveal far-flung baby stars forming up to 63,000 light-years from the edge of the main spiral disk. This came as a surprise to astronomers because a galaxy's outer territory typically lacks high densities of star-forming materials.

    The newest picture of M83 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is shown at the right, and was taken over a longer period of

  5. BrightFocus Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  6. Brightness of Moonlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstang, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the brightness of moonlight by comparison with lamp-light from a low wattage light bulb is an elementary project in astronomy which illustrates scientific principles for the freshman level. Two methods used for the comparison (shadow brightness method and grease spot method) are explained, with suggestions and expected answers. (DH)

  7. Results from the Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasseen, T. P.; Bowyer, S.; Lampton, M.; Wu, X.

    1993-01-01

    We present early results from the Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST), which flew in March 1992 with the ATLAS space shuttle mission. The telescope provides wide-field images in the far ultraviolet (1400-1800 A). Studies underway using the data obtained on this mission include establishing the brightness and distribution of far ultraviolet stars in the halo of our Galaxy, establishing the far ultraviolet properties of nearby galaxies and nearby clusters of galaxies, analyzing the diffuse galactic light, and searching for the origin of the extragalactic ultraviolet light. We discuss the instrument performance, and early results from these observations.

  8. Star Light, Star Bright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for obtaining a rough measure of the brightness among different stars. Materials needed include a standard 35-mm camera, a plastic ruler, and a photo enlarger. Although a telescope can be used, it is not essential. (JN)

  9. Bright patches on Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus' five largest satellites. Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers (1.56 million miles). The clear-filter image, obtained with the narrow-angle camera, shows a resolution of 47 km (29 miles). Ariel is about 1,300 km (800 mi) in diameter. This image shows several distinct bright areas that reflect nearly 45 percent of the incident sunlight; on average, the satellite displays a reflectivity of about 25-30 percent. The bright areas are probably fresh water ice, perhaps excavated by impacts. The south pole of Ariel is slightly off center of the disk in this view. Voyager 2 will obtain its best views of the satellite on Jan. 24, at a closest-approach distance of 127,000 km (79,000 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. High Brightness Test Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Caporaso, G.J.; Boyd, J.K.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D. Jr.; Smith, M.W.

    1985-08-07

    The High Brightness Test Stand is a 2 MeV, less than or equal to 10 kA electron accelerator module. This accelerator module, designed as an upgrade prototype for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), combines solid state nonlinear magnetic drives with state-of-the-art induction linac technology. The facility serves a dual role, as it not only provides a test bed for this new technology, but is used to develop high brightness electron optics. We will both further describe the accelerator, as well as present some of the preliminary electron optics measurements.

  11. Brightness predictions for comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel W. E.; Marsden, Brian G.; Morris, Charles S.

    2001-02-01

    Daniel W E Green, Brian G Marsden and Charles S Morris write with the aim of illuminating the issue of cometary light curves and brightness predictions, following the publication in this journal last October of the letter by John McFarland (2000).

  12. A Bright Shining Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurowitz, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes students come up with crazy ideas. When this author first started teaching at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Virginia five years ago, she had a sophomore share such an idea with her. He wanted to put solar panels on the school's roof as a way to reduce the school's carbon footprint and set a bright clean…

  13. Bright Fireball Over Georgia

    NASA Video Gallery

    A camera in Cartersville, Ga., captured this view of a bright fireball over Georgia on the night of Mar. 7, 2012, at approx. 10:19:11 EST. The meteor was first recorded at an altitude of 51.5 miles...

  14. Bright Streak on Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These two images of Jupiter's small, irregularly shaped moon Amalthea, obtained by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft in August 1999(left) and November 1999 (right), form a 'stereo pair' that helps scientists determine this moon's shape and the topography of its surface features. Features as small as 3.8 kilometers (2.4 miles) across can be resolved in these images, making them among the highest-resolution images ever taken of Amalthea.

    The large impact crater visible in both images, near the right-hand edge of Amalthea's disk, is about 40 kilometers (about 29 miles) across; two ridges, tall enough to cast shadows, extend from the top of the crater in a V-shape reminiscent of a 'rabbit ears' television antenna. To the left of these ridges, in the top center portion of Amalthea's disk, is a second large impact crater similar in size to the first crater. To the left of this second crater is a linear 'streak' of relatively bright material about 50 kilometers (31 miles) long. In previous spacecraft images of Amalthea taken from other viewing directions, this bright feature was thought to be a small, round, bright 'spot' and was given the name Ida. These new images reveal for the first time that Ida is actually a long, linear 'streak.' This bright streak may represent material ejected during the formation of the adjacent impact crater, or it may just mark the crest of a local ridge. Other patches of relatively bright material can be seen elsewhere on Amalthea's disk, although none of these other bright spots has Ida's linear shape.

    In both images, sunlight is coming from the left and north is approximately up. Note that the north pole of Amalthea is missing in the right-hand image (it was cut off by the edge of the camera frame). The bright streak, Ida, is on the side of the moon that faces permanently away from Jupiter, and the crater near the right-hand edge of the disk is in the center of Amalthea's leading side (the side of the moon that 'leads

  15. Low-Dispersion Observations of Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    Seven US2 observing shifts are being requested to obtain low-dispersion SWP and LWP spectra of approximately 15 bright, nearby early-type stars. The targets are taken from the 10-year old effective temperature and bolometric correction study of Code, Davis, Bless, and Hanbury Brown (CDBB). The CDBB stars represent the only sample of stars for which angular diameter measurements are available. The stars which we plan to observe have been unobservable with the low-dispersion mode of IUE in the past because of their extreme brightness; however, the recent refinements in the fast-trailing technique now allow optimally exposed spectra to be obtained. With the new spectra and with Archival spectra which are available for some of the less bright CDBB stars, we plan to repeat the earlier effective temperature and bolometric correction determinations, taking advantage of the higher photometric stability and higher resolution of IUE over previous ultraviolet missions and utilizing improvements in the ground-based optical/lR data and calibrations. This study will tie the large IUE database into a system of fundamental stellar effective temperature and bolometric correction determinations.

  16. Bright field illumination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Edward D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A Bright Field Illumination system for inspecting a range of characteristically different kinds of defects, depressions, and ridges in a selected material surface. The system has an illumination source placed near a first focus of an elliptical reflector. In addition, a camera facing the inspected area is placed near the illumination source and the first focus. The second focus of the elliptical reflector is located at a distance approximately twice the elliptical reflector's distance above the inspected surface. The elliptical reflector directs the light from the source onto the inspected surface. Due to the shape of the elliptical reflector, light that is specularly reflected from the inspected surface is directed into the camera is which located at the position of the reflected second focus of the ellipse. This system creates a brightly lighted background field against which damage sites appear as high contrast dark objects which can be easily detected by a person or an automated inspection system. In addition, the Bright Field Illumination system and method can be used in combination with a vision inspection system providing for multiplexed illumination and data handling of multiple kinds of surface characteristics including abrupt and gradual surface variations and differences between measured characteristics of different kinds and prior instruments.

  17. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented.

  18. Low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhulst, J. M.; Deblok, W. J. G.; Mcgaugh, S. S.; Bothun, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    A program to investigate the properties of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies involving surface photometry in U, B, V, R, I, and H-alpha, HI imaging with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the very large array (VLA) and spectrophotometry of H2 regions in LSB galaxies is underway. The goal is to verify the idea that LSB galaxies have low star formation rates because the local gas density falls below the critical density for star formation, and to study the stellar population and abundances in LSB galaxies. Such information should help understanding the evolutionary history of LSB galaxies. Some preliminary results are reported.

  19. High brightness electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10{sup {minus}8} torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given.

  20. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  1. A high brightness photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sage, Gregory Peter

    Linear colliders, future electron acceleration schemes, and short pulse, ultrawideband millimeter-wave sources require very bright electron beams. Conventional electron injectors including thermionic cathodes and RF bunchers or DC guns have intrinsic limitations which preclude their usage for many of these applications. RF photoinjectors have shown their ability to produce relativistic electron beams with low emittance and energy spread. However, previously developed RF photoinjectors are also subject to significant limitations. These include extreme sensitivity to timing between the RF in the accelerator structure and the drive laser, low efficiency with respect to the number and charge of the electron bunches produced by the injector, and high cost associated with both the RF drive and laser systems. The presently described system has addressed these issues by combining state-of-the-art capabilities in the laser and RF systems, photocathode materials, and new concepts for synchronization. Phase jitter generated by sources including Klystron modulator voltage fluctuation has been measured in detail, and schemes for alleviating this problem have undergone initial proof-of-principle testing. New concepts for the drive laser system have been tested which will lead to further improvements in performance, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and compactness. The analytical and experimental work associated with the development of a high brightness, high gradient electron accelerator is presented. The presentation emphasizes the systematic progress toward the original design goals of the project, as well as the state-of-the-art innovations characterizing the system. The linear electron accelerator system is based on a 1 1/2 cell side-wall coupled, π-mode standing wave accelerator structure, driven by a 20 MW SLAC Klystron operating at 8.548 GHz, a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator, and an 8-pass, chirped pulse Ti:Sapphire laser amplifier. Simulations show an rms transverse

  2. How Bright Is the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  3. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Narrow CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycka, D.; Raymond, J. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Li, J.; Ciaravella, A.

    2002-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are commonly described as new, discrete, bright features appearing in the field of view of a white light coronagraph and moving outward over a period of minutes to hours. Apparent angular widths of the CMEs cover a wide range, from few to 360°. The very narrow structures (narrower than ~15-20°) form only a small subset of all the observed CMEs and are usually referred to as rays, spikes, fans, etc. Recently, Gilbert et al. (2001, ApJ, 550, 1093) reported LASCO white light observations of 15 selected narrow CMEs. We extended the study and analyzed ultraviolet spectroscopy of narrow ejections, including several events listed by Gilbert et al. The data were obtained by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS/SOHO). We present comparison of narrow and large CMEs and discuss the relation of the narrow CMEs to coronal jets and/or other narrow transient events. This work is supported by NASA under Grant NAG5-11420 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, by the Italian Space Agency and by PRODEX (Swiss contribution).

  4. HUBBLE REVEALS ULTRAVIOLET GALACTIC RING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The appearance of a galaxy can depend strongly on the color of the light with which it is viewed. The Hubble Heritage image of NGC 6782 illustrates a pronounced example of this effect. This spiral galaxy, when seen in visible light, exhibits tightly wound spiral arms that give it a pinwheel shape similar to that of many other spirals. However, when the galaxy is viewed in ultraviolet light with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, its shape is startlingly different. Ultraviolet light has a shorter wavelength than ordinary visible light, and is emitted from stars that are much hotter than the Sun. At ultraviolet wavelengths, which are rendered as blue in the Hubble image, NGC 6782 shows a spectacular, nearly circular bright ring surrounding its nucleus. The ring marks the presence of many recently formed hot stars. Two faint, dusty spiral arms emerge from the outer edge of the blue ring and are seen silhouetted against the golden light of older and fainter stars. A scattering of blue stars at the outer edge of NGC 6782 in the shape of two dim spiral arms shows that some star formation is occurring there too. The inner ring surrounds a small central bulge and a bar of stars, dust, and gas. This ring is itself part of a larger dim bar that ends in these two outer spiral arms. Astronomers are trying to understand the relationship between the star formation seen in the ultraviolet light and how the bars may help localize the star formation into a ring. NGC 6782 is a relatively nearby galaxy, residing about 183 million light-years from Earth. The light from galaxies at much larger distances is stretched to longer, redder wavelengths ['redshifted'], due to the expansion of the universe. This means that if astronomers want to compare visible-light images of very distant galaxies with galaxies in our own neighborhood, they should use ultraviolet images of the nearby ones. Astronomers find that the distant galaxies tend to have different structures than nearby ones, even when they

  5. Statistical Properties of Solar Coronal Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, N.; Safari, H.

    2015-07-01

    Here, we aim to study the statistical properties (i.e., spatial, temporal, and magnetic structures) of extreme ultraviolet coronal bright points (CBPs) observed by SDO during a 4.4 yr period (2010 June 1 to 2014 October 31). We developed the automatic detection method for CBPs based on the machine-learning technique and Zernike image moments. The average number and the mean density of CBPs are estimated to be about 572 (per full disk image taken at 193 Å) and 1.9× {10}-4 Mm‑2, respectively. There is a negative correlation (‑0.7) between the number of CBPs and the number of sunspots. The size and lifetime frequency distribution of CBPs show the lognormal and power-law (exponent equal to ‑1.6) behaviors, respectively. The relationship between the lifetime and size of CBPs is clearly treated by a power-law function with an exponent equal to 0.13. Around 1.3% of the solar surface is covered by the bright cores of CBPs and 2.6% of that is covered by their total area. About 52% of CBPs have lifetimes of less than 20 minutes and the remaining 48% have mean lifetimes of 6 hr. More than 95% of CBPs with lifetimes of less than 20 hr and nine CBPs with lifetimes of more than 72 hr are detected. The average number of the new CBPs emerging every 45 s in the whole of the Sun is about 27 ± 3. The temporal self-affinity of the time series of CBPs that emerged, indexed by the Hurst exponent determined using both detrended fluctuation analysis and R/S analysis, is 0.78. This long-temporal correlation suggests that CBPs form a system of self-organized criticality.

  6. Space station contamination study: Assessment of contaminant spectral brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of spectral brightness resulting from the ambient-contaminant interaction requires a knowledge of the details of cross sections and excitation mechanisms. The approach adopted was to utilize the spectral brightness measurements made on Spacelab 1 and on the S3-4 spacecraft to identify source mechanisms, key cross sections and hence, the abundance of contaminant species. These inferred abundances were then used to update the composition comprising the total column concentrations predicted by the Science and Engineering Associates' configuration contamination model for the Space Station and to scale the irradiances to four altitudes: 300, 350, 400, and 463 km. The concentration irradiances are compared with zodiacal natural background levels. The results demonstrate that emissive contamination is significantly more severe than anticipated. It is shown that spectral emissions can become competitive with the zodiacal background up to altitudes as high as 400 km for the vacuum ultraviolet and visible emissions.

  7. Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Brightness Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G.; Stern, S.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an ultraviolet (UV) spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that is designed to map the lunar albedo at far-UV wavelengths. LAMP primarily measures interplanetary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha sky-glow and far-UV starlight reflected from the night-side lunar surface, including permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the poles. Dayside observations are also obtained. Brightness maps sorted by wavelength (including the Lyman-alpha wavelength of 121.6 nm) are reported for the polar regions, with a few regions of interest reported in more detail. LAMP's spectral range of 58 nm to 196 nm includes a water ice spectral feature near 160 nm, which provides a diagnostic tool for detecting water on the lunar surface that is complementary to recent discoveries using infrared and radio frequency techniques. Progress towards producing far-UV albedo maps and searching for water ice signatures will be reported. We'll discuss how LAMP data may address questions regarding how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in the PSRs.

  8. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  9. High brightness picosecond electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Merano, M.; Collin, S.; Renucci, P.; Gatri, M.; Sonderegger, S.; Crottini, A.; Ganiere, J.D.; Deveaud, B.

    2005-08-15

    We have developed a high brightness picosecond electron gun. We have used it to replace the thermionic electron gun of a commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to perform time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiments. Picosecond electron pulses are produced, at a repetition rate of 80.7 MHz, by femtosecond mode-locked laser pulses focused on a metal photocathode. This system has a normalized axial brightness of 93 A/cm{sup 2} sr kV, allowing for a spatial resolution of 50 nm in the secondary electron imaging mode of the SEM. The temporal width of the electron pulse is 12 ps.

  10. A Far-Ultraviolet Study of the Cygnus Loop Using the VOYAGER Ultraviolet Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancura, Olaf; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Holberg, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the Voyager 1 and 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometers to study the far-ultraviolet emissions from different types of shock waves in the Cygnus Loop. In the southeast and northern parts of the supernova remnant (SNR), we have measured the O(VI) lambda1035 surface brightness from the main blast wave. This value is several times below the average and more than one order of magnitude below the peak O(VI) brightness in the SNR as measured with Voyager. A simple blast wave model appears able to reproduce the observations in the southeast and the northern parts of the Cygnus Loop but can only account for 10%-15% of the total O(VI) emission from the Cygnus Loop. The brightest O(VI) and C(III) lambda977 emission is found coincident with optical filamentation and X-ray enhancements in the northeast. We interpret the observations in the northeast in terms of nonradiative and incomplete shocks whose surface area rises in the optical filamentary regions. We conclude that the bulk of the O(VI) emission from the Cygnus Loop arises from optically bright clouds within which intermediate-velocity (200 + 50 km/s) nonradiative and incomplete shocks are widespread.

  11. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other.

  12. Orientation of migratory birds under ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In view of the finding that cryptochrome 1a, the putative receptor molecule for the avian magnetic compass, is restricted to the ultraviolet single cones in European Robins, we studied the orientation behaviour of robins and Australian Silvereyes under monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light. At low intensity UV light of 0.3 mW/m(2), birds showed normal migratory orientation by their inclination compass, with the directional information originating in radical pair processes in the eye. At 2.8 mW/m(2), robins showed an axial preference in the east-west axis, whereas silvereyes preferred an easterly direction. At 5.7 mW/m(2), robins changed direction to a north-south axis. When UV light was combined with yellow light, robins showed easterly 'fixed direction' responses, which changed to disorientation when their upper beak was locally anaesthetised with xylocaine, indicating that they were controlled by the magnetite-based receptors in the beak. Orientation under UV light thus appears to be similar to that observed under blue, turquoise and green light, albeit the UV responses occur at lower light levels, probably because of the greater light sensitivity of the UV cones. The orientation under UV light and green light suggests that at least at the level of the retina, magnetoreception and vision are largely independent of each other. PMID:24718656

  13. Far-ultraviolet imagery of the Orion Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two electrographic cameras carried on a sounding rocket have yielded useful-resolution far-ultraviolet (1000-2000 A) imagery of the Orion Nebula. The brightness distribution in the images is consistent with a primary source which is due to scattering of starlight by dust grains, although an emission-line contribution, particularly in the fainter outer regions, is not ruled out. The results are consistent with an albedo of the dust grains that is high in the far-ultraviolet and which increases toward shorter wavelengths below 1230 A.

  14. Physical Properties of Bright Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittichová, J.; Meech, K. J.

    2002-09-01

    We will show preliminary results from a program of long-term observation of the dust coma activity of bright comets. One and half years of observation of 32 selected comets in B, V, R, I filters are used for the study of the physical properties and the dust activity of their comae at a range of heliocentric distances from 0.99 to 8.61 AU. This enables us to compare the activity of different cometary nuclei at similar solar radiation conditions. As shown in the Table, the selected comets belong to different cometary populations from the point of view of their active age (near parabolic orbits versus short-period orbits, outbursts of brightness, disruption of nuclei) and orbital parameters (the eccentricity from 0.04 to 1.01 AU, the perihelion distance from 0.34 to 8.24 AU). The knowledge of physical properties of cometary nuclei and coma are very important to our understanding of the environment in the outer solar system during the era of formation. The comet dataset of 1128 images will enable us to study thermal evolution of the small dust particles, their dynamical parameters and size distribution as a function of time and grain size at different heliocentric distances. Our future goal is to model the near-nucleus particle region using a Finston-Probstein dust model. Since our observations are still in progress at this time we will present only preliminary results of brightness and color changes for several selected bright comets.

  15. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  16. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-03-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  17. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  18. Bright Beginnings. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bright Beginnings is an early childhood curriculum, based in part on High/Scope[R] and Creative Curriculum[R], with an additional emphasis on literacy skills. The curriculum consists of nine thematic units designed to enhance children's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development, and each unit includes concept maps, literacy lessons,…

  19. StarBright Learning Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article features StarBright Learning Exchange, a program that provides a cross-cultural exchange between Australian and South African early childhood educators. The program was originated when its president, Carol Allen, and her colleague, Karen Williams, decided that they could no longer sit by and watch the unfolding social catastrophe that…

  20. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, <0.08 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. Our TeraBlade industrial platform achieves world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  1. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  3. The Ultraviolet Albedo of Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Melissa; Hendrix, A.

    2013-10-01

    A large set of ultraviolet images of Ganymede have been acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope over the last 15 years. These images have been used almost exclusively to study Ganymede’s stunning auroral emissions (Feldman et al. 2000; Eviatar et al. 2001; McGrath et al. 2004; Saur et al. 2011; McGrath et al. 2013), and even the most basic information about Ganymede’s UV albedo has yet to be gleaned from these data. We will present a first-cut analysis of both disk-averaged and spatially-resolved UV albedos of Ganymede, with focus on the spatially-resolved Lyman-alpha albedo, which has never been considered previously for this satellite. Ganymede's visibly bright regions are known to be rich in water ice, while the visibly dark regions seem to be more carbonaceous (Carlson et al., 1996). At Lyman-alpha, these two species should also have very different albedo values. References Carlson, R. and 39 co-authors, Near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites: Results from Galileo’s initial orbit, Science, 274, 385-388, 1996. Eviatar, A., D. F. Strobel, B. C. Wolven, P. D. Feldman, M. A. McGrath, and D. J. Williams, Excitation of the Ganymede ultraviolet aurora, Astrophys. J, 555, 1013-1019, 2001. Feldman, P. D., M. A. McGrath, D. F. Strobel, H. W. Moos, K. D. Retherford, and B. C. Wolven, HST/STIS imaging of ultraviolet aurora on Ganymede, Astrophys. J, 535, 1085-1090, 2000. McGrath M. A., Lellouch E., Strobel D. F., Feldman P. D., Johnson R. E., Satellite Atmospheres, Chapter 19 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W. McKinnon, Cambridge University Press, 2004. McGrath M. A., Jia, Xianzhe; Retherford, Kurt; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Saur, Joachim, Aurora on Ganymede, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgra.50122, 2013. Saur, J., S. Duling, S., L. Roth, P. D. Feldman, D. F. Strobel, K. D. Retherford, M. A. McGrath, A. Wennmacher, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting

  4. Investigation of the diffuse ultraviolet background using satellite data: Dynamics explorer guest investigator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission was designed primarily to obtain global auroral images. The instrument, however, was also used successfully to study marine bioluminescence, the geocorona, and the global distribution of atmospheric ozone. The imager has considerable potential for the study of astronomical sources of ultraviolet radiation as well. The data produced by the imager is used to study the brightness and isotrophy of the diffuse ultraviolet background.

  5. Far-ultraviolet studies. III - A search for light scattered at large angles by dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. C.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, P. D.; Fastie, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Apollo 17 far-ultraviolet spectrometer was used during trans-earth coast to measure the brightness of two regions at moderate galactic latitudes. The signal obtained can be entirely accounted for by light from stars in the field of view, with no contribution from galactic-plane starlight scattered off interstellar dust. It is concluded that the interstellar grains are extremely poor large-angle scatterers in the far-ultraviolet.

  6. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  7. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  8. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  9. GPM Intercalibrated Radiometer Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Chou, Joyce

    2013-04-01

    One of the keys to consistent precipitation retrieval from passive microwave radiometer measurements (whether imagers or sounders) is accurate, long-term consistent brightness temperature retrievals. This becomes doubly important when there measurements are taken from radiometers on multiple platforms, from multiple agencies, with many different purposes. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission addresses this issue directly with the production of intercalibrated brightness temperatures from all the partner satellites contributing to the GPM mission. These intercalibrated brightness temperatures are given the product designation: 1C within GPM. This paper will describe the GPM approach to intercalibration 1C products. The intercalibration and creation of the products uses a 5-step methodology: comparison of the partner standard products (either Tb or Ta) with the GPM reference standard; determination of adjustments that should be made to each product to create consistent brightness temperatures; re-orbitization of all orbits (in non-realtime) to be in the standard GPM south-south orbit; application of the adjustments to the partner provide 1B(or 1A) products; production of 1C products in HDF5 using a "standard" logical format for any radiometer regardless of its 1B format. This paper describes each of these steps and provides the background for them. It discusses in some detail the current 1C logical format and why this format facilitates use by downstream product algorithms and end-users. Most importantly it provides the analysis approach established by the GPM inter-calibration working group in establishing the adjustments to be made at the 1C level. Finally, using DMSP F16-18, it provides examples of the 1C products and discusses the adjustments that are made.

  10. THE ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHTEST TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2011de

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.

    2014-11-20

    We present and discuss the ultraviolet (UV)/optical photometric light curves and absolute magnitudes of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011de from the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. We find it to be the UV brightest SN Ia yet observed—more than a factor of 10 brighter than normal SNe Ia in the mid-ultraviolet. We find that the UV/optical brightness and broad light curve evolution can be modeled with additional flux from the shock of the ejecta hitting a relatively large red giant companion separated by 6 × 10{sup 13} cm. However, the post-maximum behavior of other UV-bright SNe Ia can also be modeled in a similar manner, including objects with UV spectroscopy or pre-maximum photometry which is inconsistent with this model. This suggests that similar UV luminosities can be intrinsic or caused by other forms of shock interaction. The high velocities reported for SN 2011de make it distinct from the UV-bright ''super-Chandrasekhar'' SNe Ia and the NUV-blue group of normal SNe Ia. SN 2011de is an extreme example of the UV variations in SNe Ia.

  11. LSST Site: Sky Brightness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Jamison; Claver, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an upcoming robotic survey telescope. At the telescope site on Cerro Pachon in Chile there are currently three photodiodes and a Canon camera with a fisheye lens, and both the photodiodes and Canon monitor the night sky continuously. The NIST-calibrated photodiodes directly measure the flux from the sky, and the sky brightness can also be obtained from the Canon images via digital aperture photometry. Organizing and combining the two data sets gives nightly information of the development of sky brightness across a swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared light, and this is useful for accurately predicting the performance of the LSST. It also provides data for models of moonlight and twilight sky brightness. Code to accomplish this organization and combination was successfully written in Python, but due to the backlog of data not all of the nights were processed by the end of the summer.Burke was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  12. The ultraviolet spectra of M31 globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, A. P.; Burstein, D.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of 11 of the brightest globular clusters in M31 show that some exhibit residual flux below 3000 A, greater than that expected from the bright, evolved stars in the cluster. There seems to be no apparent correlation of the strength of this ultraviolet flux with parameters such as metallicity, U-B color, visual magnitude, X-ray emission, or location within the parent galaxy. However, comparison of the ultraviolet colors of the M31 globular clusters with those in the Galaxy and in the Large Magellanic Cloud suggests that the M31 clusters may contain a high percentage of blue horizontal-branch stars or that some clusters could be as young as about 2 x 10 to the 9th yr.

  13. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Karl-Heinz

    1992-01-01

    The observation, data reduction, and interpretation of ultraviolet spectra (obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer) of Herbig-Haro objects, stellar jets, and (in a few cases) reflection nebulae in star-forming regions is discussed. Intermediate results have been reported in the required semi-annual reports. The observations for this research were obtained in 23 (US1) IUE shifts. The spectra were taken in the low resolution mode with the large aperture. The following topics were investigated: (1) detection of UV spectra of high excitation Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, identification of emission lines, and a preliminary study of the energy distribution of the ultraviolet continuum; (2) details of the continuum energy distribution of these spectra and their possible interpretation; (3) the properties of the reddening (extinction) of HH objects; (4) the possible time variation of strong emission lines in high excitation HH objects; (5) the ultraviolet emission of low excitation HH objects, especially in the fluorescent lines of the H2 molecule; (6) the ultraviolet emission in the peculiar object HH24; (7) the spatial emission distribution of different lines and different parts of the continuum in different HH objects; and (8) some properties of reflection nebula, in the environment of Herbig-Haro objects. Each topic is discussed.

  14. High brightness beams and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented.

  15. ASASSN-15lh: A Superluminous Ultraviolet Rebrightening Observed by Swift and Hubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Yang, Yi; Cooke, Jeff; Olaes, Melanie; Quimby, Robert M.; Baade, Dietrich; Gehrels, Neil; Hoeflich, Peter; Maund, Justyn; Mould, Jeremy; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2016-09-01

    We present and discuss ultraviolet and optical photometry from the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope, X-ray limits from the X-Ray Telescope on Swift, and imaging polarimetry and ultraviolet/optical spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope, all from observations of ASASSN-15lh. It has been classified as a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN I), making it more luminous than any other supernova observed. ASASSN-15lh is not detected in the X-rays in individual or co-added observations. From the polarimetry we determine that the explosion was only mildly asymmetric. We find the flux of ASASSN-15lh to increase strongly into the ultraviolet, with an ultraviolet luminosity 100 times greater than the hydrogen-rich, ultraviolet-bright SLSN II SN 2008es. We find that objects as bright as ASASSN-15lh are easily detectable beyond redshifts of ˜4 with the single-visit depths planned for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Deep near-infrared surveys could detect such objects past a redshift of ˜20, enabling a probe of the earliest star formation. A late rebrightening—most prominent at shorter wavelengths—is seen about two months after the peak brightness, which is itself as bright as an SLSN. The ultraviolet spectra during the rebrightening are dominated by the continuum without the broad absorption or emission lines seen in SLSNe or tidal disruption events (TDEs) and the early optical spectra of ASASSN-15lh. Our spectra show no strong hydrogen emission, showing only Lyα absorption near the redshift previously found by optical absorption lines of the presumed host. The properties of ASASSN-15lh are extreme when compared to either SLSNe or TDEs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  16. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  17. Detection of bright and dim colours by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hempel De Ibarra, N; Vorobyev, M; Brandt, R; Giurfa, M

    2000-11-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, were trained to detect coloured disks with either a strong or a weak intensity difference against the background. Green, blue, ultraviolet-reflecting white and grey papers were reciprocally combined as targets or backgrounds, providing strong chromatic and/or achromatic cues. The behavioural performance of the honeybees was always symmetrical for both reciprocal target/background combinations of a colour pair, thus showing that target detection is independent of whether the colour is presented as a background or as a target in combination with the other colour. Bright targets against dim backgrounds and vice versa were detected more reliably than dim target/background combinations. This result favours the general assumption that the detectability of a coloured stimulus increases with increasing intensity.

  18. New Standards for Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines covering safe levels for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in an occupational environment are reported. The guidelines clarify the spectral radiant exposure doses and relative spectral effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation required to elicit adverse biologic effects.

  19. Ultraviolet Mars Reveals Cloud Formation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph were used to make this movie of rapid cloud formation on Mars on July 9-10, 2016. The ultraviolet colors of the planet have been rendered in fal...

  20. International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the November 6, 1996 - October 9, 1997, IUE Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer Final Archive contract. The ultimate objective of this contract is the completion of the archival reprocessing of all IUE data obtained at GSFC between 1978 and 1995.

  1. Ultraviolet radiation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Richard L.; Frederick, John E.; Ilyas, Mohammad; Filyushkin, V.; Wahner, Andreas; Stamnes, K.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Roy, Colin E.; Madronich, Sasha

    1991-01-01

    A major consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the Earth's surface. This chapter discusses advances that were made since the previous assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) to our understanding of UV radiation. The impacts of these changes in UV on the biosphere are not included, because they are discussed in the effects assessment.

  2. Line Tunable Ultraviolet Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2004-01-01

    An ultraviolet laser is demonstrated using a dual wavelength Nd:YAG oscillator, sum frequency and second harmonic process. Synchronous pulses at 1.052 and 1.319 micrometers are amplified, mixed and subsequently doubled, producing pulses at 0.293 micrometers.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

  4. Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

  5. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) ultraviolet spectral atlas of selected astronomical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao; Reichert, Gail A.; Ake, Thomas B.; Boggess, Albert; Holm, Albert V.; Imhoff, Catherine L.; Kondo, Yoji; Mead, Jaylee M.; Shore, Steven N.

    1992-01-01

    The IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas of Selected Astronomical Objects (or 'the Atlas'), is based on the data that were available in the IUE archive in 1986, and is intended to be a quick reference for the ultraviolet spectra of many categories of astronomical objects. It shows reflected sunlight from the Moon, planets, and asteroids, and also shows emission from comets. Comprehensive compilations of UV spectra for main sequence, subgiant, giant, bright giant, and supergiant stars are published elsewhere. This Atlas contains the spectra for objects occupying other areas of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: pre-main sequence stars, chemically peculiar stars, pulsating variables, subluminous stars, and Wolf-Rayet stars. This Atlas also presents phenomena such as the chromospheric and transition region emissions from late-type stars; composite spectra of stars, gas streams, accretion disks and gas envelopes of binary systems; the behavior of gas ejecta shortly after the outburst of novac and supernovac; and the H II regions, planetary nebulae, and supernova remnants. Population 2 stars, globular clusters, and luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds, M31, and M33, are also included in this publication. Finally, the Atlas gives the ultraviolet spectra of galaxies of different Hubble types and of active galaxies.

  6. Atmospheric structure and dynamics as the cause of ultraviolet markings in the clouds of Venus.

    PubMed

    Titov, Dmitry V; Taylor, Fredric W; Svedhem, Håkan; Ignatiev, Nikolay I; Markiewicz, Wojciech J; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2008-12-01

    When seen in ultraviolet light, Venus has contrast features that arise from the non-uniform distribution of unknown absorbers within the sulphuric acid clouds and seem to trace dynamical activity in the middle atmosphere. It has long been unclear whether the global pattern arises from differences in cloud top altitude (which was earlier estimated to be 66-72 km), compositional variations or temperature contrasts. Here we report multi-wavelength imaging that reveals that the dark low latitudes are dominated by convective mixing which brings the ultraviolet absorbers up from depth. The bright and uniform mid-latitude clouds reside in the 'cold collar', an annulus of cold air characterized by approximately 30 K lower temperatures with a positive lapse rate, which suppresses vertical mixing and cuts off the supply of ultraviolet absorbers from below. In low and middle latitudes, the visible cloud top is located at a remarkably constant altitude of 72 +/- 1 km in both the ultraviolet dark and bright regions, indicating that the brightness variations result from compositional differences caused by the colder environment rather than by elevation changes. The cloud top descends to approximately 64 km in the eye of the hemispheric vortex, which appears as a depression in the upper cloud deck. The ultraviolet dark circular streaks enclose the vortex eye and are dynamically connected to it.

  7. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  8. [Bright light therapy for elderly].

    PubMed

    Okawa, Masako

    2015-06-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) holds considerable promise for sleep problems in the elderly. BLT for community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease showed significant improvement in sleep parameters. In the institutional setting, BLT was effective in reducing daytime nap duration. Morning BLT was found to advance the peak circadian rhythm and increase activity level in daytime and melatonin level at night. Light therapy could be used in combination with other nonpharmacological methods such as social activities, outside walking, physical exercises, which showed greater effects than independent BLT on sleep and cognitive function. BLT treatment strategy was proposed in the present paper. We should pay more attentions to BLT in community setting for mental and physical well-being. PMID:26065132

  9. Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-30

    We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light.

  10. UIT ultraviolet imaging of 30 Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintzen, P.; Cheng, K.-P.; Michalitsianos, A.; Bohlin, R.; O'Connell, R.; Cornett, R.; Roberts, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, E.; Stecher, T.

    1992-01-01

    During the Astro-1 mission, near- and far-UV images of the 30 Doradus region were obtained using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These wide-field, 40 min in diameter, high spatial resolution, 2-3 sec, UIT UV images reveal a rich field of luminous UV-bright stars, clusters, and associations. There are 181 stars brighter than m(sub 2558A) = 16.5 and 197 stars brighter than m(sub 1615A) = 16.4 within 3 min diameter of the 30 Doradus central cluster. We have derived UV fluxes emitted from the 30 Doradus central cluster and from its UV bright core, R136. The region within 5 sec of R136 produces approximately 14% of the far-UV flux (lambda = 1892 A) and approximately 16% of the near-UV flux (lambda = 2558 A) emitted from the 3 min diameter central cluster. The derived UV luminosity of R136 at 1892 A is only 7.8 times that of the nearby O6-7 Iaf star, R139, and the m(sub 1892) - m(sub v) colors of R136 are similar to other O or Wolf-Rayet stars in the same region. These UIT data, combined with other published observations at longer wavelengths, indicate that there is no observational evidence for a supermassive star in R136.

  11. On the Origin of Io's Ultraviolet Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    A model involving an additional contribution to Io's ultraviolet (UV) aurora is presented. A mechanism for heating of electrons of Io's ionospheric plasma up to sufficient energies for the excitation of Io's atmospheric oxygen and emitting of observed UV emission is proposed. The mechanism operates by the effect of the different magnetization of the electrons and ions in Io's ionosphere which in the course of Io's motion through the Jovian magnetic field causes the creation of a charge-separation electric field in the upstream part of the ionosphere. This field has a component parallel to the magnetic and shifts the electron distribution function relative to the ion distribution function by a value exceeding the thermal velocity of electrons. In this case, a Bunemann instability with a very large growth rate develops. This results in the excitation of turbulent pulsations at frequency close to the ion-sound frequency and the occurrence of anomalous resistance to the electric current. The latter causes heating of Io's ionospheric electrons up to a temperature of about 25 eV. Atmospheric oxygen molecules excited by collisions with the heated electrons of Io's ionosphere, whose density is about 6 × 10^4 cm^(-3), can contribute to the observed UV brightness. The proposed model permits one to explain the correlation of UV brightness with Io's magnetic longitude and the discrepancy between the anti-Jovian equatorial UV spots and sub-Jovian spots as well.

  12. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  13. Contrast adaptation to luminance and brightness modulations.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Kawashima, Yuki; Yamauchi, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Perceptual brightness and color contrast decrease after seeing a light temporally modulating along a certain direction in a color space, a phenomenon known as contrast adaptation. We investigated whether contrast adaptation along the luminance direction arises from modulation of luminance signals or apparent brightness signals. The stimulus consisted of two circles on a gray background presented on a CRT monitor. In the adaptation phase, the luminance and chromaticity of one circle were temporally modulated, while the other circle was kept at a constant luminance and color metameric with an equal-energy white. We employed two types of temporal modulations, namely, in luminance and brightness. Chromaticity was sinusoidally modulated along the L-M axis, leading to dissociation between luminance and brightness (the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect). In addition, luminance modulation was minimized in the brightness modulation, while brightness modulation was minimized in the luminance modulation. In the test phase, an asymmetric matching method was used to measure the magnitude of contrast adaptation for both modulations. Our results showed that, although contrast adaptation along the luminance direction occurred for both modulations, contrast adaptation for luminance modulation was significantly stronger than that for the brightness modulation regardless of the temporal frequency of the adaptation modulation. These results suggest that luminance modulation is more influential in contrast adaptation than brightness modulation.

  14. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labov, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Instruments designed to explore different aspects of far and extreme ultraviolet cosmic radiation were studied. The far ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries sounding rocket. Its unique large format 75mm detector mapped out the far ultraviolet background radiation with a resolution of only a few arc minutes. Analysis of this data indicates to what extent the FUVI background is extra galactic in origin. A power spectrum of the spatial fluctuations will have direct consequences for galactic evolution.

  15. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  16. The Lunar Phase Curve in the Near Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing program to perform UV measurements (215.0 and 237.0 nm) of the Moon at varying solar phase angles to understand the lunar phase curve at ultraviolet wavelengths. We use new observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) aboard the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) combined with existing observations from the Galileo UVS. The lunar UV phase curve can be used to further understand the scattering properties of the lunar surface. The Moon's scattering properties at visible wavelengths are well understood; studying scattering properties at shorter wavelengths may provide insight into the roles of volume scattering vs. surface scattering and how weathering processes may affect scattering properties. The UV lunar phase curve can also be helpful for UV observers, as the Moon is often used as a UV calibration source, but the UV brightness variation with phase angle has not been well understood.

  17. Vehicle/Atmosphere Interaction Glows: Far Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G.

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft glow information has been gathered from a number of spacecraft including Atmospheric and Dynamic satellites, and Space Shuttles (numerous flights) with dedicated pallet flow observations on STS-39 (DOD) and STS-62 (NASA). In addition, a larger number of laboratory experiments with low energy oxygen beam studies have made important contributions to glow understanding. The following report provides information on three engineering models developed for spacecraft glow including the far ultraviolet to ultraviolet (1400-4000 A), and infrared (0.9-40 microns) spectral regions. The models include effects resulting from atmospheric density/altitude, spacecraft temperature, spacecraft material, and ram angle. Glow brightness would be predicted as a function of distance from surfaces for all wavelengths.

  18. Observations of extreme ultraviolet emissions from the Saturnian plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, F. M.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Emission signals from the Saturnian plasmasphere at wavelengths shortward of 800 A have been detected by the Pioneer ultraviolet photometer. The surface brightness of the emissions is about 0.3 + or - 0.2 R. These short-wavelength emissions are interpreted as arising primarily from the radiative decay of electron-excited atomic oxygen ions (O(2+)), in the region between 5 and 7 Saturn radii from Saturn. The total power radiated by the Saturnian plasma inferred from these ultraviolet measurements is about 2 x 10 to the 16th erg/sec, consistent with in situ plasma measurements. From the observed energy loss rate it is estimated that the ions are introduced into the plasma torus at a rate of 8 x 10 to the 25th ions/sec, possibly through the sputtering of water ice on the surface of Tethys and Dione by particle impact.

  19. Telescope baffle performance for Lyman Far Ultraviolet Spectrographic Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbey, Christopher; Hutchings, J. B.

    1993-07-01

    The Lyman Far Ultraviolet Spectrographic Explorer telescope is a Wolter type II glancing incidence design with an aperture of 64 cm. Because the spacecraft is required to guide on stars fainter than m(v) = 16, a visible light baffle is necessary to protect the FOV from the stray light that results from out-of-field bright sources. Such a baffle system is described here. Total point-source transmittances are computed for incident beams in the range 0-70 deg. Estimates for background brightness on the detector are made for the contribution from direct sunlight and earthshine. Scattering from the black surfaces of the baffle, the vanes, and diffraction at the structure's edges are taken into consideration.

  20. The ultraviolet /1200-1900 Angstrom/ spectrum of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottman, G. J.; Moos, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A far-ultraviolet moderate-resolution spectrum of Venus has been obtained by using an accurately pointed rocket-borne telescope-spectrophotometer. H I 1216 A, O I 1304 A, O I 1356 A, C I 1561 A, C I 1657 A, and the CO fourth-positive band system were observed in emission. Brightnesses and upper limits for other emissions are reported. An estimate of the O concentration indicates approximately 10% at a column density of 4 x 10 to the 16th power CO2 per sq cm. The large CO fourth-positive emission indicates that the CO concentration is also high.

  1. Ultraviolet light curves of U Geminorum and VW Hydri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. C.; Panek, R. J.; Holm, A. V.; Schiffer, F. H., III

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet light curves were obtained for the quiescent dwarf novae U Gem and VW Hyi. The amplitude of the hump associated with the accretion hot spot is much smaller in the UV than in the visible. This implies that the bright spot temperature is roughly 12000 K if it is optically thick. The flux distribution of U Gem in quiescence cannot be fitted by model spectra of steady state, viscous accretion disks. The absolute luminosity, the flux distribution, and the far UV spectrum suggest that the primary star is visible in the far UV. The optical UV flux distribution of VW Hyi can be matched roughly by the model accretion disks.

  2. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future. PMID:26872163

  3. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  4. Microbial ultraviolet sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qunjie; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to the shortest wavelengths in sunlight, ultraviolet light, constitutes a deleterious ecological factor for many microorganisms. The use of secondary metabolites as sunscreens has emerged as an important photoprotective mechanism in certain groups of large-celled microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria, fungi and many protists. In this Review, we describe our current understanding of microbial 'sunscreen' compounds, including scytonemin, the mycosporines and the naphthalene-based melanins. Study of these sunscreens has led to the discovery of new classes of compounds, new metabolic pathways, a deeper understanding of microbial photobiology and the potential for dermatological or biomedical applications.

  5. Just How Bright Is a Laser?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Baak, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the subjective sensation of brightness of the spot projected by a helium-neon laser and compares this with conventional sources of light. Provides an exercise in using the blackbody radiation formulas. (JRH)

  6. Borescope Inspects With Visible Or Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Orlando G.

    1989-01-01

    Quartz optical fibers improve performance at ultraviolet wavelengths. Borescope used to inspect interior of small-diameter tubing by visible light and ultraviolet light. Employs quartz fibers to conduct ultraviolet light and visible light with high efficiency.

  7. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 1993 September 15-20 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on September 20. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0 sec .30) and an average value of 250 km (0 sec .35). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0 sec .17) and the largest is 600 km (O sec .69). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this

  8. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 15-20 Sept. 1993 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on 20 Sept. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured FWHM distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0.30 sec) and an average value of 250 km (0.35 sec). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0.17 sec) and the largest is 600 km (O.69 sec). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this area fraction measurement in the context of

  9. Several evolutionary channels for bright planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael G.; McCall, Marshall L.

    2016-08-01

    The populations of bright planetary nebulae in the discs of spirals appear to differ in their spectral properties from those in ellipticals and the bulges of spirals. The bright planetary nebulae from the bulge of the Milky Way are entirely compatible with those observed in the discs of spiral galaxies. The similarity might be explained if the bulge of the Milky Way evolved secularly from the disc, in which case the bulge should be regarded as a pseudo-bulge.

  10. Evolution of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xu; Hammer, Francois; Yang, Yanbin; Liang, Yanchun

    2015-08-01

    We study the environment, the morphology and stellar population of bulgeless low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample. The differences of environments between LSB and high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies are not obvious, suggesting they may locate in similar environments. The stellar populations of LSB galaxies in low density region are similar with those of LSB galaxies in high density region. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than the regular LSB galaxies.

  11. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  12. Determining the bivariate brightness distribution of galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, P. J.; Phillipps, S.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we describe a set of criteria which we propose a sample of galaxies must satisfy if it is to be useful for determining the bivariate brightness distribution (BBD) of galaxies in luminosity and surface brightness and we consider the prospects for deriving such a sample. First, we note that determinations of the galaxy luminosity function can be seriously in error if surface brightness (visibility) selection effects are ignored. We suggest that a determination of the BBD is a more physically useful aim. A straightforward way to obtain the BBD would be to determine a luminosity function in a set of narrow surface brightness bins. We propose a set of criteria which the sample of galaxies in each surface brightness bin must satisfy if it is to be reliably used in such a determination. Each sample should be restricted to a well defined range in morphological type, the measured isophotal size and magnitude and the surface brightness of each galaxy should be corrected to a common galactic inclination, all galaxies should have measured redshifts and the sample should be complete to a known isophotal size and/or magnitude. We then describe a rigorous method for selecting samples which satisfy these criteria from existing catalogues of galaxies. We apply this method to the ESO-LV catalogue and find that from the intial sample of 11000 galaxies with a disk component we can only find 5 subsamples in half-magnitude wide surface brightness bins which satisfy our proposed criteria. The largest derived subsample contains only 27 galaxies, far too few to determine a luminosity function at its surface brightness. We suggest that had our proposed criteria been applied to the samples used in previous determinations of the BBD or the galaxy luminosity function then sample sizes would have been greatly reduced. For this reason, we suggest that the conclusions of previous work should be treated with caution.

  13. The Ultraviolet Behavior of N

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.; Dixon, L.J.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

    2009-05-15

    We describe the construction of the complete four-loop four-particle amplitude of N = 8 supergravity. The amplitude is ultraviolet finite, not only in four dimensions, but in five dimensions as well. The observed extra cancellations provide additional non-trivial evidence that N = 8 supergravity in four dimensions may be ultraviolet finite to all orders of perturbation theory.

  14. COMPARING ULTRAVIOLET- AND INFRARED-SELECTED STARBURST GALAXIES IN DUST OBSCURATION AND LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Weedman, Daniel W.; Houck, James R. E-mail: dweedman@isc.astro.cornell.ed

    2010-06-01

    We present samples of starburst galaxies that represent the extremes discovered with infrared and ultraviolet observations, including 25 Markarian galaxies, 23 ultraviolet-luminous galaxies discovered with GALEX, and the 50 starburst galaxies having the largest infrared/ultraviolet ratios. These sources have z < 0.5 and cover a luminosity range of {approx}10{sup 4}. Comparisons between infrared luminosities determined with the 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature and ultraviolet luminosities from the stellar continuum at 153 nm are used to determine obscuration in starbursts and dependence of this obscuration on infrared or ultraviolet luminosity. A strong selection effect arises for the ultraviolet-selected samples: the brightest sources appear bright because they have the least obscuration. Obscuration correction for the ultraviolet-selected Markarian+GALEX sample has the form log[UV(intrinsic)/UV(observed)] = 0.07({+-}0.04)M(UV) + 2.09 {+-} 0.69 but for the full infrared-selected Spitzer sample is log[UV(intrinsic)/UV(observed)] = 0.17({+-}0.02)M(UV) + 4.55 {+-} 0.4. The relation of total bolometric luminosity L {sub ir} to M(UV) is also determined for infrared-selected and ultraviolet-selected samples. For ultraviolet-selected galaxies, log L {sub ir} = -(0.33 {+-} 0.04)M(UV) + 4.52 {+-} 0.69. For the full infrared-selected sample, log L {sub ir} = -(0.23 {+-} 0.02)M(UV) + 6.99 {+-} 0.41, all for L {sub ir} in L{sub sun} and M(UV) the AB magnitude at rest frame 153 nm. These results imply that obscuration corrections by factors of 2-3 determined from reddening of the ultraviolet continuum for Lyman break galaxies with z>2 are insufficient, and should be at least a factor of 10 for M(UV) {approx} -17, with decreasing correction for more luminous sources.

  15. HUBBLE IDENTIFIES SOURCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IN AN OLD GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite resolution has allowed astronomers to resolve, for the first time, hot blue stars deep inside an elliptical galaxy. The swarm of nearly 8,000 blue stars resembles a blizzard of snowflakes near the core (lower right) of the neighboring galaxy M32, located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Hubble confirms that the ultraviolet light comes from a population of extremely hot helium-burning stars at a late stage in their lives. Unlike the Sun, which burns hydrogen into helium, these old stars exhausted their central hydrogen long ago, and now burn helium into heavier elements. The observations, taken in October 1998, were made with the camera mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in ultraviolet light. The STIS field of view is only a small portion of the entire galaxy, which is 20 times wider on the sky. For reference, the full moon is 70 times wider than the STIS field-of-view. The bright center of the galaxy was placed on the right side of the image, allowing fainter stars to be seen on the left side of the image. These results are to be published in the March 1, 2000 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Thirty years ago, the first ultraviolet observations of elliptical galaxies showed that they were surprisingly bright when viewed in ultraviolet light. Before those pioneering UV observations, old groups of stars were assumed to be relatively cool and thus extremely faint in the ultraviolet. Over the years since the initial discovery of this unexpected ultraviolet light, indirect evidence has accumulated that it originates in a population of old, but hot, helium-burning stars. Now Hubble provides the first direct visual evidence. Nearby elliptical galaxies are thought to be relatively simple galaxies comprised of old stars. Because they are among the brightest objects in the Universe, this simplicity makes them useful for tracing the evolution of stars and galaxies. Credits: NASA and Thomas

  16. Investigation of ultraviolet interstellar extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, C.; Haramundanis, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results concerning interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet are reported. These results were initially obtained by using data from main-sequence stars and were extended to include supergiants and emission stars. The principal finding of the analysis of ultraviolet extinction is not only that it is wavelength dependent, but that if changes with galactic longitude in the U3 passband (lambda sub eff = 1621 A); it does not change significantly in the U2 passband (lambda sub eff = 2308 A). Where data are available in the U4 passband (lambda sub eff = 1537 A), they confirm the rapid rise of extinction in the ultraviolet found by other investigators. However, in all cases, emission stars must be used with great caution. It is important to realize that while extinction continues to rise toward shorter wavelengths in the ultraviolet, including the shortest ultraviolet wavelengths measured (1100 A), it no longer plays an important role in the X-ray region (50 A).

  17. Differential Rotation via Tracking of Coronal Bright Points.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, James; Boucheron, Laura E.; Osorno, Marcy

    2016-05-01

    The accurate computation of solar differential rotation is important both as a constraint for, and evidence towards, support of models of the solar dynamo. As such, the use of Xray and Extreme Ultraviolet bright points to elucidate differential rotation has been studied in recent years. In this work, we propose the automated detection and tracking of coronal bright points (CBPs) in a large set of SDO data for re-evaluation of solar differential rotation and comparison to other results. The big data aspects, and high cadence, of SDO data mitigate a few issues common to detection and tracking of objects in image sequences and allow us to focus on the use of CBPs to determine differential rotation. The high cadence of the data allows to disambiguate individual CBPs between subsequent images by allowing for significant spatial overlap, i.e., by the fact that the CBPs will rotate a short distance relative to their size. The significant spatial overlap minimizes the effects of incorrectly detected CBPs by reducing the occurrence of outlier values of differential rotation. The big data aspects of the data allows to be more conservative in our detection of CBPs (i.e., to err on the side of missing CBPs rather than detecting extraneous CBPs) while still maintaining statistically larger populations over which to study characteristics. The ability to compute solar differential rotation through the automated detection and tracking of a large population of CBPs will allow for further analyses such as the N-S asymmetry of differential rotation, variation of differential rotation over the solar cycle, and a detailed study of the magnetic flux underlying the CBPs.

  18. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser-plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser-plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  19. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser–plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser–plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  20. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Manikandan, N.; Aravinthan, K.

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  1. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  2. Skylab experiment SO73: Gegenschein/zodiacal light. [electrophotometry of surface brightness and polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A 10 color photoelectric polarimeter was used to measure the surface brightness and polarization associated with zodiacal light, background starlight, and spacecraft corona during each of the Skylab missions. Fixed position and sky scanning observations were obtained during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3 at 10 wavelenghts between 4000A and 8200A. Initial results from the fixed-position data are presented on the spacecraft corona and on the polarized brightness of the zodiacal light. Included among the fixed position regions that were observed are the north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, two regions near the north galactic pole, and 90 deg from the sun in the ecliptic. The polarized brightness of the zodiacal light was found to have the color of the sun at each of these positions. Because previous observations found the total brightness to have the color of the sun from the near ultraviolet out to 2.4 micrometers, the degree of polarization of the zodiacal light is independent of wavelength from 4000A to 8200A.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, Wayne S.

    1989-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet testing was not developed which will provide highly accelerated (20 to 50X) exposures that correlate to flight test data. Additional studies are required to develop an exposure methodology which will assure that accelerated testing can be used for qualification of materials and coatings for long duration space flight. Some conclusions are listed: Solar UV radiation is present in all orbital environments; Solar UV does not change in flux with orbital altitude; UV radiation can degrade most coatings and polymeric films; Laboratory UV simulation methodology is needed for accelerated testing to 20 UV solar constants; Simulation of extreme UV (below 200 nm) is needed to evaluate requirements for EUV in solar simulation.

  4. Tunable ultraviolet lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSha, Michael S.; Dolash, Thomas M.; Ross, Brad B.

    2000-07-01

    Here we describe the development of a tunable ultraviolet LIDAR we use as an exploratory tool for fluorescence data acquisition and performance modeling of standoff bio- sensors. The system was developed around a Continuum model ND 6000 dye laser. The laser has a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hertz and is tunable from 276 to 292 nanometers with a peak fluence of 75 milliJoules per pulse. The receiver consists of a 16-inch Dall-Kirkham telescope optically coupled, in free space mode, to two photomultipliers. The photomultipliers detect direct laser scatter and the resulting fluorescence. We will also describe the results of field trials conducted at Battelle's West Jefferson facility and chamber trials conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds.

  5. Ultraviolet diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Brown, P.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fox, O. D.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Marion, G. H.; Milne, P. A.; Parrent, J. T.; Pignata, G.; Stritzinger, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) probe the outermost layers of the explosion, and UV spectra of SNe Ia are expected to be extremely sensitive to differences in progenitor composition and the details of the explosion. Here, we present the first study of a sample of high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra that extend blueward of 2900 Å. We focus on spectra taken within 5 d of maximum brightness. Our sample of 10 SNe Ia spans, the majority of the parameter space of SN Ia optical diversity. We find that SNe Ia have significantly more diversity in the UV than in the optical, with the spectral variance continuing to increase with decreasing wavelengths until at least 1800 Å (the limit of our data). The majority of the UV variance correlates with optical light-curve shape, while there are no obvious and unique correlations between spectral shape and either ejecta velocity or host-galaxy morphology. Using light-curve shape as the primary variable, we create a UV spectral model for SNe Ia at peak brightness. With the model, we can examine how individual SNe vary relative to expectations based on only their light-curve shape. Doing this, we confirm an excess of flux for SN 2011fe at short wavelengths, consistent with its progenitor having a subsolar metallicity. While most other SNe Ia do not show large deviations from the model, ASASSN-14lp has a deficit of flux at short wavelengths, suggesting that its progenitor was relatively metal rich.

  6. Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Tilted Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Ye; Haferman, Jeffrey L.; Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and ground-based radar data from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) show that convective systems are not always vertical. Instead, many are tilted from vertical. Satellite passive microwave radiometers observe the atmosphere at a viewing angle. For example, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) on the TRMM satellite have an incident angle of about 50deg. Thus, the brightness temperature measured from one direction of tilt may be different than that viewed from the opposite direction due to the different optical depth. This paper presents the investigation of passive microwave brightness temperatures of tilted convective systems. To account for the effect of tilt, a 3-D backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been applied to a simple tilted cloud model and a dynamically evolving cloud model to derive the brightness temperature. The radiative transfer results indicate that brightness temperature varies when the viewing angle changes because of the different optical depth. The tilt increases the displacements between high 19 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 19)) due to liquid emission from lower level of cloud and the low 85 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 85)) due to ice scattering from upper level of cloud. As the resolution degrades, the difference of brightness temperature due to the change of viewing angle decreases dramatically. The dislocation between Tb(sub 19) and Tb(sub 85), however, remains prominent.

  7. The Sky Brightness Data Archive (SBDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Erin M.; Craine, Brian L.

    2011-05-01

    Although many astronomers have long been sensitive to issues of light pollution and deteriorating sky quality it is only in recent years that such interest has extended to other groups including, among others, ecologists, health professionals, and urban planners. Issues of light pollution and loss of dark skies are starting to appear in the scientific literature in the context of health and behavior impacts on both human and animal life. Nonetheless, a common deficiency in most such studies is the absence of historical or baseline data against which to compare sky brightness trends and temporal changes. To address this deficiency we have begun to collect a variety of types of quantitative sky brightness data for insertion in an international sky brightness archive that can be accessed for research projects which are dependent upon an understanding of the nature of local light pollution issues. To aid this process we have developed a mobile sky brightness meter which automatically logs sky brightness and observation location. The device can be stationary for long periods of time or can be easily transported for continuous sky brightness measurement from ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft. The sampling rate is typically about 0.25Hz. We present here examples of different modes of sky brightness measurement, various means of displaying and analyzing such data, ways to interpret natural astronomical phenomena apparent in the data, and suggest a number of complementary scientific projects that may capture the interest of both professional and amateur scientists. Finally, we discuss the status of the archive and ways that potential contributors may submit their observations for publication in the archive.

  8. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF BRIGHT M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-10-15

    We present an all-sky catalog of M dwarf stars with apparent infrared magnitude J < 10. The 8889 stars are selected from the ongoing SUPERBLINK survey of stars with proper motion {mu} > 40 mas yr{sup -1}, supplemented on the bright end with the Tycho-2 catalog. Completeness tests which account for kinematic (proper motion) bias suggest that our catalog represents {approx}75% of the estimated {approx}11, 900 M dwarfs with J < 10 expected to populate the entire sky. Our catalog is, however, significantly more complete for the northern sky ({approx}90%) than it is for the south ({approx}60%). Stars are identified as cool, red M dwarfs from a combination of optical and infrared color cuts, and are distinguished from background M giants and highly reddened stars using either existing parallax measurements or, if such measurements are lacking, using their location in an optical-to-infrared reduced proper motion diagram. These bright M dwarfs are all prime targets for exoplanet surveys using the Doppler radial velocity or transit methods; the combination of low-mass and bright apparent magnitude should make possible the detection of Earth-size planets on short-period orbits using currently available techniques. Parallax measurements, when available, and photometric distance estimates are provided for all stars, and these place most systems within 60 pc of the Sun. Spectral type estimated from V - J color shows that most of the stars range from K7 to M4, with only a few late M dwarfs, all within 20 pc. Proximity to the Sun also makes these stars good targets for high-resolution exoplanet imaging searches, especially if younger objects can be identified on the basis of X-ray or UV excess. For that purpose, we include X-ray flux from ROSAT and FUV/NUV ultraviolet magnitudes from GALEX for all stars for which a counterpart can be identified in those catalogs. Additional photometric data include optical magnitudes from Digitized Sky Survey plates and infrared magnitudes from

  9. Ultraviolet imaging of the AGN+starburst galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, Susan G.; Fanelli, Michael N.; Roberts, Laura J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bohlin, Ralph; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1994-01-01

    Images of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 were obtained at two ultraviolet wavelengths by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These data represent the first detailed UV imagery of a composite (active galactic nucleus + starburst) disk galaxy. NGC 1068 cotains multiple components at UV wavelengths: the central active galactic nucleus; a population of very luminous starburst knots; a bright oval inner disk; and a fainter, more circular halo. The most luminous knot, which is located approximately 750 pc from the nucleus at PA 315 deg, is approximately 80 times the luminosity of 30 Doradus and gives NGC 1068 a 'double nucleus' appearance in the UV. Significant extended emission is observed throughout the disk, unlike other disk galaxies so far observed in the UV. The radial brightness profile in both UV bandpasses generally follows an exponential decline to approximately 5 kpc. A faint halo extending to approximately 13 kpc is likely to be a galaxian-sized reflection nebula where ambient dust scatters the intense UV continuum from the inner galaxy. UV colors show a striking asymmetric morphology, which is correlated with the observed molecular CO emission.

  10. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  11. Rhodium Nanoparticles for Ultraviolet Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Anne M.; Zhang, Xiao; Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo; Sanz, Juan Marcos; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando; Finkelstein, Gleb; Liu, Jie; Everitt, Henry O.

    2015-02-01

    The non-oxidizing catalytic noble metal rhodium is introduced for ultraviolet plasmonics. Planar tripods of 8 nm Rh nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified polyol reduction method, have a calculated local surface plasmon resonance near 330 nm. By attaching p-aminothiophenol, local field-enhanced Raman spectra and accelerated photo-damage were observed under near-resonant ultraviolet illumination, while charge transfer simultaneously increased fluorescence for up to 13 minutes. The combined local field enhancement and charge transfer demonstrate essential steps toward plasmonically-enhanced ultraviolet photocatalysis.

  12. Rhodium nanoparticles for ultraviolet plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Watson, Anne M; Zhang, Xiao; Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo; Marcos Sanz, Juan; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando; Finkelstein, Gleb; Liu, Jie; Everitt, Henry O

    2015-02-11

    The nonoxidizing catalytic noble metal rhodium is introduced for ultraviolet plasmonics. Planar tripods of 8 nm Rh nanoparticles, synthesized by a modified polyol reduction method, have a calculated local surface plasmon resonance near 330 nm. By attaching p-aminothiophenol, local field-enhanced Raman spectra and accelerated photodamage were observed under near-resonant ultraviolet illumination, while charge transfer simultaneously increased fluorescence for up to 13 min. The combined local field enhancement and charge transfer demonstrate essential steps toward plasmonically enhanced ultraviolet photocatalysis.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  14. Research in extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet imager (FUVI) was flown on the Aries class sounding rocket 24.015, producing outstanding results. The diffuse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) background spectrometer which is under construction is described. It will be launched on the Black Brant sounding rocket flight number 27.086. Ongoing design studies of a high resolution spectrometer are discussed. This instrument incorporates a one meter normal incidence mirror and will be suitable for an advanced Spartan mission.

  15. Chandra's Darkest Bright Star: not so Dark after All?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2008-11-01

    The Chandra High Resolution camera (HRC) has obtained numerous short exposures of the ultraviolet (UV)-bright star Vega (α Lyrae; HD 172167: A0 V), to calibrate the response of the detector to out-of-band (non-X-ray) radiation. A new analysis uncovered a stronger "blue leak" in the imaging section (HRC-I) than reported in an earlier study of Vega based on a subset of the pointings. The higher count rate—a factor of nearly 2 above prelaunch estimates—raised the possibility that genuine coronal X-rays might lurk among the out-of-band events. Exploiting the broader point-spread function of the UV leak compared with soft X-rays identified an excess of counts centered on the target, technically at 3σ significance. A number of uncertainties, however, prevent a clear declaration of a Vegan corona. A more secure result would be within reach of a deep uninterrupted HRC-I pointing.

  16. COS Target Acquisition Guidelines and Bright Object Protection Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brittany L.; Friedman, S.; Keyes, T.; Soderblom, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph will provide unparalleled high sensitivity spectroscopy of faint ultraviolet sources. To effectively utilize the unique capabilities of COS, target selection and acquisitions should be carefully planned. Acquisitions of faint objects with COS will typically use the NUV imaging mode. For brighter sources, spiral search and peakup acquisition modes are available for both FUV and NUV. We highlight guidelines and strategies for observers to craft target acquisitions with all modes and how to choose between them. Based upon COS Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) modeling, we illustrate the time requirements for different target acquisition scenarios. To preserve the health and safety of COS detectors, separate bright object protection rules have been created for each detector. We explain these rules and their implications for potential COS targets and users. Most science observations will be performed in TIME-TAG mode in which individual photon arrival times and locations are recorded. This mode is preferred because it allows for optimized data reduction. Brighter objects that produce high count rates must be handled by using ACCUM mode that collects photons only by location on the detector. We discuss the count rate limits and specific data quality considerations of each mode.

  17. COS Target Acquisition Guidelines and Bright Object Protection Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Keyes, T.; Shaw, B.; Soderblom, D.; Friedman, S.; COS/STIS STScI Team; COS IDT Team

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph will provide spectroscopy of faint ultraviolet sources with unparalleled sensitivity. However, careful planning is required to effectively utilize the unique capabilities of COS. Faint object acquisition with COS will typically utilize the Near-UV (NUV) imaging mode. For brighter sources, spiral search and peakup acquisition modes are available for both the NUV and Far-UV (FUV). Here we highlight guidelines and strategies for observers to craft target acquisitions in all modes and describe how to choose between them. Based upon COS Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) modeling, we illustrate the time requirements for different target acquisition scenarios. To preserve the health and safety of COS detectors, separate bright object protection rules have been created for each detector. We explain these rules and their implications for potential COS targets and users. Most science observations will be performed in time-tag (TTAG) mode in which individual photon arrival times and locations are recorded. This mode is preferred because it allows for optimized data reduction. Brighter objects that produce high count rates must be handled by using accumulation (ACCUM) mode that collects photons according to their location on the detector. For each observation mode we discuss the count rate limits and specific data quality considerations.

  18. GMRT HI study of giant low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, N. G.; Das, M.; Omar, A.; Srivastava, D. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present HI observations of four giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies UGC 1378, UGC 1922, UGC 4422 and UM 163 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We include HI results on UGC 2936, UGC 6614 and Malin 2 from literature. HI is detected from all the galaxies and the extent is roughly twice the optical size; in UM 163, HI is detected along a broken disk encircling the optical galaxy. We combine our results with those in literature to further understand these systems. The main results are the following: (1) The peak HI surface densities in GLSB galaxies are several times 1021 cm-2. The HI mass is between 0.3 - 4 × 1010 M⊙, dynamical mass ranges from a few times 1011 M⊙ to a few times 1012 M⊙. (2) The rotation curves of GLSB galaxies are flat to the outermost measured point with rotation velocities of the seven GLSB galaxies being between 225 and 432 km s-1. (3) Recent star formation traced by near-ultraviolet emission in five GLSB galaxies in our sample appears to be located in rings around the galaxy centre. We suggest that this could be due to a stochastic burst of star formation at one location in the galaxy being propagated along a ring over a rotation period. (4) The HI is correlated with recent star formation in five of the seven GLSB galaxies.

  19. QUIET-SUN NETWORK BRIGHT POINT PHENOMENA WITH SIGMOIDAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Orange, N. B.; Champey, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ubiquitous solar atmospheric coronal and transition region bright points (BPs) are compact features overlying strong concentrations of magnetic flux. Here, we utilize high-cadence observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to provide the first observations of extreme ultraviolet quiet-Sun (QS) network BP activity associated with sigmoidal structuring. To our knowledge, this previously unresolved fine structure has never been associated with such small-scale QS events. This QS event precedes a bi-directional jet in a compact, low-energy, and low-temperature environment, where evidence is found in support of the typical fan-spine magnetic field topology. As in active regions and micro-sigmoids, the sigmoidal arcade is likely formed via tether-cutting reconnection and precedes peak intensity enhancements and eruptive activity. Our QS BP sigmoid provides a new class of small-scale structuring exhibiting self-organized criticality that highlights a multi-scaled self-similarity between large-scale, high-temperature coronal fields and the small-scale, lower-temperature QS network. Finally, our QS BP sigmoid elevates arguments for coronal heating contributions from cooler atmospheric layers, as this class of structure may provide evidence favoring mass, energy, and helicity injections into the heliosphere.

  20. Ultraviolet light curves of galactic and extra-galactic classical CNO novae: PW Vul, OS, and LMC 1988 no. 1 and no. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, S.; Starrfield, Sumner G.; Saizar, P.; Shore, Steven N.; Sonneborn, George

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the comparative energy budgets of novae in outburst, the ultraviolet light curves for a number of novae are determined. The low dispersion IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) spectra of PW Vul 1984, OS And 1986, LMC 1988 number 1 and number 2 and obtained values for the integrated energy emitted in the wavelength interval from 1200 to 3400 A, not including the geocoronal Lyman-alpha emission line are re-examined. The light curves show that the brightness of the nova declines much more slowly in the ultraviolet than the optical, that the maximum brightness of the nova occurs much later in the ultraviolet than in the optical, and the peak luminosity is super Eddington for LMC 1988 number 2.

  1. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  2. Brightness discrimination in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

  3. High-brightness electron injectors: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The last decade has seen increased emphasis on the development of high-brightness electron beams because of rigorous requirements of the new generation of colliders and the advent of free-electron lasers. This talk describes the approaches now being explored for attaining intense, bright electron beams. The methods for producing bright electron beams include photocathode-based, short-pulse injectors; dc electrostatic accelerator sources; long-pulse beams, which are then compressed in time using subharmonic bunching; combining first and third harmonics in an accelerator to attain the equivalent of high-gradient dc fields; and LaB/sub 6/ rf guns. For several of the approaches, the temporal length of the electron pulse is decreased after acceleration to relativistic energies by impressing an energy spread on the electron bunch and using a nonisochronous beam-transport system to increase the peak current. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  4. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section...

  5. Transmitting and reflecting diffuser. [for ultraviolet light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A near-Lambertian diffuser is described which transmits and reflects ultraviolet light. An ultraviolet grade fused silica substrate is coated with vaporized fuse silica. The coating thickness is controlled, one thickness causing ultraviolet light to diffuse and another thickness causing ultraviolet light to reflect a near Lambertian pattern.

  6. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6350 - Ultraviolet detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6350 Ultraviolet detector. (a) Identification. An ultraviolet detector is a device intended to provide a source of ultraviolet light which is used... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet detector. 872.6350 Section...

  10. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasuji, Mamoru

    2013-08-15

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 μm were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  11. The ultraviolet reflectance of Enceladus: Implications for surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Hansen, Candice J.; Holsclaw, Greg M.

    2010-04-01

    The reflectance of Saturn's moon Enceladus has been measured at far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelengths (115-190 nm) by Cassini's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). At visible and near infrared (VNIR) wavelengths Enceladus' reflectance spectrum is very bright, consistent with a surface composed primarily of H 2O ice. At FUV wavelengths, however, Enceladus is surprisingly dark - darker than would be expected for pure water ice. Previous analyses have focused on the VNIR spectrum, comparing it to pure water ice (Cruikshank, D.P., Owen, T.C., Dalle Ore, C., Geballe, T.R., Roush, T.L., de Bergh, C., Sandford, S.A., Poulet, F., Benedix, G.K., Emery, J.P. [2005] Icarus, 175, 268-283) or pure water ice plus a small amount of NH 3 (Emery, J.P., Burr, D.M., Cruikshank, D.P., Brown, R.H., Dalton, J.B. [2005] Astron. Astrophys., 435, 353-362) or NH 3 hydrate (Verbiscer, A.J., Peterson, D.E., Skrutskie, M.F., Cushing, M., Helfenstein, P., Nelson, M.J., Smith, J.D., Wilson, J.C. [2006] Icarus, 182, 211-223). We compare Enceladus' FUV spectrum to existing laboratory measurements of the reflectance spectra of candidate species, and to spectral models. We find that the low FUV reflectance of Enceladus can be explained by the presence of a small amount of NH 3 and a small amount of a tholin in addition to H 2O ice on the surface. The presence of these three species (H 2O, NH 3, and a tholin) appears to satisfy not only the low FUV reflectance and spectral shape, but also the middle-ultraviolet to visible wavelength brightness and spectral shape. We expect that ammonia in the Enceladus plume is transported across the surface to provide a global coating.

  12. Laser-induced two-photon blackbody radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zych, L. J.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.; Lukasik, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of a new type of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source are reported. It is shown that the maximum source brightness, within its narrow linewidth, is that of a blackbody at the temperature of a metastable storage level. The laser-induced emission at 569 A from a He glow discharge corresponded to a metastable temperature of 22,700 K and was over 100 times brighter than the 584-A He resonance line.

  13. The diffuse far-ultraviolet cosmic background radiation field observed from the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, J.; Henry, R. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Tennyson, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents 17-A resolution spectra of the diffuse far-ultraviolet (1200-1700 A) cosmic background in eight regions of the sky obtained from the Johns Hopkins University UVX experiment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) in January 1986. A spectrally flat background is found with brightnesses between 100 and 700 + or - 200 photons/sq cm s sr A, with some evidence for spatial variations, but not for the high-intensity regions found by other experiments.

  14. Surprise Ultraviolet Party in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Galaxies aren't the only objects filling up the view of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Since its launch in 2003, the space telescope -- originally designed to observe galaxies across the universe in ultraviolet light -- has discovered a festive sky blinking with flaring and erupting stars, as well as streaking asteroids, satellites and space debris. A group of six streaking objects -- the identities of which remain unknown -- can be seen here flying across the telescope's sight in this sped-up movie.

    The two brightest objects appear to perform a sharp turn then travel in the reverse direction. This illusion is most likely the result of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer overtaking the objects as it orbits around Earth.

    Careful inspection reveals four additional faint objects with the same timing and behavior. These faint objects are easiest to see during the retrograde portion of their paths. Three appear between the two bright sources, and one is above them, near the edge of the field of view.

    These bonus objects are being collected in to public catalogues for other astronomers to study.

  15. The historical investigation of cometary brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    1998-12-01

    The interpretation of the way in which the brightness of a comet varied as a function of both its heliocentric and geocentric distance was essentially started by Isaac Newton in his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687. Astronomers have argued about the form of this variability ever since, and for many years it was regarded as an important clue as to the physical nature of the cometary nucleus and its decay process. This paper reviews our understanding of the causes of cometary brightness variability between about 1680 and the 1950s.

  16. Evolution of bulgeless low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Liang, Y. C.

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR 7, we investigate the environment, morphology, and stellar population of bulgeless low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies in a volume-limited sample with redshift ranging from 0.024 to 0.04 and M r <= -18.8. We find that, for bulgeless galaxies, the surface brightness does not depend on the environment. Irregular LSB galaxies have more young stars and are more metal-poor than regular LSB galaxies. These results suggest that the evolution of LSB galaxies may be driven by their dynamics, including mergers rather than by their large-scale environment.

  17. Observed brightness distributions in overcast skies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Devan, David E

    2008-12-01

    Beneath most overcasts, clouds' motions and rapidly changing optical depths complicate mapping their angular distributions of luminance L(v) and visible-wavelength radiance L. Fisheye images of overcast skies taken with a radiometer-calibrated digital camera provide a useful new approach to solving this problem. Maps calculated from time-averaged images of individual overcasts not only show their brightness distributions in unprecedented detail, but they also help solve a long-standing puzzle about where brightness maxima of overcasts are actually located. When combined with simulated radiance distributions from MODTRAN4, our measured radiances also let us estimate the gradients of cloud thickness observed in some overcasts.

  18. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined.

  19. Richard Bright in Hungary: a reevaluation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, J; Sonkodi, S

    1997-01-01

    Richard Bright, the highly respected physician and nephrologist at Guy's Hospital, had a strong liking for travel. In 1815 he traveled in Hungary and made very important observations about the country. His 762-page book, entitled Travels from Vienna through Lower Hungary has detailed, sometimes appreciative, sometimes very critical remarks and comments on Hungarian history, art, archeology, religion, the situation of nationalities, education, social conditions, law, farming, and mining. The Hungarians cherished the memory of Bright's travel in their country as reflected in several papers and on two commemorative tablets recognizing him as a true and sincere friend of Hungary.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek Kyun; Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Häder, Donat-Peter; Han, Taejun

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are the dominant photosynthetic prokaryotes from an ecological, economical, or evolutionary perspective, and depend on solar energy to conduct their normal life processes. However, the marked increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) caused by the continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone shield has fueled serious concerns about the ecological consequences for all living organisms, including cyanobacteria. UV-B radiation can damage cellular DNA and several physiological and biochemical processes in cyanobacterial cells, either directly, through its interaction with certain biomolecules that absorb in the UV range, or indirectly, with the oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. However, cyanobacteria have a long history of survival on Earth, and they predate the existence of the present ozone shield. To withstand the detrimental effects of solar UVR, these prokaryotes have evolved several lines of defense and various tolerance mechanisms, including avoidance, antioxidant production, DNA repair, protein resynthesis, programmed cell death, and the synthesis of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. This study critically reviews the current information on the effects of UVR on several physiological and biochemical processes of cyanobacteria and the various tolerance mechanisms they have developed. Genomic insights into the biosynthesis of MAAs and scytonemin and recent advances in our understanding of the roles of exopolysaccharides and heat shock proteins in photoprotection are also discussed.

  1. Ultraviolet studies of Cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    We discuss whether with new evolutionary tracks we still have a problem fitting the Cepheids and their evolved companions on the appropriate evolutionary tracks. We find that with the Bertelli et al. tracks with convective overshoot by one pressure scale height the problem is essentially removed, though somewhat more mixing would give a better fit. By using the results of recent nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations, we find that we also have no problem matching the observed pulsation periods of the Cepheids with those expected from their new evolutionary masses, provided that Cepheids with periods less than 9 days are overtone pulsators. We investigate possible mass loss of Cepheids from UV studies of the companion spectrum of S Mus and from the ultraviolet spectra of the long period Cepheid l Carinae. For S Mus with a period of 9.6 days we derive an upper limit for the mass loss of M less than 10(exp -9) solar mass, if a standard velocity law is assumed for the wind. For l Carinae with a period of 35.5 days we find a probable mass loss of M is approximately 10(exp -5+/-2) solar mass.

  2. Ultraviolet A in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    El-Mofty, Medhat; Mostafa, Wedad; Youssef, Randa; El-Fangary, Mona; Elramly, Amany Z; Mahgoub, Doaa; Fawzy, Marwa

    2006-08-01

    Both types of Ultraviolet (UV), UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm), produce increased pigmentation or tanning. However, no evaluation of UVA alone in the treatment of vitiligo has been reported. Therefore, it was the purpose of this work to study the pigmentogenic effect of UVA (5 and 15 J/cm(2)) in vitiligo. The study included 20 randomly selected patients with vitiligo involving more than 30% of the body surface area with a bilateral/symmetrical distribution. They were equally divided into two groups each of 10 patients. All patients received three weekly sessions of UVA, 15 J/cm(2) in group I and 5 J/cm(2) in group II, a total of 48 sessions over 16 weeks. Overall pigmentation of 60% and above was recorded in 50% and 10% of patients in groups I and II, respectively. We conclude that broadband UVA alone, without psoralens, and in appropriate doses may be of important therapeutic value in vitiligo.

  3. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Haney, S.J.; Sweeney, D.W.

    2000-02-29

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system is disclosed for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10--14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  5. Ultraviolet fluorescence monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Preppernau, B.L.; Aragon, B.P.

    1997-05-01

    A multispectral ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence imaging fluorometer and a pulsed molecular beam laser fluorometer were developed to detect volatile organic compounds of interest in environmental monitoring and drug interdiction applications. The UV fluorescence imaging fluorometer is a relatively simple instrument which uses multiple excitation wavelengths to measure the excitation/emission matrix for irradiated samples. Detection limits in the high part-per-million to low part-per-million range were measured for a number of volatile organic vapors in the atmosphere. Detection limits in the low part-per-million range were obtained using cryogenic cooling to pre-concentrate unknown samples before introducing them into the imaging fluorometer. A multivariate analysis algorithm was developed to analyze the excitation/emission matrix and used to determine the relative concentrations of species in computer synthesized mixtures containing up to five organic compounds. Analysis results demonstrated the utility of multispectral UV fluorescence in analytical measurements. A transportable UV fluorescence imaging fluorometer was used in two field tests. Field test results demonstrated that detection limits in the part-per-billion range were needed to reliably identify volatile organic compounds in realistic field test measurements. The molecular beam laser fluorometer, a more complex instrument with detection limits in the part-per-billion to part-per-trillion range, was therefore developed to satisfy detection sensitivity requirements for field test measurements. High-resolution spectroscopic measurements made with the molecular beam laser fluorometer demonstrated its utility in identifying volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  6. Ultraviolet radiation and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek Kyun; Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Häder, Donat-Peter; Han, Taejun

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are the dominant photosynthetic prokaryotes from an ecological, economical, or evolutionary perspective, and depend on solar energy to conduct their normal life processes. However, the marked increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) caused by the continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone shield has fueled serious concerns about the ecological consequences for all living organisms, including cyanobacteria. UV-B radiation can damage cellular DNA and several physiological and biochemical processes in cyanobacterial cells, either directly, through its interaction with certain biomolecules that absorb in the UV range, or indirectly, with the oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. However, cyanobacteria have a long history of survival on Earth, and they predate the existence of the present ozone shield. To withstand the detrimental effects of solar UVR, these prokaryotes have evolved several lines of defense and various tolerance mechanisms, including avoidance, antioxidant production, DNA repair, protein resynthesis, programmed cell death, and the synthesis of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. This study critically reviews the current information on the effects of UVR on several physiological and biochemical processes of cyanobacteria and the various tolerance mechanisms they have developed. Genomic insights into the biosynthesis of MAAs and scytonemin and recent advances in our understanding of the roles of exopolysaccharides and heat shock proteins in photoprotection are also discussed. PMID:25463663

  7. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  8. The SPARTAN Ultraviolet Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. D.; Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.; Hassler, D. M.; Raymond, J. C.; Strachan, L.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Kohl, J. L.; Fineschi, S.

    1992-05-01

    An ultraviolet coronagraph (UVC) is being prepared for a series of orbital flights on NASA's Spartan 201 which is deployed and retrieved by Shuttle. The Spartan 201 payload consists of the UVC and a white light coronagraph developed by the High Altitude Observatory. Spartan is expected to provide 26 orbits of solar observations per flight. The first flight is scheduled for May 1993 and subsequent flights are planned to occur at each polar passage of Ulysses (1994 and 1995). The UVC measures the intensity and spectral line profile of resonantly scattered H I Ly-alpha and the intensities of O VI lambda 1032 and lambda 1037 at heliocentric heights between 1.3 and 3.5 solar radii. A description of the UVC instrument, its characteristics, and the observing program for the first flight will be presented. The initial scientific objective is to determine the random velocity distribution and bulk outflow velocity of coronal protons and the density and outflow velocity of O(5+) in polar coronal holes and adjoining high latitude streamers. This work is supported by NASA under Grant No. NAG5-613 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. Long look at the next window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1991-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) will map the entire sky to determine the existence, direction, brightness, and temperature of thousands of objects that are sources of so-called extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The EUV spectral region is located between the x-ray and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. From the sky survey by EUVE, astronomers will determine the nature of sources of EUV light in our galaxy, and infer the distribution of interstellar gas for hundreds of light years around the solar system. It is from this gas and the accompanying dust in space that new stars and solar systems are born and to which evolving and dying stars return much of their material in an endless cosmic cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Besides surveying the sky, astronomers will make detailed studies of selected objects with EUVE to determine their physical properties and chemical compositions. Also, they will learn about the conditions that prevail and the processes at work in stars, planets, and other sources of EUV radiation, maybe even quasars. The EUVE mission and instruments are described. The objects that EUVE will likely find are described.

  10. Ultraviolet investigations for lunar missions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill, William R.; Fischer, William A.; Dornbach, J.E.; Narin, Francis

    1966-01-01

    Preliminary field tests of an active ultraviolet imaging system have shown that it is possible to produce linages of the terrain from distances as great as 75 feet by means of reflected ultraviolet light at wavelengths longer than 3300 A. Minerals that luminesce when exposed to ultraviolet energy have been detected from distances as great as 200 feet. With appropriate design modifications, it may be possible to utilize a similar system in detecting luminescing minerals from greater distances. Also, with a similar system and appropriate auxiliary equipment such as image intensifiers, it may be possible to discriminate between naturally occurring materials on the basis of reflected ultraviolet energy at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A. In this part of the spectrum image contrast for some rock types may exceed that from visible light. Information from these and related ultraviolet spectralanalysis studies may be useful in evaluating data obtained from passive ultraviolet systems in lunar orbit as well as from active systems on the lunar surface.

  11. AN UPDATED ULTRAVIOLET CATALOG OF GALEX NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yu; Zou, Hu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song E-mail: zouhu@nao.cas.cn E-mail: songw@nao.cas.cn

    2015-09-15

    The ultraviolet (UV) catalog of nearby galaxies compiled by Gil de Paz et al. presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by GALEX. We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of GALEX. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameters larger than 1′. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured using the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated the asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness for these galaxies. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of Paz et al. The (FUV − K) color provides a good criterion to distinguish between early- and late-type galaxies, which can be improved further using the concentration indices. The IRX–β relation is reformulated with our UV-selected nearby galaxies.

  12. An Updated Ultraviolet Catalog of GALEX Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yu; Zou, Hu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song

    2015-09-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) catalog of nearby galaxies compiled by Gil de Paz et al. presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by GALEX. We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of GALEX. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameters larger than 1‧. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured using the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated the asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness for these galaxies. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of Paz et al. The (FUV - K) color provides a good criterion to distinguish between early- and late-type galaxies, which can be improved further using the concentration indices. The IRX-β relation is reformulated with our UV-selected nearby galaxies.

  13. NGC 4262: a Virgo galaxy with an extended ultraviolet ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettoni, D.; Buson, L. M.; Galletta, G.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The Galaxy Ultraviolet Explorer (GALEX) satellite has recently shown the presence of an extended, outer ring studded with UV-bright knots surrounding the lenticular galaxy NGC 4262. Such a structure-not detected in the optical-is coupled with a ring of atomic (HI) gas. Aims: We want to show that both star-forming and HI rings surrounding this SB0 galaxy share the same radial distance from the galaxy center and spatial orientation. We also model the kinematics of the ring(s) and of the galaxy body. Methods: We make use of archive FUV and NUV GALEX data plus HI observations from the literature. Results: We confirm that the UV-bright and atomic gas rings of NGC 4262 have the same extent and projected spatial orientation. Their kinematics is not coupled with that of the galaxy stars. Conclusions: It is possible that NGC 4262 has undergone a major gas stripping event in the past that was the origin of the present “necklace” of UV-bright knots.

  14. Photochemistry: A bright future for sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the intrinsic properties of molecules that protect our skin from the harmful rays of the Sun is critical to developing more efficacious sunscreen products. Now, gas-phase spectroscopy and microsolvation studies of model ultraviolet-filter molecules have shown that they may provide a route to developing improved sunscreens.

  15. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  16. Polyvinylpyrrolidone dewaxing aid for bright stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Achia, B.U.; Shaw, D.H.

    1980-05-20

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone having a number average molecular weight ranging from about 150,000 to 400,000 has been found to be an effective dewaxing aid for bright stock in ketone dewaxing processes. Using as little as 100 ppm based on the waxy oil can result in almost a 50% increase in the filter rate of the dewaxed oils from the wax.

  17. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables.

  18. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  19. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables. PMID:20155120

  20. Probable Bright Supernovae discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-01-01

    Three bright transients, which are probable supernovae, have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  1. Probable Bright Supernova discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-09-01

    A bright transient, which is a probable supernova, has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  2. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  3. Bright Meteor Lights Up Atlanta Skies

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a very bright meteor that streaked over the skies of Atlanta, Ga., on the night of Aug. 28, 2011. The view is from an all sky camera in Cartersville, Ga., operated by NASA’s Mars...

  4. Far Ultraviolet Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is studying a wide range of astronomical problems in the 905-1187 Angstrom wavelength region through the use of high resolution spectroscopy. The FUSE bandpass forms a nearly optimal complement to the spectral coverage provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which extends down to approximately 1170 Angstroms. The photoionization threshold of atomic hydrogen (911 Angstroms) sets a natural short-wavelength limit for the FUV. FUSE was launched in June 1999 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta II rocket into a 768 km circular orbit. Scientific observations started later that year. This spectral region is extremely rich in spectral diagnostics of astrophysical gases over a wide range of temperatures (100 K to over 10 million K). Important strong spectral lines in this wavelength range include those of neutral hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon (H I, D I, N I, O I, and Ar I), molecular hydrogen (H2), five-times ionized oxygen (O VI), and several ionization states of sulfur (S III - S VI). These elements are essential for understanding the origin and evolution of the chemical elements, the formation of stars and our Solar System, and the structure of galaxies, including our Milky Way. FUSE is one of NASA's Explorer missions and a cooperative project of NASA and the space agencies of Canada and France. These missions are smaller, more scientifically focused missions than the larger observatories, like Hubble and Chandra. FUSE was designed, built and operated for NASA by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University. Hundreds of astronomers world-wide are using FUSE for a wide range of scientific research. Some of the important scientific discoveries from the first two years of the mission are described.

  5. Apollo-16 far-ultraviolet spectra in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Page, T.

    1977-01-01

    Spectra in the wavelength ranges from 900 to 1600 A and 1050 to 1600 A of some OB associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud were obtained from the lunar surface by the Apollo-16 far-ultraviolet camera/spectrograph on April 22, 1972. The observed spectral distributions appear consistent with a stellar model having an effective temperature of 30,000 K, reddened by E(B-V) = 0.3, and characterized by the average far-ultraviolet extinction curve of Bless and Savage (1972). However, the absolute intensity of the far-ultraviolet spectrum of the associations NGC 2050 and 2055 seems somewhat too bright in comparison with ground-based photometry.

  6. A remarkable auroral event on jupiter observed in the ultraviolet with the hubble space telescope.

    PubMed

    Gérard, J C; Grodent, D; Dols, V; Prangé, R; Waite, J H; Gladstone, G R; Franke, K A; Paresce, F; Storrs, A; Jaffel, L B

    1994-12-01

    Two sets of ultraviolet images of the Jovian north aurora were obtained with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The first series shows an intense discrete arc in near corotation with the planet. The maximum apparent molecular hydrogen emission rate corresponds to an electron precipitation of approximately 1 watt per square meter, which is about 30,000 times larger than the solar heating by extreme ultraviolet radiation. Such a particle heating rate of the auroral upper atmosphere of Jupiter should cause a large transient temperature increase and generate strong thermospheric winds. Twenty hours after initial observation, the discrete arc had decreased in brightness by more than one order of magnitude. The time scale and magnitude of the change in the ultraviolet aurora leads us to suggest that the discrete Jovian auroral precipitation is related to large-scale variations in the current system, as is the case for Earth's discrete aurorae.

  7. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-21

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.

  8. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Zielinski, Mark R.; Devlin, Tina M.; Moore, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210–2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210–2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210–2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410–0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect. PMID:27103935

  9. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    SciTech Connect

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  10. Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgh, Eric B.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Harris, Walter M.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    The Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device (CUPID) is a suborbital sounding rocket payload designed to perform wide-field, polarimetric imaging of the extragalactic ultraviolet background. In doing so, it will also measure the contribution to the UV background from the diffuse Galactic light (DGL), starlight from the Milky Way scattered off of dust. Current uncertanties in the contribution of the DGL to the UV background are due almost entirely to a poor knowledge of the optical properties of the dust in the diffuse ISM at ultraviolet wavelengths. The polarization of the scattered light is sensitive to scattering angle and thus CUPID imaging may help to constrain the spatial distribution and scattering properties of Galactic dust.

  11. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of three LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, R. W.; Keel, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Three galaxies known to be LINERs were observed spectroscopically in the ultraviolet in an attempt to detect the presumed nonthermal continuum source thought to be the source of photoionization in the nuclei. NGC 4501 was found to be too faint for study with the IUE spectrographs, while NGC 5005 had an extended ultraviolet light profile. Comparison with the optical light profile of NGC 5005 indicates that the ultraviolet source is distributed spatially in the same manner as the optical starlight, probably indicating that the ultraviolet excess is due to a component of hot stars in the nucleus. These stars contribute detectable absorption features longward of 2500 A; together with optical data, the IUE spectra suggest a burst of star formation about 1 billion yr ago, with a lower rate continuing to produce a few OB stars. In NGC 4579, a point source contributing most of the ultraviolet excess is found that is much different than the optical light distribution. Furthermore, the ultraviolet to X-ray spectral index in NGC 4579 is 1.4, compatible with the UV to X-ray indices found for samples of Seyfert galaxies. This provides compelling evidence for the detection of the photoionizing continuum in NGC 4579 and draws the research fields of normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei closer together. The emission-line spectrum of NGC 4579 is compared with calculations from a photoionization code, CLOUDY, and several shock models. The photoionization code is found to give superior results, adding to the increasing weight of evidence that the LINER phenomenon is essentially a scaled-down version of the Seyfert phenomenon.

  12. Image mosaic with color and brightness correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yili; Xu, Dan; Pan, Zhigeng

    2004-03-01

    Image mosaic is comprised of building a large field of view from a sequence of smaller images. It can be performed by registering, projective warping, resampling and compositing a serials of images. Due to the many possible factors for color and brightness variations when taking images, it is possible to lead to misalignment and obtain poor stitching result. Despite image mosaic can be manually adjusted using some photo editors like PhotoShop, this is not only tedious but also requires skills, knowledge and experience. Automatic adjustment is therefore desirable. By converting images to lαβ space and applying a special statistical analysis, color and brightness correction can be done automatically and improved image mosaic can be obtained.

  13. Brightness increase in an LCD stereo display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallison, Richard D.; Schicker, Scott R.

    1994-05-01

    A practical head mounted display (HMD) has to be light enough and bright enough to wear and view without undue strain on the users head or eyes. A 10 pound CRT based helmet is not always out of the question but binocular or stereo HMDs using LCDs rather than CRTs need only weigh in at around one pound complete with electronics and are far more comfortable to wear. The space bandwidth product or pixel count of LCDs is now approaching that of CRT type displays but LCDs could use a big boost in brightness, especially for see thru designs. The see thru or head up style has many user advantages and this paper addresses ways to more efficiently transmit photons from the source to the eye in one such design. All of the components that are used to improve performance may be made holographically or in an alternate fashion. The most practical method of construction is probably a toss up for some components.

  14. N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark solitons of the coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu Priya, N.; Senthilvelan, M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct N-bright-bright and N-dark-dark soliton solutions of an integrable two coupled generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (CGNLS) equation for arbitrary values of system parameters. These solutions are more general than the reported one. While the bright-bright solitons are captured in the focusing regime of CGNLS equation, the dark-dark soliton solutions are identified in the defocusing regime. We present N-bright-bright solitons in the Gram determinant forms and prove that these determinant forms satisfy the Hirota bilinear equations.

  15. Australia 31-GHz brightness temperature exceedance statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.

  16. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  17. Ultraviolet corona detection sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; MATHERN

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of detecting electrical corona discharge phenomena in a space simulation chamber via emission of ultraviolet light was evaluated. A corona simulator, with a hemispherically capped point to plane electrode geometry, was used to generate corona glows over a wide range of pressure, voltage, current, electrode gap length and electrode point radius. Several ultraviolet detectors, including a copper cathode gas discharge tube and a UV enhanced silicon photodiode detector, were evaluated in the course of the spectral intensity measurements. The performance of both silicon target vidicons and silicon intensified target vidicons was evaluated analytically using the data generated by the spectroradiometer scans and the performance data supplied by the manufacturers.

  18. The Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Legacy of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has been a spectacularly successful platform for spectroscopy in the diagnostic-rich far-ultraviolet (FUV: 120-170 nm) and near-ultraviolet (NUV: 170-310 nm) regions. HST has hosted four generations of UV instruments, beginning with Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) in the original 1990 payload, followed by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in 1997, and more recently Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) as part of Servicing Mission 4 in 2009. The latter two instruments have contributed by far the lion's share of HST's spectroscopic archive: STIS, because of its longevity (thirteen years in operation so far, although with a hiatus between 2004-2009); and COS because of its high sensitivity, which allows efficient observations, and thus many more targets in a typical GO program. STIS benefits from a compact echelle design, and the sharp stable imaging of HST, to provide high-resolution (3-7 km s-1) spectra of bright objects, including stars, nebulae, quasars, novae, and so forth. COS achieves astounding sensitivity in the FUV by a sophisticated design that compensates for the spherical abberation of HST's primary mirror, disperses the target's light, and focuses the spectral image all with just a single optical element. While the spectral resolution of COS (about 18 km s-1) is not as high as that of STIS, it is adequate for diverse investigations, including faint broad-lined AGN at the edge of the Universe, hot stars in nearby galaxies, and magnetically active planet-hosting red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. Thanks in part to the "UV Initiative" in recent HST proposal cycles, there have been several large efforts involving both STIS and COS, to assemble important spectral collections, including full UV atlases of representative hot and cool stars at high resolution with STIS; long time series of archetype AGN ("reverberation mapping") with COS; and hundreds of sightlines to distant

  19. Polarimetric Imaging of the Cosmic Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordsieck, K. H.; Bershady, M. A.; Harris, W.

    1999-05-01

    The nature of (and even the existence of) the ultraviolet cosmic background is controversial, because of the uncertain contribution of light from bright UV stars scattered by dust within our Galaxy (the UV Diffuse Galactic Light, or "DGL"). Because the DGL consists of light scattered at large angles from a small number of stars, it should be highly polarized, while most proposed sources of extragalactic UV background would be unpolarized, providing a potential way of disentangling the two components. We will discuss such an experiment: an existing sounding rocket payload, the Wide-Field Imaging Survey Polarimeter ("WISP"), and a proposed payload, the Cosmic Ultraviolet Polarimetric Imaging Device ("CUPID"), which would have 20 times the sensitivity of WISP. WISP, a 20 cm off-axis Schmidt telescope with a stressed CaF2 waveplate and a Brewster-angle polarizer, has a 2x4 degree field of view with 1 arcmin resolution at 1700 Ang. The first DGL target for WISP is the "Sandage Region" near M81/M82, an area observed (with different results) by both the UC Berkeley and the JHU UVX UV background experiments. It has known visible-wavelength and IRAS-wavelength "cirrus" which has been identified with DGL. WISP should be able to measure the polarization of any UV cirrus and establish the presence of an unpolarized background. Preliminary data from this target may be available, depending on the actual launch time. CUPID, a 50 cm Paul Baker telescope using reflective filter coatings, should have adequate precision to perform a pixel-by-pixel separation of polarized UV cirrus from any unpolarized background, and its very much improved stray light rejection should allow an accurate zero-point for this putative extragalactic background. Thus the detailed structure of the cosmic background from 15 arcsec to degrees will be determined. We will discuss how such a measurement may be used to confirm or eliminate several possible sources of UV cosmic background. WISP is supported by

  20. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions. PMID:25324075

  1. Bright Ray Craters in Ganymede's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    GANYMEDE COLOR PHOTOS: This color picture as acquired by Voyager 1 during its approach to Ganymede on Monday afternoon (the 5th of March). At ranges between about 230 to 250 thousand km. The images show detail on the surface with a resolution of four and a half km. This picture is of a region in the northern hemisphere near the terminator. It shows a variety of impact structures, including both razed and unrazed craters, and the odd, groove-like structures discovered by Voyager in the lighter regions. The most striking features are the bright ray craters which have a distinctly 'bluer' color appearing white against the redder background. Ganymede's surface is known to contain large amounts of surface ice and it appears that these relatively young craters have spread bright fresh ice materials over the surface. Likewise, the lighter color and reflectivity of the grooved areas suggests that here, too, there is cleaner ice. We see ray craters with all sizes of ray patterns, ranging from extensive systems of the crater in the southern part of this picture, which has rays at least 300-500 kilometers long, down to craters which have only faint remnants of bright ejects patterns (such as several of the craters in the southern half of PIA01516; P21262). This variation suggests that, as on the Moon, there are processes which act to darken ray material, probably 'gardening' by micrometeoroid impact. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  2. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  3. Bright light activates a trigeminal nociceptive pathway

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Tashiro, Akimasa; Chang, Zheng; Bereiter, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Bright light can cause ocular discomfort and/or pain; however, the mechanism linking luminance to trigeminal nerve activity is not known. In this study we identify a novel reflex circuit necessary for bright light to excite nociceptive neurons in superficial laminae of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc/C1). Vc/C1 neurons encoded light intensity and displayed a long delay (>10 s) for activation. Microinjection of lidocaine into the eye or trigeminal root ganglion (TRG) inhibited light responses completely, whereas topical application onto the ocular surface had no effect. These findings indicated that light-evoked Vc/C1 activity was mediated by an intraocular mechanism and transmission through the TRG. Disrupting local vasomotor activity by intraocular microinjection of the vasoconstrictive agents, norepinephrine or phenylephrine, blocked light-evoked neural activity, whereas ocular surface or intra-TRG microinjection of norepinephrine had no effect. Pupillary muscle activity did not contribute since light-evoked responses were not altered by atropine. Microinjection of lidocaine into the superior salivatory nucleus diminished light-evoked Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation suggesting that increased parasympathetic outflow was critical for light-evoked responses. The reflex circuit also required input through accessory visual pathways since both Vc/C1 activity and lacrimation were prevented by local blockade of the olivary pretectal nucleus. These findings support the hypothesis that bright light activates trigeminal nerve activity through an intraocular mechanism driven by a luminance-responsive circuit and increased parasympathetic outflow to the eye. PMID:20206444

  4. Bright and Dark Slopes on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Ridges on the edge of Ganymede's north polar cap show bright east-facing slopes and dark west-facing slopes with troughs of darker material below the larger ridges. North is to the top. The bright slopes may be due to grain size differences, differences in composition between the original surface and the underlying material, frost deposition, or illumination effects. The large 2.4 kilometer (1.5 mile) diameter crater in this image shows frost deposits located on the north-facing rim slope, away from the sun. A smaller 675 meter (2200 foot) diameter crater in the center of the image is surrounded by a bright deposit which may be ejecta from the impact. Ejecta deposits such as this are uncommon for small craters on Ganymede. This image measures 18 by 19 kilometers (11 by 12 miles) and has a resolution of 45 meters (148 feet) per pixel. NASA's Galileo spacecraft obtained this image on September 6, 1996 during its second orbit around Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. Brightness Changes in Sun-like Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    Does the Sun's energy output vary with time? Are observable climatic changes on the earth caused by changes in the Sun? Can we gain greater insight into this relation-ship by studying other stars with properties similar to the Sun's? In recent years, satellite observations have shown that the solar irradiance varies in phase with the 1 l-year sunspot cycle. The Sun is brighter by about O.l% at the peak of the sunspot cycle when solar magnetic activity is at its maximum. Over longer intervals, changes in the cart h's climate and solar magnetic activity seem to be correlated. We are using automatic photoelectric telescopes to measure brightness changes in a sample of 150 Sun-like stars. Lowell Observatory astronomers have also observed about 30 of these same stars with a manual telescope in a program that began 10 years before ours. Since these two data sets were acquired with different instruments and so have significant systematic differences, we developed software to combine them accurately and, therefore, extend our observational time coverage. We show sample results of brightness variations over 14 years in several Sun-like stars with different ages. Longitudinal studies like these, combined with cross-sectional studies of the larger sample of stars, may eventually allow us to infer with confidence the Sun's long-term brightness history and its impact on the earth's climate.

  6. Measured Properties of the DUVFEL High Brightness, Ultrashort Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, Paul J

    2002-08-20

    The DUVFEL electron linac is designed to produce sub-picosecond, high brightness electron bunches to drive an ultraviolet FEL. The accelerator consists of a 1.6 cell S-band photoinjector, variable pulse length Ti:Sapp laser, 4 SLAC-type S-band accelerating sections, and 4-dipole chicane bunch compressor. In preparation for FEL operation, the compressed electron beam has been fully characterized. Measurement of the beam parameters and simulation of the beam are presented. The properties of the laser and photoinjector are summarized in Table 1. In typical running, 10 mJ of IR light is produced by the Spectraphyics Tsunami Ti:Sapphire oscillator and TSA50 amplifier, which is frequency tripled to produce 450 uJ of UV light. After spatial filtering and aperturing of the gaussian mode to produce a nearly uniform laser spot, about 200-300 uJ is delivered to the cathode. This produces 300 pC of charge at the accelerating phase of 30 degrees. The RF cavity is a Gun IV [1] with copper cathode that has been modified for better performance [2]. In principle, the laser pulse length may be adjusted from 100 fs to 10 ps, however there are practical limitations on the range of adjustment due to dispersion characteristics and efficiency of the BBO crystals. The thickness of the harmonic crystals is optimized for pulse lengths from 1-5 ps. Within this range of pulse lengths there is evidence [3] of variations in the time profile of the UV light that are sensitive to the phase-matching angle of the crystal.

  7. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....2000 Clean and bright. Clean and bright means that the individual filbert and the lot as a whole...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....2000 Clean and bright. Clean and bright means that the individual filbert and the lot as a whole...

  9. An Increasing Stellar Baryon Fraction in Bright Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Song, Mimi; Behroozi, Peter; Somerville, Rachel S.; Papovich, Casey; Milosavljević, Miloš; Dekel, Avishai; Narayanan, Desika; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Cooray, Asantha; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salmon, Brett; Willner, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that the characteristic luminosity of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function does not significantly evolve at 4 < z < 7 and is approximately {M}{UV}*˜ -21. We investigate this apparent non-evolution by examining a sample of 173 bright, MUV < -21 galaxies at z = 4-7, analyzing their stellar populations and host halo masses. Including deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to constrain the rest-frame optical light, we find that {M}{UV}* galaxies at z = 4-7 have similar stellar masses of log(M/M⊙) = 9.6-9.9 and are thus relatively massive for these high redshifts. However, bright galaxies at z = 4-7 are less massive and have younger inferred ages than similarly bright galaxies at z = 2-3, even though the two populations have similar star formation rates and levels of dust attenuation for a fixed dust-attenuation curve. Matching the abundances of these bright z = 4-7 galaxies to halo mass functions from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation implies that the typical halo masses in ˜ {M}{{UV}}* galaxies decrease from log(Mh/M⊙) = 11.9 at z = 4 to log(Mh/M⊙) = 11.4 at z = 7. Thus, although we are studying galaxies at a similar stellar mass across multiple redshifts, these galaxies live in lower mass halos at higher redshift. The stellar baryon fraction in ˜ {M}{{UV}}* galaxies in units of the cosmic mean Ωb/Ωm rises from 5.1% at z = 4 to 11.7% at z = 7; this evolution is significant at the ˜3σ level. This rise does not agree with simple expectations of how galaxies grow, and implies that some effect, perhaps a diminishing efficiency of feedback, is allowing a higher fraction of available baryons to be converted into stars at high redshifts.

  10. Ultraviolet and Light Absorption Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, L. G.; Howell, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews developments in ultraviolet and light absorption spectrometry from December 1981 through November 1983, focusing on the chemistry involved in developing suitable reagents, absorbing systems, and methods of determination, and on physical aspects of the procedures. Includes lists of spectrophotometric methods for metals, non-metals, and…

  11. Ultraviolet radiation and coral bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Daniel F.; Wellington, Gerard M.

    1993-10-01

    EPISODES of coral bleaching resulting from dissociation of endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) from host coral tissues have occurred with increasing frequency over the past decade on reefs throughout the tropics1,2. These episodes have usually been attributed to increases in sea water temperatures3-10, but the mass bleaching events that occurred throughout the Caribbean during 1987 and 1990 were not readily explained by temperature alone11,12. An additional factor that may have contributed to these bleaching episodes is ultraviolet radiation in the 280-400-nm band. At many localities where bleaching occurred in 1987 and 1990, sea conditions were described as extremely calm with exceptionally clear water13. In the absence of suspended organic and inorganic matter in the water column, higher than average intensities of ultraviolet radiation probably reached all depths within the photic zone for several consecutive months. Evidence for a possible link between ultraviolet radiation and coral bleaching has not been forthcoming2. Here we report results of a field experiment showing that, irrespective of high water temperatures, short-term (three weeks) increases in ultraviolet radiation of a magnitude possible under calm, clear water column conditions can readily induce bleaching in reef-building corals.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet observations from voyager 1 encounter with jupiter.

    PubMed

    Broadfoot, A L; Belton, M J; Takacs, P Z; Sandel, B R; Shemansky, D E; Holberg, J B; Ajello, J M; Atreya, S K; Donahue, T M; Moos, H W; Bertaux, J L; Blamont, J E; Strobel, D F; McConnell, J C; Dalgarno, A; Goody, R; McElroy, M B

    1979-06-01

    Observations of the optical extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the Jupiter planetary system during the Voyager 1 encounter have revealed previously undetected physical processes of significant proportions. Bright emission lines of S III, S IV, and O III indicating an electron temperature of 10(5) K have been identified in preliminary analyses of the Io plasma torus spectrum. Strong auroral atomic and molecular hydrogen emissions have been observed in the polar regions of Jupiter near magnetic field lines that map the torus into the atmosphere of Jupiter. The observed resonance scattering of solar hydrogen Lyman alpha by the atmosphere of Jupiter and the solar occultation experiment suggest a hot thermosphere (>/= 1000 K) wvith a large atomic hydrogen abundance. A stellar occultation by Ganymede indicates that its atmosphere is at most an exosphere.

  13. Unusual satellite data: A black hole?. [International Ultraviolet Explorer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data obtained by the NASA-launched European Space Agency's International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite suggests the possibility of a massive black hole at the center of some globular clusters (star groups) in our galaxy. Six of these clusters, three of them X-ray sources, were closely examined. Onboard short wavelength UV instrumentation penetrated the background denseness of the clusters 15,000 light years away where radiation, probably from a group of 10 to 20 bright blue stars orbiting the core, was observed. The stars may well be orbiting a massive black hole the size of 1,000 solar systems. The existence of the black hole is uncertain. The dynamics of the stars must be studied first to determine how they rotate in relation to the center of the million-star cluster. This may better indicate what provides the necessary gravitational pull that holds them in orbit.

  14. An Ultraviolet Survey of the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Elizabeth; Howard, Stephen; Horton, Robert; Hwang, David Q.; Evans, Russell; Brockington, Samuel; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Light is emitted during the formation and acceleration of a compact toroid (CT) plasma in the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX). A low-resolution (35nm) survey in the 150 to 500 nm range of the ultraviolet spectrum of this light will be taken using a 1-meter Acton spectrometer using a 300 line/mm grating, on loan from the Electron-Beam Ion-Trap group at LLNL, with a 16-channel linear photodiode array. This survey will allow bright regions of the emitted spectrum to be identified for various diagnostic purposes. At moderate spectrometer resolution, line intensities may be used to infer plasma impurity content, while line ratios may be used to infer plasma temperatures. At high resolution, axial plasma velocity can be determined using Doppler shifts, while plasma temperature can be determined using Doppler broadening. Higher resolution experiments will be completed if time allows or continued by a future student.

  15. Saturn's E Ring in Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Visible from Earth only at times of ring plane crossing, Saturn's tenuous E Ring was discovered during the 1966 crossings and imaged again in 1980. From these observations, its color is known to be distinctively blue. The E Ring was captured in ultraviolet light for the first time in this image taken with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera on 9 August 1995. Five individual images taken with a broadband 3000 A filter were combined, amounting to a total exposure time of 2200 sec. Shorter exposure images were also obtained with blue, red and infrared filters in order to characterize the ring's color. The peak brightness of the E Ring occurs at 3.9 Saturn radii (235,000 km), coinciding with the orbit of Enceladus. In the HST images it can be traced out to a maximum distance of approximately 8 Rs (480,000 km). The vertical thickness of the ring, on the other hand, is smallest at Enceladus' orbit, with the ring puffing up noticeably at larger distances to 15,000 km or more thick. Also visible in this image, between the E Ring and the overexposed outermost part of the main rings near the lower edge of the frame, is the tenuous, thin, 6000 km-wide G Ring at 2.8 Rs (170,000 km). This is among the first earth-based observations of the G Ring, which was discovered by the Pioneer 11 spacecraft in 1979. Noticeably thinner than the E Ring and more neutral in color, the G Ring is thought to be composed of larger, macroscopic particles, and to pose a significant hazard to spacecraft. The faint diagonal band in the lower right part of the image is due to diffracted light from the heavily-overexposed planet. Credit: Phil Nicholson (Cornell University), Mark Showalter (NASA-Ames/Stanford) and NASA

  16. Far-ultraviolet mapping of the Cygnus Loop with the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, W.P.; Long, K.S.; Vancura, O.; Holberg, J.B. Arizona, University, Tucson )

    1991-06-01

    FUV maps of the Cygnus Loop made using spectroscopic data from the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer are presented. Emission line features at about 980 and about 1035 A dominate the 500-1700 A spectra of the Cygnus Loop as observed with Voyager. Maps were generated in the light of these two features. The 980 and 1035 A maps are compared with X-ray and optical images of the Cygnus Loop that have been sampled in the same manner. From this comparison it is clear that the 980 A feature arises mainly from regions of bright optical emission, whereas the 1035 A emission more closely resembles the X-ray emission. This general impression can be confirmed by inspection of the spectra as a function of position. Spectra extracted from positions corresponding to the primary shock front show the 1035 A feature to be relatively strong, while the 980 A feature is brighter when substantial optical emission is present within the aperture. 42 refs.

  17. Regulation of keratin expression by ultraviolet radiation: differential and specific effects of ultraviolet B and ultraviolet a exposure.

    PubMed

    Bernerd, F; Del Bino, S; Asselineau, D

    2001-12-01

    Skin, the most superficial tissue of our body, is the first target of environmental stimuli, among which is solar ultraviolet radiation. Very little is known about the regulation of keratin gene expression by ultraviolet radiation, however, although (i) it is well established that ultraviolet exposure is involved in skin cancers and photoaging and (ii) keratins represent the major epidermal proteins. The aim of this study was to analyze the regulation of human keratin gene expression under ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) or ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) irradiation using a panel of constructs comprising different human keratin promoters cloned upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene and transfected into normal epidermal keratinocytes. By this approach, we demonstrated that ultraviolet B upregulated the transcription of keratin 19 gene and to a lesser extent the keratin 6, keratin 5, and keratin 14 genes. The DNA sequence responsible for keratin 19 induction was localized between -130 and +1. In contrast to ultraviolet B, ultraviolet A irradiation induced only an increase in keratin 17, showing a differential gene regulation between these two ultraviolet ranges. The induction of keratin 19 was confirmed by studying the endogenous protein in keratinocytes in classical cultures as well as in skin reconstructed in vitro and normal human skin. These data show for the first time that keratin gene expression is regulated by ultraviolet radiation at the transcriptional level with a specificity regarding the ultraviolet domain of solar light. PMID:11886503

  18. Regulation of keratin expression by ultraviolet radiation: differential and specific effects of ultraviolet B and ultraviolet a exposure.

    PubMed

    Bernerd, F; Del Bino, S; Asselineau, D

    2001-12-01

    Skin, the most superficial tissue of our body, is the first target of environmental stimuli, among which is solar ultraviolet radiation. Very little is known about the regulation of keratin gene expression by ultraviolet radiation, however, although (i) it is well established that ultraviolet exposure is involved in skin cancers and photoaging and (ii) keratins represent the major epidermal proteins. The aim of this study was to analyze the regulation of human keratin gene expression under ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) or ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) irradiation using a panel of constructs comprising different human keratin promoters cloned upstream of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene and transfected into normal epidermal keratinocytes. By this approach, we demonstrated that ultraviolet B upregulated the transcription of keratin 19 gene and to a lesser extent the keratin 6, keratin 5, and keratin 14 genes. The DNA sequence responsible for keratin 19 induction was localized between -130 and +1. In contrast to ultraviolet B, ultraviolet A irradiation induced only an increase in keratin 17, showing a differential gene regulation between these two ultraviolet ranges. The induction of keratin 19 was confirmed by studying the endogenous protein in keratinocytes in classical cultures as well as in skin reconstructed in vitro and normal human skin. These data show for the first time that keratin gene expression is regulated by ultraviolet radiation at the transcriptional level with a specificity regarding the ultraviolet domain of solar light.

  19. Dark and Bright Ridges on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Jupiter's moon Europa, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera, shows dark, relatively smooth region at the lower right hand corner of the image which may be a place where warm ice has welled up from below. The region is approximately 30 square kilometers in area. An isolated bright hill stands within it. The image also shows two prominent ridges which have different characteristics; youngest ridge runs from left to top right and is about 5 kilometers in width (about 3.1 miles). The ridge has two bright, raised rims and a central valley. The rims of the ridge are rough in texture. The inner and outer walls show bright and dark debris streaming downslope, some of it forming broad fans. This ridge overlies and therefore must be younger than a second ridge running from top to bottom on the left side of the image. This dark 2 km wide ridge is relatively flat, and has smaller-scale ridges and troughs along its length.

    North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 15 kilometers by 20 kilometers (9 miles by 12 miles). The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  20. High brightness LED in confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, Ali; Xiong, Daxi; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    We have introduced a novel illumination system for line scanning confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy is a popular imaging tool in many applications specifically in medical imaging. Line scanning confocal microscopes have been proven to provide images with resolution comparable to point scanning microscopes. In the point scanning microscopes, the light is focused onto a diffraction limited spot. A pinhole is placed conjugate to the diffraction limited spot, in front of the detector to reject the light coming from out-of-focus planes. Therefore, confocal microscopy can provide optical sectioning. The size of the pinhole determines the amount of light that reaches the detector. A large pinhole results in a blurry image since more of the out-of-focus light contribute to the image. On the other hand, a smaller pinhole rejects more of the light, leading to a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Ideally it is desired to deliver a larger amount of optical power to the diffraction limited spot to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and have a smaller pinhole to reject more of the out-of-focus light. This is the property of the illumination system. In order to get a good signal-to noise ratio in the image, the light source has to provide sufficient radiance. We have introduced a new illumination system utilizing a high brightness LED in the line scanning confocal microscope. High brightness LEDs provide more optical power compared to ordinary LEDs from a smaller area; they have higher radiance. Preliminary results from our line scanning confocal microscope show that the high brightness LED is able to provide enough radiance to obtain an image with resolution comparable with the same microscope utilizing the laser diode. However, in high frame-rate application higher radiance or lower-noise detection system is required.

  1. Chaos may make black holes bright

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna

    1999-09-01

    Black holes cannot be seen directly since they absorb light and emit none, the very quality which earned them their name. We suggest that black holes may be seen indirectly through a chaotic defocusing of light. A black hole can capture light from a luminous companion in chaotic orbits before scattering the light in random directions. To a distant observer, the black hole would appear to light up. If the companion were a bright radio pulsar, this estimate suggests the black hole echo could be detectable.

  2. Bright solitary waves in malignant gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-García, Víctor M.; Calvo, Gabriel F.; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Diego, David; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis

    2011-08-01

    We put forward a nonlinear wave model describing the fundamental dynamical features of an aggressive type of brain tumors. Our model accounts for the invasion of normal tissue by a proliferating and propagating rim of active glioma cancer cells in the tumor boundary and the subsequent formation of a necrotic core. By resorting to numerical simulations, phase space analysis, and exact solutions we prove that bright solitary tumor waves develop in such systems. Possible implications of our model as a tool to extract relevant patient specific tumor parameters in combination with standard preoperative clinical imaging are also discussed.

  3. Two-color bright squeezed vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, Ivan N.; Chekhova, Maria V.

    2010-07-15

    In a strongly pumped nondegenerate traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier, we produce a two-color squeezed vacuum with up to millions of photons per pulse. Our approach to registering this macroscopic quantum state is direct detection of a large number of transverse and longitudinal modes, which is achieved by making the detection time and area much larger than the coherence time and area, respectively. Using this approach, we obtain a record value of twin-beam squeezing for direct detection of bright squeezed vacuum. This makes direct detection of macroscopic squeezed vacuum a practical tool for quantum information applications.

  4. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  5. Corona And Ultraviolet Equipment For Testing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.

    1993-01-01

    Two assemblies of laboratory equipment developed for use in testing abilities of polymers, paints, and other materials to withstand ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. One is vacuum ultraviolet source built around commercial deuterium lamp. Other exposes specimen in partial vacuum to both ultraviolet radiation and brush corona discharge. Either or both assemblies used separately or together to simulate approximately combination of solar radiation and charged particles encountered by materials aboard spacecraft in orbit around Earth. Also used to provide rigorous environmental tests of materials exposed to artificial ultraviolet radiation and charged particles in industrial and scientific settings or to natural ultraviolet radiation and charged particles aboard aircraft at high altitudes.

  6. Ultraviolet variability of the helium-peculiar star a Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The spectrophotometric variability of the classical magnetic chemically peculiar star a Cen in the ultraviolet spectral region from 1150 to 3100 Å is investigated. This study is based on archival International Ultraviolet Explorer data obtained at various phases of the rotational cycle. The light variations in wavelengths shorter than λ1616 Å are mainly in antiphase to the light variations in the longer-wavelength region. The brightness of the star in the spectral region λλ1616-1640 Å is constant over the period of rotation, which means that a so-called 'null wavelength region' exists over these wavelengths. There is also a second 'null wavelength region' in the spectrum of a Cen. According to our investigation, the semi-amplitude of the light variations is practically zero over the period of rotation in the spectral region λλ1244-1343 Å. The exception is the light variation in the depressions at λλ1265 and 1300 Å, which are formed by resonance lines of silicon. However, the fluxes are constant at the cores of some features and in small depressions. An explanation for the light variations of a Cen is flux redistribution through bound-free and bound-bound silicon transitions combined with an inhomogeneous surface distribution of silicon on the stellar surface. The influence of other elements on the flux redistribution is discussed.

  7. Indirect Ultraviolet-Reactivation of Phage λ

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacqueline; Devoret, Raymond; Radman, Miroslav

    1974-01-01

    When an F- recipient Escherichia coli K12 bacterium receives Hfr or F-lac+ DNA from an ultraviolet-irradiated donor, its capacity to promote DNA repair and mutagenesis of ultraviolet-damaged phage λ is substantially increased. We call this phenomenon indirect ultraviolet-reactivation, since its features are essentially the same as those of ultraviolet-reactivation; this repair process occurs in pyrimidine dimer excision-deficient strains and produces clear plaque mutations of the restored phage. Moreover, this process is similar to indirect ultraviolet-induction of prophage λ, since it is promoted by conjugation. However, contrarily to indirect induction, it is produced by Hfr donors and occurs in recipients restricting the incoming ultraviolet-damaged donor DNA. The occurrence of indirect ultraviolet-reactivation provides evidence for the existence in E. coli of an inducible error-prone mechanism for the repair of DNA. PMID:4589889

  8. Coronal Bright Points Associated with Minifilament Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 109 cm-3. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  9. Globe at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Sze Leung; Pun, Jason Chun Shing; SO, Chu-wing; Shibata, Yukiko; Walker, Constance Elaine; Agata, Hidehiko

    2015-08-01

    The Global at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (GaN-MN) is an international project for long-term monitoring of night sky conditions around the world. The GaN-MN consists of fixed monitoring stations each equipped with a Sky Quality Meter - Lensed Ethernet (SQM-LE), which is a specialized light sensor for night sky brightness (NSB) measurement. NSB data are continuously collected at high sampling frequency throughout the night, and these data will be instantly made available to the general public to provide a real-time snapshot of the global light pollution condition. A single data collection methodology, including data sampling frequency, data selection criteria, device design and calibration, and schemes for data quality control, was adopted to ensure uniformity in the data collected. This is essential for a systematic and global study of the level of light pollution. The data collected will also provide the scientific backbone in our efforts to contribute to dark sky conservation through education to the general public and policy makers. The GaN-MN project is endorsed by the IAU IYL Executive Committee Working Group as a major Cosmic Light program in the International Year of Light.

  10. A high brightness field emission display

    SciTech Connect

    Palevsky, A.

    1996-12-31

    The military requirement for avionics display performance requires that displays be legible with 10,000 foot-candles (fc) bright light shining into the pilot`s eyes, or 10,000 fc shining directly on the display. The contrast ratio under these conditions must be at least 4.66:1. In addition, instant-on operation is sought for temperatures as low as {minus}54 C. Currently these specifications can barely be met by monochrome CRTs whose use is counter-indicated by other factors. No color display can achieve optimum performance in the areas mentioned, nor do any current contenders, primarily AMLCD`s, have any prospects of achieving full compliance. The FED being developed by Raytheon shows strong promise of being able to achieve the brightness and contrast ratios desired. The FED is also inherently able to provide instant-on functionality at any terrestrial temperature and does not require any heating at low temperatures. The technical objective of the Raytheon development program is to develop a high performance, full color, FED Panel that meets the performance and environmental operating condition requirements specified for military and other high performance display applications.

  11. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Platz, T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Christensen, U.; Kneissl, T.; Li, J.-Y.; Mengel, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Schaefer, T.; Russell, C. T.; Applin, D. M.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Keller, H. U.; O'Brien, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Ripken, J.; Schenk, P. M.; Schmidt, B. E.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; Thangjam, G. S.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-12-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5, 6, 7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the ‘snow line’, which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  12. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres.

    PubMed

    Nathues, A; Hoffmann, M; Schaefer, M; Le Corre, L; Reddy, V; Platz, T; Cloutis, E A; Christensen, U; Kneissl, T; Li, J-Y; Mengel, K; Schmedemann, N; Schaefer, T; Russell, C T; Applin, D M; Buczkowski, D L; Izawa, M R M; Keller, H U; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Ripken, J; Schenk, P M; Schmidt, B E; Sierks, H; Sykes, M V; Thangjam, G S; Vincent, J-B

    2015-12-10

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line', which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  13. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  14. Small bright charged colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Heng; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-01-28

    Using electrochemical charge injection, the fluorescence lifetimes of negatively charged core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs are measured as a function of core size and shell thickness. It is found that the ensemble negative trion lifetimes reach a maximum (∼4.5 ns) for an intermediate shell thickness. This leads to the smallest particles (∼4.5 nm) with the brightest trion to date. Single dot measurements show that the negative charge suppresses blinking and that the trion can be as bright as the exciton at room temperature. In contrast, the biexciton lifetimes remain short and exhibit only a monotonous increase with shell thickness, showing no correlation with the negative trion decays. The suppression of the Auger process in small negatively charged CdTe/CdSe quantum dots is unprecedented and a significant departure from prior results with ultrathick CdSe/CdS core/shell or dot-in-rod structures. The proposed reason for the optimum shell thickness is that the electron-hole overlap is restricted to the CdTe core while the electron is tuned to have zero kinetic energy in the core for that optimum shell thickness. The different trend of the biexciton lifetime is not explained but tentatively attributed to shorter-lived positive trions at smaller sizes. These results improve our understanding of multiexciton recombination in colloidal quantum dots and may lead to the design of bright charged QDs for more efficient light-emitting devices.

  15. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres.

    PubMed

    Nathues, A; Hoffmann, M; Schaefer, M; Le Corre, L; Reddy, V; Platz, T; Cloutis, E A; Christensen, U; Kneissl, T; Li, J-Y; Mengel, K; Schmedemann, N; Schaefer, T; Russell, C T; Applin, D M; Buczkowski, D L; Izawa, M R M; Keller, H U; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Ripken, J; Schenk, P M; Schmidt, B E; Sierks, H; Sykes, M V; Thangjam, G S; Vincent, J-B

    2015-12-10

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line', which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense. PMID:26659183

  16. At Bright Band Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A layer of light-toned rock exposed inside Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars appears to mark where the surface was at the time, many millions of years ago, when an impact excavated the crater. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drove to this bright band as the science team's first destination for the rover during investigations inside the crater.

    Opportunity's left front hazard-identification camera took this image just after the rover finished a drive of 2.25 meters (7 feet, 5 inches) during the rover's 1,305th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 25, 2007). The rocks beneath the rover and its extended robotic arm are part of the bright band.

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  17. Wavelet dispersion and bright-spot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Luh, P.C.

    1989-03-01

    Since Ostrander in 1984 showed that the variations in reflectivity as a function of offset can be used for bright-spot validation, it has been known that these variations are often sensitive to errors in acquisition and processing of prestack seismic data. This presentation shows that even with perfect measurements, the bright-spot signal will be altered because the wavelet disperses as it propagates through an attenuating overburden. This in turn affects the slope term of the amplitude vs. offset (AVO) variation. For any single reflector, the dispersion of its propagated signal as a function of offset can be decomposed into a product of the vertical and horizontal dispersions. The vertical dispersion is the dispersion that a zero-offset arrival suffers through its propagation, and the horizontal dispersion is the additional dispersion that a nonzero-offset arrival must suffer further because of the residual normal moveout time. Numerical examples using a frequency-independent attenuation law show that even for a relatively high-Q or low-loss overburden, the horizontal dispersion alone can distort the AVO signal. This distortion cannot be taken care of by velocity analysis. A preferred method to overcome the dispersion effect would be to apply Q compensation on prestack seismic data before movement.

  18. Synchrotron brightness distribution of turbulent radio jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Bridle, A. H.; Chan, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    Radio jets are considered as turbulent mixing regions and it is proposed that the essential small scale viscous dissipation in these jets is by emission of MHD waves and by their subsequent strong damping due, at least partly, to gyro-resonant acceleration of supra-thermal particles. A formula relating the synchrotron surface brightness of a radio jet to the turbulent power input is deduced from physical postulates, and is tested against the data for NGC315 and 3C31 (NGC383). The predicted brightness depends essentially on the collimation behavior of the jet, and, to a lesser extent, on the CH picture of a 'high' nozzle with accelerating flow. The conditions for forming a large scale jet at a high nozzle from a much smaller scale jet are discussed. The effect of entrainment on the prediction is discussed with the use of similarity solutions. Although entrainment is inevitably associated with the turbulent jet, it may or may not be a dominant factor depending on the ambient density profile.

  19. Evaluation of HWRF Synthetic Satellite Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrave, K. D.; Knaff, J. A.; Slocum, C. J.; Grasso, L. D.; Demaria, M.

    2014-12-01

    The regions within and surrounding tropical cyclones (TCs) tend to be devoid of in situ measurements, making satellite observations particularly useful within these data sparse regions. Forecasters and researchers have used these observations for decades to evaluate and understand the structural evolution of TCs. Synthetic satellite brightness temperatures are produced by the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast (HWRF) model using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and provided for four different channels corresponding to channels available from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). This presentation will focus on the comparison between the HWRF synthetic satellite brightness temperatures and the observed GOES-13 10.7μm (infrared) and 6.48μm (water vapor) bands, highlighting the differences between the large-scale and storm-scale environments, and evaluating the structure of TCs as represented by the simulated satellite imagery. Disclaimer: The views, opinions, and findings contained in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or U.S. Government position, policy, or decision.

  20. Bright crater outflows: Possible emplacement mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chadwick, D. John; Schaber, Gerald G.; Strom, Robert G.; Duval, Darla M.

    1992-01-01

    Lobate features with a strong backscatter are associated with 43 percent of the impact craters cataloged in Magellan's cycle 1. Their apparent thinness and great lengths are consistent with a low-viscosity material. The longest outflow yet identified is about 600 km in length and flows from the 90-km-diameter crater Addams. There is strong evidence that the outflows are largely composed of impact melt, although the mechanisms of their emplacement are not clearly understood. High temperatures and pressures of target rocks on Venus allow for more melt to be produced than on other terrestrial planets because lower shock pressures are required for melting. The percentage of impact craters with outflows increases with increasing crater diameter. The mean diameter of craters without outflows is 14.4 km, compared with 27.8 km for craters with outflows. No craters smaller than 3 km, 43 percent of craters in the 10- to 30-km-diameter range, and 90 percent in the 80- to 100-km-diameter range have associated bright outflows. More melt is produced in the more energetic impact events that produce larger craters. However, three of the four largest craters have no outflows. We present four possible mechanisms for the emplacement of bright outflows. We believe this 'shotgun' approach is justified because all four mechanisms may indeed have operated to some degree.

  1. Study of the brightness of trumpet tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirson, Emilie; Petiot, Jean-François; Gilbert, Joël

    2005-10-01

    This study focuses on a particular attribute of trumpet tones, the brightness, and on the physical characteristics of the instrument thought to govern its magnitude. On the one hand, an objective study was carried out with input impedance measurements, and, on the other hand, a subjective study with hearing tests and a panel of subjects. To create a set of different trumpets a variable depth mouthpiece was developed whose depth can be easily and continuously adjusted from ``deep'' to ``shallow.'' Using this mouthpiece and the same trumpet, several instruments were generated which may be played in three ways: (i) by a musician, (ii) by an artificial mouth, and (iii) using physical modeling simulations. The influence of the depth of the mouthpiece on the perception of the trumpet's tones was investigated, and the ability of a musician, the artificial mouth, or physical modeling simulations to demonstrate perceptively noticeable differences was assessed. Physical characteristics extracted from the impedance curves are finally proposed to explain the brightness of trumpet tones. As a result, the physical modeling simulations now seem to be mature enough to exhibit coherent and subtle perceptual differences between tones. This opens the door to virtual acoustics for instrument makers.

  2. Bright hot impacts by erupted fragments falling back on the Sun: a template for stellar accretion.

    PubMed

    Reale, Fabio; Orlando, Salvatore; Testa, Paola; Peres, Giovanni; Landi, Enrico; Schrijver, Carolus J

    2013-07-19

    Impacts of falling fragments observed after the eruption of a filament in a solar flare on 7 June 2011 are similar to those inferred for accretion flows on young stellar objects. As imaged in the ultraviolet (UV)-extreme UV range by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, many impacts of dark, dense matter display uncommonly intense, compact brightenings. High-resolution hydrodynamic simulations show that such bright spots, with plasma temperatures increasing from ~10(4) to ~10(6) kelvin, occur when high-density plasma (>10(10) particles per cubic centimeter) hits the solar surface at several hundred kilometers per second, producing high-energy emission as in stellar accretion. The high-energy emission comes from the original fragment material and is heavily absorbed by optically thick plasma, possibly explaining the lower mass accretion rates inferred from x-rays relative to UV-optical-near infrared observations of young stars.

  3. EUV light source with high brightness at 13.5 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, V M; Prokof'ev, A V; Khristoforov, O B; Koshelev, K N; Khadzhiyskiy, F Yu

    2014-11-30

    The results of the studies on the development of a highbrightness radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range are presented. The source is intended for using in projection EUV lithography, EUV mask inspection, for the EUV metrology, etc. Novel approaches to creating a light source on the basis of Z-pinch in xenon allowed the maximal brightness [130 W(mm{sup 2} sr){sup -1}] to be achieved in the vicinity of plasma for this type of radiation sources within the 2% spectral band centred at the wavelength of 13.5 nm that corresponds to the maximal reflection of multilayer Mo/Si mirrors. In this spectral band the radiation power achieves 190 W in the solid angle of 2π at a pulse repetition rate of 1.9 kHz and an electric power of 20 kW, injected into the discharge. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  5. Interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Interstellar extinction curves over the region 3600-1100 A for 17 stars are presented. The observations were made by the two Wisconsin spectrometers onboard the OAO-2 with spectral resolutions of 10 A and 20 A. The extinction curves generally show a pronounced maximum at 2175 plus or minus 25 A, a broad minimum in the region 1800-1350 A, and finally a rapid rise to the far ultraviolet. Large extinction variations from star to star are found, especially in the far ultraviolet; however, with only two possible exceptions in this sample, the wavelength at the maximum of the extinction bump is essentially constant. These data are combined with visual and infrared observations to display the extinction behavior over a range in wavelength of about a factor of 20.

  6. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  7. Ultraviolet photofragmentation of biomolecular ions

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric identification of all types of molecules relies on the observation and interpretation of ion fragmentation patterns. Peptides, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids that are often found as components of complex biological samples represent particularly important challenges. The most common strategies for fragmenting biomolecular ions include low- and high-energy collisional activation, post-source decay, and electron capture or transfer dissociation. Each of these methods has its own idiosyncrasies and advantages but encounters problems with some types of samples. Novel fragmentation methods that can offer improvements are always desirable. One approach that has been under study for years but is not yet incorporated into a commercial instrument is ultraviolet photofragmentation. This review discusses experimental results on various biological molecules that have been generated by several research groups using different light wavelengths and mass analyzers. Work involving short-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet light is particularly emphasized. The characteristics of photofragmentation are examined and its advantages summarized. PMID:19241462

  8. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  9. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  10. Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

  11. Ultraviolet-Resistant Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Newcombe, David; LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff R.

    2007-01-01

    A document summarizes a study in which it was found that spores of the SAFR-032 strain of Bacillus pumilus can survive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radiation, and hydrogen peroxide in proportions much greater than those of other bacteria. The study was part of a continuing effort to understand the survivability of bacteria under harsh conditions and develop means of sterilizing spacecraft to prevent biocontamination of Mars that could interfere with the search for life there.

  12. Far-Ultraviolet Stellar Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. G.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1993-12-01

    During a shuttle flight in May, 1991, wide field images were obtained for 12 star fields with the NRL far-ultraviolet cameras. These cameras provide sensitivity bands with effective wavelengths of lambda eff = 1367 Angstroms and lambda eff = 1702 Angstroms. The properties of the resulting magnitude system will be described and compared with previous photometry from the OAO2, ANS and TD1 satellites. Results from several fields in the vicinity of the galactic center will be discussed.

  13. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA astronomy mission which will operate in the 70-760A spectral band. The science payload consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. An overview of the planned mission profile is given, and the instrumentation which comprises the science payload is discussed. The EUVE is scheduled for launch in late August 1991.

  14. Search for ultraviolet Shuttle glow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, P. D.; Feldman, P. D.; Henry, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, the Space Shuttle Columbia carried two ultraviolet experiments (UVX) in an attempt to observe very weak diffuse emission from various astronomical sources at wavelengths below 3200 A with moderate spectral resolution. The experiment attested to the feasibility of low cost astronomy from the Space Shuttle using Get Away Special canisters. Emissions from O2, O, and NO were detected and shown to be consistent with an atmospheric origin.

  15. Ultraviolet observations of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report on 'Ultraviolet Observations of Astronomical Sources,' which ran for a total of three years, roughly between 1 July 1988 and 14 Feb. 1993 is presented. During the first year, I worked at Indiana University; since October, 1989, I have been at Tennessee State University. This grant has supported my studies of archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of zeta Aur binaries, cool stars that are paired with hot stars in binary systems. Such systems are important as a source of detailed knowledge about the structures of chromospheres and winds in cool giant and supergiant stars, since the hot star serves as a probe of many lines of sight through the cool supergiant star's outer atmosphere. By determining the physical conditions along many such lines of sight, a detailed two-dimensional map of the chromosphere and wind may be constructed. The grant grew out of my analysis of archival IUE observations of 31 Cyg in which I analyzed five epochs of an atmospheric eclipse that occurred in 1982. I fit the attenuation spectra of atmospheric eclipse throughout the ultraviolet (lambda(lambda)1175-1950 and lambda(lambda)2500-3100) with theoretically calculated spectra, thereby determining the physical properties of gas (mass column density of absorbers, temperature, and velocity spread) along each observed line of sight. A similar analysis for other such zeta Aur binaries was accomplished and theoretical models for the chromospheres of these stars based on my observations were constructed.

  16. New Distant Comet Headed for Bright Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    How Impressive Will Comet Hale-Bopp Become in 1997 ? A very unusual comet was discovered last month, on its way from the outer reaches of the solar system towards the Sun. Although it is still situated beyond the orbit of Jupiter, it is so bright that it can be observed in even small telescopes. It has been named `Hale-Bopp' after the discoverers and is already of great interest to cometary astronomers. No less than seven telescopes have been used at the ESO La Silla observatory for the first observations of the new object. Together with data gathered at other sites, their aim is to elucidate the nature of this comet and also to determine whether there is reason to hope that it will become a bright and beautiful object in the sky from late 1996 and well into 1997. Further observations are now being planned at ESO and elsewhere to monitor closely the behaviour of this celestial visitor during the coming months. Discovery circumstances The comet was discovered on 23 July 1995, nearly simultaneously by two American amateur astronomers, Alan Hale of Cloudcroft (New Mexico) and Thomas Bopp of Glendale (Arizona). Although the chronology is slightly uncertain, it appears that Hale first saw it some 10 - 20 minutes before Bopp, at 06:10 - 06:15 UT on that day. In any case, he informed the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) in Cambridge (Massachussetts) about his discovery by email already at 06:50 UT, while Bopp's message was filed more than 2 hours later, after he had driven back to his home, 140 km from where he had been observing. Upon receipt of these messages, Brian Marsden at the CBAT assigned the designation `1995 O1' (indicating that it is the first comet found in the second half of July 1995). After further sightings had been made by other observers, and according to the venerable astronomical tradition, the new object was named after the discoverers. The magnitude, reported as 10.5 by Hale, is not unusual for a comet that is discovered within

  17. NO TIME FOR DEAD TIME: TIMING ANALYSIS OF BRIGHT BLACK HOLE BINARIES WITH NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Tomsick, John; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Schmid, Christian; Christensen, Finn E.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kara, Erin; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller, Jon M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Uttley, Phil; and others

    2015-02-20

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (∼2.5 msec) and varies event-to-event by a few percent. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be easily modeled with standard techniques due to the variable nature of the dead time. In this paper, we show that it is possible to exploit the presence of two completely independent focal planes and use the cospectrum, the real part of the cross PDS, to obtain a good proxy of the white-noise-subtracted PDS. Thereafter, one can use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the remaining effects of dead time, namely, a frequency-dependent modulation of the variance and a frequency-independent drop of the sensitivity to variability. In this way, most of the standard timing analysis can be performed, albeit with a sacrifice in signal-to-noise ratio relative to what would be achieved using more standard techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339–4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105.

  18. No Time for Dead Time: Timing Analysis of Bright Black Hole Binaries with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick; Tomsick, John; Schmid, Christian; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Kara, Erin; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller, Jon M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Uttley, Phil; Walton, Dominic J.; Wilms, Jörn; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (~2.5 msec) and varies event-to-event by a few percent. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be easily modeled with standard techniques due to the variable nature of the dead time. In this paper, we show that it is possible to exploit the presence of two completely independent focal planes and use the cospectrum, the real part of the cross PDS, to obtain a good proxy of the white-noise-subtracted PDS. Thereafter, one can use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the remaining effects of dead time, namely, a frequency-dependent modulation of the variance and a frequency-independent drop of the sensitivity to variability. In this way, most of the standard timing analysis can be performed, albeit with a sacrifice in signal-to-noise ratio relative to what would be achieved using more standard techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105.

  19. WIDGET: Ultra Bright Optical Transients Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Lin, H.-M.; Tashiro, M.; Widget Team

    2010-12-01

    The WIDeField telescope for Gamma-ray burst Early Timing (WIDGET) is used for a fully automated, ultra-wide-field survey aimed at detecting the prompt optical emission associated with Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB). WIDGET surveys the HETE-2 and Swift/BAT pointing directions covering a total field of view of 62x62 degree every 10 seconds using an unfiltered system. This monitoring survey allows exploration of the optical emission before the gamma-ray trigger. At the same time, WIDGET is the quite unique instrument to explore ultra-bright optical transients with high time resolution. Combination with the MAXI survey, WIDGET has higher potential to make simultaneous discoveries of optical counterparts for high energy transients. We developed the serendipitous transient finding pipeline. We report the preliminary results.

  20. Brightness temperature for 166 radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jun-Hui; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yu-Hai; Yang, Jiang-He; Liu, Yi; Tao, Jun; Gao, Ying; Hua, Tong-Xu; Lin, Rui-Guang; Zhang, Jiang-Shui; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Qin, Yi-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Using the database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio frequencies (4.8, 8 and 14.5 GHz), we determined the short-term variability timescales for 166 radio sources. The timescales are 0.15 d (2007+777) to 176.17 d (0528-250) with an average timescale of Δtobs = 17.1 ± 16.5 d for the whole sample. The timescales are used to calculate the brightness temperatures, TB. The value of log TB is in the range of log TB = 10.47 to 19.06 K. In addition, we also estimated the boosting factor for the sources. The correlation between the polarization and the Doppler factor is also discussed.

  1. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  2. Bright photoluminescent hybrid mesostructured silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore; Gianotti, Enrica

    2012-07-28

    Bright photoluminescent mesostructured silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the incorporation of fluorescent cyanine dyes into the channels of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. Cyanine molecules were introduced into MCM-41 nanoparticles by physical adsorption and covalent grafting. Several photoluminescent nanoparticles with different organic loadings have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption porosimetry. A detailed photoluminescence study with the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes was carried out to elucidate the cyanine molecules distribution within the pores of MCM-41 nanoparticles and the influence of the encapsulation on the photoemission properties of the guests. The results show that highly stable photoluminescent hybrid materials with interesting potential applications as photoluminescent probes for diagnostics and imaging can be prepared by both methods. PMID:22706523

  3. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-01

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm-2 sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  4. Modelling Solar and Stellar Brightness Variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, K. L.; Shapiro, A. I.; Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Total and spectral solar irradiance, TSI and SSI, have been measured from space since 1978. This is accompanied by the development of models aimed at replicating the observed variability by relating it to solar surface magnetism. Despite significant progress, there remains persisting controversy over the secular change and the wavelength-dependence of the variation with impact on our understanding of the Sun's influence on the Earth's climate. We highlight the recent progress in TSI and SSI modelling with SATIRE. Brightness variations have also been observed for Sun-like stars. Their analysis can profit from knowledge of the solar case and provide additional constraints for solar modelling. We discuss the recent effort to extend SATIRE to Sun-like stars.

  5. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    PubMed

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  6. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  7. Bright Soil Near 'McCool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam), taken on the rover's 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered.

    Several days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's Pancam and miniature thermal emission spectrometer examined this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare its properties with the properties of those other deposits.

    These discoveries indicate that salty, light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts, which are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution, may record the past presence of water. So far, these enigmatic materials have generated more questions than answers, however, and as Spirit continues to drive across this region in search of a safe winter haven, the team continues to formulate and test hypotheses to explain the rover's most fascinating recent discovery.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  8. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, John; Berg, Wesley; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Chris; Stocker, Erich

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format will provide detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format will be simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, and Tc. It will also provide spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The Tc algorithm and data format are being tested using the pre-GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS) software to generate formats and 1/0 routines. In the test, data from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat are being processed and written as Tc products.

  9. Formation of a Bright Polar Hood over the Summer North Pole of Saturn in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2016-10-01

    We report that a bright polar hood has formed over the north pole of Saturn, seen first in images captured by the Cassini ISS camera in 2016. When the north pole was observed during the previous period of Cassini spacecraft's high-inclination orbits in 2012-2013, the concentration of light-scattering aerosols within 2-degree latitude of the north pole appeared to be less than that of the surrounding region, and appeared as a dark hole in all ISS filters, in particular in the shorter wavelength filters BL1 (460 nm), and VIO (420 nm). The north pole's appearance in 2012 was in contrast to that of the south pole in 2007, when the south pole had a bright polar hood in those short wavelengths; the south pole appeared dark in all other ISS filters in 2007. The difference between the south pole in 2007 and the north pole in 2012 was interpreted to be seasonal; in 2007, Saturn was approaching the equinox of 2009 and the south pole had been continuously illuminated since the previous equinox in 1995. In 2012, the north pole had been illuminated for only ~3 years after the long winter polar night. The bright hood over the summer south pole in 2007 was hypothesized to consist of aerosols produced by ultraviolet photodissociation of hydrocarbon molecules. Fletcher et al (2015) predicted that a similar bright hood should form over the north pole as Saturn approaches the 2017 solstice. In 2016, the Cassini spacecraft raised its orbital inclination again in preparation for its Grande Finale phase of the mission, from where it has a good view of the north pole. New images captured in 2016 show that the north pole has developed a bright polar hood. We present new images of the north polar region captured in 2016 that show the north pole, and other seasonally evolving high-latitude features including the northern hexagon. Our research has been supported by the Cassini Project, NASA grants OPR NNX11AM45G, CDAPS NNX15AD33G PATM NNX14AK07G, and NSF grant AAG 1212216.

  10. Photospheric electric current and transition region brightness within an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, A. C.; Hagyard, M. J.; Rabin, D.; Moore, R. L.; Smith, B. J., Jr.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Distributions of vertical electrical current density J(z) calculated from vector measurements of the photospheric magnetic field are compared with ultraviolet spectroheliograms to investigate whether resistive heating is an important source of enhanced emission in the transition region. The photospheric magnetic fields in Active Region 2372 were measured on April 6 and 7, 1980 with the Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph; ultraviolet wavelength spectroheliograms (L-alpha and N V 1239 A) were obtained with the UV Spectrometer and Polarimeter experiment aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Spatial registration of the J(z) (5 arcsec resolution) and UV (3 arcsec resolution) maps indicates that the maximum current density is cospatial with a minor but persistent UV enhancement, but there is little detected current associated with other nearby bright areas. It is concluded that, although resistive heating may be important in the transition region, the currents responsible for the heating are largely unresolved in the present measurements and have no simple correlation with the residual current measured on 5-arcsec scales.

  11. New Distant Comet Headed for Bright Encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-08-01

    How Impressive Will Comet Hale-Bopp Become in 1997 ? A very unusual comet was discovered last month, on its way from the outer reaches of the solar system towards the Sun. Although it is still situated beyond the orbit of Jupiter, it is so bright that it can be observed in even small telescopes. It has been named `Hale-Bopp' after the discoverers and is already of great interest to cometary astronomers. No less than seven telescopes have been used at the ESO La Silla observatory for the first observations of the new object. Together with data gathered at other sites, their aim is to elucidate the nature of this comet and also to determine whether there is reason to hope that it will become a bright and beautiful object in the sky from late 1996 and well into 1997. Further observations are now being planned at ESO and elsewhere to monitor closely the behaviour of this celestial visitor during the coming months. Discovery circumstances The comet was discovered on 23 July 1995, nearly simultaneously by two American amateur astronomers, Alan Hale of Cloudcroft (New Mexico) and Thomas Bopp of Glendale (Arizona). Although the chronology is slightly uncertain, it appears that Hale first saw it some 10 - 20 minutes before Bopp, at 06:10 - 06:15 UT on that day. In any case, he informed the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) in Cambridge (Massachussetts) about his discovery by email already at 06:50 UT, while Bopp's message was filed more than 2 hours later, after he had driven back to his home, 140 km from where he had been observing. Upon receipt of these messages, Brian Marsden at the CBAT assigned the designation `1995 O1' (indicating that it is the first comet found in the second half of July 1995). After further sightings had been made by other observers, and according to the venerable astronomical tradition, the new object was named after the discoverers. The magnitude, reported as 10.5 by Hale, is not unusual for a comet that is discovered within

  12. Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampf, Daniel; Rowell, Gavin; Wild, Neville; Sudholz, Tristan; Horns, Dieter; Tluczykont, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments. The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler's Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE. A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands. The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 10 12 photons/(s sr m 2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec 2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10 -3 sr. The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.

  13. Far ultraviolet astronomy using the FAUST telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST) a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for astronomical observations of extended and point sources is discussed. The design and application of the instrument are described. The prime objective is to observe faint astronomical sources with sensitivities higher than previously available. Scientific programs will include: (1) a search for ultraviolet stars which are predicted to exist at the stage of evolution prior to the final death of a star; (2) observations of galaxies and quasars; and (3) joint programs with other Spacelab 1 experiments. The secondary objective is to verify the suitability of the Spacelab as a platform for far ultraviolet astronomy: data will be provided on the ultraviolet background levels due to astronomical, terrestrial, and spacecraft generated sources; the levels of contaminants which affect ultraviolet instruments; and the capability of the Orbiter for stable pointing at celestial sources for useful periods of time.

  14. Upper limits for a lunar dust exosphere from far-ultraviolet spectroscopy by LRO/LAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Glenar, David A.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Randall Gladstone, G.; Miles, Paul F.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Kaufmann, David E.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Alan Stern, S.

    2014-05-01

    Since early 2012, the Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) far-ultraviolet spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft has carried out a series of limb observations from within lunar shadow to search for the presence of a high altitude dust exosphere via forward-scattering of sunlight from dust grains. Bright “horizon-glow” was observed from orbit during several Apollo missions and interpreted in terms of dust at altitudes of several km and higher. However, no confirmation of such an exosphere has been made since that time. This raises basic questions about the source(s) of excess brightness in the early measurements and also the conditions for producing observable dust concentrations at km altitudes and higher. Far-ultraviolet measurements between 170 and 190 nm, near the LAMP long wavelength cutoff, are especially sensitive to scattering by small (0.1-0.2 μm radius) dust grains, since the scattering cross-section is near-maximum, and the solar flux is rising rapidly with wavelength. An additional advantage of ultraviolet measurements is the lack of interference by background zodiacal light which must be taken into account at longer wavelengths. As of July 2013, LAMP has completed several limb-observing sequences dedicated to the search for horizon glow, but no clear evidence of dust scattering has yet been obtained. Upper limits for vertical dust column abundance have been estimated at less than 10 grains cm-2 (0.1 μm grain radius), by comparing the measured noise-equivalent brightness with the results of Mie scattering simulations for the same observing geometries. These results indicate that Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) UVS lunar dust observations will be considerably more challenging than planned.

  15. Investigation of the moving structures in a coronal bright point

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Zongjun; Guo, Yang

    2014-10-10

    We have explored the moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) observed by the Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on 2011 March 5. This CBP event has a lifetime of ∼20 minutes and is bright with a curved shape along a magnetic loop connecting a pair of negative and positive fields. AIA imaging observations show that a lot of bright structures are moving intermittently along the loop legs toward the two footpoints from the CBP brightness core. Such moving bright structures are clearly seen at AIA 304 Å. In order to analyze their features, the CBP is cut along the motion direction with a curved slit which is wide enough to cover the bulk of the CBP. After integrating the flux along the slit width, we get the spacetime slices at nine AIA wavelengths. The oblique streaks starting from the edge of the CBP brightness core are identified as moving bright structures, especially on the derivative images of the brightness spacetime slices. They seem to originate from the same position near the loop top. We find that these oblique streaks are bi-directional, simultaneous, symmetrical, and periodic. The average speed is about 380 km s{sup –1}, and the period is typically between 80 and 100 s. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation shows the possibility that magnetic reconnection takes place during the CBP, and our findings indicate that these moving bright structures could be the observational outflows after magnetic reconnection in the CBP.

  16. Data preprocessing and preliminary results of the moon-based ultraviolet telescope on CE-3 lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, f.

    2015-10-01

    The moon-based ultraviolet telescope (MUVT) is one of the payloads on the Chang'e-3(CE-3)lunar lander. Because of the advantages of having no atmospheric disturbances and the slow rotation of the Moon, we can make longterm continuous observations of a series of important remote celestial objects in the near ultraviolet band, and perform a sky survey of selected areas. We can find characteristic changes incelestial brightness with time by analyzing image data from the MUVT ,and deduce the radiation mechanism and physical properties of these celestial objects after comparing with a physical model. In order to explain the scientific purposes of MUVT, this article analyzes the preprocessing of MUVT image data and makes a preliminary evaluation of data quality. The results demonstrate that the methods used for data collection and preprocessing are effective, and the Level 2A and 2B image data satisfy the requirements of follow-up scientific researches.

  17. Ultraviolet photometry from the orbiting astronomical observatory. XXX - The Orion reflection nebulosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, A. N.; Lillie, C. F.

    1978-01-01

    Surface-brightness measurements are presented that cover the region of Orion in nine intermediate-width bandpasses ranging from 4250 to 1550 A. The existence of an extended ultraviolet reflection nebulosity in this area is confirmed, and the characteristics of its spectrum and spatial distribution are derived. The observations are consistent with a model in which the dense molecular cloud complex in Orion is illuminated by the foreground Orion aggregate of early-type stars. The interpretation is complicated by the fact that foreground dust may contribute to the observed scattered light. The scattering particles in the cloud appear to exhibit a wavelength-dependent albedo similar to that found for interstellar grains in general, with a strong indication that the phase function changes to a less forward-scattering form in the ultraviolet.

  18. Investigations on the emission in the extreme ultraviolet of a pseudospark based discharge light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Klaus; Vieker, Jochen; von Wezyk, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    A new concept of a discharge based extreme ultraviolet radiation source is presented. This concept is based on an electrode system that consists of two consecutive pseudospark discharge stages. The first stage is used to create a pinch plasma as emitter in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray range and the second stage is used as a high current switch between the storage capacity and the first stage. First results on the emission characteristics for the working gases nitrogen, krypton, and xenon, with focus on the emission at 2.88 nm, 6-7 nm, and around 13.5 nm, respectively, are disclosed under the aspect of the access to a larger discharge parameter range. It is shown that this increased range opens a path to a higher spectral peak brightness.

  19. Ultraviolet light and hyperpigmentation in healing wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemer, D.R.; Spira, M.

    1983-10-01

    The concept of permanent hyperpigmentation in wounds following ultraviolet light exposure during the postoperative period has found a place in plastic surgical literature but has not been documented. This study evaluates the effect of ultraviolet light on healing wounds in paraplegics. It failed to confirm permanent alteration in pigmentation response to ultraviolet exposure and suggests that other factors are of greater importance in the development of hyperpigmentation in the healing wound.

  20. Polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers for outdoor use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogl, O.

    1982-01-01

    Polymeric materials that are stable enough to use outdoors without changes in excess of 20 years are investigated. Ultraviolet stabilizers or plastic materials were synthesized, polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers, particularly of the 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)2H-benzotriazole family were prepared their polymerization, copolymerization and grafting onto other polymers were demonstrated, and ultraviolet stabilizing systems were devised. These materials were evaluated from the photophysical point of view.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV-bright quasars (Syphers+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, D.; Anderson, S. F.; Zheng, W.; Haggard, D.; Meiksin, A.; Schneider, D. P.; York, D. G.

    2010-03-01

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of HeII reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the HeII Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean HeII quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z>2.78 having likely (~70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to HeII Lyα, substantially expanding the number of known clean HeII quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 HeII quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of HeII quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves. (2 data files).

  2. Probing 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Electron Environment Through Ultraviolet Emission by Rosetta Alice Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindhelm, Eric; Noonan, John; Keeney, Brian A.; Broiles, Thomas; Bieler, Andre; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Feaga, Lori M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Steffl, Andrew Joseph; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.

    2016-10-01

    The Alice Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) Spectrograph onboard ESA's Rosetta spacecraft has observed the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from far approach in summer 2014 until the end of mission in September 2016. We present an overall perspective of the bright FUV emission lines (HI 1026 Å, OI 1302/1305/1306 Å multiplet, OI] 1356 Å, CO 1510 (1-0) Å, and CI 1657 Å) above the sunward hemisphere, detailing their spatial extent and brightness as a function of time and the heliocentric distance of the comet. We compare our observed gas column densities derived using electron temperatures and densities from the Ion Electron Sensor (IES) with those derived using the Inner Coma Environment Simulator (ICES) models in periods when electron-impact excited emission dominates over solar fluorescence emission. The electron population is characterized with 2 three-dimensional kappa functions, one dense and warm, one rarefied and hot.

  3. ORIGIN OF THE DIFFUSE, FAR ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION IN THE INTERARM REGIONS OF M101

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Alison F.; Chandar, Rupali; Calzetti, Daniela; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Leitherer, Claus; Popescu, Cristina; Tuffs, R. J.

    2015-07-20

    We present images from the Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope that resolve hundreds of far-ultraviolet (FUV) emitting stars in two ∼1 kpc{sup 2} interarm regions of the grand-design spiral M101. The luminosity functions of these stars are compared with predicted distributions from simple star formation histories, and are best reproduced when the star formation rate has recently declined (past 10–50 Myr). This pattern is consistent with stars forming within spiral arms and then streaming into the interarm regions. We measure the diffuse FUV surface brightness after subtracting all of the detected stars, clusters, and background galaxies. A residual flux is found for both regions, which can be explained by a mix of stars below our detection limit and scattered FUV light. The amount of scattered light required is much larger for the region immediately adjacent to a spiral arm, a bright source of FUV photons.

  4. An extended ultraviolet ring around the SB0 galaxy NGC 4262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, L. M.; Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.

    2011-09-01

    We present Galaxy Ultraviolet Explorer (GALEX) satellite observations of the SB0 galaxy NGC 4262 where we detect an extended, outer ring studded with UV-bright knots surrounding the galaxy body. Such a structure, not visible at optical wavelengths, is coupled with a ring of atomic (HI) gas. We will show that both star-forming and HI rings surrounding this SB0 galaxy share the same radial distance from the galaxy center and spatial orientation. We also model the kinematics of the ring(s) and of the galaxy body. Their kinematics is not coupled with that of the galaxy stars. We suggest that NGC 4262 has undergone a major gas stripping event in the past that was the origin of the present "necklace" of UV-bright knots.

  5. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera.

  6. Ultraviolet Radiation and Stratospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun produces ozone in the stratosphere and it participates in the destruction of ozone. Absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone is the primary heating mechanism leading to the maximum in temperature at the stratopause. Variations of solar ultraviolet radiation on both the 27-day solar rotation period and the 11-year solar cycle affect ozone by several mechanisms. The temperature and ozone in the upper stratosphere respond to solar uv variations as a coupled system. An increase in uv leads to an increase in the production of ozone through the photolysis of molecular oxygen. An increase in uv leads to an increase in temperature through the heating by ozone photolysis. The increase in temperature leads to a partially-offsetting decrease in ozone through temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficients. The ozone variation modulates the heating by ozone photolysis. The increase in ozone at solar maximum enhances the uv heating. The processes are understood and supported by long-term data sets. Variation in the upper stratospheric temperatures will lead to a change in the behavior of waves propagating upward from the troposphere. Changes in the pattern of wave dissipation will lead to acceleration or deceleration of the mean flow and changes in the residual or transport circulation. This mechanism could lead to the propagation of the solar cycle uv variation from the upper stratosphere downward to the lower stratosphere. This process is not well-understood and has been the subject of an increasing number of model studies. I will review the data analyses for solar cycle and their comparison to model results.

  7. A case of generalized lichen nitidus successfully treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B treatment.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Calka, Omer; Ozdemir, Serhat; Kosem, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Lichen nitidus (LN) is a rare skin disorder presenting with multiple, small and bright papules located on the chest, abdomen, penis glans and upper extremities. It usually presents with limited involvement; however, it can present as generalized involvement. There is no consensus on treatment. Corticosteroid, astemizole, phototherapy has been used; however, the results are controversial. A 15-year-old male with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of LN was treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB). The lesions completely regressed with post-inflammatory hypopigmentation on the second month of the therapy (25 sessions). We believe that NB-UVB is an effective treatment on generalized LN. PMID:23815355

  8. A case of generalized lichen nitidus successfully treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B treatment.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Calka, Omer; Ozdemir, Serhat; Kosem, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Lichen nitidus (LN) is a rare skin disorder presenting with multiple, small and bright papules located on the chest, abdomen, penis glans and upper extremities. It usually presents with limited involvement; however, it can present as generalized involvement. There is no consensus on treatment. Corticosteroid, astemizole, phototherapy has been used; however, the results are controversial. A 15-year-old male with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of LN was treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB). The lesions completely regressed with post-inflammatory hypopigmentation on the second month of the therapy (25 sessions). We believe that NB-UVB is an effective treatment on generalized LN.

  9. Ultraviolet disinfection of potable water

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Because of upcoming surface and groundwater regulations regarding the control of microbiological and chemical contaminants, there is a need to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for primary disinfection of potable water supplies. Data is presented on microbicidal wavelengths of UV and distribution of energy output for low and medium-pressure arc lamps. Both systems were found to perform equally well for inactivating microorganisms, but each had distinct advantages in different applications. Approximate dosages for 90% inactivation of selected microorganisms by UV is presented in a table. Cost analysis for disinfection is presented in two tables as well as the advantages and disadvantages of UV disinfection. 38 refs.

  10. Plasmonic lens for ultraviolet wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Minoru; Tanimoto, Takuya; Inoue, Tsutomu; Aizawa, Kento

    2016-09-01

    A plasmonic lens (PL) is one of the promising photonic devices utilizing the surface plasmon wave. In this study, we have newly developed a PL with a 3.5 µm diameter for a wavelength of 375 nm (ultraviolet region). It is composed of multiple circular slit apertures milled in aluminum (Al) thin film. We have simulated the electric field distribution of the PL, and confirmed that a tightly focused beam spot of subwavelength size in the far-field region was attained. We have also measured the focusing characteristics of the PL using a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and compared them with the calculated results.

  11. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

  12. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  13. A standard for ultraviolet radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. B.; Spicer, W. E.; Mckernan, P. C.; Pereskok, V. F.; Wanner, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Photoemission diode standards for accurately measuring monochromatic ultraviolet light intensity (3000 A-1100 A) are described that are also blind to visible light. The standard uses an opaque photocathode of Cs2Te and is unique because of its combination of thinness (19 mm), high sensitivity, time stability, and uniformity of response. Design criteria, construction methods, and difficulties overcome in obtaining a stable, uniform, high yield photocathode responses are discussed. Cs2Te is discussed in terms of a model for high yield photoemitters.

  14. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  15. Ultraviolet divergences and supersymmetric theories

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnotti, A.

    1984-09-01

    This article is closely related to the one by Ferrara in these same Proceedings. It deals with what is perhaps the most fascinating property of supersymmetric theories, their improved ultraviolet behavior. My aim here is to present a survey of the state of the art as of August, 1984, and a somewhat more detailed discussion of the breakdown of the superspace power-counting beyond N = 2 superfields. A method is also described for simplifying divergence calculations that uses the locality of subtracted Feynman integrals. 74 references.

  16. The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, A.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific objectives and performance characteristics of a new astronomy mission referred to as the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer, or FUSE are being defined by a team involving people experienced instrumental requirements that best meet the scientific needs. The team is intended to have a lifetime of about one year, ending with the submission of a report to NASA which could be used as the basis for an engineering design study. The principal objective of FUSE is to obtain astronomical spectra at wavelengths shorter than is possible with the Space Telescope.

  17. LYMAN - The far ultraviolet explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, Warren; Osantowski, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The LYMAN FUSE mission concept for far ultraviolet astronomy is presented. The wavelength window from 100 to 1200 A provides access to a wide range of important scientific problems in cosmology, galactic structure, stellar evolution, and planetary magnetospheres, which cannot be studied in any other way. The LYMAN FUSE Phase A study is examining in detail mission operations, instrumentation technology, the construction of the instrument module, and the interfaces between the Instrument Module and the Explorer Platform Mission. Most of the mission observing time will be allotted through a competitive Guest Observer program analogous to that in operation for the IUE.

  18. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Jovian Dayglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Dalgarno, A.

    1995-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectra of molecular hydrogen H2 and HD due to solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation are calculated and compared with the Jovian equatorial dayglow spectrum measured at 3 A resolution at solar maximum. The dayglow emission is accounted for in both brightness and spectral shape by the solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation and requires no additional energy source. The emission is characterized by an atmospheric temperature of 530 K and an H2 column density of 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). The dayglow spectrum contains a cascade contribution to the Lyman band emission from high-lying E and F states. Its relative weakness at short wavelengths is due to both self-absorption by H2 and absorption by CH4. Strong wavelength coincidences of solar emission lines and absorption lines of H2 and HD produce unique line spectra which can be identified in the dayglow spectrum. The strongest fluorescence is due to absorption of the solar Lyman-beta line at 1025.72 A by the P(1) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of H2 at 1025.93 A. The fluorescence lines due to absorption of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A by vibrationally excited H2 via the Q(3) line of the (1, 1) Werner band at 1031.86 A are identified. The fluorescence lines provide a sensitive measure of the atmospheric temperature. There occurs an exact coincidence of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A and the R(0) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of HD at 1031-91 A, but HD on Jupiter is difficult to detect due to the dominance of the H2 emission where the HD emission is particularly strong. Higher spectral resolution and higher sensitivity may make possible such a detection. The high resolution (0.3 A) spectra of H2 and HD are presented to stimulate search for the HD on Jupiter with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  20. The role of the Fraunhofer lines in solar brightness variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Tagirov, R. V.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The solar brightness varies on timescales from minutes to decades. A clear identification of the physical processes behind such variations is needed for developing and improving physics-based models of solar brightness variability and reconstructing solar brightness in the past. This is, in turn, important for better understanding the solar-terrestrial and solar-stellar connections. Aims: We estimate the relative contributions of the continuum, molecular, and atomic lines to the solar brightness variations on different timescales. Methods: Our approach is based on the assumption that variability of the solar brightness on timescales greater than a day is driven by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. We calculated the solar brightness variations employing the solar disc area coverage of magnetic features deduced from the MDI/SOHO observations. The brightness contrasts of magnetic features relative to the quiet Sun were calculated with a non-LTE radiative transfer code as functions of disc position and wavelength. By consecutive elimination of molecular and atomic lines from the radiative transfer calculations, we assessed the role of these lines in producing solar brightness variability. Results: We show that the variations in Fraunhofer lines define the amplitude of the solar brightness variability on timescales greater than a day and even the phase of the total solar irradiance variability over the 11-year cycle. We also demonstrate that molecular lines make substantial contribution to solar brightness variability on the 11-year activity cycle and centennial timescales. In particular, our model indicates that roughly a quarter of the total solar irradiance variability over the 11-year cycle originates in molecular lines. The maximum of the absolute spectral brightness variability on timescales greater than a day is associated with the CN violet system between 380 and 390 nm.

  1. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  2. Discovery of a bright eclipsing cataclysmic variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, D. K.; Green, E. M.; Howell, S. B.; Holberg, J. B.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Shaw, J. S.; Schmidt, G. D.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We report on the discovery of J0644+3344, a bright, deeply-eclipsing cataclysmic variable (CV) binary. Methods: Optical photometric and spectroscopic observations were obtained to determine the nature and characteristics of this CV. Results: Spectral signatures of both binary components and an accretion disk can be seen at optical wavelengths. The optical spectrum shows broad H I, He I, and He II accretion disk emission lines with deep narrow absorption components from H I, He I, Mg II, and Ca II. The absorption lines are seen throughout the orbital period, disappearing only during primary eclipse. These absorption lines are either the result of an optically-thick inner accretion disk or from the photosphere of the primary star. Radial velocity measurements show that the H I, He I, and Mg II absorption lines phase with the primary star, while weak absorption features in the continuum, between Hα and Hβ, phase with the secondary star. Radial velocity solutions give a 150±4 km s-1 semi-amplitude for the primary star and 192.8±5.6 km s-1 for the secondary, resulting in a primary to secondary mass ratio of q = 1.285. The individual stellar masses are 0.63-0.69 M⊙ for the primary and 0.49-0.54 M⊙ for the secondary, with the uncertainty largely due to the inclination. Conclusions: The bright eclipsing nature of this binary has helped provide masses for both components with an accuracy rarely achieved for CVs. This binary most closely resembles a nova-like UX UMa or SW Sex type of CV. J0644+3344, however, has a longer orbital period than most UX UMa or SW Sex stars. Assuming an evolution toward shorter orbital periods, J0644+3344 is therefore likely to be a young interacting binary. The secondary star is consistent with the size and spectral type of a K8 star, but has the mass of a M0.

  3. Reflection modeling in ultraviolet phototherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, David Robert; Robbins, Chris; Martin, Colin J.; Phanco, Graeme; Hare, Neil John O'

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Ultraviolet phototherapy is a widely used treatment which has exceptional success with a variety of skin conditions. Over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can however be detrimental and cause side effects such as erythema, photokeratisis, and even skin cancer. Quantifying patient dose is therefore imperative to ensure biologically effective treatment while minimizing negative repercussions. A dose model for treatment would be valuable in achieving these ends. Methods: Prior work by the authors concentrated on modeling the output of the lamps used in treatment and it was found a line source model described the output from the sources to a high degree. In practice, these lamps are surrounded by reflective anodized aluminum in patient treatment cabins and this work extends the model to quantify specular reflections from these planes on patient dose. Results: The extension of the model to allow for reflected images in addition to tube output shows a remarkably good fit to the actual data measured. Conclusions: The reflection model yields impressive accuracy and is a good basis for full UVR cabin modeling.

  4. [The eye and ultraviolet radiation].

    PubMed

    Mihail, S

    1989-01-01

    The latest investigations show that the ultraviolet radiations are more dangerous for the eye than appreciated up to now. There exist 3 types of UV rays: 1. UV with wavelengths between 100 and 280 nm, absorbed by the ozone layer of the stratosphere and which have no impact; 2. UV with wavelengths between 280 and 315 nm, noxious for the cornea; 3. UV with wavelengths between 315 and 400, noxious both for the cornea and for the lens. When the lens is removed, the UV rays penetrate into the retina, where they provoke cystoid macular edema and then detachment of retina of the anterior pole (A ultraviolet with wavelengths between 315 and 400 nm). Up to the age of 10, the cornea and the lens permit UV penetration. After this age, a cumulative effect is produced, by the appearance in the cornea and the lens of fluorescein "chromatophores", a pigmentation, a change of the soluble proteins into insoluble ones, with high molecular weight and appearance of free radicals. The final results of these changes is the formation of a cataract. Aphakia permits the penetration of the UV rays into the retina, where their phototoxic effect works and therefore the implantation of the lens for retaining the UV with 400 nm wavelength is necessary.

  5. Spain 31-GHz observations of sky brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A water vapor radiometer was deployed at DSS 63 for 3 months of sky brightness temperature measurements at 31 GHz. An exceedance plot was derived from this data showing the fraction of time that 31 GHz 30 degree elevation angle brightness temperature exceeds specified values. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 75 K, compared with 70 K in Australia.

  6. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Nangle, John; Simon, Joseph

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  7. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and...

  10. Challenging Exceptionally Bright Children in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Nearly every group of children includes at least one exceptionally bright child. From the especially creative child to the child who has already mastered learning outcomes to the "twice exceptional" child, exceptionally bright children have a wide range of talents and behaviors. This book will help you understand what it means to be…

  11. Bright visible light emission from graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Shim Yoo, Yong; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F.; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (˜2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  12. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Bass, Gary K.; Copsey, Jesse F.; Garber, Jr., William E.; Kwong, Vincent H.; Levin, Izrail; MacLennan, Donald A.; Roy, Robert J.; Steiner, Paul E.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  13. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. MAGNETIC BRIGHT POINTS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Bonet, J. A.; Viticchie, B.

    2010-05-20

    We present a visual determination of the number of bright points (BPs) existing in the quiet Sun, which are structures though to trace intense kG magnetic concentrations. The measurement is based on a 0.''1 angular resolution G-band movie obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope at the solar disk center. We find 0.97 BPs Mm{sup -2}, which is a factor 3 larger than any previous estimate. It corresponds to 1.2 BPs per solar granule. Depending on the details of the segmentation, the BPs cover between 0.9% and 2.2% of the solar surface. Assuming their field strength to be 1.5 kG, the detected BPs contribute to the solar magnetic flux with an unsigned flux density between 13 G and 33 G. If network and inter-network regions are counted separately, they contain 2.2 BPs Mm{sup -2} and 0.85 BPs Mm{sup -2}, respectively.

  15. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  16. Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors.

    PubMed

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  17. Antilensing: the bright side of voids.

    PubMed

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-11

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters. PMID:23383886

  18. Antilensing: The Bright Side of Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Bacon, David; Meures, Nikolai; Beynon, Emma

    2013-01-01

    More than half of the volume of our Universe is occupied by cosmic voids. The lensing magnification effect from those underdense regions is generally thought to give a small dimming contribution: objects on the far side of a void are supposed to be observed as slightly smaller than if the void were not there, which together with conservation of surface brightness implies net reduction in photons received. This is predicted by the usual weak lensing integral of the density contrast along the line of sight. We show that this standard effect is swamped at low redshifts by a relativistic Doppler term that is typically neglected. Contrary to the usual expectation, objects on the far side of a void are brighter than they would be otherwise. Thus the local dynamics of matter in and near the void is crucial and is only captured by the full relativistic lensing convergence. There are also significant nonlinear corrections to the relativistic linear theory, which we show actually underpredicts the effect. We use exact solutions to estimate that these can be more than 20% for deep voids. This remains an important source of systematic errors for weak lensing density reconstruction in galaxy surveys and for supernovae observations, and may be the cause of the reported extra scatter of field supernovae located on the edge of voids compared to those in clusters.

  19. Bright visible light emission from graphene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Yoo, Yong Shim; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (∼2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  20. A Magnetic Bright Point Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, D.; Jurčák, J.; Bellot-Rubio, L.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Thonhofer, S.; Hanslmeier, A.; Veronig, A.; Muller, R.; Lemmerer, B.

    Due to its magnetic fields our host star - the Sun - becomes the interesting object for research as we know it. The magnetic fields themselves cover different spatial, lifetime and strength scales and reach down from enormous flux concentrations like active sunspot groups to single isolated magnetic flux tubes and even weaker, predominantly inclined intranetwork structures. Flux tubes can be seen in filtergram observations as magnetic bright points (MBPs). They are of interest for research not only due to their sheer existence but due to their important role in atmospheric heating (wave heating as well as reconnection processes), to their role in the understanding of creation and annihilation of magnetic fields as well as to their influence on the total solar irradiance variation. In this study we present a close look onto an evolutionary track of an MBP from its formation to its disintegration. Physical quantities of MBPs like their magnetic field strength and inclination, their line-of-sight velocity, and their temperature at different heights are inferred from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Original data are taken from the Sunrise/IMaX instrument and constitute a time series of some 60 min. The presented case resembles the convective collapse model and is in agreement with previous studies.

  1. Interpreting Central Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Wise, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope imagery has revealed dust features in the central regions of many (50%--80%) nearby bright elliptical galaxies. If these features are an indication of an underlying smooth diffuse dust distribution, then the interpretation of central surface brightness and color profiles in elliptical galaxies becomes significantly more difficult. In this Letter, diagnostics for constraining the presence of such an underlying central dust distribution are presented. We show that easily detectable central color gradients and flattened central surface brightness profiles can be induced by even small amounts of smoothly distributed dust (~100 M⊙). Conversely, combinations of flat surface brightness profiles and flat color gradients or steep surface brightness profiles and steep color gradients are unlikely to be caused by dust. Taken as a whole, these results provide a simple observational tautology for constraining the existence of smooth diffuse dust distributions in the central regions of elliptical galaxies.

  2. Retinal mesopic adaptation model for brightness perception under transient glare.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Pablo Alejandro; Colombo, Elisa Margarita; Issolio, Luis Alberto

    2013-06-01

    A glare source in the visual field modifies the brightness of a test patch surrounded by a mesopic background. In this study, we investigated the effect of two levels of transient glare on brightness perception for several combinations of mesopic reference test luminances (Lts) and background luminances (Lbs). While brightness perception was affected by Lb, there were no appreciable effects for changes in the Lt. The highest brightness reduction was found for Lbs in the low mesopic range. Considering the main proposal that brightness can be inferred from contrast and the Lb sets the mesopic luminance adaptation, we hypothesized that contrast gain and retinal adaptation mechanisms would act when a transient glare source was present in the visual field. A physiology-based model that adequately fitted the present and previous results was developed.

  3. Brightness perception of unrelated self-luminous colors.

    PubMed

    Withouck, Martijn; Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Koenderink, Jan; Hanselaer, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The perception of brightness of unrelated self-luminous colored stimuli of the same luminance has been investigated. The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect, i.e., an increase in brightness perception due to an increase in saturation, is clearly observed. This brightness perception is compared with the calculated brightness according to six existing vision models, color appearance models, and models based on the concept of equivalent luminance. Although these models included the H-K effect and half of them were developed to work with unrelated colors, none of the models seemed to be able to fully predict the perceived brightness. A tentative solution to increase the prediction accuracy of the color appearance model CAM97u, developed by Hunt, is presented.

  4. Pen Ink as an Ultraviolet Dosimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Nathan; Turner, Joanna; Parisi, Alfio; Spence, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    A technique for using highlighter ink as an ultraviolet dosimeter has been developed for use by secondary school students. The technique requires the students to measure the percentage of colour fading in ink drawn onto strips of paper that have been exposed to sunlight, which can be calibrated to measurements of the ultraviolet irradiance using…

  5. Ultraviolet light-an FDA approved technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultraviolet Light (254 nm) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved nonthermal intervention technology that can be used for decontamination of food and food contact surfaces. Ultraviolet light is a green technology that leaves no chemical residues. Results from our laboratory indicate that ex...

  6. Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

  7. Solar CIV Vacuum-Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; West, Edward A.; Rees, David; McKay, Jack A.; Zukic, Maumer; Herman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aims: A tunable, high spectral resolution, high effective finesse, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) Fabry-Perot interferometer (PPI) is designed for obtaining narrow-passband images, magnetograms, and Dopplergrams of the transition region emission line of CIV (155 nm). Methods: The integral part of the CIV narrow passband filter package (with a 2-10 pm FWHM) consists of a multiple etalon system composed of a tunable interferometer that provides high-spectral resolution and a static low-spectral resolution interferometer that allows a large effective free spectral range. The prefilter for the interferometers is provided by a set of four mirrors with dielectric high-reflective coatings. A tunable interferometer, a VUV piezoelectric-control etalon, has undergone testing using the surrogate F2 eximer laser line at 157 nm for the CIV line. We present the results of the tests with a description of the overall concept for a complete narrow-band CIV spectral filter. The static interferometer of the filter is envisioned as being hudt using a set of fixed MgF2 plates. The four-mirror prefilter is designed to have dielectric multilayer n-stacks employing the design concept used in the Ultraviolet Imager of NASA's Polar Spacecraft. A dual etalon system allows the effective free spectral range to be commensurate with the prefilter profile. With an additional etalon, a triple etalon system would allow a spectrographic resolution of 2 pm. The basic strategy has been to combine the expertise of spaceflight etalon manufacturing with VUV coating technology to build a VUV FPI which combines the best attributes of imagers and spectrographs into a single compact instrument. Results. Spectro-polarimetry observations of the transition region CIV emission can be performed to increase the understanding of the magnetic forces, mass motion, evolution, and energy release within the solar atmosphere at the base of the corona where most of the magnetic field is approximately force-free. The 2D imaging

  8. A closer look at the fluctuations in the brightness of SN 2009IP during its late 2012 eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J. C.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A.; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, I.

    2015-01-01

    The supernova (SN) impostor SN 2009ip has re-brightened several times since its initial discovery in 2009 August. During its last outburst in late 2012 September, it reached a peak brightness of m{sub v} ∼13.5 (M{sub v} brighter than −18), causing some to speculate that it had undergone a terminal core-collapse SN. Relatively high-cadence multi-wavelength photometry of the post-peak decline revealed bumps in brightness infrequently observed in other SNe IIn. These bumps occurred synchronously in all ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands with amplitudes of 0.1–0.4 mag at intervals of 10–30 days. Episodic continuum brightening and dimming in the UV and optical with these characteristics is not easily explained within the context of models that have been proposed for the late September 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip. We also present evidence that the post-peak fluctuations in brightness occur at regular intervals and raise more questions about their origin.

  9. A Closer Look At the Fluctuations in the Brightness of Sn 2009ip During Its Late 2012 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Margutti, R.; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, I.; Soderberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    The supernova (SN) impostor SN 2009ip has re-brightened several times since its initial discovery in 2009 August. During its last outburst in late 2012 September, it reached a peak brightness of mv ˜13.5 (Mv brighter than -18), causing some to speculate that it had undergone a terminal core-collapse SN. Relatively high-cadence multi-wavelength photometry of the post-peak decline revealed bumps in brightness infrequently observed in other SNe IIn. These bumps occurred synchronously in all ultraviolet (UV) and optical bands with amplitudes of 0.1-0.4 mag at intervals of 10-30 days. Episodic continuum brightening and dimming in the UV and optical with these characteristics is not easily explained within the context of models that have been proposed for the late September 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip. We also present evidence that the post-peak fluctuations in brightness occur at regular intervals and raise more questions about their origin.

  10. Psoralen-ultraviolet A treatment with Psoralen-ultraviolet B therapy in the treatment of psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Asim, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sitwat; us-Sehar, Najam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the conventional psoralen-ultraviolet A treatment with psoralen-ultraviolet B therapy in the treatment of psoriasis. Methodology: We studied 50 patients of plaque type psoriasis who were selected to receive either conventional psoralen-ultraviolet A or psoralen-ultraviolet B treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups in the number of patients whose skin cleared of psoriasis or the number of exposures required for clearance. Profile of side effects and disease status was also similar after three months of follow up. Conclusion: Psoralen-ultraviolet B treatment is as effective as conventional psoralen-ultraviolet A in the treatment of psoriasis. Further long term studies are needed to assess the safety of psoralen-ultraviolet B. PMID:24353623

  11. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H; Gilbert, David W; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315-400 nm), "black-light," electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV "Black-light" ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products. PMID:27043058

  12. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps

    PubMed Central

    Sliney, David H.; Gilbert, David W.; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315–400 nm), “black-light,” electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV “Black-light” ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products. PMID:27043058

  13. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H; Gilbert, David W; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315-400 nm), "black-light," electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV "Black-light" ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products.

  14. Detection of latent fingerprints by ultraviolet spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2013-12-01

    Spectral imaging technology research is becoming more popular in the field of forensic science. Ultraviolet spectral imaging technology is an especial part of the full spectrum of imaging technology. This paper finished the experiment contents of the ultraviolet spectrum imaging method and image acquisition system based on ultraviolet spectral imaging technology. Ultraviolet spectral imaging experiments explores a wide variety of ultraviolet reflectance spectra of the object material curve and its ultraviolet spectrum of imaging modalities, can not only gives a reference for choosing ultraviolet wavelength to show the object surface potential traces of substances, but also gives important data for the ultraviolet spectrum of imaging technology development.

  15. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, J.; Chou, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format provides detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format is simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, incidence angle, sun glint angle, and Tc. It also provides a quality flag, spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The format includes 3 space saving methods: first rounding variables written as floats to their needed accuracy to achieve good compression, second writing sun glint angle as a one byte variable, and third storing only unique incidence angles but allowing access via a mapping

  16. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  17. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  18. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, Brian; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Bittle, L.; Borish, H.; Burkhardt, A.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Graninger, D.; Lauck, T.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Romero, C.; Sokal, K. R.; Stierwalt, S.; Walker, L.; Wenger, T.; Zucker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our public outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) fosters science literacy in Virginia by bringing a hands-on approach to astronomy that engages children's natural excitement and curiosity. We are an entirely volunteer-run group based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia and we enthusiastically utilize astronomy as a 'gateway science.' We create long-term relationships with students during an 8 to 10 week long, after-school astronomy club at under served elementary schools in neighboring counties, and we visited 3 different schools in 2013. Additionally, we organize and participate in science events throughout the community. The fifth year of DSBK was marked by surpassing 10,000 contact hours in Spring 2013 Semester and by ringing in the fall semester with our biggest, most successful star party to date. We hosted the Third Annual Central Virginia Star Party, free and open to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Nearly four hundred people of all ages attended, double the number from previous years. Joining with local astronomical societies, we offered an enlightening and exciting night with resources rarely accessible to the public, such as an IR camera and a portable planetarium. With numerous telescopes pointed at the sky, and a beautifully clear night with views of the Milky Way, the International Space Station, and numerous meteors, the star party was a fantastic opportunity to introduce many of our guests to the natural wonders of our night sky and enjoy some of the darkest skies on the eastern seaboard.

  19. Magnetic Flux Supplement to Coronal Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Madjarska, Maria S.; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Jiao, Fangran; Hou, Zhenyong

    2016-02-01

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of an MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.

  20. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  1. International ultraviolet explorer observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Observatory Operations contract, NAS5-28787. The report summarizes the activities of the IUE Observatory over the 13-month period from November 1985 through November 1986 and is arranged in sections according to the functions specified in the Statement of Work (SOW) of the contract. In order to preserve numerical correspondence between the technical SOW elements specified by the contract and the sections of this report, project management activities (SOW element 0.0.) are reported here in Section 7, following the reports of technical SOW elements 1.0 through 6.0. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible; statistical compilations, reports, and more lengthy supplementary material are contained in the Appendices.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Marconi, Mario C

    2015-10-01

    Periodic nanopatterns can be generated using lithography based on the Talbot effect or optical interference. However, these techniques have restrictions that limit their performance. High resolution Talbot lithography is limited by the very small depth of focus and the demanding requirements in the fabrication of the master mask. Interference lithography, with large DOF and high resolution, is limited to simple periodic patterns. This paper describes a hybrid extreme ultraviolet lithography approach that combines Talbot lithography and interference lithography to render an interference pattern with a lattice determined by a Talbot image. As a result, the method enables filling the arbitrary shaped cells produced by the Talbot image with interference patterns. Detailed modeling, system design and experimental results using a tabletop EUV laser are presented. PMID:26480070

  3. Ultraviolet, Visible, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) range is one of the most commonly encountered laboratory techniques in food analysis. Diverse examples, such as the quantification of macrocomponents (total carbohydrate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method), quantification of microcomponents, (thiamin by the thiochrome fluorometric procedure), estimates of rancidity (lipid oxidation status by the thiobarbituric acid test), and surveillance testing (enzyme-linked immunoassays), are presented in this text. In each of these cases, the analytical signal for which the assay is based is either the emission or absorption of radiation in the UV-Vis range. This signal may be inherent in the analyte, such as the absorbance of radiation in the visible range by pigments, or a result of a chemical reaction involving the analyte, such as the colorimetric copper-based Lowry method for the analysis of soluble protein.

  4. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    During the past decade, vacuum ultraviolet spectra of over 30 comets have been obtained with the IUE satellite observatory. With few exceptions, the spectra of these comets appear to be similar, with OH and H produced by the photodissociation of water being the dominant species and emissions of C, O, S, CS and CO2(+) usually present. Although signs of variabiity of many kinds in comet spectra appear, the evidence from the UV observations suggests that all comets have the same basic chemical composition and that observed differences are due to evolution and ageing processes. During the 1985-86 apparition of Comet Halley, spectra were also obtained by other spacecraft and by sounding rocket instruments, including a long-slit imaging spectrograph.

  5. Computational modeling of ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Younis, B A; Yang, T H

    2010-01-01

    The efficient design of ultraviolet light (UV) systems for water and wastewater treatment requires detailed knowledge of the patterns of fluid motion that occur in the disinfection channel. This knowledge is increasingly being obtained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages that solve the equations governing turbulent fluid-flow motion. In this work, we present predictions of the patterns of flow and the extent of disinfection in a conventional reactor consisting of an open channel with an array of UV lamps placed with their axes perpendicular to the direction of flow. It is shown that the resulting flow is inherently unsteady due to the regular shedding of vortices from the submerged lamps. It is also shown that the accurate prediction of the hydraulic residence time and, consequently, the extent of disinfection is strongly dependent on the ability of the CFD method to capture the occurrence and strength of the vortex shedding, and its effects on the turbulent mixing processes.

  6. The ultraviolet astronomy mission: Columbus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ultraviolet astronomy mission (Columbus) is described. It exploits the spectral region between 900 and 1200A, which is extremely rich in containing the Lyman lines of hydrogen and deuterium and the Lyman band of their molecules, together with the resonance lines of many important ions. High resolving power and high sensitivity provide a unique capability for studying the brightest members of neighboring galaxies, the HeI and HeII absorption systems in quasars out to a red shift of 2, and the halos of intervening galaxies. Complementary focal plane instruments are planned in order to allow observations to longer (2000A) and shorter (100A) wavelengths. This wide coverage embraces the resonance lines of all the cosmically abundant elements and a wide range of temperature zones up to 100 million K.

  7. Ultraviolet divergences in cosmological correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2011-03-15

    A method is developed for dealing with ultraviolet divergences in calculations of cosmological correlations, which does not depend on dimensional regularization. An extended version of the WKB approximation is used to analyze the divergences in these calculations, and these divergences are controlled by the introduction of Pauli-Villars regulator fields. This approach is illustrated in the theory of a scalar field with arbitrary self-interactions in a fixed flat-space Robertson-Walker metric with arbitrary scale factor a(t). Explicit formulas are given for the counterterms needed to cancel all dependence on the regulator properties, and an explicit prescription is given for calculating finite regulator-independent correlation functions. The possibility of infrared divergences in this theory is briefly considered.

  8. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment around M Dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T.; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Mauas, Pablo; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2013-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV-quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Lyman-alpha line fluxes comprise approximately 37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; approximately greater than 10(exp3) times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Lyman-alpha and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Lyman-alpha. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Lyman-alpha)/F(Mg II) = 10(exp3). The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, is shown to be approximately 0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, greather than 10(exp3) times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%.500% on 10(exp2)-10(exp3) s timescales. This effect should be taken

  9. THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AROUND M DWARF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Stocke, John T.; Bushinsky, Rachel; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Tian, Feng; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2013-02-15

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No 'UV-quiet' M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly{alpha} emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly{alpha} line fluxes comprise {approx}37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; {approx}>10{sup 3} times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Ly{alpha} and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Ly{alpha}. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Ly{alpha})/F(Mg II) = 10 {+-} 3. The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, is shown to be {approx}0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, >10{sup 3} times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%-500% on 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s timescales. This effect should be taken into account in future UV transiting

  10. Ultraviolet spectrometer observations of uranus.

    PubMed

    Broadfoot, A L; Herbert, F; Holberg, J B; Hunten, D M; Kumar, S; Sandel, B R; Shemansky, D E; Smith, G R; Yelle, R V; Strobel, D F; Moos, H W; Donahue, T M; Atreya, S K; Bertaux, J L; Blamont, J E; McConnell, J C; Dessler, A J; Linick, S; Springer, R

    1986-07-01

    Data from solar and stellar occultations of Uranus indicate a temperature of about 750 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane and acetylene in the lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit hemisphere is dominated by emissions from atomic and molecular hydrogen, which are kmown as electroglow emissions. The energy source for these emissions is unknown, but the spectrum implies excitation by low-energy electrons (modeled with a 3-electron-volt Maxwellian energy distribution). The major energy sink for the electrons is dissociation of molecular hydrogen, producing hydrogen atoms at a rate of 10(29) per second. Approximately half the atoms have energies higher than the escape energy. The high temperature of the atmosphere, the small size of Uranus, and the number density of hydrogen atoms in the thermosphere imply an extensive thermal hydrogen corona that reduces the orbital lifetime of ring particles and biases the size distribution toward larger particles. This corona is augmented by the nonthermal hydrogen atoms associated with the electroglow. An aurora near the magnetic pole in the dark hemisphere arises from excitation of molecular hydrogen at the level where its vertical column abundance is about 10(20) per square centimeter with input power comparable to that of the sunlit electroglow (approximately 2x10(11) watts). An initial estimate of the acetylene volume mixing ratio, as judged from measurements of the far ultraviolet albedo, is about 2 x 10(-7) at a vertical column abundance of molecular hydrogen of 10(23) per square centimeter (pressure, approximately 0.3 millibar). Carbon emissions from the Uranian atmosphere were also detected. PMID:17812892

  11. The extreme ultraviolet explorer mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S.; Malina, R. F.

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission, currently scheduled for launch in September 1991, is described. The primary purpose of the mission is to survey the celestial sphere for astronomical sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The survey will be accomplished with the use of three EUV telescopes, each sensitive to a different segment of the EUV band. A fourth telescope will perform a high sensitivity search of a limited sample of the sky in the shortest wavelength bands. The all-sky survey will be carried out in the first six months of the mission and will be made in four bands, or colors, λλ70-180 Å, 170-250 Å, 400-600 Å, and 500-700 Å. The second phase of the mission, conducted entirely by Guest Observers selected by NASA, will be devoted to spectroscopic observations of EUV sources. The performance of the instrument components is described. The mirrors meet the requirements of the mission, with the best mirror having a full width half energy spread of 4'' and a surface finish of 20 Å. Prototype thin film bandpass filters have been flown on the Space Shuttle and their performance optimized. Prototype detectors have been developed which have 1680 × 1680 pixel imaging capability (RMS) and up to 80% quantum efficiency. A newly invented, high efficiency grazing incidence spectrometer using variable line-space gratings will provide spectral data with ~1 Å resolution. An end-to-end model of the mission, from a stellar source to the resulting scientific data, has been constructed. Hypothetical data from astronomical sources have been processed through this model and are shown.

  12. Ultraviolet spectrometer observations of uranus.

    PubMed

    Broadfoot, A L; Herbert, F; Holberg, J B; Hunten, D M; Kumar, S; Sandel, B R; Shemansky, D E; Smith, G R; Yelle, R V; Strobel, D F; Moos, H W; Donahue, T M; Atreya, S K; Bertaux, J L; Blamont, J E; McConnell, J C; Dessler, A J; Linick, S; Springer, R

    1986-07-01

    Data from solar and stellar occultations of Uranus indicate a temperature of about 750 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane and acetylene in the lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit hemisphere is dominated by emissions from atomic and molecular hydrogen, which are kmown as electroglow emissions. The energy source for these emissions is unknown, but the spectrum implies excitation by low-energy electrons (modeled with a 3-electron-volt Maxwellian energy distribution). The major energy sink for the electrons is dissociation of molecular hydrogen, producing hydrogen atoms at a rate of 10(29) per second. Approximately half the atoms have energies higher than the escape energy. The high temperature of the atmosphere, the small size of Uranus, and the number density of hydrogen atoms in the thermosphere imply an extensive thermal hydrogen corona that reduces the orbital lifetime of ring particles and biases the size distribution toward larger particles. This corona is augmented by the nonthermal hydrogen atoms associated with the electroglow. An aurora near the magnetic pole in the dark hemisphere arises from excitation of molecular hydrogen at the level where its vertical column abundance is about 10(20) per square centimeter with input power comparable to that of the sunlit electroglow (approximately 2x10(11) watts). An initial estimate of the acetylene volume mixing ratio, as judged from measurements of the far ultraviolet albedo, is about 2 x 10(-7) at a vertical column abundance of molecular hydrogen of 10(23) per square centimeter (pressure, approximately 0.3 millibar). Carbon emissions from the Uranian atmosphere were also detected.

  13. THE MYSTERY OF THE COSMIC DIFFUSE ULTRAVIOLET BACKGROUND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Richard Conn; Murthy, Jayant; Overduin, James; Tyler, Joshua E-mail: jmurthy@yahoo.com E-mail: 97tyler@cardinalmail.cua.edu

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic background radiation in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1300-1700 Å) is deduced to originate only partially in the dust-scattered radiation of FUV-emitting stars: the source of a substantial fraction of the FUV background radiation remains a mystery. The radiation is remarkably uniform at both far northern and far southern Galactic latitudes and increases toward lower Galactic latitudes at all Galactic longitudes. We examine speculation that this might be due to interaction of the dark matter with the nuclei of the interstellar medium, but we are unable to point to a plausible mechanism for an effective interaction. We also explore the possibility that we are seeing radiation from bright FUV-emitting stars scattering from a ''second population'' of interstellar grains—grains that are small compared with FUV wavelengths. Such grains are known to exist, and they scatter with very high albedo, with an isotropic scattering pattern. However, comparison with the observed distribution (deduced from their 100 μm emission) of grains at high Galactic latitudes shows no correlation between the grains' location and the observed FUV emission. Our modeling of the FUV scattering by small grains also shows that there must be remarkably few such ''smaller'' grains at high Galactic latitudes, both north and south; this likely means simply that there is very little interstellar dust of any kind at the Galactic poles, in agreement with Perry and Johnston. We also review our limited knowledge of the cosmic diffuse background at ultraviolet wavelengths shortward of Lyα—it could be that our ''second component'' of the diffuse FUV background persists shortward of the Lyman limit and is the cause of the reionization of the universe.

  14. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencivenga, F.; Cucini, R.; Capotondi, F.; Battistoni, A.; Mincigrucci, R.; Giangrisostomi, E.; Gessini, A.; Manfredda, M.; Nikolov, I. P.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Svetina, C.; Parisse, P.; Casolari, F.; Danailov, M. B.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2015-04-01

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  15. PULSE: the Palomar Ultraviolet Laser for the Study of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottom, Michael; Dekany, R.; Bowler, B. P.; Baranec, C.; Burruss, R.

    2014-01-01

    PULSE is a project to augment the currently operating 5.1-m Hale PALM-3000 exoplanet adaptive optics system with an ultraviolet Rayleigh laser and associated wavefront sensor. By using a bright (U ~ 7) ultraviolet laser to measure the high spatial and temporal order turbulence near the telescope aperture, where it dominates, one can extend the faintness limit of natural guide stars needed by PALM-3000. Initial simulations indicate that very-high infrared contrast ratios and good visible-light adaptive optics performance will be achieved by such an upgraded system on stars as faint as mV = 16-17 using an optimized low-order NGS sensor. This will enable direct imaging searches for, and subsequent characterization of, companions around cool, low-mass stars for the first time, as well as routine visible-light imaging twice as sharp as HST for fainter targets. PULSE will reuse the laser and wavefront sensor technology developed for the automated Robo-AO laser system currently operating at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, as well as take advantage of pending optimization of low-order NGS wavefront sensing and planned new interfaces to the PALM-3000 real-time reconstruction computer. PULSE will dramatically extend the AO sky coverage of the telescope from 1% to 50%. More specifically, this will boost the yield from a number of operational exoplanet instruments at Palomar including PHARO, a NIR imager, spectrograph, and coronagraph; a fiber nulling interferometer; and Project 1640, a coronagraph and IFS. Two additional funded instruments expected to benefit from PULSE in the coming years are the SDC; a NIR/visible self-calibrating vector vortex coronagraph, and DARKNESS; an energy-resolving, photon counting MKIDS camera.

  16. Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings.

    PubMed

    Bencivenga, F; Cucini, R; Capotondi, F; Battistoni, A; Mincigrucci, R; Giangrisostomi, E; Gessini, A; Manfredda, M; Nikolov, I P; Pedersoli, E; Principi, E; Svetina, C; Parisse, P; Casolari, F; Danailov, M B; Kiskinova, M; Masciovecchio, C

    2015-04-01

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) processes, based on third-order nonlinear light-matter interactions, can combine ultrafast time resolution with energy and wavevector selectivity, and enable the exploration of dynamics inaccessible by linear methods. The coherent and multi-wave nature of the FWM approach has been crucial in the development of advanced technologies, such as silicon photonics, subwavelength imaging and quantum communications. All these technologies operate at optical wavelengths, which limits the spatial resolution and does not allow the probing of excitations with energy in the electronvolt range. Extension to shorter wavelengths--that is, the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray ranges--would allow the spatial resolution to be improved and the excitation energy range to be expanded, as well as enabling elemental selectivity to be achieved by exploiting core resonances. So far, FWM applications at such wavelengths have been prevented by the absence of coherent sources of sufficient brightness and of suitable experimental set-ups. Here we show how transient gratings, generated by the interference of coherent extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the FERMI free-electron laser, can be used to stimulate FWM processes at suboptical wavelengths. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the possibility of observing the time evolution of the FWM signal, which shows the dynamics of coherent excitations as molecular vibrations. This result opens the way to FWM with nanometre spatial resolution and elemental selectivity, which, for example, would enable the investigation of charge-transfer dynamics. The theoretical possibility of realizing these applications has already stimulated ongoing developments of free-electron lasers: our results show that FWM at suboptical wavelengths is feasible, and we hope that they will enable advances in present and future photon sources.

  17. Easy way to estimate meteor brightness on TV frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, V. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional method of the meteor brightness measurements claims that the meteor brightness is equal to the stellar magnitude of a star that looks like a meteor in the brightest point of its track. This rule was convenient for the comparison of meteor observations by different observers and for the analysis of the brightness distributions of meteors from observed showers. This traditional method suffers from systematic errors, particularly those that arise from using stellar brightness measured in specific spectral wave bands different from the observer's ones, but mainly due to neglecting the influence of the meteor angular velocity on the real meteor brightness. To get a proper estimate of the meteor brightness that is a measure of the ground meteor illumination in the non-systematic units, an observer must take into account that the effective exposition of a meteor image in any resolution element of its track is a few times shorter than the corresponding exposition of a star image in the same frame. We propose a very simple method for improved estimations of meteor brightness by applying a correction to the meteor stellar magnitude obtained within the traditional framework.

  18. Bright Solitary Matter Waves: Formation, Stability and Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billam, T. P.; Marchant, A. L.; Cornish, S. L.; Gardiner, S. A.; Parker, N. G.

    In recent years, bright soliton-like structures composed of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates have been generated at ultracold temperature. The experimental capacity to precisely engineer the nonlinearity and potential landscape experienced by these solitary waves offers an attractive platform for fundamental study of solitonic structures. The presence of three spatial dimensions and trapping implies that these are strictly distinct objects to the true soliton solutions. Working within the zero-temperature mean-field description, we explore the solutions and stability of bright solitary waves, as well as their interactions. Emphasis is placed on elucidating their similarities and differences to the true bright soliton. The rich behaviour introduced in the bright solitary waves includes the collapse instability and asymmetric collisions. We review the experimental formation and observation of bright solitary matter waves to date, and compare to theoretical predictions. Finally we discuss some topical aspects, including beyond-mean-field descriptions, symmetry breaking, exotic bright solitary waves, and proposals to exploit bright solitary waves in interferometry and as surface probes.

  19. Photometric Properties of Ceres and the Occator Bright Spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Sykes, Mark V.; Nathues, Andreas; Pieters, Carle M.; Ciarniello, Mauro; Turrini, Diego; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2015-11-01

    Dawn discovered several extremely bright spots on Ceres, the most prominent of which is located inside the Occator crater that is at least 4-5 times brighter than the average Ceres. Interestingly, these bright spots are located in relatively young craters that are at the longitudes corresponding to the maximum water vapor observed by the Herschel Space Observatory, suggesting possible correlation with water sublimation on Ceres. We used the multi-color imaging data collected by the Dawn Framing Camera to analyze the global photometric properties of Ceres and the bright spots, especially those located inside the Occator crater. Our objectives are to determine the albedo and other light scattering properties of the bright spots on Ceres in the visible wavelengths, in order to characterize their physical properties and find clues about their composition and possible formation mechanisms and the correlation with water sublimation. The overall geometric albedo of Ceres’ global surface is 0.09-0.10, consistent with previous studies. The Hapke roughness parameter is about 20°, close to many other asteroids, rather than 44° as reported earlier. Correspondingly, the phase function of Ceres is less backscattering than previously modeled. In contrast, the geometric albedo of the bright spots inside the Occator crater is 0.4-0.5, and the single scattering albedo is 0.7-0.8, brighter than Vesta’s global albedo but much darker than many icy satellites in the outer solar system. The Hapke roughness of the bright spots is much higher than Ceres average, suggesting relatively loose deposit of materials rather than more coherent or tightly packed materials. The phase function of bright spots material is relatively more forward scattering than average Ceres, possibly correlated to stronger multiple scattering due to high albedo resulting from more transparent materials. The highest resolution images as of late-August 2015 show fine structures within the Occator bright spots. We

  20. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM EMISSION: APPLYING THIS DIAGNOSTIC TO THE CHROMOSPHERES OF SOLAR-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Bushinsky, Rachel; Ayres, Tom; France, Kevin; Fontenla, Juan

    2012-01-20

    The far-ultraviolet (FUV) continuum flux is recognized as a very sensitive diagnostic of the temperature structure of the Sun's lower chromosphere. Until now analysis of the available stellar FUV data has shown that solar-type stars must also have chromospheres, but quantitative analyses of stellar FUV continua require far higher quality spectra and comparison with new non-LTE chromosphere models. We present accurate far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1150-1500 A) continuum flux measurements for solar-mass stars, made feasible by the high throughput and very low detector background of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubbble Space Telescope. We show that the continuum flux can be measured above the detector background even for the faintest star in our sample. We find a clear trend of increasing continuum brightness temperature at all FUV wavelengths with decreasing rotational period, which provides an important measure of magnetic heating rates in stellar chromospheres. Comparison with semiempirical solar flux models shows that the most rapidly rotating solar-mass stars have FUV continuum brightness temperatures similar to the brightest faculae seen on the Sun. The thermal structure of the brightest solar faculae therefore provides a first-order estimate of the thermal structure and heating rate for the most rapidly rotating solar-mass stars in our sample.

  1. Condition-dependent variation in the blue-ultraviolet coloration of a structurally based plumage ornament

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, A. J.; Hill, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    After years of investigation into the function of sexually dimorphic ornamental traits, researchers are beginning to understand how bright plumage colour in birds acts as an intraspecific signal. This work has focused primarily on pigment-based ornaments because they are highly variable in patch size, hue and brightness for some species. In contrast, structurally based ornaments have been little studied, in part because they do not appear to be as variable as pigment-based ornaments. We investigated a structurally based plumage ornament in a wild population of blue grosbeaks (Guiraca caerulea), a sexually dimorphic passerine. We report plumage variation that extends into the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The pattern of covariation between four out of five elements of plumage variation suggests that structurally based ornamentation is pushed towards extreme expression of the trait as predicted by the sexual selection theory. The 'bluest' birds have the highest percentage of blue feathers on the body. These ornamental feathers reflect light maximally at the shortest wavelengths (ultraviolet), with the greatest intensity and the greatest contrast. Age may have some effect on expression of blueness. In addition, plumage variables are correlated with growth bars in tail feathers (a record of nutritional condition during moult in a non-ornamental trait). This suggests that the ornament is partially condition dependent. Thus, blue plumage in male grosbeaks may serve as an honest indicator of age and quality.

  2. Brightness field distributions of microlens arrays using micro molding.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Lin, Yi; Shen, Yung-Kang

    2010-12-20

    This study describes the brightness field distributions of microlens arrays fabricated by micro injection molding (μIM) and micro injection-compression molding (μICM). The process for fabricating microlens arrays used room-temperature imprint lithography, photoresist reflow, electroforming, μIM, μICM, and optical properties measurement. Analytical results indicate that the brightness field distribution of the molded microlens arrays generated by μICM is better than those made using μIM. Our results further demonstrate that mold temperature is the most important processing parameter for brightness field distribution of molded microlens arrays made by μIM or μICM.

  3. HUBBLE FINDS MANY BRIGHT CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A recent Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus surrounded by its four major rings and by 10 of its 17 known satellites. This false-color image was generated by Erich Karkoschka using data taken on August 8, 1998, with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble recently found about 20 clouds - nearly as many clouds on Uranus as the previous total in the history of modern observations. The orange-colored clouds near the prominent bright band circle the planet at more than 300 mph (500 km/h), according to team member Heidi Hammel (MIT). One of the clouds on the right-hand side is brighter than any other cloud ever seen on Uranus. The colors in the image indicate altitude. Team member Mark Marley (New Mexico State University) reports that green and blue regions show where the atmosphere is clear and sunlight can penetrate deep into Uranus. In yellow and grey regions the sunlight reflects from a higher haze or cloud layer. Orange and red colors indicate very high clouds, such as cirrus clouds on Earth. The Hubble image is one of the first images revealing the precession of the brightest ring with respect to a previous image [LINK to PRC97-36a]. Precession makes the fainter part of the ring (currently on the upper right-hand side) slide around Uranus once every nine months. The fading is caused by ring particles crowding and hiding each other on one side of their eight-hour orbit around Uranus. The blue, green and red components of this false-color image correspond to exposures taken at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.7 micrometers. Thus, regions on Uranus appearing blue, for example, reflect more sunlight at 0.9 micrometer than at the longer wavelengths. Apparent colors on Uranus are caused by absorption of methane gas in its atmosphere, an effect comparable to absorption in our atmosphere which can make distant clouds appear red. Credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona) and NASA

  4. STEREO's Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    At a pixel resolution of 2048x2048, the STEREO EUVI instrument provides views of the Sun in ultraviolet light that rivals the full-disk views of SOHO/EIT. This image is through the 171 Angstrom (ultraviolet) filter which is characteristic of iron ions (missing eight and nine electrons) at 1 million degrees. There is a short data gap in the latter half of the movie that creates a freeze and then jump in the data view. This is a movie of the Sun in 171 Angstrom ultraviolet light. The time frame is late January, 2007

  5. Measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite has been used to measure the intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It is found that the isotropic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation (possibly of extragalactic origin) has an intensity of 530 + or - 80 units (a unit is 1 photon per sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The Galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on Galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the Galactic plane.

  6. Ultraviolet Imaging of the cD Galaxy in Abell 1795

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric P.; Neff, Susan G.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Thedore P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1995-12-01

    We present an image of the Abell 1795 cD galaxy and its environment obtained with the Goddard Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). Our ultraviolet (UV) image was obtained during the March 1995 Astro-2 Space Shuttle mission using a filter centered at ~ 1520 Angstroms/ (Delta lambda =354 Angstroms/). The ultraviolet image resulting from a 1310 second exposure has stellar images with ~ 5.0arcsec FWHM. We compare these data to published optical, radio (VLA) and archival HST observations. This richness class 2 cluster is known to contain a large cooling flow (dot {M} 300M_⊙ yr(-1) ) and its cD galaxy contains a relatively bright yet small radio source (4C26.42). Previous optical observations have shown the cD galaxy possesses a system of Hα filaments (van Breugel et al./ 1984, ApJ, 276, 79), whose surface brightness is consistent with models in which the emission--lines arise from radiatively regulated accretion (i.e. cooling X-ray gas). Broad-band optical investigations have revealed the presence of ``blue lobes'' near the cD galaxy center. These regions are posited to contain young stars formed via the interaction of a radio jet and the intercluster medium (McNamara & O'Connell 1993, AJ, 105, 417). The HST observations show the elliptical galaxy has an easily resolved dust lane structure near its center. The cD galaxy is very bright in the ultraviolet (m1520=15.1) and exhibits a strong radial color gradient with the center being bluer. Indeed, UV light is detected from the central 7.6arcsecx16 .1arcsec (8.4x17.7 kpc) which can be compared with the optical extents of 38arcsecx70 arcsec . We discuss the implications that our new UV data have for the high mass star formation rate, and examine how our photometry fits in with previous models for the unusual features present in the system. Most of the other cluster galaxies are not detected. We report photometry and predicted star formation rates for those that were seen along with upper limits for those galaxies not

  7. View from... UPCON 2016: Bright future for upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dayong

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of more efficient upconversion nanomaterials that absorb multiple low-energy photons in the near-infrared and then re-emit in the visible or ultraviolet was a key theme at the first UPCON conference.

  8. Melanoma induction by ultraviolet A but not ultraviolet B radiation requires melanin pigment.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Frances P; Zaidi, M Raza; Wolnicka-Glubisz, Agnieszka; Anver, Miriam R; Bahn, Jesse; Wielgus, Albert; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Mouret, Stephane; Tucker, Margaret A; Popratiloff, Anastas; Merlino, Glenn; De Fabo, Edward C

    2012-06-06

    Malignant melanoma of the skin (CMM) is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, but the mechanisms and even the wavelengths responsible are unclear. Here we use a mammalian model to investigate melanoma formed in response to precise spectrally defined ultraviolet wavelengths and biologically relevant doses. We show that melanoma induction by ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) requires the presence of melanin pigment and is associated with oxidative DNA damage within melanocytes. In contrast, ultraviolet B radiation (280-320 nm) initiates melanoma in a pigment-independent manner associated with direct ultraviolet B DNA damage. Thus, we identified two ultraviolet wavelength-dependent pathways for the induction of CMM and describe an unexpected and significant role for melanin within the melanocyte in melanomagenesis.

  9. LONG-TERM VARIABILITY OF RADIO-BRIGHT BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nieppola, Elina; Hovatta, Talvikki; Tornikoski, Merja; Valtaoja, Esko; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.

    2009-06-15

    Radio-bright BL Lacertae objects (BLOs) are typically very variable and exhibit prominent flaring. We use a sample of 24 BLOs, regularly monitored at Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, to get a clear idea of their flaring behavior in the radio domain and to find possible commonalities in their variability patterns. Our goal was to compare the results given by computational timescales and the observed variability parameters determined directly from the flux curves. Also, we wanted to find out if the BLO flares adhere to the generalized shock model, which gives a schematic explanation for the physical process giving rise to the variability. We use long-term monitoring data from 4.8, 8, 14.5, 22, 37, 90, and 230 GHz, obtained mainly from the University of Michigan and Metsaehovi Radio Observatories. The structure function, discrete correlation function, and Lomb-Scargle periodogram timescales, calculated in a previous study, are analyzed in more detail. Also, we determine flare durations, rise and decay times, and absolute and relative peak fluxes from the monitoring data. We find that radio-bright BLOs demonstrate a wide range of variability behavior, and few common denominators can be found. BLOs include sources with fast and strong variability, such as OJ 287, PKS 1749+096, and BL Lac, but also sources with more rolling fluctuations such as PKS 0735+178. The most extreme flares can last for up to 13 years or have peak fluxes of approximately 12 Jy in the observer's frame. When the Doppler boosting effect is taken into account, the peak flux of a flare does not depend on the duration of the flare. A rough analysis of the time lags and peak flux evolution indicates that, typically, BLO flares in the mm-cm wavelengths are high peaking, i.e., are in the adiabatic stage. Thus, the results concur with the generalized shock model, which assigns shocks traveling in the jet as the main cause for active galactic nucleus variability. Comparing the computational timescales and the

  10. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  11. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  12. IR brightness and eclipse cooling of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Caldwell, J.; Radostitz, J. V.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Barrett, E. W.; Gillett, F. C.; Murphy, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Equatorial scans of Saturn at 20 microns wavelength, obtained with the Mayall 4-m telescope in 1978-79, show a continuing decrease in the specific brightness of the A and B rings as the ring plane projection approaches and edge-on apparition. The decreased brightness of the previously dominant B ring reveals more clearly a large difference in brightness between the east and west ansae portions of the C ring, in contrast to a barely discernible difference for the other ring ansae. The amount of eclipse cooling is compatible with a C ring particle size of about 1 cm. It is proposed here that the B ring brightness variation could partially result from a decrease of absorbed insolation by a modest amount of visible scattering.

  13. Direct LED backlight for large area LCD TVs: brightness analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Moreno, Ivan; Chung, Shih-Hsun; Chien, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-To; Yang, Tsung-Hsun

    2007-09-01

    A direct or bottom LED backlight is a key concept in large area LCD displays because it does not use a light guide, is flat, and is easy to assemble. In this paper, a method of luminance management for a bottom LED backlight is proposed and demonstrated. We analytically calculate both the power consumption and brightness uniformity in function of: screen brightness, screen size, backlight thickness, transmittance of the LCD panel, reflective cavity efficiency, gain and cone angle of enhancement films, LED array configuration, and the average luminous flux and radiation pattern of a single LED. Moreover, a 42-inch LCD television with this backlight design approach is made and demonstrated. The bottom backlight incorporates an array of RGGB 4-in-1 multi-chip LEDs within a highly reflective box behind a diffuser and a dual brightness enhancement film. We predict with an accuracy of 94% the brightness uniformity and with 96% the luminance level.

  14. Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Yellow steam and electrical pipes across from Bright Angel Lodge. Note control valve to right of control box, view E. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  15. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  16. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. South and west elevations of Bright Angel boiler house. Red ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and west elevations of Bright Angel boiler house. Red Horse log cabin visible in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  2. Astronomy and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, S

    1994-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet wave band (100 to 912 angstroms) was thought until recently to be useless to astronomy, primarily because the opacity of the interstellar medium would prevent observations at these wavelengths. However, the interstellar medium has been found to be markedly inhomogeneous in both density and ionization state and the sun is fortunately located in a region of low extreme ultraviolet opacity. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, launched in June 1992, has surveyed the sky in this wave band and has detected a wide variety of astronomical sources at considerable distances, including some extragalactic objects. Studies in the extreme ultraviolet band have already begun to increase our understanding of the contents of the universe.

  3. Solar ultraviolet radiation in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Craig E.; Zepp, Richard G.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Madronich, Sasha; Austin, Amy T.; Ballaré, Carlos L.; Norval, Mary; Sulzberger, Barbara; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; McKenzie, Richard L.; Robinson, Sharon A.; Häder, Donat-P.; Paul, Nigel D.; Bornman, Janet F.

    2014-06-01

    The projected large increases in damaging ultraviolet radiation as a result of global emissions of ozone-depleting substances have been forestalled by the success of the Montreal Protocol. New challenges are now arising in relation to climate change. We highlight the complex interactions between the drivers of climate change and those of stratospheric ozone depletion, and the positive and negative feedbacks among climate, ozone and ultraviolet radiation. These will result in both risks and benefits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the environment and human welfare. This Review synthesizes these new insights and their relevance in a world where changes in climate as well as in stratospheric ozone are altering exposure to ultraviolet radiation with largely unknown consequences for the biosphere.

  4. Astronomy and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.

    1994-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet wave band (100 to 912 angstroms) was thought until recently to be useless to astronomy, primarily because the opacity of the interstellar medium would prevent observations at these wavelengths. However, the interstellar medium has been found to be markedly inhomogeneous in both density and ionization state and the sun is fortunately located in a region of low extreme ultraviolet opacity. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, launched in June 1992, has surveyed the sky in this wave band and has detected a wide variety of astronomical sources at considerable distances, including some extragalactic objects. Studies in the extreme ultraviolet band have already begun to increase our understanding of the contents of the universe.

  5. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-05-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation.

  6. An observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Fabienne A; Stassun, Keivan G; Basri, Gibor; Pepper, Joshua

    2013-08-22

    Surface gravity is a basic stellar property, but it is difficult to measure accurately, with typical uncertainties of 25 to 50 per cent if measured spectroscopically and 90 to 150 per cent if measured photometrically. Asteroseismology measures gravity with an uncertainty of about 2 per cent but is restricted to relatively small samples of bright stars, most of which are giants. The availability of high-precision measurements of brightness variations for more than 150,000 stars provides an opportunity to investigate whether the variations can be used to determine surface gravities. The Fourier power of granulation on a star's surface correlates physically with surface gravity: if brightness variations on timescales of hours arise from granulation, then such variations should correlate with surface gravity. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals an observational correlation between surface gravity and root mean squared brightness variations on timescales of less than eight hours for stars with temperatures of 4,500 to 6,750 kelvin, log surface gravities of 2.5 to 4.5 (cgs units) and overall brightness variations of less than three parts per thousand. A straightforward observation of optical brightness variations therefore allows a determination of the surface gravity with a precision of better than 25 per cent for inactive Sun-like stars at main-sequence to giant stages of evolution. PMID:23969460

  7. The Influence of Microphysical Cloud Parameterization on Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Wang, James R.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microphysical parameterization of clouds and rain-cells plays a central role in atmospheric forward radiative transfer models used in calculating passive microwave brightness temperatures. The absorption and scattering properties of a hydrometeor-laden atmosphere are governed by particle phase, size distribution, aggregate density., shape, and dielectric constant. This study identifies the sensitivity of brightness temperatures with respect to the microphysical cloud parameterization. Cloud parameterizations for wideband (6-410 GHz observations of baseline brightness temperatures were studied for four evolutionary stages of an oceanic convective storm using a five-phase hydrometeor model in a planar-stratified scattering-based radiative transfer model. Five other microphysical cloud parameterizations were compared to the baseline calculations to evaluate brightness temperature sensitivity to gross changes in the hydrometeor size distributions and the ice-air-water ratios in the frozen or partly frozen phase. The comparison shows that, enlarging the rain drop size or adding water to the partly Frozen hydrometeor mix warms brightness temperatures by up to .55 K at 6 GHz. The cooling signature caused by ice scattering intensifies with increasing ice concentrations and at higher frequencies. An additional comparison to measured Convection and Moisture LA Experiment (CAMEX 3) brightness temperatures shows that in general all but, two parameterizations produce calculated T(sub B)'s that fall within the observed clear-air minima and maxima. The exceptions are for parameterizations that, enhance the scattering characteristics of frozen hydrometeors.

  8. An observational correlation between stellar brightness variations and surface gravity.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Fabienne A; Stassun, Keivan G; Basri, Gibor; Pepper, Joshua

    2013-08-22

    Surface gravity is a basic stellar property, but it is difficult to measure accurately, with typical uncertainties of 25 to 50 per cent if measured spectroscopically and 90 to 150 per cent if measured photometrically. Asteroseismology measures gravity with an uncertainty of about 2 per cent but is restricted to relatively small samples of bright stars, most of which are giants. The availability of high-precision measurements of brightness variations for more than 150,000 stars provides an opportunity to investigate whether the variations can be used to determine surface gravities. The Fourier power of granulation on a star's surface correlates physically with surface gravity: if brightness variations on timescales of hours arise from granulation, then such variations should correlate with surface gravity. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals an observational correlation between surface gravity and root mean squared brightness variations on timescales of less than eight hours for stars with temperatures of 4,500 to 6,750 kelvin, log surface gravities of 2.5 to 4.5 (cgs units) and overall brightness variations of less than three parts per thousand. A straightforward observation of optical brightness variations therefore allows a determination of the surface gravity with a precision of better than 25 per cent for inactive Sun-like stars at main-sequence to giant stages of evolution.

  9. Global View of the Bright Material on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zambon, F.; DeSanctis, C.; Schroeder, S.; Tosi, F.; Li, J.-Y.; Longobardo, A.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Palomba, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Frigeri, A.; Capria, M. T.; Fonte, S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Nathues, A.; Pieters, C.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive and one of the brightest asteroids of the main-belt. Here we give a global view of the bright material (BM) units on Vesta. We classified the BMs according to the normal visual albedo. The global albedo map of Vesta allows to be divided the surface into three principal types of terrains: bright regions, dark regions and intermediate regions. The distribution of bright regions is not uniform. The mid-southern latitudes contain the most bright areas, while the northern hemisphere is poor in bright regions. The analysis of the spectral parameters and the normal visual albedo show a dependence between albedo and the strength (depth) of ferrous iron absorption bands, strong bands correspond with high albedo units. Vesta's average albedo is 0.38, but there are bright material whose albedo can exceed 0.50. Only the E-Type asteroids have albedos comparable to those of the BMs on Vesta. The Dawn mission observed a large fraction of Vesta's surface at high spatial resolution, allowing a detailed study of the morphology and mineralogy of it. In particular, reflectance spectra provided by the Visible and InfraRed spectrometer (VIR), confirmed that Vesta's mineralogy is dominated by pyroxenes. All Vesta spectra show two strong absorption bands at approx 0.9 and 1.9 micron, typical of the pyroxenes and associated with the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  10. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  11. MAPPING THE DIFFUSE ULTRAVIOLET SKY WITH THE GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Sujatha, N. V.; Henry, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a map of the diffuse ultraviolet cosmic background in two wavelength bands (FUV: 1530 A and NUV: 2310 A) over almost 75% of the sky using archival data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) mission. Most of the diffuse flux is due to dust-scattered starlight and follows a cosecant law with slopes of 545 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} and 433 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} in the FUV and NUV bands, respectively. There is a strong correlation with the 100 {mu}m Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) flux with an average UV/IR ratio of 300 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1} in the FUV band and that of 220 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1} in the NUV band but with significant variations over the sky. In addition to the large-scale distribution of the diffuse light, we note a number of individual features including bright spots around the hot stars Spica and Achernar.

  12. Ultraviolet vision in birds: the importance of transparent eye media.

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive visual pigments are widespread in the animal kingdom but many animals, for example primates, block UV light from reaching their retina by pigmented lenses. Birds have UV-sensitive (UVS) visual pigments with sensitivity maxima around 360-373 nm (UVS) or 402-426 nm (violet-sensitive, VS). We describe how these pigments are matched by the ocular media transmittance in 38 bird species. Birds with UVS pigments have ocular media that transmit more UV light (wavelength of 50% transmittance, λ(T0.5), 323 nm) than birds with VS pigments (λ(T0.5), 358 nm). Yet, visual models predict that colour discrimination in bright light is mostly dependent on the visual pigment (UVS or VS) and little on the ocular media. We hypothesize that the precise spectral tuning of the ocular media is mostly relevant for detecting weak UV signals, e.g. in dim hollow-nests of passerines and parrots. The correlation between eye size and UV transparency of the ocular media suggests little or no lens pigmentation. Therefore, only small birds gain the full advantage from shifting pigment sensitivity from VS to UVS. On the other hand, some birds with VS pigments have unexpectedly low UV transmission of the ocular media, probably because of UV blocking lens pigmentation.

  13. Sunscreens for delay of ultraviolet induction of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.C.; Poulsen, T.; Brodthagen, H.; Hou-Jensen, K.

    1982-08-01

    Sunscreens with different sun protection factors (SPFs) have been tested for their capability of delaying or preventing actinic damage and skin cancer development in groups of hairless, pigmented mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet (UV) light of increasing intensity. The dose delivered was less than or equal to 1 minimal erythema dose (MED) in the group of untreated mice, so that the mice to which sunscreens were applied never obtained a sunburn after UV exposure. The quality of UV light was similar to bright midday sun at a latitude of 56 degrees (city of Copenhagen). Tumorigenesis was demonstrated to be delayed corresponding to the SPF claimed by the manufacturer, but almost all of the UV-irradiated mice developed skin tumors. Histologic examination revealed actinic degeneration and tumors of squamous cell type with marked variation in differentiation. Metastases to lymph nodes and lungs were found in only 10%. Toxic reactions, such as eczematous-like skin reactions, dark coloring, and amyloidosis, were observed predominantly in the group treated with the sunscreen of highest SPF value. Long-term investigations seem to be necessary to unveil these problems--in particular, the specific SPF value, in sunscreens, that should be recommended to the public for prevention or delay of actinic damage and/or cancer development.

  14. Stargazing from New Horizons: Ultraviolet Stellar Occultations by Pluto's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Joshua A.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B.; Gladstone, Randy; Summers, Michael; Steffl, Andrew; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Versteeg, Maarten; Retherford, Kurt D.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Schindhelm, Eric; Strobel, Darrell F.; New Horizons ATM Theme Team, New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Not long after the New Horizons encounter with Pluto last July, the Alice ultraviolet imaging spectrograph observed signatures of UV absorption by Pluto's atmosphere during two distinct occultation events. During these events, UV bright stars (the Sun, as well as two B-type stars) passed behind Pluto as seen by the spacecraft, and the attenuated starlight revealed the clear presence of nitrogen, methane, and several other hydrocarbons. Their mixing ratios vary with altitude, including localized peaks in the density of minor hydrocarbons such as C2H2 and C2H4. At about 300 km above Pluto's surface, these particular species are found to have mixing ratios relative to CH4 of approximately 10% and 1%, respectively. While this overall composition was expected pre-New Horizons, the vertical profiles of these species were surprising. In this presentation I will discuss the analysis of these occultations, including several profiles of key atmospheric species, and how they might play a role in explaining the presence of high-altitude haze on this cold, small, distant planet.

  15. Extreme-ultraviolet ultrafast ARPES at high repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, Jan; Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Stoll, Sebastian; Zeng, Lingkun; Ulonska, Stefan; Denlinger, Jonathan; Hussain, Zahid; Jozwiak, Chris; Lanzara, Alessandra; Kaindl, Robert

    Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (trARPES) represents a powerful approach to resolve the electronic structure and quasiparticle dynamics in complex materials, yet is often limited in either momentum space (incident photon energy), probe sensitivity (pulse repetition rate), or energy resolution. We demonstrate a novel table-top trARPES setup that combines a bright 50-kHz source of narrowband, extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses at 22.3 eV with UHV photoemission instrumentation to sensitively access dynamics for a large momentum space. The output of a high-power Ti:sapphire amplifier is split to provide the XUV probe and intense photoexcitation (up to mJ/cm2) . A vacuum beamline delivers spectral and flux characterization, differential pumping, as well as XUV beam steering and toroidal refocusing onto the sample with high incident flux of 3x1011 ph/s. Photoemission studies are carried out in a customized UHV chamber equipped with a hemispherical analyzer (R4000), six-axis sample cryostat, and side chambers for sample loading, storage and preparation. An ARPES energy resolution down to 70 meV with the direct XUV output is demonstrated. We will discuss initial applications of this setup including Fermi surface mapping and trARPES of complex materials.

  16. Ultraviolet vision in birds: the importance of transparent eye media

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive visual pigments are widespread in the animal kingdom but many animals, for example primates, block UV light from reaching their retina by pigmented lenses. Birds have UV-sensitive (UVS) visual pigments with sensitivity maxima around 360–373 nm (UVS) or 402–426 nm (violet-sensitive, VS). We describe how these pigments are matched by the ocular media transmittance in 38 bird species. Birds with UVS pigments have ocular media that transmit more UV light (wavelength of 50% transmittance, λT0.5, 323 nm) than birds with VS pigments (λT0.5, 358 nm). Yet, visual models predict that colour discrimination in bright light is mostly dependent on the visual pigment (UVS or VS) and little on the ocular media. We hypothesize that the precise spectral tuning of the ocular media is mostly relevant for detecting weak UV signals, e.g. in dim hollow-nests of passerines and parrots. The correlation between eye size and UV transparency of the ocular media suggests little or no lens pigmentation. Therefore, only small birds gain the full advantage from shifting pigment sensitivity from VS to UVS. On the other hand, some birds with VS pigments have unexpectedly low UV transmission of the ocular media, probably because of UV blocking lens pigmentation. PMID:24258716

  17. The Diffuse Extreme Ultraviolet Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallerga, John; Slavin, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Observations of the diffuse EUV background towards 138 different directions using the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (EUVE) have been combined into a spectrum from 150A to 730A and represent an effective exposure of 18 million seconds. There is no significant evidence of any non-local line flux in the resultant spectrum such as that from a hot coronal plasma. These results are inconsistent with the Wisconsin C and B broad-band surveys assuming the source is a logT = 5.8 - 6.1 hot plasma in ionization equilibrium with solar abundances, confirming the previous result of Jelinksy, Vallerga and Edelstein) (hereafter Paper 1) using an observation along the ecliptic with the same instrument. To make these results consistent with the previous broad-band surveys, the plasma responsible for the emission must either be depleted in Fe by a factor of approximately 6, be behind an absorbing slab of neutral H with a column of 2 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, or not be in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE). One such non-CIE model (Breitswerdt and Schmutzier) that explains the soft x-ray results is also inconsistent with this EUV data.

  18. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y

    1998-09-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.

  19. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation cataract: dose dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Per G.; Loefgren, Stefan

    1994-07-01

    Current safety limits for cataract development after acute exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are based on experiments analyzing experimental data with a quantal, effect-no effect, dose-response model. The present study showed that intensity of forward light scattering is better described with a continuous dose-response model. It was found that 3, 30 and 300 kJ/m2UVR300nm induces increased light scattering within 6 h. For all three doses the intensity of forward light scattering was constant after 6 h. The intensity of forward light scattering was proportional to the log dose of UVR300nm. There was a slight increase of the intensity of forward light scattering on the contralateral side in animals that received 300 kJ/m2. Altogether 72 Sprague-Dawley male rats were included. Half of the rats were exposed in vivo on one side to UVR300nm. The other half was kept as a control group, receiving the same treatment as exposed rats but without delivery of UVR300nm to the eye. Subgroups of the rats received either of the three doses. Rats were sacrificed at varying intervals after the exposure. The lenses were extracted and the forward light scattering was estimated. It is concluded that intensity of forward light scattering in the lens after exposure to UVR300nm should be described with a continuous dose-reponse model.

  1. Ultraviolet disinfection of contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Fluss, L; Lem, A; Leong, H

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a method of disinfecting contact lenses and their storage solutions, we contaminated soft lenses (Bausch & Lomb Optima 38), rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses (Oxyflow F-30), and their storage solutions with three common bacteria. Escherichia coli (E.c.), Staphylococcus epidermis (S.e.), and Serratia marcescens (S.m.). The storage solutions used were saline solution and RGP conditioning solution. We determined the exposure times to 253.7-nm wavelength UV radiation necessary to disinfect the contact lenses and solutions. The decimal reduction values (D values) found for UV radiation were 10 to 200 hundred times shorter than reported for currently available disinfection systems. For E.c., sterilization was attained after 100 s of exposure. For S.e. and S.m., sterilization occurred after 300 s of exposure. Different contact lens solutions transmit UV radiation to various degrees, with saline solution passing more than 90% of the UV radiation. Thus, our results indicate that UV radiation is an effective and rapid method of disinfecting contact lenses and their storage solutions. PMID:8247487

  2. Ultraviolet disinfection of contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Fluss, L; Lem, A; Leong, H

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a method of disinfecting contact lenses and their storage solutions, we contaminated soft lenses (Bausch & Lomb Optima 38), rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses (Oxyflow F-30), and their storage solutions with three common bacteria. Escherichia coli (E.c.), Staphylococcus epidermis (S.e.), and Serratia marcescens (S.m.). The storage solutions used were saline solution and RGP conditioning solution. We determined the exposure times to 253.7-nm wavelength UV radiation necessary to disinfect the contact lenses and solutions. The decimal reduction values (D values) found for UV radiation were 10 to 200 hundred times shorter than reported for currently available disinfection systems. For E.c., sterilization was attained after 100 s of exposure. For S.e. and S.m., sterilization occurred after 300 s of exposure. Different contact lens solutions transmit UV radiation to various degrees, with saline solution passing more than 90% of the UV radiation. Thus, our results indicate that UV radiation is an effective and rapid method of disinfecting contact lenses and their storage solutions.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives.

  4. Design of high-brightness TEM00-mode solar-pumped laser for renewable material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, D.; Almeida, J.

    2014-08-01

    The conversion of sunlight into laser light by direct solar pumping is of ever-increasing importance because broadband, temporally constant, sunlight is converted into laser light, which can be a source of narrowband, collimated, rapidly pulsed, radiation with the possibility of obtaining extremely high brightness and intensity. Nonlinear processes, such as harmonic generation, might be used to obtain broad wavelength coverage, including the ultraviolet wavelengths, where the solar flux is very weak. The direct excitation of large lasers by sunlight offers the prospect of a drastic reduction in the cost of coherent optical radiation for high average power materials processing. This renewable laser has a large potential for many applications such as high-temperature materials processing, renewable magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle and so on. We propose here a scalable TEM00 mode solar laser pumping scheme, which is composed of four firststage 1.13 m diameter Fresnel lenses with its respective folding mirrors mounted on a two-axis automatic solar tracker. Concentrated solar power at the four focal spots of these Fresnel lenses are focused individually along a common 3.5 mm diameter, 70 mm length Nd:YAG rod via four pairs of second-stage fused-silica spherical lenses and third-stage 2D-CPCs (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), sitting just above the laser rod which is also double-pass pumped by four V-shaped pumping cavities. Distilled water cools both the rod and the concentrators. 15.4 W TEM00 solar laser power is numerically calculated, corresponding to 6.7 times enhancement in laser beam brightness.

  5. Generation of Bright, Spatially Coherent Soft X-Ray High Harmonics in a Hollow Waveguide Using Two-Color Synthesized Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Stein, Gregory J; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lin, C D

    2015-07-24

    We investigate the efficient generation of low-divergence high-order harmonics driven by waveform-optimized laser pulses in a gas-filled hollow waveguide. The drive waveform is obtained by synthesizing two-color laser pulses, optimized such that highest harmonic yields are emitted from each atom. Optimization of the gas pressure and waveguide configuration has enabled us to produce bright and spatially coherent harmonics extending from the extreme ultraviolet to soft x rays. Our study on the interplay among waveguide mode, atomic dispersion, and plasma effect uncovers how dynamic phase matching is accomplished and how an optimized waveform is maintained when optimal waveguide parameters (radius and length) and gas pressure are identified. Our analysis should help laboratory development in the generation of high-flux bright coherent soft x rays as tabletop light sources for applications. PMID:26252685

  6. A medium-bright quasar sample - New quasar surface densities in the magnitude range from 16.4 to 17.65 for B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Usher, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    A new medium-bright quasar sample (MBQS) is constructed from spectroscopic observations of 140 bright objects selected for varying degrees of blue and ultraviolet excess (B-UVX) in five Palomar 1.2 m Schmidt fields. The MBQS contains 32 quasars with B less than 17.65 mag. The new integral surface densities in the B range from 16.45 to 17.65 mag are approximately 40 percent (or more) higher than expected. The MBQS and its redshift distribution increase the area of the Hubble diagram covered by complete samples of quasars. The general spectroscopic results indicate that the three-color classification process used to catalog the spectroscopic candidates (1) has efficiently separated the intrinsically B-UVX stellar objects from the Population II subdwarfs and (2) has produced samples of B-UVX objects which are more complete than samples selected by (U - B) color alone.

  7. Ultraviolet Behavior of N = 8 supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    In these lectures the author describes the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N = 8 supergravity, which through four loops is no worse than that of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory (a finite theory). I also explain the computational tools that allow multi-loop amplitudes to be evaluated in this theory - the KLT relations and the unitarity method - and sketch how ultraviolet divergences are extracted from the amplitudes.

  8. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.

  9. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; et al

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams inmore » the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.« less

  10. Melanocyte photobiology, ultraviolet radiation and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Seo, S-J; Fisher, D E

    2010-10-01

    Of all the organs of the human body, the skin is most commonly affected by malignancy, and ultraviolet radiation has long been implicated as the primary mutagenic exposure leading to the development of many cutaneous cancers. However, as research in this field has continued, it has become clear that the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the skin is quite complex. Distinct cell types within the skin exhibit differing responses to ultraviolet radiation, and even within the same cell type, divergent effects may be observed; depending on the dose or wavelength of the radiation, or the maturational state of the affected cell, unique responses can be elicited. Melanocytes form a minor component of the outermost layer of skin, but they have an enormous impact on not only the appearance of the skin, but also the ability of the skin to withstand exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In addition, melanocytes give rise to melanoma, one of the most deadly types of skin cancer. Clearly, it is critical that we achieve a better understanding of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on melanocytes, and that we clarify its role in the oncogenesis of melanoma. Although the picture is far from complete, the mechanisms by which melanocytes respond to ultraviolet radiation are beginning to be elucidated, and, as these pathways emerge, they offer new targets for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic intervention.

  11. High ultraviolet C resistance of marine Planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    Viana, Flávia; Lage, Olga Maria; Oliveira, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Planctomycetes are bacteria with particular characteristics such as internal membrane systems encompassing intracellular compartments, proteinaceous cell walls, cell division by yeast-like budding and large genomes. These bacteria inhabit a wide range of habitats, including marine ecosystems, in which ultra-violet radiation has a potential harmful impact in living organisms. To evaluate the effect of ultra-violet C on the genome of several marine strains of Planctomycetes, we developed an easy and fast DNA diffusion assay in which the cell wall was degraded with papain, the wall-free cells were embedded in an agarose microgel and lysed. The presence of double strand breaks and unwinding by single strand breaks allow DNA diffusion, which is visible as a halo upon DNA staining. The number of cells presenting DNA diffusion correlated with the dose of ultra-violet C or hydrogen peroxide. From DNA damage and viability experiments, we found evidence indicating that some strains of Planctomycetes are significantly resistant to ultra-violet C radiation, showing lower sensitivity than the known resistant Arthrobacter sp. The more resistant strains were those phylogenetically closer to Rhodopirellula baltica, suggesting that these species are adapted to habitats under the influence of ultra-violet radiation. Our results provide evidence indicating that the mechanism of resistance involves DNA damage repair and/or other DNA ultra-violet C-protective mechanism. PMID:24052365

  12. Astro-1 ultraviolet imaging of the 30 Doradus and SN 1987A fields with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.; Hintzen, Paul; Bohlin, Ralph C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Cornett, Robert H.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) images in the 30 Doradus region is reported. Photometry was obtained for the 30 Doradus cluster and its UV-bright core, R136, in various UIT bandpasses. It is found that about 14 percent of the total FUV light and about 16 percent of the total near-UV light of the 3-arcmin diameter 30 Doradus cluster originates from the region within 5 arcsec of R136. The UV magnitudes and colors of R136 and other known O and Wolf-Rayet WN stars in the same field were measured. The UIT data, combined with published observations at longer wavelengths, indicate that R136a1, the brightest component of R136, is not a supermassive stars. A qualitative comparison between the UIT images, Einstein X-ray data, IRAS HiRes images, and ground-based CCD images in forbidden O III 5007 A, H-alpha, B, R, U, and Stromgren u is performed. The extended diffuse UV feature detected in the UIT images is correlated with the IR structure seen in the IRAS 60-micron HiRes image, which suggests the existence of large amounts of widely distributed dust in this region.

  13. [Preparation of reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff and its spectral properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Yuan, Ya-Qin; Cai, Yu; Zhu, Xian; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2004-08-01

    Reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff was prepared by using reactive bright blue and praseodymium oxide. The spectra of reactive bright blue praseodymium and dyed silk cloth by reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff were studied by UV-Vis and IR spectra respectively. In the range of 200-800 nm, reactive bright blue has four absorption peaks, and lambda(max) is 259 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has three absorption peaks, while lambda(max), is 264.00 nm. In the range of 420-760 nm, reactive bright blue has two absorption peaks at 661.50 and 625.50 nm, respectively, and lambda(max) is 661.50 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has only one absorption peak at 618.00 nm. Coordinate bond links reactive bright blue to praseodymium ion. Reactive bright blue praseodymium increases linking radicals as compared with reactive bright blue.

  14. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-01

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia.

  15. Ultraviolet bactericidal irradiation of ice.

    PubMed

    Ladanyi, P A; Morrison, S M

    1968-03-01

    We investigated the germicidal activity of 2,537 A ultraviolet (UV) radiation on bacteria in ice cubes of varying thickness and in aqueous suspensions beneath an ice layer. The test bacteria used were Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis, and Sarcina lutea; aqueous suspensions of the selected organisms were frozen into ice cubes, 2 mm to 30 mm thick, at -20 C. The cubes were irradiated for 1 min, whereas the suspensions of bacteria were placed beneath an ice block (19 cm thick) and were irradiated for 0.5 to 15 min. In both groups of experiments, the standard plate count method was used to compare the number of bacteria surviving the UV treatment with the number of bacteria in the untreated controls. The results showed that 1 min of UV treatment killed as many as 97% of the gram-negative and at least 60% of the gram-positive test bacteria (freezing survivors) frozen in ice cubes 30-mm thick. Within 15 min, UV light transmitted through a 19-cm thick ice block inactivated 98% of the bacteria suspended in the buffer solution. We concluded that the UV rays were able to penetrate at least 19 cm of ice and still retain enough energy to kill bacteria. However, the UV penetration depended greatly on the optical quality of the ice. Although it was not the purpose of these experiments to find a practical method for sanitizing ice, the results of this study and of our other unpublished experiments indicate that UV light has adequate penetrating power to be considered practical in certain selected applications. PMID:4967756

  16. Properties and Frequency Conversion of High-Brightness Diode-Laser Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Beier, Bernard; Wallenstein, Richard

    An overview of recent developments in the field of high-power, high-brightness diode-lasers, and the optically nonlinear conversion of their output into other wavelength ranges, is given. We describe the generation of continuous-wave (CW) laser beams at power levels of several hundreds of milliwatts to several watts with near-perfect spatial and spectral properties using Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier (MOPA) systems. With single- or double-stage systems, using amplifiers of tapered or rectangular geometry, up to 2.85 W high-brightness radiation is generated at wavelengths around 810nm with AlGaAs diodes. Even higher powers, up to 5.2W of single-frequency and high spatial quality beams at 925nm, are obtained with InGaAs diodes. We describe the basic properties of the oscillators and amplifiers used. A strict proof-of-quality for the diode radiation is provided by direct and efficient nonlinear optical conversion of the diode MOPA output into other wavelength ranges. We review recent experiments with the highest power levels obtained so far by direct frequency doubling of diode radiation. In these experiments, 100mW single-frequency ultraviolet light at 403nm was generated, as well as 1W of single-frequency blue radiation at 465nm. Nonlinear conversion of diode radiation into widely tunable infrared radiation has recently yielded record values. We review the efficient generation of widely tunable single-frequency radiation in the infrared with diode-pumped Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPOs). With this system, single-frequency output radiation with powers of more than 0.5W was generated, widely tunable around wavelengths of 2.1,m and 1.65,m and with excellent spectral and spatial quality. These developments are clear indicators of recent advances in the field of high-brightness diode-MOPA systems, and may emphasize their future central importance for applications within a vast range of optical

  17. Earth, photographed in far-ultraviolet light with the ultraviolet camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Earth, photographed in far-ultraviolet light (1304 Angstrom) by Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 commander, with the ultraviolet camera. The auroral belts 13 degrees either side of the magnetic equator can be seen crossing each other on the middle of the right side of the Earth.

  18. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid(4) Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Russell, Christopher T.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm arc derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum ncar sub-Earth longitude of 20deg, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is completely consistent with the distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The uncertainty of the measurement in the ultraviolet is approx.20%, and in the visible wavelengths better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is approx.10% throughout the range of wavelengths we observed, but is smaller at 950 nm (approx.6%) ncar the 1-micron mafic band center. Contrary to earlier reports, we found no evidence for any difference between the phasing of the ultraviolet and visible/ncar-infrared lightcurves with respect to sub-Earth longitude. Vesta's average spectrum between 220 and 950 nm can well be described by measured reflectance spectra of fine particle howardite-like materials of basaltic achondrite meteorites. Combining this with the in-phase behavior of the ultraviolet, visible. and ncar-infrared lightcurves, and the spectral slopes with respect to the rotational phase, we conclude that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. Consequently, this implies lack of global space weathering on Vesta. Keyword,: Asteroid Vesta; Spectrophotometry; Spectroscopy; Ultraviolet observations; Hubble Space Telescope observations

  19. A Neurodynamical Model of Brightness Induction in V1

    PubMed Central

    Penacchio, Olivier; Otazu, Xavier; Dempere-Marco, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Brightness induction is the modulation of the perceived intensity of an area by the luminance of surrounding areas. Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that brightness information might be explicitly represented in V1, in contrast to the more common assumption that the striate cortex is an area mostly responsive to sensory information. Here we investigate possible neural mechanisms that offer a plausible explanation for such phenomenon. To this end, a neurodynamical model which is based on neurophysiological evidence and focuses on the part of V1 responsible for contextual influences is presented. The proposed computational model successfully accounts for well known psychophysical effects for static contexts and also for brightness induction in dynamic contexts defined by modulating the luminance of surrounding areas. This work suggests that intra-cortical interactions in V1 could, at least partially, explain brightness induction effects and reveals how a common general architecture may account for several different fundamental processes, such as visual saliency and brightness induction, which emerge early in the visual processing pathway. PMID:23717536

  20. PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2016-08-01

    PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

  1. Counting unstained, confluent cells by modified bright-field microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drey, L. Louis; Graber, Michael C.; Bieschke, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple procedure yielding high-contrast images of adherent, confluent cells such as human neuroblastoma (SH-EP) cells by ordinary bright-field microscopy. Cells are illuminated through a color filter and a pinhole aperture placed between the condenser and the cell culture surface. Refraction by each cell body generates a sharp, bright spot when the image is defocused. The technique allows robust, automatic cell counting from a single bright-field image in a wide range of focal positions; it does this via free, readily available image-analysis tools. Contrast may be enhanced by swelling cell bodies by brief incubation in PBS. The procedure was benchmarked against manual counting and automated counting of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei.. Counts from day-old and freshly seeded plates were compared in a range of densities, from sparse to densely overgrown. On average bright-field images produced the same counts as fluorescent images, with less than 5% error. This method will allow routine cell counting using a plain bright-field microscope, absent cell-line modification or cell staining. PMID:23834382

  2. Oxygen abundances in low surface-brightness galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roennback, Jari

    1993-01-01

    Recent theories predict that some protogalaxies, in low-density environments of the field, are contracting and interacting so slowly that global star formation can be delayed until today. These systems should be gas rich and have low surface-brightness. Blue compact galaxies (BCG's) and other compact HII region galaxies currently experiencing a burst of star formation are good candidates of truly young galaxies (in the sense that global star formation recently has been initiated). If they really are young, they ought to have a recent phase when their brightness was much lower than in the bursting phase. No claims of observations of such proto-BCG's exist. Observations of galaxies in their juvenile phases would undoubtedly be of great interest, e.g. the determination of the primordial helium abundance would improve. A proper place to search for young nearby galaxies could be among blue low surface-brightness galaxies (BLSBG's) in the local field. The study of low surface-brightness galaxies (LSBG's) as a group began relatively recently. They are galaxies with extraordinary properties both as individuals and as a group. A few years ago we started an optical study of a sample of BLSBG's selected from the ESO/Uppsala catalogue. Results of spectroscopic observations obtained on a subsample - 8 galaxies - of our selection are reported. The HII region oxygen chemical abundances and its relation to the blue absolute magnitude and surface-brightness is investigated.

  3. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF THE C-2003K7 COMET: EVIDENCE FOR DUST SUBLIMATION IN Si AND C LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaravella, A.; Raymond, J. C.; Giordano, S.

    2010-04-10

    UV spectra of the bright sungrazing comet C-2003K7 detected at 2.37 R {sub sun} above the Sun surface by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) during the daily synoptic scan show bright lines of H I Ly{alpha}, Si III {lambda} 1206, and C III {lambda} 977. The derived outgassing rate is an order of magnitude larger than those of the other sungrazers observed by UVCS. Analysis of the spectra suggests that the comet broke apart into smaller pieces before it reached the UVCS slit. The observations provide lower and upper limits to the values of the Si III/C III ratio, in the range 8-22. The ratio indicates a larger abundance of silicates in the cometary dust as compared to organic refractory materials.

  4. An Overview of Ultraviolet Through Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopic Observations of Mercury During the First MESSENGER Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Blewett, D. T.; Domingue, D. L.; Head, J. W.; Jensen, E. A.; Kochte, M. C.; Lankton, M. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Sprague, A. L.; Vilas, F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2008-05-01

    During the first MESSENGER flyby of Mercury on January 14, 2008, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) measured reflectance spectra from Mercury's surface over the wavelength range 220-1450 nm. These are the first high-spatial-resolution (<10 km) spectra at any wavelength and the first reported ultraviolet (UV, wavelength < 360 nm) observations of the surface. MASCS observed the sunlit surface for approximately 14 minutes after closest approach, acquiring over 650 spectra with the Visible and Infrared Spectrograph (VIRS) detectors of MASCS sensitive to wavelengths of 350-1450 nm. MASCS also obtained just under four grating scans in the middle ultraviolet (220-320 nm) using MASCS's Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) component. Most of the near-equatorial ground track of the observation covered terrain in the previously unseen hemisphere of Mercury but also crossed into the hemisphere viewed by Mariner 10 south of Mozart crater and in Tir Planitia. Ground-based observations of Mercury reveal a surface with a red, nearly featureless spectrum in the visible and near-infrared (wavelengths greater than ~ 500 nm) that has been interpreted as evidence for a largely iron-poor feldspathic composition. Initial analyses of VIRS spectra also show strongly red-sloped, near featureless spectra, appearing to support contentions of low iron abundance in surface materials. However, interpretation of Mercury's spectral reflectance is complicated by our lack of knowledge about the effects on its surface materials of space weathering, which both suppresses the strength of spectral absorption features and reddens the spectrum. Brightness variations and absorption bands in ultraviolet reflectance may help determine both the nature and extent of processes that modify observed reflectance at longer wavelengths. MASCS surface observation data demonstrate spectral variations across the Mercury surface that can be related to previous telescopic

  5. Second COS FUV Lifetime Position: Verification of FUV Bright Object Aperture (BOA) Operations (FCAL4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the calibration of the second lifetime position on the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) far-ultraviolet (FUV) detectors, observations of the external target, G191-B2B, were obtained with the G130M, G160M, and G140L gratings in combi- nation with the Bright Object Aperture. The observations were designed to verify the performance of these spectroscopic modes by reproducing similar observations taken during the SM4 Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) of COS. These observations allowed for a detailed determination of the spatial location and profile of the spectra from the three gratings, as well as a determination of the spectral resolution of the G130M grating prior to and after the lifetime move. In general, the negligi- ble differences which exist between the two lifetime positions can be attributed to slight differences in the optical path. In particular, the spectral resolution appears to be slightly improved. The stability of the absolute and relative flux calibration was investigated for G130M as well using STIS echelle data of G191-B2B. We determine that the COS ab- solute flux calibration with the BOA is accurate to 10%, and flux calibrated data are reproducible at the 1-2% level since SMOV.

  6. The XMM-Newton Bright Survey sample of absorbed quasars: X-ray and accretion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballo, L.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Caccianiga, A.; Vignali, C.; Carrera, F. J.; Corral, A.; Mateos, S.

    2014-11-01

    Although absorbed quasars are extremely important for our understanding of the energetics of the Universe, the main physical parameters of their central engines are still poorly known. In this work, we present and study a complete sample of 14 quasars (QSOs) that are absorbed in the X-rays (column density NH > 4 × 1021 cm-2 and X-ray luminosity L 2-10 keV > 1044 ergs-1; XQSO2) belonging to the XMM-Newton Bright Serendipitous Survey (XBS). From the analysis of their ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution, we can separate the nuclear emission from the host galaxy contribution, obtaining a measurement of the fundamental nuclear parameters, like the mass of the central supermassive black hole and the value of Eddington ratio, λ Edd. Comparing the properties of XQSO2s with those previously obtained for the X-ray unabsorbed QSOs in the XBS, we do not find any evidence that the two samples are drawn from different populations. In particular, the two samples span the same range in Eddington ratios, up to λ Edd ˜ 0.5; this implies that our XQSO2s populate the `forbidden region' in the so-called `effective Eddington limit paradigm'. A combination of low grain abundance, presence of stars inwards of the absorber, and/or anisotropy of the disc emission can explain this result.

  7. Bright UV Single Photon Emission at Point Defects in h-BN.

    PubMed

    Bourrellier, Romain; Meuret, Sophie; Tararan, Anna; Stéphan, Odile; Kociak, Mathieu; Tizei, Luiz H G; Zobelli, Alberto

    2016-07-13

    To date, quantum sources in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region have been obtained only in semiconductor quantum dots. Color centers in wide bandgap materials may represent a more effective alternative. However, the quest for UV quantum emitters in bulk crystals faces the difficulty of combining an efficient UV excitation/detection optical setup with the capability of addressing individual color centers in potentially highly defective materials. In this work we overcome this limit by employing an original experimental setup coupling cathodoluminescence within a scanning transmission electron microscope to a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer. We identify a new extremely bright UV single photon emitter (4.1 eV) in hexagonal boron nitride. Hyperspectral cathodoluminescence maps show a high spatial localization of the emission (∼80 nm) and a typical zero-phonon line plus phonon replica spectroscopic signature, indicating a point defect origin, most likely carbon substitutional at nitrogen sites. An additional nonsingle-photon broad emission may appear in the same spectral region, which can be attributed to intrinsic defects related to electron irradiation.

  8. High brightness EUV sources based on laser plasma at using droplet liquid metal target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-05-01

    We present the study of a source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation based on laser plasma generated due to the interaction of radiation from a nanosecond Nd : YAG laser with a liquidmetal droplet target consisting of a low-temperature eutectic indium–tin alloy. The generator of droplets is constructed using a commercial nozzle and operates on the principle of forced capillary jet decomposition. Long-term spatial stability of the centre-of-mass position of the droplet with the root-mean-square deviation of ~0.5 μm is demonstrated. The use of a low-temperature working substance instead of pure tin increases the reliability and lifetime of the droplet generator. For the time- and space-averaged power density of laser radiation on the droplet target 4 × 1011 W cm-2 and the diameter of radiating plasma ~80 μm, the mean efficiency of conversion of laser energy into the energy of EUV radiation at 13.5 +/- 0.135 nm equal to 2.3% (2π sr)-1 is achieved. Using the doublepulse method, we have modelled the repetitively pulsed regime of the source operation and demonstrated the possibility of its stable functioning with the repetition rate up to 8 kHz for the droplet generation repetition rate of more than 32 kHz, which will allow the source brightness to be as large as ~0.96 kW (mm2 sr)-1.

  9. High brightness EUV sources based on laser plasma at using droplet liquid metal target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-05-01

    We present the study of a source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation based on laser plasma generated due to the interaction of radiation from a nanosecond Nd : YAG laser with a liquidmetal droplet target consisting of a low-temperature eutectic indium-tin alloy. The generator of droplets is constructed using a commercial nozzle and operates on the principle of forced capillary jet decomposition. Long-term spatial stability of the centre-of-mass position of the droplet with the root-mean-square deviation of ~0.5 μm is demonstrated. The use of a low-temperature working substance instead of pure tin increases the reliability and lifetime of the droplet generator. For the time- and space-averaged power density of laser radiation on the droplet target 4 × 1011 W cm-2 and the diameter of radiating plasma ~80 μm, the mean efficiency of conversion of laser energy into the energy of EUV radiation at 13.5 +/- 0.135 nm equal to 2.3% (2π sr)-1 is achieved. Using the doublepulse method, we have modelled the repetitively pulsed regime of the source operation and demonstrated the possibility of its stable functioning with the repetition rate up to 8 kHz for the droplet generation repetition rate of more than 32 kHz, which will allow the source brightness to be as large as ~0.96 kW (mm2 sr)-1.

  10. The effect of surface brightness dimming in the selection of high-z galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Calvi, V.; Stiavelli, M.; Bradley, L.; Pizzella, A.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    Cosmological surface brightness (SB) dimming of the form (1 + z){sup –4} affects all sources. The strong dependence of SB dimming on redshift z suggests the presence of a selection bias when searching for high-z galaxies, i.e., we tend to detect only those galaxies with a high SB. However, unresolved knots of emission are not affected by SB dimming, thus providing a way to test the clumpiness of high-z galaxies. Our strategy relies on the comparison of the total flux detected for the same source in surveys characterized by different depth. For all galaxies, deeper images permit the better investigation of low-SB features. Cosmological SB dimming makes these low-SB features hard to detect when going to higher and higher redshifts. We used the GOODS and HUDF Hubble Space Telescope legacy data sets to study the effect of SB dimming on low-SB features of high-z galaxies and compare it to the prediction for smooth sources. We selected a sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 4 (i.e., B {sub 435}-band dropouts) detected in all of the data sets and found no significant trend when comparing the total magnitudes measured from images with different depth. Through Monte Carlo simulations we derived the expected trend for galaxies with different SB profiles. The comparison to the data hints at a compact distribution for most of the rest-frame ultraviolet light emitted from high-z galaxies.

  11. DISCOVERY OF A BRIGHT, EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARF IN A CLOSE DOUBLE DEGENERATE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Nemeth, P.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Skinner, J. N.; Pigulski, A.; Steslicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-08-10

    We report the discovery of a bright (V {approx} 13.7), extremely low mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M{sub sun} and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P = 0.246137 days, K{sub 1} = 288 km s{sup -1}) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M{sub 2} {approx} 0.9 M{sub sun}. Light curves phased with the orbital ephemeris show evidence of relativistic beaming and weaker ellipsoidal variations. The light curves also reveal secondary eclipses (depth {approx}8 mmag) while the primary eclipses appear partially compensated by the secondary gravitational deflection and are below detection limits. Photospheric abundance measurements show a nearly solar composition of Si, Ca, and Fe (0.1-1 sun), while the normal kinematics suggest a relatively recent formation history. Close binary evolutionary scenarios suggest that extremely low mass white dwarfs form via a common-envelope phase and possible Roche lobe overflow.

  12. DR Tauri: Temporal variability of the brightness distribution in the potential planet-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunngräber, R.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, Th.; Ober, F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the variability of the brightness distribution and the changing density structure of the protoplanetary disk around DR Tau, a classical T Tauri star. DR Tau is known for its peculiar variations from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR). Our goal is to constrain the temporal variation of the disk structure based on photometric and MIR interferometric data. Methods: We observed DR Tau with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at three epochs separated by about nine years, two months, respectively. We fit the spectral energy distribution and the MIR visibilities with radiative transfer simulations. Results: We are able to reproduce the spectral energy distribution as well as the MIR visibility for one of the three epochs (third epoch) with a basic disk model. We were able to reproduce the very different visibility curve obtained nine years earlier with a very similar baseline (first epoch), using the same disk model with a smaller scale height. The same density distribution also reproduces the observation made with a higher spatial resolution in the second epoch, i.e. only two months before the third epoch. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under the programs 074.C-0342(A) and 092.C-0726(A,B).

  13. Hyperspectral bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) imaging of aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2006-10-01

    Aflatoxin contaminated corn poses a serious threat to both domestic animals and humans, because of its carcinogenic properties. Traditionally, corn kernels have been examined for evidence of bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF), which is an indication of possible presence of Aspergillus flavus, one of the aflatoxin producing strains of fungi, when illuminated with a high-intensity ultra-violet light. The BGYF test is typically the first step that leads to an in-depth chemical analysis for possible aflatoxin contamination. The objective of the present study was to analyze hyperspectral BGYF response of corn kernels under UVA excitation. The target corn samples were collected from a commercial corn field in 2005 and showed abundant BGYF response. The BGYF positive kernels were manually picked out and imaged under a visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system under UV radiation with excitation wavelength centered at 365 nm. Initial results exhibited strong emission spectra with peaks centered from 500 nm to 515 nm wavelength range for BGYF positive kernels. Aflatoxin levels on the BGYF positive and negative corn kernels (used as control) were measured subsequently with high performance liquid chromatography. The mean aflatoxin concentration level was 5114 ppb for the BGYF positive and undetectable for the normal kernels.

  14. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun

    2009-04-01

    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation therapy and UVR dose models

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, David Robert

    2015-01-15

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been an effective treatment for a number of chronic skin disorders, and its ability to alleviate these conditions has been well documented. Although nonionizing, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is still damaging to deoxyribonucleic acid integrity, and has a number of unpleasant side effects ranging from erythema (sunburn) to carcinogenesis. As the conditions treated with this therapy tend to be chronic, exposures are repeated and can be high, increasing the lifetime probability of an adverse event or mutagenic effect. Despite the potential detrimental effects, quantitative ultraviolet dosimetry for phototherapy is an underdeveloped area and better dosimetry would allow clinicians to maximize biological effect whilst minimizing the repercussions of overexposure. This review gives a history and insight into the current state of UVR phototherapy, including an overview of biological effects of UVR, a discussion of UVR production, illness treated by this modality, cabin design and the clinical implementation of phototherapy, as well as clinical dose estimation techniques. Several dose models for ultraviolet phototherapy are also examined, and the need for an accurate computational dose estimation method in ultraviolet phototherapy is discussed.

  16. [Health effects of ultraviolet radiation].

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, T

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) occurs from both natural and artificial sources. The main natural source is the sun. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources are widely used in industry and also used in hospitals, laboratories, etc. because of their germicidal properties. They are even used for cosmetic purposes. UVR can be classified into three regions according to its wavelength: as UVA (320-400nm), UVB (320-280nm) and UVC (280-200nm). The UVC has the greatest health effect on humans among the three. The sun radiates a wide range of spectrum of electromagnetic radiation including the UVR, however the radiation below 290 nm in wavelength does not reach the surface of the earth for effective absorption by the stratospheric ozone layer. As a result, UVR from a natural source consists of only UVA and a part of UVB. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources include UVC region and have serious effects on the human body, especially on the skin and eyes. The health effects of UVR on humans can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the amount and form of UVR, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed. It has been acknowledged that a long period of UVR deficiency may have harmful effects on the human body, such as the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in children due to a disturbance in the phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Appropriate measures to increase the amount of exposure to UVR, especially to UVB radiation by the use of sun bathing, the exposure to artificial UVR sources, etc. have shown to prevent disease states caused by UVR deficiency. The harmful effects of UVR consist of erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancer is commonly produced by UVR. In this review, various states of UV from solar radiation and the degree of exposure to UVR are introduced. The benefits and harmful health effects of

  17. [The current state of research in bright light therapy].

    PubMed

    Bassa, Daniela; Canazei, Markus; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The significance of light for the human organism and especially for the mental health is well-established for a long time. Therefore, the impact of light on mood and the use of bright light as a treatment-option for affective disorders have been studied extensively by scientists. Today bright light therapy is the treatment of choice for saisonal affective disorders. In the last years several clinical trials could demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of bright light therapy for different neurological and psychiatric disorders such as sleep disorders, non-seasonal affective disorders or dementia. This article will give an overview about the neurobiological basis for light therapy and discuss different disorders responsive to light therapy. Finally a short overview about technical aspects of light therapy and new developments in light engineering will be presented.

  18. The effect of cirrus clouds on 118-GHz brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinman, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave radiative transfer model that describes the effect of scattering by cirrus clouds on the brightness temperatures that may be measured by a geostationary temperature-sounding radiometer has been developed. The model assumes that cirrus clouds are situated at an altitude where the temperature is about 230 K above completely absorbing land surfaces. It is shown that the brightness temperature at 118.75 + or - 3.9 GHz is depressed by 0.3-0.4 K per g per sq m of ice. The channels that operate at frequencies closer to 118.75 GHz are less affected by cirrus clouds. The brightness temperature reduction is most pronounced in warm temperate and tropical conditions.

  19. New low surface brightness dwarf galaxies detected around nearby spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Riepe, P.; Zilch, T.; Blauensteiner, M.; Elvov, M.; Hochleitner, P.; Hubl, B.; Kerschhuber, G.; Küppers, S.; Neyer, F.; Pölzl, R.; Remmel, P.; Schneider, O.; Sparenberg, R.; Trulson, U.; Willems, G.; Ziegler, H.

    2015-10-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26ṃ1/□″. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC891 and NGC2683.

  20. A catalog of low surface brightness galaxies - List II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schombert, James M.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schneider, Stephen E.; Mcgaugh, Stacy S.

    1992-01-01

    A list of galaxies characterized by low surface brightness (LSB) is presented which facilitates the recognition of galaxies with brightnesses close to that of the sky. A total of 198 objects and 140 objects are listed in the primary and secondary catalogs respectively, and LSB galaxies are examined by means of H I redshift distributions. LSB disk galaxies are shown to have similar sizes and masses as the high-surface-brightness counterparts, and ellipticals and SOs are rarely encountered. Many LSB spirals have stellarlike nuclei, and most of the galaxies in the present catalog are late-type galaxies in the Sc, Sm, and Im classes. The LSB region of observational parameter space is shown to encompass a spectrum of types as full as that of the Hubble sequence. It is suggested that studies of LSB galaxies can provide important data regarding the formation and star-formation history of all galaxies.

  1. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  2. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  3. The possible origin of facular brightness in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the dependence of the Ca ii H line core brightness on the strength and inclination of the photospheric magnetic field, and on the parameters of convective and wave motions in a facular region at the center of the solar disc. We use three simultaneous data sets that were obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife): (1) spectra of Ba ii 4554 Å line, registered with the instrument TESOS to measure the variations of intensity and velocity through the photosphere up to the temperature minimum; (2) spectropolarimetric data in Fe i 1.56 μm lines (registered with the instrument TIP II) to measure photospheric magnetic fields; (3) filtergrams in Ca ii H that give information about brightness fluctuations in the chromosphere. The results show that the Ca ii H brightness in the facula strongly depends on the power of waves with periods in the 5-min range, which propagate upwards, and also on the phase shift between velocity oscillations at the bottom photosphere and around the temperature minimum height that is measured from Ba ii line. The Ca ii H brightness is maximum at locations where the phase shift between temperature and velocity oscillations lies within 0°-100°. There is an indirect influence of convective motions on the Ca ii H brightness. The higher the amplitude of convective velocities is and the greater the height is where they change their direction of motion, the brighter the facula. In summary, our results lead to conclusions that facular regions appear bright not only because of the Wilson depression in magnetic structures, but also owing to real heating.

  4. Bright and dark excitons in semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    We report electronic structure calculations of finite-length semiconducting carbon nanotubes using the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the time dependent Hartree Fock (TD-HF) approach coupled with semiempirical AM1 and ZINDO Hamiltonians. We specifically focus on the energy splitting, relative ordering, and localization properties of the optically active (bright) and optically forbidden (dark) states from the lowest excitonic band of the nanotubes. These excitonic states are very important in competing radiative and non-radiative processes in these systems. Our analysis of excitonic transition density matrices demonstrates that pure DFT functionals overdelocalize excitons making an electron-hole pair unbound; consequently, excitonic features are not presented in this method. In contrast, the pure HF and A111 calculations overbind excitons inaccurately predicting the lowest energy state as a bright exciton. Changing AM1 with ZINDO Hamiltonian in TD-HF calculations, predicts the bright exciton as the second state after the dark one. However, in contrast to AM1 calculations, the diameter dependence of the excitation energies obtained by ZINDO does not follow the experimental trends. Finally, the TD-DFT approach incorporating hybrid functions with a moderate portion of the long-range HF exchange, such as B3LYP, has the most generality and predictive capacity providing a sufficiently accurate description of excitonic structure in finite-size nanotubes. These methods characterize four important lower exciton bands. The lowest state is dark, the upper band is bright, and the two other dark and nearly degenerate excitons lie in-between. Although the calculated energy splittings between the lowest dark and the bright excitons are relatively large ({approx}0.1 eV), the dense excitonic manifold below the bright exciton allows for fast non-radiative relaxation leasing to the fast population of the lowest dark exciton. This rationalizes the low

  5. Effects of bright light treatment on psychomotor speed in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tulppo, Mikko P.; Jurvelin, Heidi; Roivainen, Eka; Nissilä, Juuso; Hautala, Arto J.; Kiviniemi, Antti M.; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.; Takala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north) when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days). A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both) treatment was given every morning between 8 and 12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time × group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024) but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308). Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year. PMID:24860513

  6. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe

    2012-04-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  7. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  8. Dark dyes-bright complexes: fluorogenic protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Bruchez, Marcel P

    2015-08-01

    Complexes formed between organic dyes and genetically encoded proteins combine the advantages of stable and tunable fluorescent molecules and targetable, biologically integrated labels. To overcome the challenges imposed by labeling with bright fluorescent dyes, a number of approaches now exploit chemical or environmental changes to control the properties of a bound dye, converting dyes from a weakly fluorescent state to a bright, easily detectable complex. Optimized, such approaches avoid the need for removal of unbound dyes, facilitate rapid and simple assays in cultured cells and enable hybrid labeling to function more robustly in living model organisms.

  9. The brightness variations of Comet Halley at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flammer, K. R.; Jackson, B.; Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the intrinsic brightness variations of up to 500 percent on time scales as short as a few hours detected by Sekanina (1984) in Comet Halley between October 1982 and February 1984 are discussed. It is shown that solar wind-modulated electrostatic dust blowoff from the night side of the comet is consistent with the observed brightness variations. The variations coincide with the encounter of high-speed streams with the comet. The stream's propagation time to the comet and the sun's rotation during this transit were used to locate the stream origin on the coronal surface, and the results are shown.

  10. Implications of Titan's north-south brightness asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Krauss, R. J.; Limaye, S. S.; Revercomb, H. E.; Pollack, J. B.; Owen, T.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 images of Titan, when normalized to remove limb darkening, reveal an axially symmetric brightness pattern with significant north-south asymmetry. This interhemispheric contrast seems to be a response to seasonal solar heating variations resulting from Titan's inclined spin axis. The contrast significantly lags the solar forcing, indicating that its production involves the atmosphere well below the unit optical depth level. The contrast has a significant effect on Titan's disk-integrated brightness as seen from earth, and probably accounts for most of the observed long term variation, with solar UV variations accounting for the remainder.

  11. High-brightness displays in integrated weapon sight systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Tim; Hogan, Tim

    2014-06-01

    In the past several years Kopin has demonstrated the ability to provide ultra-high brightness, low power display solutions in VGA, SVGA, SXGA and 2k x 2k display formats. This paper will review various approaches for integrating high brightness overlay displays with existing direct view rifle sights and augmenting their precision aiming and targeting capability. Examples of overlay display systems solutions will be presented and discussed. This paper will review significant capability enhancements that are possible when augmenting the real-world as seen through a rifle sight with other soldier system equipment including laser range finders, ballistic computers and sensor systems.

  12. A bright PPKTP waveguide source of polarization entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Fanto, Michael; Tison, Christoper C.; Holwand, Gregory A; Preble, Dr. Stefan F; Alsing, Paul; Smith IV, Amos M

    2015-01-01

    The need for bright efficient sources of entangled photons has been a subject of tremendous research over the last decade. Researchers have been working to increase the brightness and purity to help overcome the spontaneous nature of the sources. Periodic poling has been implemented to allow for the use of crystals that would not normally satisfy the phase matching conditions. Utilizing periodic poling and single mode waveguide confinement of the pump field has yielded extremely large effective nonlinearities in sources easily producing millions of photon pairs. Here we will demonstrate these large nonlinearity effects in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) waveguide as well as characterizing the source purity.

  13. Maximum voltage gradient, uniformity and brightness of dispenser cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Green, M.C.; Miram, G.V.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Initial measurements of current uniformity and intrinsic cathode brightness are presented a 5.1 cm diameter osmium alloy coated dispenser cathode. The data are obtained with a planar diode driven with a 35ns Blumlein pulse line. Pepper pot images are observed with a fast phosphor and gated camera. The current density and beamlet divergence angle are uniform within +-10% and a brightness J = 1.6E10A/m/sup 2/rad/sup 2/ is observed at a current density j=44A/cm/sup 2/. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Are solar brightness variations faculae- or spot-dominated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Yeo, K. L.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Regular spaceborne measurements have revealed that solar brightness varies on multiple timescales, variations on timescales greater than a day being attributed to a surface magnetic field. Independently, ground-based and spaceborne measurements suggest that Sun-like stars show a similar, but significantly broader pattern of photometric variability. Aims: To understand whether the broader pattern of stellar variations is consistent with the solar paradigm, we assess relative contributions of faculae and spots to solar magnetically-driven brightness variability. We investigate how the solar brightness variability and its facular and spot contributions depend on the wavelength, timescale of variability, and position of the observer relative to the ecliptic plane. Methods: We performed calculations with the SATIRE model, which returns solar brightness with daily cadence from solar disc area coverages of various magnetic features. We took coverages as seen by an Earth-based observer from full-disc SoHO/MDI and SDO/HMI data and projected them to mimic out-of-ecliptic viewing by an appropriate transformation. Results: Moving the observer away from the ecliptic plane increases the amplitude of 11-year variability as it would be seen in Strömgren (b + y)/2 photometry, but decreases the amplitude of the rotational brightness variations as it would appear in Kepler and CoRoT passbands. The spot and facular contributions to the 11-year solar variability in the Strömgren (b + y)/2 photometry almost fully compensate each other so that the Sun appears anomalously quiet with respect to its stellar cohort. Such a compensation does not occur on the rotational timescale. Conclusions: The rotational solar brightness variability as it would appear in the Kepler and CoRoT passbands from the ecliptic plane is spot-dominated, but the relative contribution of faculae increases for out-of-ecliptic viewing so that the apparent brightness variations are faculae-dominated for

  15. Rocket observations of the diffuse ultraviolet background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakobsen, P.; Bowyer, S.; Kimble, R.; Jelinsky, P.; Grewing, M.; Kraemer, G.; Wulf-Mathies, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the experiment reported here was to obtain additional information on the absolute intensity level and spatial variation of the diffuse ultraviolet background and thereby gain insight into the origin of this radiation. The experiment used three ultraviolet sensitive photometers placed in the focal plane of a 95-cm, f/2.8 normal incidence telescope flown on board an Aries sounding rocket. The measured intensities clearly refute the hypothesis of an isotropic background, the intensities of the high galactic latitude being definitely lower than the intensities seen at intermediate latitudes. Moreover, the count rates in all three channels along the slow scan exhibit local enhancements as well as an overall trend. In general, the spatial variations exhibited by the data correlate with the line of sight of neutral hydrogen column density as determined from 21-cm radio observations. This fact demonstrates that there is a galactic component to the diffuse ultraviolet radiation field.

  16. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  17. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  18. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  19. Improved Radiometry For Extreme-ultraviolet Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Tarrio, C.; Vest, R.E.; Grantham, S.; Liu, K.; Lucatorto, T.B.; Shaw, P.S.

    2004-05-12

    The absolute cryogenic radiometer (ACR), an electrical-substitution-based detector, is the most accurate method for measurement of radiant power in the extreme ultraviolet. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology, ACR-based measurements are currently used as standards from the infrared and into the vacuum ultraviolet, however, no radiometric facilities are currently in operation with enough incident power to use an ACR in the extreme-ultraviolet region. Therefore, we have installed transfer optics on an existing beamline to allow the installation of the ACR as an additional endstation. We will describe the current radiometric beamline, the ACR, and the high-throughput beamline, and the transfer-optical system. Finally, we will present the performance of the transfer optics and measurements of the beam profile and incident power of the new endstation.

  20. GALEX 1st Light Near Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image was taken on May 21 and 22 by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image was made from data gathered during the missions 'first light' milestone, and shows celestial objects in the constellation Hercules. The objects shown represent those detected by the camera's near ultraviolet channel over a 5-minute period. The radial streaks at the edge of the image are due to stars reflecting from the near ultraviolet detector window.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's first light images are dedicated to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Hercules region was directly above Columbia when it made its last contact with NASA Mission Control on February 1, over the skies of Texas.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer launched on April 28 on a mission to map the celestial sky in the ultraviolet and determine the history of star formation in the universe over the last 10 billion years.

  1. Far ultraviolet excitation processes in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.; Opal, C. B.; Meier, R. R.; Nicolas, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent observations of atomic oxygen and carbon in the far ultraviolet spectrum of comet Kohoutek have demonstrated the existence of these atomic species in the cometary coma. However, in order to identify the source of their origin, it is necessary to relate the observed ultraviolet flux to the atomic production rate. Analyses of observed OI wavelength 1304 and CI wavelength 1657 A multiplets have been carried out using high resolution solar spectra. Also examined is the possibility of observing ultraviolet fluorescence from molecules such as CO and H2, as well as resonance scattering either from atomic ions for which there are strong corresponding solar lines (CII) or from atoms for which there is an accidental wavelength coincidence (SI).

  2. SOLAR Ultraviolet Radiation AND Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Greenspan, Susan L.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Holick, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Rickets, the state of vitamin D deficiency, has reemerged as a potential problem in the United States. At the dawn of the 20th century, rickets was pervasive among infants residing in the polluted cities of Europe and the northeastern United States. Important milestones in the history of rickets were the understanding that photosynthesized vitamin D and dietary vitamin D were similar, the discernment of the antirachitic potency of artificial and natural ultraviolet rays, and the discovery that ultraviolet irradiation could render various foods antirachitic. Clinical guidelines were instituted to promote sensible exposure to sunlight and artificial ultraviolet radiation. In addition, irradiated ergosterol from yeast became the major vitamin D source for food fortification and the treatment of rickets, leading to a public health campaign to eradicate rickets by the 1930s. We review the sequence and turn of events pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D and the strategies for the eradication of the reemerging rickets problem. PMID:17761571

  3. Modelling and Display of the Ultraviolet Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, J.; Henry, R.; Murthy, J.; Allen, M.; McGlynn, T. A.; Scollick, K.

    1994-12-01

    A computer program is currently under development to model in 3D - one dimension of which is wavelength - all the known and major speculated sources of ultraviolet (900 A - 3100 A ) radiation over the celestial sphere. The software is being written in Fortran 77 and IDL and currently operates under IRIX (the operating system of the Silicon Graphics Iris Machine); all output models are in FITS format. Models along with display software will become available to the astronomical community. The Ultraviolet Sky Model currently includes the Zodiacal Light, Point Sources of Emission, and the Diffuse Galactic Light. The Ultraviolet Sky Model is currently displayed using SkyView: a package under development at NASA/ GSFC, which allows users to retrieve and display publically available all-sky astronomical survey data (covering many wavebands) over the Internet. We present a demonstration of the SkyView display of the Ultraviolet Model. The modelling is a five year development project: the work illustrated here represents product output at the end of year one. Future work includes enhancements to the current models and incorporation of the following models: Galactic Molecular Hydrogen Fluorescence; Galactic Highly Ionized Atomic Line Emission; Integrated Extragalactic Light; and speculated sources in the intergalactic medium such as Ionized Plasma and radiation from Non-Baryonic Particle Decay. We also present a poster which summarizes the components of the Ultraviolet Sky Model and outlines a further package that will be used to display the Ultraviolet Model. This work is supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004. Dr J. Daniels is supported with a post-doctoral Fellowship from the Leverhulme Foundation, London, United Kingdom. We are also grateful for the encouragement of Dr Stephen Price (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, MA)

  4. Extremely Low Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures Due to Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme events by their nature fall outside the bounds of routine experience. With imperfect or ambiguous measuring systems, it is appropriate to question whether an unusual measurement represents an extreme event or is the result of instrument errors or other sources of noise. About three weeks after the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite began collecting data in Dec 1997, a thunderstorm was observed over northern Argentina with 85 GHz brightness temperatures below 50 K and 37 GHz brightness temperatures below 70 K (Zipser et al. 2006). These values are well below what had previously been observed from satellite sensors with lower resolution. The 37 GHz brightness temperatures are also well below those measured by TRMM for any other storm in the subsequent 16 years. Without corroborating evidence, it would be natural to suspect a problem with the instrument, or perhaps an irregularity with the platform during the first weeks of the satellite mission. Automated quality control flags or other procedures in retrieval algorithms could treat these measurements as errors, because they fall outside the expected bounds. But the TRMM satellite also carries a radar and a lightning sensor, both confirming the presence of an intense thunderstorm. The radar recorded 40+ dBZ reflectivity up to about 19 km altitude. More than 200 lightning flashes per minute were recorded. That same storm's 19 GHz brightness temperatures below 150 K would normally be interpreted as the result of a low-emissivity water surface (e.g., a lake, or flood waters) if not for the simultaneous measurements of such intense convection. This paper will examine records from TRMM and related satellite sensors including SSMI, AMSR-E, and the new GMI to find the strongest signatures resulting from thunderstorms, and distinguishing those from sources of noise. The lowest brightness temperatures resulting from thunderstorms as seen by TRMM have been in Argentina in November and December. For

  5. Ozone/Ultraviolet-Photo-Oxidation Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Ari Ben; Agthe, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental chemical-processing system destroys waste hydrazine in water by use of ozone in ultraviolet-photo-oxidation reactor. New process reduces concentrations of hydrazines and intermediate decomposition products in effluent liquid and gas to below limit of detectability. Liquid sprayed in reaction chamber past ultraviolet lamps, against flow of oxygen and ozone. Hydrazines and intermediate decomposition products oxidized to harmless substances. Effectiveness and speed of process depends on maintenance of circulating liquid at correct pH, determines lower limit of oxidation by ozone.

  6. Far and extreme ultraviolet astronomy with ORFEUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, G.; Barnstedt, J.; Eberhard, N.; Grewing, M.; Gringel, W.; Haas, C.; Kaelble, A.; Kappelmann, N.; Petrik, J.; Appenzeller, I.

    1990-01-01

    ORFEUS (Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer) is a 1 m normal incidence telescope for spectroscopic investigations of cosmic sources in the far and extreme ultraviolet spectral range. The instrument will be integrated into the freeflyer platform ASTRO-SPAS. ORFEUS-SPAS is scheduled with STS ENDEAVOUR in September 1992. We describe the telescope with its two spectrometer and their capabilities i.e., spectral range, resolution and overall sensitivity. The main classes of objects to be observed with the instrument are discussed and two examples of simulated spectra for the white dwarf HZ43 and an O9-star in LMC are shown.

  7. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  8. Ultraviolet colors of old LMC clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, A. P.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    1992-01-01

    New ultraviolet spectra for five red LMC globular clusters have been obtained with IUE. These have been supplemented with archival spectra for eleven old LMC clusters. These data strengthen and extend the UV-color versus age relation for clusters older than about 10 exp 9 yr, but do not offer much precision in age determination, presumably because the ultraviolet colors of the oldest clusters depend strongly on the horizontal-branch morphology. Comparison of LMC data with UV colors for the brightest M31 clusters suggests their ages might be only a few gigayears.

  9. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph on the Europa Mission (Europa-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A.; Davis, M. W.; Feldman, P. D.; McGrath, M. A.; Roth, L.; Saur, J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Pope, S.; Freeman, M. A.; Persyn, S. C.; Araujo, M. F.; Cortinas, S. C.; Monreal, R. M.; Persson, K. B.; Trantham, B. J.; Versteeg, M. H.; Walther, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Europa multi-flyby mission is designed to provide a diversity of measurements suited to enrich our understanding of the potential habitability of this intriguing ocean world. The Europa mission's Ultraviolet Spectrograph, Europa-UVS, is the sixth in a series of successful ultraviolet imaging spectrographs (Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons Pluto-Alice, LRO-LAMP) and, like JUICE-UVS (now under Phase B development), is largely based on the most recent of these to fly, Juno-UVS. Europa-UVS observes photons in the 55-210 nm wavelength range, at moderate spectral and spatial resolution along a 7.5° slit. Three distinct apertures send light to the off-axis telescope mirror feeding the long-slit spectrograph: i) a main entrance airglow port is used for most observations (e.g., airglow, aurora, surface mapping, and stellar occultations); ii) a high-spatial-resolution port consists of a small hole in an additional aperture door, and is used for detailed observations of bright targets; and iii) a separate solar port allows for solar occultations, viewing at a 60° offset from the nominal payload boresight. Photon event time-tagging (pixel list mode) and programmable spectral imaging (histogram mode) allow for observational flexibility and optimal science data management. As on Juno-UVS, the effects of penetrating electron radiation on electronic parts and data quality are mitigated through contiguous shielding, filtering of pulse height amplitudes, management of high-voltage settings, and careful use of radiation-hard parts. The science goals of Europa-UVS are to: 1) Determine the composition & chemistry, source & sinks, and structure & variability of Europa's atmosphere, from equator to pole; 2) Search for and characterize active plumes in terms of global distribution, structure, composition, and variability; 3) Explore the surface composition & microphysics and their relation to endogenic & exogenic processes; and 4) Investigate how energy and mass flow in the Europa

  10. A New z = 0 Metagalactic Ultraviolet Background Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Uson, Juan M.; Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2011-02-01

    We present new integral-field spectroscopy in the outskirts of two nearby, edge-on, late-type galaxies to search for the Hα emission that is expected from the exposure of their hydrogen gas to the metagalactic ultraviolet background (UVB). Despite the sensitivity of the VIRUS-P spectrograph on the McDonald 2.7 m telescope to low surface brightness emission and the large field of view, we do not detect Hα to 5σ upper limits of 6.4 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in UGC 7321 and of 25 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in UGC 1281 in each of the hundreds of independent spatial elements (fibers). We fit gas distribution models from overlapping 21 cm data of H I, extrapolate one scale length beyond the H I data, and estimate predicted Hα surface brightness maps. We analyze three types of limits from the data with stacks formed from increasingly large spatial regions and compare to the model predictions: (1) single fibers, (2) convolution of the fiber grid with a Gaussian, circular kernel (10'' full width at half-maximum), and (3) the co-added spectra from a few hundred fibers over the brightest model regions. None of these methods produce a significant detection (>5σ) with the most stringent constraints on the H I photoionization rate of Γ(z = 0) < 1.7 × 10-14 s-1 in UGC 7321 and Γ(z = 0) < 14 × 10-14 s-1 in UGC 1281. The UGC 7321 limit is below previous measurement limits and also below current theoretical models. Restricting the analysis to the fibers bound by the H I data leads to a comparable limit; the limit is Γ(z = 0) < 2.3 × 10-14 s-1 in UGC 7321. We discuss how a low Lyman limit escape fraction in z ~ 0 redshift star-forming galaxies might explain this lower than predicted UVB strength and the prospects of deeper data to make a direct detection. This paper includes data taken at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  11. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin E-mail: ammanning@bama.ua.edu E-mail: Twitter@BenneHolwerda E-mail: Twitter@chrislintott E-mail: Twitter@kevinschawinski

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread

  12. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    Astrophysicist Freeman J. Dyson from the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton characterizes IUE as "A little half-meter mirror sitting in the sky, unnoticed by the public, pouring out results". By use of the IUE satellite, astronomers obtain access to the ultraviolet radiation of celestial bodies in unique ways not available by any other means, neither from the ground nor by any other spacecraft currently in orbit. IUE serves a wide community of astronomers all over Europe, the United States and many other parts of the world. It allows the acquisition of critical data for fundamental studies of comets and their evaporation when they approach the Sun, of the mechanisms driving the stellar winds which make many stars lose a significant fraction of their mass (before they die slowly as White Dwarfs or in sudden Supernova explosions), as well as in the search to understand the ways in which black holes possibly power the violent nuclei of Active galaxies. One year ago the project was threatened with termination and serious concern was expressed by astronomers about the potential loss of IUE's capabilities, as a result of NASA not continuing to operate the spacecraft. Under the leadership of ESA, the three Agencies involved in the operations of IUE (ESA, NASA and the United Kingdom's Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, PPARC), reviewed the operations agreements of the Project. A minor investment allowing the implementation of modern management and engineering techniques as well as a complete revision of the communication infrastructure of the project and continuous improvements in efficiency in the ESA management, also taking advantage of today's technologies, both in computing and communications, have made it possible to continue IUE operations within the financial means available, with ESA taking up most of NASA's share in the operations. According to Dr. Willem Wamsteker, ESA's Dutch IUE Project Scientist, "it was a extremely interesting

  13. Plasmonic enhancement of ultraviolet fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaojin

    Plasmonics relates to the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons at metallic interfaces or in metallic nanostructures. Surface plasmons are collective electron oscillations at a metal surface, which can be manipulated by shape, texture and material composition. Plasmonic applications cover a broad spectrum from visible to near infrared, including biosensing, nanolithography, spectroscopy, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and so on. However, there remains a gap in this activity in the ultraviolet (UV, < 400 nm), where significant opportunity exists for both fundamental and application research. Motivating factors in the study of UV Plasmonics are the direct access to biomolecular resonances and native fluorescence, resonant Raman scattering interactions, and the potential for exerting control over photochemical reactions. This dissertation aims to fill in the gap of Plasmonics in the UV with efforts of design, fabrication and characterization of aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) nanostructures for the application of label-free bimolecular detection via native UV fluorescence. The first contribution of this dissertation addresses the design of Al nanostructures in the context of UV fluorescence enhancement. A design method that combines analytical analysis with numerical simulation has been developed. Performance of three canonical plasmonic structures---the dipole antenna, bullseye nanoaperture and nanoaperture array---has been compared. The optimal geometrical parameters have been determined. A novel design of a compound bullseye structure has been proposed and numerically analyzed for the purpose of compensating for the large Stokes shift typical of UV fluorescence. Second, UV lifetime modification of diffusing molecules by Al nanoapertures has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Lifetime reductions of ~3.5x have been observed for the high quantum yield (QY) laser dye p-terphenyl in a 60 nm diameter aperture with 50

  14. A transmitting and reflecting diffuser for ultraviolet light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P.

    1972-01-01

    Fabrication of ultraviolet radiation diffusing layer in configuration that uses ultraviolet properties of fused silica condensate is discussed. Construction and operation of the device are described. Diagram of reflecting diffuser to show construction and method of operation is included.

  15. View of Gemini 11 experiment S-13 Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    View of Gemini 11 experiment S-13 Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera before flight. Its object was to obtain data on ultraviolet radiation of hot stars and to develop and evaluate basic techniques for photography of celestial objects from manned spacecraft.

  16. Thermal neutron image intensifier tube provides brightly visible radiographic pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, H.; Kraska, I.; Niklas, W.; Schmidt, A.

    1967-01-01

    Vacuum-type neutron image intensifier tube improves image detection in thermal neutron radiographic inspection. This system converts images to an electron image, and with electron acceleration and demagnification between the input target and output screen, produces a bright image viewed through a closed circuit television system.

  17. High-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannibale, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    High brightness electron sources have been one of the driving forces behind the spectacular results achieved in the last decade by accelerator-based applications. Indeed, X-Ray FELs, with their 10-fold orders of magnitude increase in peak brightness, probably represent the best example of it. New ambitious proposals for X-ray FELs and ERLs, as well as inverse Compton sources for X- or gamma-ray production, are now requiring operation at MHz-GHz repetition rates. In response to that, a number of groups around the world have been actively working in developing high-brightness high-duty cycle electron injectors capable of driving such machines. The high repetition rate requirement cannot be met by the existing low-repetition rate high-brightness injector schemes, and new technologies are under investigation. This paper includes a description of the requirements for such injectors, an overview of the pursued technologies and schemes, a description of the main beam dynamics issues associated with the different choices, and a number of examples of the results obtained so far by the groups active in the field.

  18. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  19. Apollo experiment S-211 low brightness, astronomical photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The low brightness image analysis for the Apollo flights is reported. The objectives of Experiment S-21 are discussed along with the photographic equipment, and the data processing and analysis flow are presented. Photographic data for Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 are included.

  20. Low surface brightness galaxies and tidally triggered star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Lorrimer, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    Counts of companions to low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented and these are compared to counts of companions to normal galaxies obtained with the same techniques and criteria. Our results are consistent with LSB's having no clustered companions and support the hypothesis that LSB galaxies have low star-formation rates because they lack external tidal triggering.