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Sample records for albemarle-pamlico drainage basin

  1. Nutrient mass balance for the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Woodside, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A 1990 nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance calculated for eight National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) basins in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin indicated the importance of agricultural nonpoint sources of nitrogen and phosphorus and watershed nitrogen retention and processing capabilities. Basin total nitrogen and phosphorus input estimates were calculated for atmospheric deposition (which averaged 27 percent of total nitrogen inputs and 22 percent of total phosphorus inputs); crop fertilizer (27 and 25 percent); animal-waste (22 and 50 percent, respectively); point sources (3 percent each of total nitrogen and total phosphorus inputs); and biological nitrogen fixation (21 percent of total nitrogen inputs). Highest in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus loads were measured in predominantly agricultural drainage areas. Intermediate loads were observed in mixed agricultural/urban drainage areas; the lowest loads were measured in mixed agricultural/forested drainage areas. The difference between the sum of the nutrient input categories and the sum of the instream nutrient loads and crop-harvest nutrient removal was assigned to a residual category for the basin. The residual category averaged 51 percent of total nitrogen inputs and 54 percent of total phosphorus inputs.

  2. Effect of environmental setting on sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, G.; Harned, D.A.

    1998-11-01

    Environmental settings were defined, through an overlay process, as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables--land use, surficial geology, and soil drainage characteristics. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area. This study`s findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin`s environmental setting. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region, a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors, such as point-source discharges, and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality, may lead to water-quality goals that are over- or underprotective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection.

  3. Effect of environmental setting on sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental settings were defined, through an overlay process, as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables - land use, surficial geology, and soil drainage characteristics. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area. This study's findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin's environmental setting. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region, a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors, such as point-source discharges, and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality, may lead to water-quality goals that are over- or underprotective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection.

  4. FISH COMMUNITIES AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO BASIN OF NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on fish abundance, diversity, and habitat quality from the USGS and EPA were analyzed for patterns in the regional fish communities of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The basin covers approximately 72,500 square kilometers and four physiographic provinces in Virginia ...

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, P.M.; Smith, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers were analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of trace element contaminants in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. All but 3 of the 22 trace elements that were analyzed were detected. Although all 10 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants were detected in the tissues sampled, they were present in relatively low concentrations. Concentrations of U.S. EPA priority pollutants in Asiatic clams collected in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin are similar to concentrations observed in other NAWQA study units in the southeastern United States. Mercury (a U.S. EPA priority pollutant) was widely detected, being present in 29 of 30 tissue samples, but concentrations did not exceed the FDA action level for mercury of a risk-based screening value for the general public. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams were similar to concentrations in other NAWQA study areas in the Southeast.

  6. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forcasting Ecosystem Services--Application to the Albemarle Pamlico Basins, NC and VA (USA) and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    We demonstrate an Integrated Modeling Framework that predicts the state of freshwater ecosystem services within the Albemarle-Pamlico Basins. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standa...

  7. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Services: Application to the Albemarle Pamlico Basins, NC and VA (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We demonstrate an Integrated Modeling Framework that predicts the state of freshwater ecosystem services within the Albemarle-Pamlico Basins. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standa...

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON PATTERNS IN THE FISH COMMUNITIES OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on fish abundance from the EPA, USGS, and states of North Carolina and Virginia were analyzed for patterns in the fish communities of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin. The basin covers 72,500 square kilometers and five ecoregions in Virginia and North Carolina, including the wat...

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; chemical analyses of organic compounds and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, M.D.; Simerl, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began full-scale implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources and to describe the primary natural and human factors that affect these resources. One of the first assessment phases of the NAWQA program is to examine the occurrence and distribution of organic and inorganic constituents in streambed sediment. Streambed sediment was collected at 22 stations in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin that drains into the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, the second largest estuarine system in the United States. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 35 organochlorine and 63 semivolatile compounds; 44 major, minor, and trace elements; and forms of organic carbon.

  11. ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARINE STUDY CCMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Albemarle-Pamlico estuary forms a complex and dynamic ecosystem which provides an invaluable bounty of natural resources. The sounds, rivers, creeks, wetlands, and terrestrial areas in the watershed of the system support a variety of uses. We depend on the system to supply fo...

  12. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH HEALTH: A PROTOTYPE METHODOLOGY AND CASE STUDY FOR THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASE (Basin-Scale Assessments for Sustainable Ecosystems) is a research program developed by the Ecosystems Research Division of the National Exposure Research Laboratory to explore and formulate approaches for assessing the sustainability of ecological resources within watershed...

  13. The U. S. Geological Survey's Albemarle-Pamlico National Water-Quality Assessment Study; background and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Harned, Douglas A.; McMahon, Gerard

    1995-01-01

    The Albemarle-Pamlico Study Unit is one of 20 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies begun in 1991 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the Nation's water quality. One of the missions of the USGS is to assess the quantity and quality of the Nation's water resources. The NAWQA program was established to help accomplish this mission. The Albemarle-Pamlico Study Unit, located in Virginia and North Carolina, drains an area of about 28,000 square miles. Four major rivers, the Chowan, the Roanoke, the Tar-Pamlico and the Neuse, all drain into the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound in North Carolina. Four physiographic regions (areas of homogeneous climatic, geologic, and biological characteristics), the Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, Piedmont and Coastal Plain Physiographic Provinces are included within the Albemarle-Pamlico Study Unit. Until 1991, there was no single program that could answer the question, 'Are the Nation's ground and surface waters getting better, worse, or are they staying the same?' A program was needed to evaluate water quality by using standard techniques to allow assessment of water quality at local, regional, and national scales. The NAWQA Program was implemented to answer questions about the Nation's water quality using consistent and comparable methods. A total of 60 basins, or study units, will be in place by 1997 to assess the Nation's water quality.

  14. DAILY STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...

  15. PEAK STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peak discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named by sta...

  16. Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided by the Albemarle-Pamlico (NC) Estuary System in Response to Watershed Nitrogen Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Albemarle-Pamlico Watershed and Estuary Study (APWES) is part of the USEPA Ecosystem Services Research Program. The mission of the APWES is to develop ecosystem services science to inform watershed and coastal management decisions in the Albemarle-Pamlico watershed and estuar...

  17. MERIS Retrieval of Water Quality Components in the Turbid Albemarle-Pamlico Sound Estuary, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two remote-sensing optical algorithms for the retrieval of the water quality components (WQCs) in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System (APES) have been developed and validated for chlorophyll a (Chl) concentration. Both algorithms are semiempirical because they incorporate some...

  18. Ecosystem Services Provided by the Albemarle-Pamlico Watershed and Estuarine System

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most important water quality issues in the Albemarle-Pamlico watershed and estuary is related to management of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Other important issues include wetland restoration to ameliorate coastal eutrophication, interbasin transfers of water and effects on ...

  19. DAILY STREAMFLOW - NORTH CAROLINA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/NC) for gaging stations within the North Carolina portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file ...

  20. NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM PERMITS FOR NORTH CAROLINA PORTION OF ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excel spreadsheet of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits as of 4/2000 for the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Permitted flow is in millions of gallons per day. Discharge codes are:
    1 Domestic - Municipal
    2 Domestic - Industrial/Commercial

  1. PEAK DISCHARGE STREAMFLOW - NORTH CAROLINA PORTION OF ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peak discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/NC) for gaging stations within the North Carolina portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...

  2. Shoreline Erosion in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, Northeastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. A.; Riggs, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    Computer analysis of aerial photographic series demonstrates that the estuarine shorelines within the North Carolina Albemarle-Pamlico coastal system are eroding at 2-3 times greater rates than previous studies reported. Specific rates and amounts of shoreline recession vary tremendously depending upon local variables including: 1) shoreline type, geometry, and composition; 2) geographic location, size, and shape of associated estuary; 3) frequency, intensity, and fetch of storms; 4) type and abundance of associated vegetation; and locally 5) boat wakes. Organic or wetland shorelines (marsh and swamp forest) comprise approximately 62% of the estuarine margins in NE NC, whereas sediment banks (low, high, and bluff) constitute about 38%. The goals of this study were to determine the rates of recession for different shoreline types and the role of local variables in the erosion process. Shorelines were mapped using high precision GPS mapping techniques, digital orthographic quarter quadrangles, and other georeferenced aerial photographs from the early 1950's to 2001. Shoreline change was then calculated for 20 estuarine study sites. Field mapping of each site provided data on shoreline characteristics and erosional processes. Data synthesis suggests mean annual shoreline erosion rates are significantly different for shoreline types as follows: 1) marshes = 7.4 ft/yr (range 2.7-17.0 ft/yr), low sediment banks = 5.0 ft/yr (range 1.0-12.0 ft/yr), bluff sediment banks = 5.0 ft/yr (range = 3.9-6.0 ft/yr), swamp forests = 3.0 ft/yr (range = 1.7-4.0 ft/yr), high sediment banks = 2.8 ft/yr (range = 2.7-2.9 ft/yr). Modified shorelines continue to erode, however at lower mean annual rates that range from 0.9-2.7 ft/yr. Locally, specific marsh shorelines have eroded at rates up to 100 ft/yr during particularly stormy periods. Thus, about 1166 acres of land are lost each year along the 1593 miles of mapped estuarine shoreline in NE NC. If these erosion rates are representative of

  3. Identification and Prediction of Fish Assemblages in Streams of the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Set within the Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP) of USEPA’s Office of Research and Development, a multi-disciplinary research collaborative (MEERT –Multimedia Ecological Exposure Research Team) has taken on a challenge to develop a regional assessment of several ecosyst...

  4. Creating a Population of 12-Digit Headwater Basins within the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological research within the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has recently changed its focus to quantifying and mapping ecosystem services provided to humans. Our local research group has been charged to develop a regional assessment of se...

  5. Micropetrographic characteristics of peats from modern coal-forming environments in Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia and Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Corvinus, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Okefenokee Swamp, over 400,000 acres, is a swamp-marsh complex dominated by Taxodium-swamp vegetaion on its west side and Nymphaea-marsh vegetation onits east side. The Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps primarily support a pocosin-bay vegetation. The Taxodium-dominated peats of the Okefenokee are more similar botanically to the Albemarle-Pamlico bay peats than are the Okefenokee Nymphaea-dominated peats. Some petrographic characteristics are common to all three peat types. The majority of cell walls in the peat exhibit colors (yellow to orange to red) which they did not display in their living state. This is believed to be from impregnation by the various cell fillings present in the peats. Unoxidized fragmented (granular) material in all three peat types usually occurs in larger amounts than oxidized (darkened) material. In Taxodium-dominated and bay peats the fragmented matrix is also usually more prevalent than the preserved material (intact cell walls and cell fillings). On the other hand, preserved material is most common in Nymphaea-dominated peats. It is believed that the majority of fragmented material is derived from the surface litter and that swamp vegetation contributes more surface litter than does marsh vegetation.

  6. An Integrated Modeling Framework for Performing Environmental Assessments: Application to Ecosystem Services in the Albemarle-Pamlico Basins (NC and VA,USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses environmental models to inform rulemaking and policy decisions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. As decision-making has moved towards integrated thinking and assessment (e.g. media, site, region, services), the increasing compl...

  7. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGES DETECTION OF UNDERSTORY VEGETATION IN THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO BASIN IKONOS AND LANDSAT ETM+ SATELLITE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advent of remotely sensed data from satellite platforms has enabled the research community to examine vegetative spatial distributions over regional and global scales. This assessment of ecosystem condition through the synoptic monitoring of terrestrial vegetation extent, bio...

  8. LEAF AREA INDEX CHANGE DETECTION OF UNDERSTORY VEGETATION IN THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO BASIN USING IKOMOS AND LANDSAT ETM+ SATELLITE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advent of remotely sensed data from satellite platforms has enabled the research community to examine vegetative spatial distributions over regional and global scales. This assessment of ecosystem condition through the synoptic monitoring of terrestrial vegetation extent, bio...

  9. Impacts of domestic and and agricultural rainwater harvesting system on watershed hydrology: A case study of Albemarle-Pamlico Watershed basins (NC, VA, USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is increasingly relevant in the context of growing population and its demands on water quantity. Here, we present a method to better understand the hydrologic impacts of urban domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting and apply the approach to thre...

  10. Drainage divides, Massachusetts-Hudson River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S. William, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in northern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, are delineated on five topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for rivers where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams and 10 square miles along the Hoosic or North Branch Noosic Rivers. (USGS)

  11. MASSACHUSETTS DRAINAGE SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MassGIS has produced a statewide digital datalayer of the approximately 2300 sub-basins as defined and used by the USGS Water Resources Division and the Mass Water Resources Commission and as modified by Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) agencies. These sub-basins...

  12. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

  13. Drainage basins in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Roy B.; Largen, Joseph B.

    1983-01-01

    The drainage basins and subbasins in Duval County, Florida, are delineated on this atlas map. The county 's 840 square-mile area is drained by three major river systems; the St. Johns, 668 square miles; Nassau, 113 square miles; and St. Marys, 59 square miles. The remainder of the county is drained by a network of small streams that flow into either the Intracoastal Waterway or directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The sub-basins range in size from less than one square mile to more than 50 square miles. (USGS)

  14. Drainage areas of the Guyandotte River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the West Virginia Office of Federal-State Relations (now the Office of Economic and Community Development), lists in tabular form 435 drainage areas for basins within the Guyandotte River basin of West Virginia. Drainage areas are compiled for sites at the mouths of all streams having drainage areas of approximately five square miles or greater, for sites at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations (past and present), and for other miscellaneous sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Drainage basins and channel incision on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Aharonson, Oded; Zuber, Maria T.; Rothman, Daniel H.; Schorghofer, Norbert; Whipple, Kelin X.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. By analogy with terrestrial examples, groundwater sapping may have played an important role in the incision. Longitudinally flat floor segments may provide a direct indication of lithologic layers in the bedrock, altering subsurface hydrology. However, it is unlikely that floor levels are entirely due to inherited structures due to their planar cross-cutting relations. These conclusions are based on previously unavailable observations, including extensive piece-wise linear longitudinal profiles, frequent knickpoints, hanging valleys, and small basin concavity exponents. PMID:16578863

  16. Drainage basins and channel incision on Mars.

    PubMed

    Aharonson, Oded; Zuber, Maria T; Rothman, Daniel H; Schorghofer, Norbert; Whipple, Kelin X

    2002-02-19

    Measurements acquired by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on board the Mars Global Surveyor indicate that large drainage systems on Mars have geomorphic characteristics inconsistent with prolonged erosion by surface runoff. We find the topography has not evolved to an expected equilibrium terrain form, even in areas where runoff incision has been previously interpreted. By analogy with terrestrial examples, groundwater sapping may have played an important role in the incision. Longitudinally flat floor segments may provide a direct indication of lithologic layers in the bedrock, altering subsurface hydrology. However, it is unlikely that floor levels are entirely due to inherited structures due to their planar cross-cutting relations. These conclusions are based on previously unavailable observations, including extensive piece-wise linear longitudinal profiles, frequent knickpoints, hanging valleys, and small basin concavity exponents. PMID:16578863

  17. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Westfield and Farmington River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadoury, Russell A.; Wandle, S. William, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins in western Hampshire, western Hampden, and southeastern Berkshire Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 15 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 square miles on tributary streams or 10 square miles along the Westfield or Farmington Rivers. (USGS)

  18. Drainage areas of the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Payne, D.D., Jr.; Shultz, R.A.; Kirby, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Drainage areas for 1,493 drainage area divisions for the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, are listed in the report. Also tabulated for each site are river miles, plus location identifiers: County, latitude and longitude, and the West Virginia District map number. (USGS)

  19. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  20. Drainage areas of streams in Arkansas, Ouachita River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanchosek, John J.; Hines, Marion S.

    1979-01-01

    Drainage areas, determined in accordance with procedure recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology of the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee, are listed for points on streams in the Ouachita River basin in Arkansas. Points on the streams are identified by some topographic feature and by latitude and longitude. (USGS).

  1. Analysis of runoff from small drainage basins in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Gordon S.; Rankl, James G.

    1978-01-01

    A flood-hydrograph study has defined the magnitude and frequency of flood volumes and flood peaks that can be expected from drainage basins smaller than 11 square miles in the plains and valley areas of Wyoming. Rainfall and runoff data, collected for 9 years on a seasonal basis (April through September), were used to calibrate a rainfall-runoff model on each of 22 small basins. Long-term records of runoff volume and peak discharge were synthesized for these 22 basins. Flood volumes and flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) were then related to basin characteristics with a high degree of correlation. Flood volumes were related to drainage area, maximum relief, and basin slope. Flood peaks were related to drainage area, maximum relief, basin slope, and channel slope. An investigation of ponding behind a highway embankment, with available storage capacity and with a culvert to allow outflow, has shown that the single fast-rising peak is most important in culvert design. Consequently, a dimensionless hydrograph defines the characteristic shape of flood hydrographs to be expected from small drainage basins in Wyoming. For design purposes, a peak and volume can be estimated from basin characteristics and used with the dimensionless hydrograph to produce a synthetic single-peak hydrograph. Incremental discharges of the hydrograph can be routed along a channel, where a highway fill and culvert are to be placed, to help determine the most economical size of culvert if embankment storage is to be considered.

  2. Simulation of streamflow in small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Norris, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining operations in northwestern Colorado commonly are located in areas that have minimal available water-resource information. Drainage-basin models can be a method for extending water-resource information to include periods for which there are no records or to transfer the information to areas that have no streamflow-gaging stations. To evaluate the magnitude and variability of the components of the water balance in the small drainage basins monitored, and to provide some method for transfer of hydrologic data, the U.S. Geological Survey 's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used for small drainage basins in the southern Yampa River basin to simulate daily mean streamflow using daily precipitation and air-temperature data. The study area was divided into three hydrologic regions, and in each of these regions, three drainage basins were monitored. Two of the drainage basins in each region were used to calibrate the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model was not calibrated for the third drainage basin in each region; instead, parameter values were transferred from the model that was calibrated for the two drainage basins. For all of the drainage basins except one, period of record used for calibration and verification included water years 1976-81. Simulated annual volumes of streamflow for drainage basins used in calibration compared well with observed values; individual hydrographs indicated timing differences between the observed and simulated daily mean streamflow. Observed and simulated annual average streamflows compared well for the periods of record, but values of simulated high and low streamflows were different than observed values. Similar results were obtained when calibrated model parameter values were transferred to drainage basins that were uncalibrated. (USGS)

  3. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  4. Basinsoft, a computer program to quantify drainage basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Craig A.; Eash, David A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1988, the USGS began developing a program called Basinsoft. The initial program quantified 16 selected drainage basin characteristics from three source-data layers that were manually digitized from topographic maps using the versions of ARC/INFO, Fortran programs, and prime system Command Programming Language (CPL) programs available in 1988 (Majure and Soenksen, 1991). By 1991, Basinsoft was enhanced to quantify 27 selected drainage-basin characteristics from three source-data layers automatically generated from digital elevation model (DEM) data using a set of Fortran programs (Majure and Eash, 1991: Jenson and Dominique, 1988). Due to edge-matching problems encountered in 1991 with the preprocessing

  5. Fluvial Drainage Basins and Valley Networks: Eastern Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The fluvial drainage of the eastern Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19NE, SE) and northeastern Argyre (MC-26NE) Quadrangles is dominated by two major longitudinal valley networks, the Parana/Loire system on the east, and the Samara Himera system to the west. It is believed that both of these drainages are through-going to the northwest and debouch into Margaritifer Chaos (general location: 12S, 22.5W). The Parana/Loire drainage is bounded on the east in part by an ancient multi-ringed impact basin. The Parana multi-digitate network drains northwest into a depositional basin, and impact basin floor, characterized by positive relief chaos. It is believed that Loire Vallis heads in the basin; thus Parana and Loire Valles may be treated as one system. Samara Valles heads in the northeastern Argyre Quadrangle and extends as a major truck valley to the northwest. Samara Valles cuts through the hills forming one of the concentric rings of the Ladon impact basin and joins the Himera drainage to trend in a more northerly direction to Margaritifer Chaos. The downstream portion of Himera is considered to be part of the Samara

  6. Canyon drainage induced mixing over a large basin

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.

    2000-05-01

    Complex terrain surrounding urbanized basins around the world has long been recognized to strongly affect the characteristics of vertical transport and mixing of pollutants. The Department of Energy's Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) program will investigate mixing processes within night-time boundary layers over large urban basins. The program will launch several field experiments within the Salt Lake City basin in the coming years. This modeling study, like many other studies being undertaken by the participants of the VTMX programs, is intended to complement the proposed field experiments by numerically examining some of the flow interactions known to occur in large basins. Using idealized simulations, we particularly investigate drainage flows from deep canyons similar to those along the Wasatch Front into the Salt Lake City basin. Literature shows that under favorable conditions, drainage flows can generate bore waves that may propagate ahead of the density current (e.g., Simpson 1969; Simpson 1982; Crook and Miller 1985). Existence and frequency of such bore waves can profoundly influence the spatial and temporal variability of vertical transport and mixing within large basins. If bore waves do occur on a regular basis within the Salt Lake City basin (a task for the upcoming experiments to determine), then understanding the basin-scale conditions under which these waves are produced and how they may propagate and interact with the city's buildings will be of great importance in characterizing transport and mixing processes within the basin.

  7. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  8. Analysis of runoff from small drainage basins in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Gordon S.; Rankl, James G.

    1977-01-01

    A flood-hydrograph study has defined the magnitude and frequency of flood volumes and flood peaks that can be expected from drainage basins smaller than 11 square miles in the plains and valley areas of Wyoming. Rainfall and runoff data, collected for 9 years on a seasonal basis (April through September), were used to calibrate a rainfall-runoff model on each of 22 small basins. Long-term records of runoff volume and peak discharge were synthesized for these 22 basins. Flood volumes and flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) were then related to basin characteristics with a high degree of correlation. Flood volumes were related to drainage area, maximum relief, and basin slope. Flood peaks were related to drainage area, maximum relief, basin slope, and channel slope. An investigation of ponding behind a highway embankment, with available storage capacity and with a culvert to allow outflow, has shown that the single fast-rising peak is most important in culvert design. Consequently, a dimensionless hydrograph defines the characteristic shape of flood hydrographs to be expected from small drainage basins in Wyoming. For design purposes, a peak and volume can be estimated from basin characteristics and used with the dimensionless hydrograph to produce a synthetic single-peak hydrograph. Incremental discharges of the hydrograph can be routed along a channel, where a highway fill and culvert are to be placed, to help determine the most economical size of culvert if embankment storage is to be considered. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. BIG SIOUX RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN INFORMATION OUTREACH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of the proposed project is to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting the Big Sioux River drainage basin. To accomplish this goal, the City and its partnering agencies are seeking to expand and improve public accessibility to a wide variety of r...

  10. Drainage basin characteristics from ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollyday, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-derived measurements of forests, riparian vegetation, open water, and combined agricultural and urban land use were added to an available matrix of map-derived basin characteristics. The matrix of basin characteristics was correlated with 40 stream flow characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Fifteen out of the 40 equations were improved. If the technique can be transferred to other physiographic regions in the nation, the opportunity exists for a potential annual savings in operations of about $250,000.

  11. Bibliography of hydrologic and water-quality investigations conducted in or near the Albermarle-Pamlico Sounds Region, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Nelson, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    A bibliography containing 1,100 citations is presented. The cited works are primarily reports of investigations of the effects of land use and land-use change on water quality, artificial drainage, hydrology and hydrodynamics, and water quality in the Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds region, North Carolina. The bibliography is indexed according to research topic and geographic location of the investigation. the bibliography is also computerized and has been transferred to the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study data-management system.

  12. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  13. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  14. Plio-Pleistocene drainage development in an inverted sedimentary basin: Vera basin, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Martin

    2008-08-01

    The Vera basin is one of a series of interconnected Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins located within the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (southeast Spain). Since the Pliocene the Vera basin has been subjected to low uplift rates (11-21 m Ma - 1 ) and inverted via compressive tectonics that are related to the ongoing oblique collision between the African and Iberian plates. Within this paper the sedimentary and geomorphic response to basin inversion is explored. Sedimentary processes and environments are established for key stratigraphic units of the Pliocene/Plio-Pleistocene basin fill and Pleistocene dissectional landscape. These data are subsequently utilised to reconstruct an evolving basin palaeogeography. Fault and uplift data are employed to discuss the role of tectonically driven basin inversion for controlling the resultant palaeogeographic changes and associated patterns of drainage development. During the Early-Mid Pliocene the Vera basin was characterised by shallow marine shelf conditions (Cuevas Formation). A major palaeogeographic reorganisation occurred during the Mid-Late Pliocene. Strike-slip movement along the eastern basin margin, coupled with uplift and basin emergence created a protected, partially enclosed marine embayment that was conducive for Gilbert-type fan-delta sedimentation from fluvial inputs along the northern and eastern basin margins (Espíritu Santo Formation). The Vera basin then became fully continental and internally drained through the development of a consequent drainage network that formed following the withdrawal of marine conditions during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Alluvial fans developed along the northern and western basin margins, grading to a bajada and terminating in a playa lake in central basin areas (Salmerón Formation). During the Early-Mid Pleistocene a switch from basin infilling to dissection took place, recorded by alluvial fan incision, a switch to braided river sedimentation and

  15. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålnacke, P.; Pengerud, A.; Vassiljev, A.; Smedberg, E.; Mörth, C.-M.; Hägg, H. E.; Humborg, C.; Andersen, H. E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N) in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW) for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated at 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N are retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (%) and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily). The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  16. Critical Concavity of a Drainage Basin for Steady-State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal profiles of natural streams are known to show concave forms. Saying A as drainage area, channel gradient S can be expressed as the power-law, S≈A-θ (Flint, 1974), which is one of the scale-invariant features of drainage basin. According to literature, θ of most natural streams falls into a narrow range (0.4 < θ < 0.7) (Tucker and Whipple, 2002). It leads to fundamental questions: 'Why does θ falls into such narrow range?' and 'How is this related with other power-law scaling relationships reported in natural drainage basins?' To answer above questions, we analytically derive θ for a steady-state drainage basin following Lane's equilibrium (Lane, 1955) throughout the corridor and named this specific case as the 'critical concavity'. In the derivation, sediment transport capacity is estimated by unit stream power model (Yang, 1976), yielding a power function of upstream area. Stability of channel at a local point occurs when incoming flux equals outgoing flux at the point. Therefore, given the drainage at steady-state where all channel beds are stable, the exponent of the power function should be zero. From this, we can determine the critical concavity. Considering ranges of variables associated in this derivation, critical concavity cannot be resolved as a single definite value, rather a range of critical concavity is suggested. This range well agrees with the widely reported range of θ (0.4 < θ < 0.7) in natural streams. In this theoretical study, inter-relationships between power-laws such as hydraulic geometry (Leopold and Maddock, 1953), dominant discharge-drainage area (Knighton et al., 1999), and concavity, are coupled into the power-law framework of stream power sediment transport model. This allows us to explore close relationships between their power-law exponents: their relative roles and sensitivity. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Flint, J. J., 1974, Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude

  17. Hydrogeomorphic effects of explosive volcanic eruptions on drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions can severely disturb landscapes downwind or downstream of volcanoes by damaging vegetation and depositing large volumes of erodible fragmental material. As a result, fluxes of water and sediment in affected drainage basins can increase dramatically. System-disturbing processes associated with explosive eruptions include tephra fall, pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and lahars—processes that have greater impacts on water and sediment discharges than lava-flow emplacement. Geo-morphic responses to such disturbances can extend far downstream, persist for decades, and be hazardous. The severity of disturbances to a drainage basin is a function of the specific volcanic process acting, as well as distance from the volcano and magnitude of the eruption. Postdisturbance unit-area sediment yields are among the world's highest; such yields commonly result in abundant redeposition of sand and gravel in distal river reaches, which causes severe channel aggradation and instability. Response to volcanic disturbance can result in socioeconomic consequences more damaging than the direct impacts of the eruption itself.

  18. Transformation Of Arsenic In Agricultural Drainage Water Disposed Into An Evaporation Basin In California, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation basins have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, a high agricultural production area in USA. The irrigation drainage water contains elevated concentrations of trace elements, including S...

  19. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  20. Parameter identification in stationary groundwater flow problems in drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malengier, B.

    2004-07-01

    We discuss the recovery of some parameters in an elliptic boundary value problem, which models a specific stationary flow problem in drainage basins, by using the measured values of the hydraulic head in discrete points through the physical domain. The underlying direct problem is the one considered by Toth (J. Geophys. Res. 67 (1962) 4375; 67 (1963) 4795), among others. The inverse problem is solved by means of the Levenberg-Marquardt method (in: G.A. Watson (Ed.), Numerical Analysis, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 630, Springer, Berlin, New York, 1977, pp. 105-116). We also show how the infinite element method allows the identification of the far field value of the hydraulic head.

  1. A Geographic Information System procedure to quantify drainage-basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The Basin Characteristics System (BCS) has been developed to quantify characteristics of a drainage basin. The first of four main BCS processing steps creates four geographic information system (GIS) digital maps representing the drainage divide, the drainage network, elevation contours, and the basin length. The drainage divide and basin length are manually digitized from 1:250,000-scale topographic maps. The drainage network is extracted using GIS software from 1:100,000-scale digital line graph data. The elevation contours are generated using GIS software from 1:250,000-scale digital elevation model data. The second and third steps use software developed to assign attributes to specific features in three of the four digital maps and analyze the four maps to quantify 24 morphometric basin characteristics. The fourth step quantifies two climatic characteristics from digitized State maps of precipitation data. Compared to manual methods of measurement, the BCS provides a reduction in the time required to quantify the 26 basin characteristics. Comparison tests indicate the BCS measurements are not significantly different from manual topographic-map measurements for 11 of 12 primary drainage-basin characteristics. Tests indicate the BCS significantly underestimates basin slope. Comparison-measurement differences for basin slope, main channel slope, and basin relief appear to be due to limitations in the digital elevation model data.

  2. Drainage basin morphometry controls on the active depositional area of debris flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Wasklewicz, Thad; Malamud, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A majority of the research on understanding the connection between alluvial fans and drainage basins to date has focused on coarse-scale relations between total fan area and drainage basin area. Here we take a new approach where we assess relationships between active fan depositional area and drainage basin morphometry using 52 debris flow fans (32 from the White Mountains and 20 from the Inyo Mountains) on the eastern side of Owens Valley, California, USA. The boundaries for fans, drainage basin and active depositional areas were delineated from 10m digital elevation models and 1 m aerial photographs. We examined the relationships between the normalised active depositional area of the fan (Afad/Af, where Afad is the fan active depositional area and Af the entire fan area) and the following four variables for drainage basin: (i) area (Adb), (ii) total stream length (Ls), (iii) relief (BHH), (iv) roughness (R). We find a statistically significant (r2 > 0.40) inverse power-law relationship between recent sediment contribution to the fan and drainage basin area (Afad/Af = 0.29Adb-0.167) drainage network length (Afad/Af = 0.39Ls-0.161) and basin relief (Afad/Af = 3.90BHH-0.401), and a statistically weak (r2 = 0.22) inverse power law with basin roughness (Afad/Af = 0.32R0.5441). Drainage basin size combined with other morphometric variables may largely determine efficiency in sediment transport and delivery to the fan surface. A large proportion of the total fan area of smaller fans are flooded by debris flow indicating less sediment storage in the drainage basins and greater efficiency in sediment delivery. The findings signify the importance of coarse-scale relationships to both long- and short-term fan evolution.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of nominal drainage basin volume as a potentially useful morphometric parameter for small mountain basins

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric basin parameters have been used in quantitative geomorphic assessments since Horton's Hydrophysical Approach in 1945. A relationship between basin form and dominant process in small mountain basins in the western United States would be valuable for use in differentiating basins which produce deep-seated landslides from those which produce debris flows from debris slides. Drainage basin volume seems like it should be a parameter directly related to the dominant process operating in a basin. Consequently, it may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter. Nominal drainage basin volume is herein defined as the volume creates by the basin topography and linear projection of topographic contours across the basin. Incremental volume is computed from area encompassed by topographic contours and projections and the contour interval using the formula for the volume of the frustrum of a cone. Seven basins in the Wasatch Range and five in the Wasatch Plateau of Utah show strong relationship of log Basin Area to log Basin Volume (r/sup 2/ = 0.97). The relationship between average Basin Slope and log Basin Volume was poorer (r/sup 2/ = 0.78) than between Basin Slope and log Basin Area (r/sup 2/ = 0.87). This suggests that basin area may be a more useful parameter than basin volume, especially since area is more easily measured.

  4. Quantifying modern and ancient drainage basin erosion with detrital thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, T. A.; Stock, G. M.; Rahl, J. M.; Farley, K. A.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of drainage basin erosion and landform evolution are often limited by not knowing where sediment is sourced from and how erosion rates vary over different time scales. Detrital thermochronometer cooling ages collected from modern river sediments and basin deposits provide a promising tool to address these problems. We present two applications of detrital thermochronology to quantify: (1) spatial variations in erosion using modern river sediments; and (2) temporal variations in erosion calculated using syntectonic sedimentary deposits. In our first application, the elevation dependence of detrital apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages is used to track the elevations where sediment is produced from bedrock. The ages are measured in river sediments from the mouth of two catchments in the Sierra Nevada, California, and used as sediment tracers to quantify spatial variations in erosion. We measured ~54 AHe single grain ages from each catchment. Measured AHe age probability density functions (PDFs) were compared with predicted PDFs, calculated by convolving catchment hypsometry with bedrock age-elevation relationships. Statistical comparison of the PDFs evaluates the spatial distribution of erosion in the catchments. Predicted and observed PDFs are statistically identical for the nonglaciated Inyo Creek catchment, indicating uniform erosion. However, a statistically significant lack of older ages is observed in the recently deglaciated Lone Pine catchment, suggesting sediment is derived from the lower half of the catchment; possibly due to sediment storage at higher elevations and/or enhanced erosion at intermediate elevations. Second, we evaluate the ability of detrital thermochronology to record transients in drainage basin erosion on million year time scales. A transient 1D thermal model is used to predict cooling ages in a syntectonic stratigraphic section where sediment is sourced from a region with temporally variable erosion. In simulations with transient erosion

  5. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  6. Chemical Status Of Selenium In Evaporation Basins For Disposal Of Agricultural Drainage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation basins (or ponds) are the most commonly used facilities to dispose selenium (Se)-laden agricultural drainage in the closed hydrologic basin portion of the San Joaquin Valley in California. However, there is a continuous concern on potential risk of Se in evaporation basin waters to water...

  7. Map showing drainage basins and locations of streamflow-measuring sites, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohler, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A drainage basin map of Fairfax County shows basins for named streams with drainage areas of 1.1 sq mi (2.8 sq km) or more. Areas of minor streams draining directly into the Potomac River and Occoquan Creek are tabulated. The locations of continuous-record and partial-record (peak-flow and low-flow) flow sites are shown. The use of topographic and climatic characteristics of drainage basins to transfer flow data from gaged areas to ungaged areas is discussed. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Quantifying urban intensity in drainage basins for assessing stream ecological conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Cuffney, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    Three investigations are underway, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, to study the relation between varying levels of urban intensity in drainage basins and in-stream water quality, measured by physical, chemical, and biological factors. These studies are being conducted in the vicinities of Boston (Massachusetts), Salt Lake City (Utah), and Birmingham (Alabama), areas where rapid urbanization is occurring. For each study, water quality will be sampled in approximately 30 drainage basins that represent a gradient of urban intensity. This paper focuses on the methods used to characterize and select the basins used in the studies. It presents a methodology for limiting the variability of natural landscape characteristics in the potential study drainage basins and for ranking the magnitude of human influence, or urbanization, based on land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic data in potential study basins. Basin characterization efforts associated with the Boston study are described for illustrative purposes.

  9. Paleotopographic Reconstruction of the Tharsis Magmatic Complex Reveals Potential Ancient Drainage Basin/Aquifer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Ferris, J.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V.; Hare, T.; Barlow, N. G.; Strom, R. G.; Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.

    2001-01-01

    Paleotopographic reconstructions reveal the potential existence of an enormous Noachian drainage basin in the eastern part of the Tharsis region of significant geologic and paleohydrologic implications. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. HANDBOOK: RETROFITTING POTWS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DRAINAGE BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document assesses the technology, economics, and efficiency of phosphorus removal processes for use in the Chesapeake Bay Drainage basin (CBDB). ince phosphorus removal requirements in the CBDB vary widely with geographic location, this document discusses the feasibility of ...

  11. Shrinking and splitting of drainage basins along the Aconquija Range (Argentina) from the migration of its main drainage divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, J.; Bonnet, S.; Moyano, S.

    2010-12-01

    Although numerical models demonstrate that topography in orogens is asymmetric when forced by orographic precipitations, drainage divide migration (the mechanism responsible for this asymmetry) has never been documented in natural orogens, even though the latter actually exhibits an asymmetric topography in most cases (e. g., Taiwan, southern Alps). Investigation of drainage divide migration in the laboratory modelling of erosion and landscape dynamics under spatially-constant uplift forcing but with a lateral precipitation gradient shows that as observed numerically, precipitation gradient induces the migration of the drainage divide toward the drier side of the landscape and the development of an asymmetric topography (Bonnet, 2009). The progressive shortening of the drier side of the landscape results in a progressive steepening of its topography. This leads to a very unstable landscape and an original mechanism that splits the drainage networks is observed there: each initial drainage network progressively splits into two individual networks that become separated by the growth of a new hillcrest (Bonnet, 2009). Through this mechanism, the numbers of drainage basins extending to the main divide increases during divide migration such that the universal law of drainage outlet spacing is maintained. The mechanism of network splitting proposed on the basis of experiments leads to transient dynamics that are exemplified by the Sierra Aconquija range in the Sierras Pampeanas province of NW Argentina. The Aconquija is an uplifted basement range, bounded by active high-angle reverse faults on one or both sides. It currently forms a prominent landscape above its adjacent foreland plains, reaching elevations greater than 5 km. Because of its location on the eastern front of the Andes, representing a major topographic barrier to the moisture flux coming from the Atlantic Ocean, the Sierra Aconquija is an orographic barrier: the eastern flank receives much more

  12. Discontinuous Drainage Systems of NE Hellas Basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H. I.; Gulick, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    We mapped several valley and channel systems located on the plains NE of Hellas Basin, NW of Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles, using CTX, THEMIS, HiRISE and HRSC data. The dissected terrain is comprised of early Hesperian lava flows. Drainage systems consist of deep, narrow valleys that we interpret as bedrock reaches and small outflow-like, flat-floored channels, that are approximately 1-2 km wide and contain depositional bedforms. In these systems, approximately 130 m deep narrow reaches alternate with wide, shallow sediment-dominated reaches. This morphologic pattern is probably the result downcutting and erosion of bedrock by stream flow and subsequent deposition of the eroded material in the wider reaches downstream in response to local topographic and lithologic changes. The floors of the wider channel reaches contain several stream-lined smooth-surfaced islands, which we interpret as possible bar deposits. In some of these non-terminal depositional reaches, the channels are completely filled by deposits but further downstream the boundaries of the channel walls become apparent again. We interpret these locations as possible sites where stream flow spreads out and infiltrates into the subsurface and then subsequently outflows again to surface where channel walls become more defined. Some channels seem to be associated with the pitted latitude dependent mantle, whereas elevated islands remain smooth and free of pits. In the upper reaches of one channel system, an assemblage of intra-channel features is repeated: knobs, sinuous ridges and elongate, channel-jamming deposits similar to the morphology resulting from glaciers or rock glaciers. One channel system begins with several theater-shaped heads, suggesting a possible formation by sapping. Channel heads are cut into a high-thermal-inertia unit, possibly basaltic bedrock. We propose that this setting is suggestive of terrestrial discontinuous ephemeral stream channel systems.

  13. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  14. A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Mohan, Kshitij; Mishra, Sameer; Ahmad, Aariz; Mishra, Varun Narayan

    2014-11-01

    The study indicates that analysis of morphometric parameters with the help of geographic information system (GIS) would prove a viable method of characterizing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage area of the basin is 5,654 km2 and shows sub-dendritic to dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological conditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh-order basin with the drainage density value being as 1.72 km/km2. The increase in stream length ratio from lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage.

  15. Prairie stream water quality in sub-basins characterized by differing degrees of wetland drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, N. N.; Westbrook, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The prairie pothole region is dotted with millions of pothole wetlands. These wetlands provide important habitat for numerous wildlife species. Potholes are small, shallow marshes that typically lack surface water connections and have been shown to trap nutrients, ions, and bacteria from catchment runoff. Approximately 70% of the potholes located in the Canadian prairies have been drained since 1900 to increase agricultural production; recently there have been renewed efforts to drain potholes. Wetland drainage has been shown to increase stream discharge and is perceived to impact downstream water quality as previously isolated wetlands become connected to streams via drainage ditches. Our objective was to determine the extent to which stream water quality was influenced by wetland drainage. We compared time series of water quality for four sub-basins of Smith Creek watershed, southeastern Saskatchewan. The stream drains into the Assiniboine River and then Lake Winnipeg where excessive N and P loadings are causing eutrophication. Wetland distribution in the sub-basins was historically similar, but recently the sub-basins have been subject to differing degrees of drainage (extreme, high, moderately-high, and low). Stream water sampling and discharge measurement occurred daily during peak flow (spring runoff) and weekly during low flows in 2009 at the outlet of each sub-basin. Export coefficients for nutrients, DOC, salts and bacteria were compared among sub-basins. The sub-basin characterized by extreme drainage (81% wetland reduction) had the largest nutrient and DOC export coefficients while the low drainage sub-basin (23% wetland reduction) had the lowest. Concentrations of TP and ortho-P were greater in the moderately-high and high drainage sub-basins than in the low drainage sub-basin during the snowmelt period. TP concentrations exceeded the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Lake Stewardship Program objective of 0.1 mg/L. N concentrations were greatest in the

  16. Age dates of valley network drainage basins and subbasins within Sabae and Arabia Terrae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Craddock, Robert A.

    2014-06-01

    The precise timing of valley network drainage basin formation is critical to understanding the history of water and climate on Mars. To determine whether there are any variations in ages within separate drainage basins and subbasins that may reflect local or regional variations in climate or resetting from resurfacing (e.g., impact ejecta or lava flows), we dated 27 basins and subbasins in Sabaea and Arabia Terrae. The age-dating basin technique we employed allowed sufficient precision to give accurate ages and shows that fluvial activity within the basins and subbasins ceased at approximately the same time around the Early Hesperian/Late Hesperian transition. Our results support the hypothesis that valley networks formed during a unique "fluvial optimum" that may have shut off gradually because of a global climate change that affected all areas simultaneously on Mars.

  17. Age-Dating Drainage Basins in Sabae and Arabia Terrae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Craddock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The precise timing of drainage basins is critical to understanding the climate history on Mars. One of the obvious problems with age-dating valley networks is the fact that they are small, linear features that are easily destroyed by large impact craters, thus counting craters on valley networks themselves is difficult at best. We proposed a new global study dating 27 drainage basins and subbasins in Sabaea and Arabia Terrae with the basin age-dating technique. Valley networks are contained within drainage basins, which is defined as the area that contributes water to a particular channel or set of channels . For our study, we used THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) visible images with a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel which allow us to count craters with diameter of 1 km and larger. A digital elevation model (DEM) using 1/128 gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) helped us to extract the 26 basins and sub-basins drainage divides From these measurements, our study shows: (1) that all the drainages basins of a large region seem to cease their main fluvial activity at the same time at the end of the Early Hesperian epoch (~3.54 Gyr); (2) that the basin technique is the most reliable technique to do global age-dating; and (3) that there is a possible correlation between the degradation rate and the elevation. Our conclusions suggest that the main fluvial activity ceased because of a global climate change. We suppose that most of valley networks on Mars we observed today formed during the Early Hesperian and post-dated the early and late Noachian topographic features.

  18. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  19. Geologic map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Kelsey, H.M.; Morrison, S.D.; Stephens, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale geologic map with 14 rock stratigraphic units and an accompanying explanatory text are used to describe the geology of the Redwood Creek drainage basin of northwestern California. A large part of Redwood National Park is located in the downstream part of this actively eroding drainage basin. The bedrock consists primarily of Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The structurally complex Franciscan assemblage of rocks underlies most of the basin, but rocks of the Klammath Mountain tectonic province occurs in a small eastern part of the basin. Most major boundaries between Mesozoic rock units are north-northwest trending faults parallel to the regional structural trend. Extensive areas of surficial coastal plain sediments, landslide deposits, stream terrace deposits and modern alluvium are also present; these areas help identify loci of vigorous recent erosion. (USGS)

  20. Comparing morphologies of drainage basins on Mars and Earth using integral-geometry and neural maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Coradetti, S.

    2004-01-01

    We compare morphologies of drainage basins on Mars and Earth in order to confine the formation process of Martian valley networks. Basins on both planets are computationally extracted from digital topography. Integral-geometry methods are used to represent each basin by a circularity function that encapsulates its internal structure. The shape of such a function is an indicator of the style of fluvial erosion. We use the self-organizing map technique to construct a similarity graph for all basins. The graph reveals systematic differences between morphologies of basins on the two planets. This dichotomy indicates that terrestrial and Martian surfaces were eroded differently. We argue that morphologies of Martian basins are incompatible with runoff from sustained, homogeneous rainfall. Fluvial environments compatible with observed morphologies are discussed. We also construct a similarity graph based on the comparison of basins hypsometric curves to demonstrate that hypsometry is incapable of discriminating between terrestrial and Martian basins. INDEX TERMS: 1824 Hydrology: Geomorphology (1625); 1886 Hydrology: Weathering (1625); 5415 Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Erosion and weathering; 6225 Planetology: Solar System Objects Mars. Citation: Stepinski, T. F., and S. Coradetti (2004), Comparing morphologies of drainage basins on Mars and Earth using integral-ge

  1. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  2. Analyzing the drainage system anomaly of Zagros basins: Implications for active tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Morphometric analysis of hierarchical arrangement of drainage networks allows to evaluate the effects of external controls especially tectonics on basin development. In this study, a quantitative method for calculation of stream's hierarchical anomaly number is introduced. Morphometric parameters such as hierarchal anomaly index (∆a), percent of asymmetry factor (PAF), basin Shape (Bs), basin length to mean width ratio (Bl/Bmw), stream's bifurcation ratio (Rb), bifurcation index (R), drainage density (Dd), drainage frequency (Df) and anticline's hinge spacing (Hs) of 15 basins in Zagros Mountains were examined. Results show that the strong correlations exist between pairs ∆a-PAF (r = 0.844), ∆a-Bs (r = 0.732), ∆a-Bl/Bmw (r = 0.775), ∆a-R (r = 0.517), PAF-Bl/Bmw (r = 0.519), Bs-R (r = 0.659), Bl/Bmw-R (r = 0.703), Hs-∆a (r = - 0.708), Hs-PAF (r = - 0.529) and Hs-Bs (r = - 0.516). The variations in trend of anticlines control the shape of basins so that where anticlines hinges become closer to each other in the downstream direction, basin become narrower downward and hence the ∆a increases. The more uplifted northeastern anticlines cause the trunk river of the basins to migrate toward the younger anticlines in southwest and hence ∆a increases because the trunk river receives a lot of first order streams. Data reveal that the rate of ∆a is higher in elongated synclinal basins. Due to the decrease in the intensity of deformation from northeast toward southwest of Zagros, the hinge spacing of anticlines increases southwestwards. Data reveal that the variation in hinge spacing of anticlines strongly controls the basin's shape and tilting as well as the hierarchical anomaly of drainage system. Since the elongation and tilting of basins are associated with the variations in rates of folding, uplift and hinge spacing of anticlines, it can be concluded that the hierarchical anomaly of drainages in studied basins is controlled by the intensity of Zagros

  3. 78 FR 26807 - Vista Grande Drainage Basin Improvement Project, Fort Funston, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... the Vista Grande Watershed Drainage Basin and the effects of coastal erosion. The National Park... reduce future erosion. The existing force main would also be removed and replaced with a similar... renovated to protect it from erosion and extend its operating life. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  4. Teaching the Hydrologic and Geomorphic Significance of Drainage Basins and Discharge in Physical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Ross

    1994-01-01

    States that drainage basins, stream discharge, and sediment discharge are fundamental concepts in physical geography and integral parts of other cognate disciplines. Presents two exercises about these concepts. Includes a set of field-based exercises and a set of exercises for students who are unable to conduct field monitoring. (CFR)

  5. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

  6. Bedrock Geology of the Turkey Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Char, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the Turkey Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of fault locations and geologic map units based on age and lithology. Created for use in the Jefferson County Mountain Ground-Water Resources Study, it is to be used at a scale no more detailed than 1:50,000.

  7. MERIS Retrieval of Water Quality Components in the Turbid Albemarle-Pamlico Sound Estuary, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological, geophysical and optical field observations carried out in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA were used to develop a semi-empirical optical algorithm for assessing inherent optical properties associated with water quality components (WQCs). Three wavelengths ...

  8. Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) Albemarle-Pamlico Watershed and Estuary Study (APWES) Research Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The APWES is a place-based study for the U.S. EPA Ecosystem Services Research Program conducted through the collaboration across the EPA Office of Research and Development. The mission of the APWES is to develop ecosystem services science to inform watershed and coastal manageme...

  9. SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC DATABASE FOR ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO PORTION OF NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was prepared by digitizing maps, by compiling information onto a planimetric correct base and digitizing, or ...

  10. Tectonic control of the Guadiana Basin drainage development (Iberian Peninsula, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, Rosa; Gerzón Heydt, Guillermina; Babín Vich, Rosa Blanca; Fernández García, Paloma; Tsige, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Far from plate margins, where tectonic activity is of low intensity over long time periods, relief evolves over million years and is the outcome of long-term interplay between building and erosion processes. Forms created by individual tectonic structures are difficult to recognise due to extensive reworking or their disappearance altogether yet, on the regional scale, the decisive role of tectonics in relief building is evident. This is the case of the Atlantic divide of the Iberian Peninsula in which we examined the drainage basin of the Guadiana River. It is the southern one of a series of E-W to NE-SW trending sedimentary basins infilled with continental materials and separated by parallel mountain chains. Such tectonic units arose from the convergence of European and African plates during the Alpine orogeny. Alpine tectonics reshaped the ancient post-Variscan landscape to create elevated and depressed zones that were to control river patterning. To examine the relationship between Alpine crust deformation drainage, we undertook a spectral analysis of the topography and we constructed subenvelop maps of the drainage network. We consider that the harmonic surfaces that better describe the main topographic and tectonic features of the area should represent, on the one hand, relationships among the main drainage basins and tectonic units (mountain chains and sedimentary basins) on a regional (peninsular) scale, and on the other hand, show the Alpine structures controlling the current landscape within the large morphotectonic units. On a regional scale the wavelengths of 200 km suits the Guadiana basin and its divides. The basin is described as a gentle depression which an amplitude of 500 m. The subenvelop map shows spaced curves with smooth contours characteristics of plateau zones. The eastern part of the Guadiana Basin shows the characteristics of a perched plain where subenvelops barely indicate the presence of incision, adopting open slightly concave contours

  11. Estimating Vadose Zone Drainage From a Capped Seepage Basin, F Area, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Denham, M.

    2011-12-01

    Large volumes of waste solutions were commonly discharged into unlined seepage basins at many different facilities in the past. Plutonium was extracted from depleted uranium from 1955 to 1988 at the F-Area within the Savannah River Site, with contaminated process waters disposed of in permeable seepage basins. The primarily acidic solutions contained radioactive components (including tritium, 129I, and multiple isotopes of U, Pu, Sr, and Cs), elevated nitrate, and some metals (Hg, Pb, Cd). Basin 3 was the largest F-Area seepage basin, covering 2.0 hectare, with the water table typically at about 20 m below the soil surface. The local groundwater flows at an average velocity of 200 m/y in the approximately 10 m thick shallow aquifer, and is underlain by the low permeability Tan Clay. We used nearly 20 years of groundwater quality data from a monitoring well immediately downstream of Basin 3 to estimate the post-closure drainage of waste solutions through its underlying vadose zone, into the shallow aquifer. The measurements of tritium, nitrate, and specific conductance, were used as plume tracers in our estimates of vadose zone drainage. These calculations indicate that early stages of post-closure waste drainage occurred with high fluxes (≈ 1 m/y), and quickly declined. However, even after 20 years, drainage continues at a low but significant rate of several cm/y. These estimated drainage fluxes can help constrain predictions on the waste plume behavior, especially with respect to its emerging trailing gradient and anticipated time scales suitable for monitored natural attenuation.

  12. Erosional landform map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California, 1947-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Harden, D.M.; Colman, Steven M.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides and actively eroding stream channels disrupt roads, damage valuable timberland, and increase stream sediment loads in northwestern California. This 1:62,500 photointerpretative map shows the distribution of ten common types of fluvial and mass-movement erosional landforms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek in 1947 and 1974. The mapped landforms include slides, slumps, large compound earthflows, debris avalanches, unstable streambanks and adjacent hillslopes, small mass-movement features, questionable or inactive landslides, deeply incised amphitheater shaped drainage basins, small actively eroding water courses, and actively eroding main channel stream banks. The map legend describes these landforms and the techniques used in preparing the map. The amount and diversity of erosional activity increased greatly between 1947 and 1974. This increased activity apparently reflects major floods in 1953, 1955, 1964, and 1972, as well as the start of large scale, tractor-yarded clearcut timber harvest in the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Brief communication: Possible explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2016-04-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. Application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law may allow interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  14. Explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. The application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law allows interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.

  15. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Digital database architecture and delineation methodology for deriving drainage basins, and a comparison of digitally and non-digitally derived numeric drainage areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The drainage basin is a fundamental hydrologic entity used for studies of surface-water resources and during planning of water-related projects. Numeric drainage areas published by the U.S. Geological Survey water science centers in Annual Water Data Reports and on the National Water Information Systems (NWIS) Web site are still primarily derived from hard-copy sources and by manual delineation of polygonal basin areas on paper topographic map sheets. To expedite numeric drainage area determinations, the Colorado Water Science Center developed a digital database structure and a delineation methodology based on the hydrologic unit boundaries in the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This report describes the digital database architecture and delineation methodology and also presents the results of a comparison of the numeric drainage areas derived using this digital methodology with those derived using traditional, non-digital methods. (Please see report for full Abstract)

  17. Flooding of Sinking Creek, Garretts Spring karst drainage basin, Jessamine and Woodford counties, Kentucky, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currens, J.C.; Graham, C.D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Tashamingo Subdivision in Sinking Creek karst valley, a tributary of the Garretts Spring drainage basin in Jessamine and Woodford counties, Kentucky, was flooded in February 1989. To determine the cause of flooding, the groundwater basin boundary was mapped, discharge data were measured to determine intake capacity of swallets, and hydrologic modeling of the basin was conducted. Swallet capacity was determined to be limited by the hydraulic parameters of the conduit, rather than by obstruction by trash. Flooding from a precipitation event is more likely, and will be higher, when antecedent soil moisture conditions in the watershed are near saturation. Hydrologic modeling shows that suburban development of 20 percent of the southeast basin will cause a small increase in flood stage at Tashamingo Subdivision. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Flooding of Sinking Creek, Garretts Spring karst drainage basin, Jessamine and Woodford counties, Kentucky, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currens, J. C.; Graham, C. D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Tashamingo Subdivision in Sinking Creek karst valley, a tributary of the Garretts Spring drainage basin in Jessamine and Woodford counties, Kentucky, was flooded in February 1989. To determine the cause of flooding, the groundwater basin boundary was mapped, discharge data were measured to determine intake capacity of swallets, and hydrologic modeling of the basin was conducted. Swallet capacity was determined to be limited by the hydraulic parameters of the conduit, rather than by obstruction by trash. Flooding from a precipitation event is more likely, and will be higher, when antecedent soil moisture conditions in the watershed are near saturation. Hydrologic modeling shows that suburban development of 20 percent of the southeast basin will cause a small increase in flood stage at Tashamingo Subdivision.

  19. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Late Quaternary Glaciation of the Naches River Drainage Basin, Washington Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffer, H. B.; Goss, L.; Shimer, G.; Carson, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Naches River drainage basin east of Mount Rainer includes tributary valleys of the Little Naches, American, Bumping, and Tieton rivers. An investigation of surface boulder frequency, weathering rind thicknesses, and soil development on moraines in these valleys identified two stages of Pleistocene glaciations in the American, Bumping, and Tieton drainages, followed by Neoglaciation. These stages include a more extensive early glaciation (Hayden Creek?), and the later Evans Creek Glaciation (25-15 ka). Thick forest cover, limited road cuts, and widespread post-glacial mass wasting hamper efforts to determine the maximum extent of glaciation. However, glacial striations at Chinook Pass, moraine complexes in the vicinity of Goose Egg Mountain, ice-transported boulders and striations on Pinegrass Ridge, and a boulder field possibly derived from an Evans Creek jökulhaup in the Tieton River valley, all point to extensive Pleistocene ice in the central tributaries of the Naches River. Lowest observed ice elevations in the Tieton (780 m), Bumping (850 m), and American (920 m) drainages increase towards the north, while glacial lengths decrease from 40 to 28 km. The Little Naches is the northernmost drainage in the study, but despite a maximum elevation (1810 m) that exceeds the floor of ice caps to the south, glacially-derived sediments are not evident and the surrounding peaks lack cirques. The absence of ice in the Little Naches drainage, along with the systematic northward change in glacial length and lowest observed ice elevations in the other drainages, are likely due to a precipitation shadow northeast of Mount Rainier. In contrast, the source of glacial ice in the Tieton drainage to the southeast was the Goat Rocks peaks. Ground-based study of neoglacial moraines and analysis of 112 years of topographic maps and satellite imagery point to rapid retreat of the remaining Goat Rocks glaciers following the Little Ice Age.

  1. Stream analysis of small drainage basins in an ancient landform, Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jong-Gyu; Choi, Sung-Ja

    2014-12-01

    Much of the topography of Korea is ancient, but many Quaternary fault outcrops and marine terraces have been observed in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Sufficient evidence of a Quaternary fault is lacking in the geological features of the commercially developed Jukbyun and Uljin areas. Knickpoints that develop on streams can be formed by tectonic activity such as faulting and folding, or can result simply from the differential erosion rates of bedrock. In this study, we investigated the relationship between stream steepness and faults in the Jukbyun area. Stream profile analyses of the Bugu and Namdae basins were performed using a digital elevation model to estimate Quaternary tectonic movements. Stream parameters obtained from analysis of the longitudinal stream profiles of the Bugu and Namdae drainage basins in the northeastern part of the Korean Peninsula indicated neotectonic movement. Thirty of the thirty-nine knickpoints that developed in the downstream areas of the fluvial channels corresponded to fault zones. It is thought that fault activity results in knickpoints in river systems. The normalized relative slope (Ksn) value (54.9) of the BS1 stream in the Bugu drainage basin was higher than that (28.8-36.3) of the other streams in both basins, despite a similar lithology to NS1 and NS2. Therefore, we concluded that stream steepness might be a result of tectonic forcing rather than a product of rock strength in the study area and that stream parameters could provide indirect evidence of Quaternary tectonics in ancient landforms.

  2. Pleistocene alterations of drainage network between the Alps and the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.

    2012-04-01

    The investigated study area is situated in the transition zone between the still uplifting Eastern Alps and the subsiding Little Hungarian Plain (Joó 1992), bordered by Lafnitz (Lapincs), Répce (Rabnitz) and Rába (Raab) rivers. The contrasting forcing of the regions of differential uplift created a distinctive surface morphology of typically low relief that has a characteristic drainage network pattern as well. Our study is aimed at the reconstruction of the surface evolution by separation of individual geomorphic domains delineated by their geomorphometric characteristics. The hilly area is mostly covered by Miocene sediments. The mesoscale geomorphological units of the study area are influenced by the uplifting metamorphic core complex of Koszeg-Rechnitz Mountains (Tari - Horváth 1995), by the also metamorphic and relatively uplifting Vas Hill as well as by the subsiding grabens. There are two dominant flow directions alternating downstream. Valley segments are often bordered by steep scarps, which were identified by previous research as listric normal faults and grabens. Largely, the investigated area consists of tilted blocks bordered by 30-60 m high and steep, fault-related escarpments as it was demonstrated by the analysis of lignite layers, topographic sections and topographic swath analyses (Kovács et al. 2010, Kovács et al. 2011). Drainage network reorganizations occurred in several steps during the Pleistocene. Corresponding landforms are abrupt changes in stream direction, wind gaps, uplifted terrace levels built up of sedimentary rocks and wide alluvial valleys. Terraces are best developed along the Strem stream, which has a strikingly small drainage area at present, due to the Pinka River, which captured the upper parts of the drainage basin. The widest valley belongs to Pinka River. Drainage reorganizations are most likely due to the uplifting scarps that diverted the streams. Remainders of previous cross-valleys are wind gaps. Using these

  3. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  4. Estimating design-flood discharges for streams in Iowa using drainage-basin and channel-geometry characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures provided for applying the drainage-basin and channel-geometry regression equations depend on whether the design-flood discharge estimate is for a site on an ungaged stream, an ungaged site on a gaged stream, or a gaged site. When both a drainage-basin and a channel-geometry regression-equation estimate are available for a stream site, a procedure is presented for determining a weighted average of the two flood estimates. The drainage-basin regression equations are applicable to unregulated rural drainage areas less than 1,060 square miles, and the channel-geometry regression equations are applicable to unregulated rural streams in Iowa with stabilized channels.

  5. The Global Geometry of River Drainage Basins and the Signature of Tectonic and Autogenic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetta, E.; Willett, S.

    2015-12-01

    The plan-form structure of the world's river basins contains extensive information regarding tectonic, paleo-geographic and paleo-climate conditions, but interpretation of this structure is complicated by the need to disentangle these processes from the autogenic behavior of fluvial processes. One method of interpreting this structure is by utilizing the well-established scaling between drainage area and channel slope. Integration of this scaling relationship predicts a relationship between channel length and downstream integrated drainage area, referred to in recent studies as χ (Willett et al., 2014). In this paper, we apply this methodology at a continental scale by calculating χ for the world's river networks using hydrological information from the HydroSHED (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttleElevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) suite of geo-referenced data sets (drainage directions and flow accumulations). River pixels were identified using a minimum drainage area of 5 km2. A constant value of m/n of 0.45 was assumed. We applied a new method to correct χ within closed basins where base level is different from sea level. Mapping of χ illustrates the geometric stability of a river network, thus highlighting where tectonic or climatic forcing has perturbed the shape and geometry. Each continent shows characteristic features. Continental rift margins on all continents show clear asymmetric escarpments indicating inland migration. Active orogenic belts break up older river basins, but are difficult to interpret because of spatially variable uplift rates. Regions of recent tilting are evident even in cratonic areas by lateral reorganizations of basins. Past and pending river captures are identified on all continents. Very few regions on Earth appear to be in near-equilibrium, though some are identified; for example the Urals appears to provide a stable continental divide for Eurasia. Our analysis of maps of χ at the global scale quantifies a

  6. Suspended sediment and sediment-source areas in the Fountain Creek drainage basin upstream from Widefield, southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Suspended-sediment samples were collected from synoptic-sampling sites to determine suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, yields, and sediment-source areas in the Fountain Creek drainage basin upstream from Widefield, Colorado. Suspended-sediment yields ranged from 0.004 to 278 tons/sq mi/day. Twenty-four sites were sampled that represent urban and rural land use. The median suspended-sediment yield from urban drainage basins was 7.7 tons/sq mi/day and the median suspended-sediment yield from rural drainage basins was 0.46 ton/sq mi/day. Sediment-transport equations were derived for total suspended-sediment discharge and suspended-sand discharge at seven periodic-sampling sites. Annual suspended-sediment loads and yields were computed for the 1985 water year. Urbanization in the downstream parts of the Monument Creek drainage basin, the main tributary to Fountain Creek, affected sediment loads. The downstream 14% of the Monument Creek drainage basin contributed about 61% of the annual suspended-sediment load transported at the mouth of Monument Creek. About 73% of the annual suspended-sediment load for Fountain Creek at Colorado Springs was contributed by Monument Creek. Abandoned mill tailings along Fountain Creek contributed little to total suspended sediment load. Contributions of streambank erosion to basin sediment yields were not quantified. However, the measured rate of streambank erosion at a site on Fountain Creek has increased during a 37-year period. (USGS)

  7. Benthic macroinvertebrate community in the Sinos river drainage basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, M P; Gayeski, L M; Tundisi, J G

    2016-06-27

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna is a relevant component of limnic continental aquatic ecosystems, playing an important role in several processes with relevant biocomplexity. The present study characterized the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna found in three hydric bodies in the Sinos river drainage basin regarding community structure. Sample was collected from January to December 2013 in three locations in the basin: the city of Caraá (29 °45'45.5"S/50°19'37.3"W), the city of Rolante (29°38'34.4"S/50°32'33.2"W) and the city of Igrejinha (29°36'10.84"S/50°48'49.3"W). Abiotic components (pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature) were registered and collected samples were identified up to family type. Average annual pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were similar in all locations. A total of 26,170 samples were collected. Class Insecta (Arthropods) represented 85.5% of total sample. Platyhelmintes, Mollusca and Annelida samples were also registered. A total of 57 families were identified for the drainage basin and estimators (Chao-1, Chao-2 and jackknife 2) estimated richness varying from 60 to 72 families. PMID:27355982

  8. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the <63 μm grain-size fraction from the upper bed sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms. PMID:26573308

  9. Historical evolution of the drainage network at the basin scale using aerial orthophotography in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Mora, Jose; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil management has major implications on the drainage systems in agricultural catchments. Management practices, such as ploughing the gully perimeter and gully filling, remove the vegetation and natural features associated with natural streams contributing to the landscape simplification and accelerating erosion processes. This study evaluated the temporal evolution of several key parameters of the drainage network at the Arroyo Galapagares basin over a period of six decades, from a set of existing orthophotographies, since the first available (1956) to the present (2011). The area of the catchment is 80 km2, being representative of the Campiña, a rolling landscape covered by field crops on mostly Vertisol soils, in Southern Spain. The complete drainage network of the basin was digitized, defining the thalweg and the perimeter of the channels. Since the distinction between the actual channel surface and surrounding weed-covered surface is not reliable by means of merely orthophotography inspection, the limits between the field crops and the drainage network surface provided a measure of the magnitude of non-cultivated areas. Using the digitization results, the temporal variation of three parameters were assessed: network length, channel sinuosity and non-cultivated surface. The results of this analysis showed that a significant reduction of sinuosity occurred during the study period, as well as temporary decreases in the network length as a consequence of land levelling and gully filling. Moreover, a sustained growth of non-cultivated areas was observed at the upstream gullies (low-level order streams) due to the intensification of gully erosion, especially during the last decade.

  10. Drainage reversals in Mono Basin during the late pliocene and Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Stine, S.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Mono Basin, on the eastern flank of the central Sierra Nevada, is the highest of the large hydrographically closed basins in the Basin and Range province. We use geomorphic features, shoreline deposits, and basalt-filled paleochannels to reconstruct an early to middle Pleistocene record of shorelines and changing spillways of Lake Russell in Mono Basin. During this period of time, Lake Russell repeatedly attained altitudes between 2205 and 2280 m-levels far above the present surface of Mono Lake (~1950 m) and above its last overflow level (2188 m). The spill point of Lake Russell shifted through time owing to late Tertiary and Quaternary faulting and volcanism. During the early Pleistocene, the lake periodically discharged through the Mount Hicks spillway on the northeastern rim of Mono Basin and flowed northward into the Walker Lake drainage basin via the East Walker River. Paleochannels recording such discharge were incised prior to 1.6 Ma, possibly between 1.6 and 1.3 Ma, and again after 1.3 Ma (ages of basaltic flows that plugged the paleochannels). Faulting in the Adobe Hills on the southeastern margin of the basin eventually lowered the rim in this area to below the altitude of the Mount Hicks spillway. Twice after 0.76 Ma, and possibly as late as after 0.1 Ma, Lake Russell discharged southward through the Adobe Hills spillway into the Owens-Death Valley system of lakes. This study supports a pre-Pleistocene aquatic connection through Mono Basin between the hydrologically distinct Lahontan and Owens-Death Valley systems, as long postulated by biologists, and also confirms a probable link during the Pleistocene for species adapted to travel upstream in fast-flowing water.

  11. Fluvial sediment study of Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes drainage basins, Kentucky - Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, William F.; Flint, Russell F.; George, Frederick H.; Santos, John F.

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen drainage basins above Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes in the Levisa Fork and Johns Creek drainage basins of eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia were studied to determine sedimentation rates and origin of sediment entering the two lakes. The basins ranged in size from 1.68 to 297 square miles. Sediment yields ranged from 2,890 to 21,000 tons per square mile where surface-mining techniques predominated, and from 732 to 3 ,470 tons per square mile where underground mining methods predominated. Yields, in terms of tons per acre-foot of runoff, ranged from 2.2 to 15 for surface-mined areas, and from 0.5 to 2.7 for underground-mined areas. Water and sediment discharges from direct runoff during storms were compared for selected surface-mined and underground-mined areas. Data points of two extensively surface-mined areas, one from the current project and one from a previous project in Beaver Creek basin, McCreary County, Kentucky, grouped similarly in magnitude and by season. Disturbed areas from mining activities determined from aerial photographs reached 17 percent in one study area where extensive surface mining was being practiced. For most areas where underground mining was practiced, percentage disturbed area was almost negligible. Trap efficiency of Fishtrap Lake was 89 percent, and was 62 percent for Dewey Lake. Average annual deposition rates were 464 and 146 acre-feet for Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes, respectively. The chemical quality of water in the Levisa Fork basin has been altered by man 's activities. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Use of selected basin characteristics to estimate mean annual runoff and peak discharges for ungaged streams in drainage basins containing strippable coal resources, northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Equations in this report can be used to estimate mean annual runoff and peak discharges for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 100-year recurrence intervals for ungaged streams in drainage basins containing strippable coal resources in northwestern New Mexico. These streamflow characteristics are related to basin characteristics that were found to be significant, using regression techniques. Mean annual runoff for ephemeral streams is related to drainage area, active-channel width, main-channel slope, basin slope, and silt-clay percentage in active-channel banks. Peak discharges for ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial streams are related to drainage area, active-channel width, main-channel length, basin slope, and silt-clay percentage in active-channel banks. (USGS)

  13. Airborne hyperspectral imaging for sensing phosphorus concentration in the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogrekci, Ismail; Lee, Won Suk; Jordan, Jonathan D.

    2005-05-01

    Eutrophication disturbs the ecological balance in the Lake Okeechobee due to high concentration of phosphorus emanated from the regions in the lake's drainage basin. Ability of measuring phosphorus (P) concentrations of water in the Lake Okeechobee itself is very important. Furthermore, monitoring P in its drainage basins is crucial in order to find the cause of P loading and contributing regions. Also, inexpensive real-time sensing capability for a large area in a short time would help scientist, government agents, and civilians to understand the causes, spot the high-risk areas, and develop management practices for restoring the natural equilibrium. In order to measure P concentrations in the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin, airborne hyperspectral images were taken from five representative target sites by deploying a modified queen air twin engine aircraft. Each flight line covered a swath of approximately 365 m wide. Spatial resolution was about 1 m. Spectral range covered was between 412.65 and 991.82 nm with an approximate of 5 nm spectral resolution. Ground truthing was conducted to collect soil and vegetation samples, GPS coordinates of each location, and reflectance measurement of each sample. On the ground, spectral reflectance was measured using a handheld spectrometer in 400-2500 nm. The samples were sent to a laboratory for chemical analysis. Also diffuse reflectance of the samples was measured in a laboratory setting using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Images were geocorrected and rectified to reduce geometric effect. Calibration of images was conducted to obtain actual reflectance of the target area. Score, SAM (Spectral Angle Mapping), SFF (Spectral Feature Fitting) were computed for spectral matching with image derived spectral library.

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, J.L.; Fresquez, P.R.; Carter, L.F.; Gallaher, B.M.; Mullen, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    In 1992-93, Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort to characterize radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin from Colorado to Texas. Bed sediment was sampled from 18 locations for cesium ({sup 137}Cs), tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), americium ({sup 241}Am), total uranium ({sup tot}U) and alpha, beta, and gamma activity. Fish tissue was sampled from 12 locations for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup tot}U.

  15. Assessment of water resources in some drainage basins, northwestern coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Abd, El Sayed El; Baraka, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this research paper is to monitor the current situation of water resources in some of the drainage basins in the northwestern coast of Egypt and reach to a plan for the development of these resources. The selected basins were chosen for the present study according to their special conditions, where they have a shortage of water for human and agriculture proposes. However, the area of study has a population growth and agricultural activities, which require necessary development of groundwater. The study area has two aquifers: Pleistocene, and Middle Miocene aquifers. The recharge to these aquifers comes either from the direct infiltration of the rainfall, and/or from the surface runoff. The groundwater in the area of study is evaluated for drinking, domestic, livestock and agricultural purposes. The present study reaches out for some recommendations to develop the surface and groundwater in the study area.

  16. Field identification of groundwater flow systems and hydraulic traps in drainage basins using a geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Yin, Bin-Xi; Fu, Wen-Xiang; Lin, Chang-Hong

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater flow systems and stagnant zones in drainage basins are critical to a series of geologic processes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of mapping flow system boundaries and no field example of detected stagnant zones restrict the application of the concept of nested flow systems. By assuming the variation in bulk resistivity of an aquifer with uniform porosity is mainly caused by groundwater salinity, the magnetotelluric technique is used to obtain the apparent resistivity of a profile across a groundwater-fed river in the Ordos Plateau, China. Based on the variations in apparent resistivity of the Cretaceous sandstone aquifer, the basin-bottom hydraulic trap below the river has been detected for the first time, and its size is found to be large enough for possible deposition of large ore bodies. The boundaries between local and regional flows have also been identified, which would be useful for groundwater exploration and calibration of large-scale groundwater models.

  17. Development of a regional hydrologic soil model and application to the Beerze--Reusel drainage basin.

    PubMed

    Kolditz, O; Du, Y; Bürger, C; Delfs, J; Kuntz, D; Beinhorn, M; Hess, M; Wang, W; van der Grift, B; te Stroet, C

    2007-08-01

    The soil compartment is an important interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface hydrosphere. In this paper a conceptual approach for regional hydrologic soil modelling (RHSM) is presented, which provides two important qualities for modelling. First, the soil compartment is directly coupled to the atmosphere via the land surface and to the aquifers. Second, extremely fine (5cm vertical) resolutions of the soil system can be realized at regional scales (several hundreds of km(2)). This high-resolution modelling could be achieved by parallel computation techniques. The RHSM approach is applied to the Beerze-Reusel drainage basin, which belongs to the Meuse River basin. Moisture transport in the soil system was calculated with extremely high vertical resolution at a regional scale based on rainfall-evaporation data for the year 2000. As a result, highly resolved regional groundwater recharge pattern addressing the heterogeneity of soil systems could be determined. PMID:17478020

  18. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward

  19. Simulating Spatial Variability of Fluvial Sediment Fluxes Within the Magdalena Drainage Basin, Colombia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.; Restrepo, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the application of an empirical sediment flux model BQART, to simulate long-term sediment fluxes of major tributaries of a river system based on a limited number of input parameters. We validate model results against data of the 1612 km long Magdalena River, Colombia, South America, which is well monitored. The Magdalena River, draining a hinterland area of 257,438 km2, of which the majority lies in the Andes before reaching the Atlantic coast, is known for its high sediment yield, 560 t kg- 2 yr-1; higher than nearby South American rivers like the Amazon or the Orinoco River. Sediment fluxes of 32 tributary basins of the Magdalena River were simulated based on the following controlling factors: geomorphic influences (tributary-basin area and relief) derived from high-resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, tributary basin-integrated lithology based on GIS analysis of lithology data, 30year temperature data, and observed monthly mean discharge data records (varying in record length of 15 to 60 years). Preliminary results indicate that the simulated sediment flux of all 32 tributaries matches the observational record, given the observational error and the annual variability. These simulations did not take human influences into account yet, which often increases sediment fluxes by accelerating erosion, especially in steep mountainous area similar to the Magdalena. Simulations indicate that, with relatively few input parameters, mostly derived from remotely-sensed data or existing compiled GIS datasets, it is possible to predict: which tributaries in an arbitrary river drainage produce relatively high contributions to sediment yields, and where in the drainage basin you might expect conveyance loss.

  20. Modeling pollution potential input from the drainage basin into Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, R B; Novo, E M L M

    2015-05-01

    In this study multi-criteria modeling tools are applied to map the spatial distribution of drainage basin potential to pollute Barra Bonita Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brasil. Barra Bonita Reservoir Basin had undergone intense land use/land cover changes in the last decades, including the fast conversion from pasture into sugarcane. In this respect, this study answers to the lack of information about the variables (criteria) which affect the pollution potential of the drainage basin by building a Geographic Information System which provides their spatial distribution at sub-basin level. The GIS was fed by several data (geomorphology, pedology, geology, drainage network and rainfall) provided by public agencies. Landsat satellite images provided land use/land cover map for 2002. Ratings and weights of each criterion defined by specialists supported the modeling process. The results showed a wide variability in the pollution potential of different sub-basins according to the application of different criterion. If only land use is analyzed, for instance, less than 50% of the basin is classified as highly threatening to water quality and include sub basins located near the reservoir, indicating the importance of protection areas at the margins. Despite the subjectivity involved in the weighing processes, the multi-criteria analysis model allowed the simulation of scenarios which support rational land use polices at sub-basin level regarding the protection of water resources. PMID:26132013

  1. Elaboration of climatic maps using GIS. Case study: Olãnesti drainage basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Tîrlã, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Creating precise climatic maps (temperature and precipitation map especially) on small areas such as drainage basins or landform units is always very useful for ecology of plants, distribution of vegetation and also different types of agricultural land. The geographic information system (GIS) analysis of several key-factors (aspect and slope of terrain, insolation degree, thermal gradient, geology and structure of landforms) offers the necessary tools to operate with in order to create an accurate climatic map. This method was applied in order to create a map showing the distribution of temperatures in the Olanesti drainages basin, a 235 km2 area located at middle latitude, in Romania. After creating the DEM, aspect and slope of the terrain, reclassifying categories and calculating the thermal gradient, a map showing the distribution of the annual mean temperature is obtained. Other climatic parameters could be calculated for small areas too, with precise results. These demonstrate that not only elevation and mathematical location of an area are important factors in the distribution of temperature, but also the aspect, the gradient, the insolation, the type of rock and the structure. PMID:23424850

  2. Distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels in forested mountain drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Abbe, Tim B.; Buffington, John M.; Peterson, N. Phil; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Stock, Jonathan D.

    1996-06-01

    MOUNTAIN river networks often consist of both bedrock and alluvial channels1-5, the spatial distribution of which controls several fundamental geomorphological and ecological processes6,7. The nature of river channels can influence the rates of river incision and landscape evolution1,2, as well as the stream habitat characteristics affecting species abundance and aquatic ecosystem structure8-11. Studies of the factors controlling the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels have hitherto been limited to anthropogenic badlands12. Here we investigate the distribution of channel types in forested mountain drainage basins, and show that the occurrence of bedrock and alluvial channels can be described by a threshold model relating local sediment transport capacity to sediment supply. In addition, we find that valley-spanning log jams create alluvial channels- hospitable to aquatic life-in what would otherwise be bedrock reaches. The formation of such jams depends critically on the stabilizing presence of logs derived from the largest trees in the riverside forests, suggesting that management strategies that allow harvesting of such trees can have a devastating influence on alluvial habitats in mountain drainage basins.

  3. Effects of storm runoff on water quality in the Mill Creek drainage basin, Willingboro, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schornick, James C., Jr.; Fishel, David K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of storm runoff on the quality of water in streams receiving drainage from the 23.7-square-kilometer Mill Creek basin in Willingboro, NJ., was studied from October 1975 to September 1976. Stream discharge and 86 water-quality constituents were measured during base flow and storm runoff. Only 38 constitutents were detected in significant amounts under any streamflow condition. Constituent loads and concentrations in the runoff from the nonresidential part of the study area in the upstream part of the drainage basin affected stream quality more than runoff from the residential area. The nonresidential area contributed more of the nutrient load (nitrate, ammonia, organic nitrogen, and phosphorus), the common inorganics (sodium , potassium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate), sediment, and organic carbon. The residential area contributed more calcium, nitrite, lead, iron, biochemical oxygen demand, and the pesticides, 2,4-D and silvex. With the exception of suspended iron, fecal coliform bacteria, suspended lead, and suspended phosphorus, all measured constituents met the recommended criteria set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, even during storms. (USGS)

  4. Characterization of a small-scale drainage basin in Central Portugal - a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Carla G.; Azevedo, José Manuel; Rodrigues, Nelson V.; Figueiredo, Fernando P. O.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a multidisciplinary characterization of a small-scale watershed encompassing its topography, geology, local and regional tectonics, morphometry of the drainage system, soil type, land use and climatology. All this parameters are important controllers of the groundwater circulation and storage, as well as the localization of the recharge areas. It also identifies the piezometric changes, the upper (or phreatic) aquifer flow and the major recharge areas. Simultaneously, it includes the hydrochemical classification and the active hydrogeochemical processes occurring on the local aquifers. The combined analysis of these data is necessary for interpreting the hydrodynamics of the local aquifer units. The research focused on the surrounding domains of Olhos da Fervença spring, particularly in the Fervença watershed, a small-scale drainage basin close to Cantanhede city (Coimbra District, Portugal). This watershed is located on a rural area within the Vouga hydrographic basin. The methodology included: (1) delimitation of the watershed; (2) geometric (or physiographic) characterization of the basin; (3) analysis of the digital elevation model to quantify the slopes and to detect structural alignments that influence the surface and groundwater flow; (4) geologic characterization of the basin; (5) description of the soil type and the land use; (6) classification of the regional climatic conditions; (7) inventory and regular hydrogeologic characterization of wells (diameter, depth, wellhead and piezometry); (8) elaboration of piezometric maps in order to identify the groundwater flow; (9) groundwater sampling and in situ measurement of physico-chemical parameters (pH, groundwater temperature, specific electrical conductivity, Eh, dissolved oxygen, HCO3); (10) conducting laboratorial hydrochemical analyzes (Cl, NO3, SO4, PO4, Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Al); (11) groundwater classification, hydrochemical interpretation and identification of the water

  5. Preliminary study of the hydrologic response of an urban drainage basin at two different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, António; Coelho, Celeste; de Lima João, Pedroso

    2010-05-01

    Predicted changes in climate and urban sprawl areas are expected to cause significant modification in rainfall pattern and hydrological regimes. Urbanization can alter the hydrologic response by increasing streamflow, reducing time of concentration, altering soil moisture levels and increasing overland flow, thereby increasing the size, frequency and speed of peak flow responses. However, despite the profusion of works, effective methodologies to investigate the impacts of potential land-use change on how spatial variability of soil moisture and precipitation affect runoff production at a range of scales and on different land uses remain largely undeveloped. This has important implications for flood prediction accuracy. The main aim of this work is to assess the hydrological response and to understand the influence of different land uses. The study is based on a small urban drainage basin (7 Km2), undergoing rapid urbanization, located in central Portugal: Ribeira dos Covões. It considers a combined approach of field survey and data acquisition to access spatiotemporal dynamics and land uses contributions to surface hydrology, based on drainage basins and small plot scales. At drainage basin scale, the study is based on three years rainfall and stream flow data analysis (collected through an automatic water level recorder and rain gauges). Rainfall-runoff relationship was assessed over the time and isolated events were studied. To understand land uses on the hydrology, rainfall simulations were conducted at the small plot scale (0.25 m2) during a dry period, in forested and deforested areas, agricultural areas, including tilled and abandoned areas, as well as built-up areas (21 experiments with 1 hour duration, with a rain intensity of 43±3 mm h-1). During the experiments hydrophobicity was monitored (Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet technique), soil moisture content was assessed every minute, and runoff volume was measured every 5 minutes. This work has shown the

  6. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Brown, Elizabeth M; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  7. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  8. Examining the Colonization and Survival of E. coli from Varying Host Sources in Drainage Basin Sediments and Stormwater.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kyle; Michael Trapp, J

    2016-08-01

    It is widely understood that stormwater drainage has a significant impact on the health of tidal creek systems via regular inputs of runoff from the surrounding watershed. Due to this hydrologic connection, contamination of the upstream drainage basin will have a direct effect on estuaries and tidal creeks that often act as receiving waters. This study focuses on the importance of drainage basin sediments as they enhance the persistence and transport of the fecal indicator bacteria E. coli within a watershed. Experiments presented use microcosm environments with drainage basin sediments and stormwater to investigate E. coli colonization of stagnant waters and to examine the importance of host sources to bacterial survival. A novel method for establishing microcosms using environmental sediments with in situ bacterial populations and sterile overlying waters is used to examine E. coli colonization of the water column in the absence of flow. Colonization of sterile sediment environments also is examined using two common host sources (human and avian). Each experiment uses sediments of varying grain size and organic content to examine the influence of physical characteristics on bacterial prevalence. Results suggest host source of bacteria may be more important to initial bacterial colonization while physical characteristics of drainage basin sediments better explains extended E. coli persistence. Findings also suggest an indirect control of water column bacterial concentration by sediment type and erodibility. PMID:27282707

  9. Simulation of mine drainage for preliminary development of oil shale and associated minerals, Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, O. James

    1986-01-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large resources of oil shale, nahcolite, and dawsonite. Development of these minerals will require drainage of water from mines. A six-layer hydrologic model of the basin was prepared to simulate mine drainage for mineral development. Streams and major tributaries were simulated as head-dependent nodes. Stream nodes were gaining or losing, but the rate of loss was constrained by the leakance of the streambed and the stream stage. Springs also were simulated as head-dependent nodes that stop flowing if the aquifer head declines below the spring orifice. (USGS)

  10. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  11. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liao River drainage basin, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Siliang; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Baojian; Guo, Qinjun

    2016-04-01

    The Liao River drainage basin, which is one of China's seven major rivers basins, is located in northeast China. This region is characterized by important industrial bases including steel factories and oil and chemical plants, all of which have the potential to contribute pollutants to the drainage basin. In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the major rivers of the Liao River drainage basin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 76.5 μg/g (dry weight) in SPM and 32.6 to 108 ng/L in surface water, respectively. Low-ring PAHs (including two- and three-ring PAHs) were dominant in all PAH samples, and the level of low-ring PAHs in surface water was higher than that in SPM. The proportion of two-ring PAHs was the highest, accounting for an average of 68.2 % of the total PAHs in surface water, while the level of three-ring PAHs was the highest in SPM, with an average of 66.3 %. When compared with other river systems, the concentrations of PAHs in the Liao River drainage basin were lower. Identification of the emission sources based on diagnostic ratios suggested petroleum and fossil fuel combustion were important contribution to PAHs in the study area. PMID:26972927

  12. Drainage architecture and sediment routing in erosive catchments within the Ebro Eiver sedimentary basin (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Xavier; Colombo, Ferran; Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The Ebro Basin (EB) is the result of filling a foreland basin located between active mountain ranges during the Paleogene compressive phases, and later affected by phases of distension in the Neogene. The arrangement of filler material is monocline in the eastern margin and in the contact with the Catalan Coastal Range (CCR). This has repercussions on the model of emptying the erosive basins and in the drainage that took place in the margins of the original sedimentary basin. One can speak of a drainage architecture and sediment routing associated to a monocline erosive basin model. The monocline topography in the original margin of EB encouraged the formation of a string of erosive basins around the contact with CCR, which are the result of headward erosion towards the center of the EB of the rivers draining the CCR towards the Valencia Trough. At the time, the transition from the EB in its initial condition of endorheic to exorheic was through one of these monocline erosive basins. The erosive basins emptied by means of two vectors. On the one hand, growth in surface of the basin by deepening anaclinal streams through resistant beds of monocline stratigraphic succession that empty and link small depressions that increase laterally on the less resistant lithologic member. Moreover, the new drainage system entrenches as the exit point of the basin does, thanks to gradients created by distensional movements of the Neogene Valencia Trough. Growth and entrenchment model of river basins, as well as, sedimentary deposits and landforms generated by these processes are described and analyzed.

  13. Ancient drainage basin of the Tharsis region, Mars: Potential source for outflow channel systems and putative oceans or paleolakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Baker, V.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Hare, T.M.; Strom, R.G.; Barlow, N.G.; Tanaka, K.L.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Scott, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    Paleotopographic reconstructions based on a synthesis of published geologic information and high-resolution topography, including topographic profiles, reveal the potential existence of an enormous drainage basin/aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region during the Noachian Period. Large topographic highs formed the margin of the gigantic drainage basin. Subsequently, lavas, sediments, and volatiles partly infilled the basin, resulting in an enormous and productive regional aquifer. The stacked sequences of water-bearing strata were then deformed locally and, in places, exposed by magmatic-driven uplifts, tectonic deformation, and erosion. This basin model provides a potential source of water necessary to carve the large outflow channel systems of the Tharsis and surrounding regions and to contribute to the formation of putative northern-plains ocean(s) and/or paleolakes. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Geodatabase of sites, basin boundaries, and topology rules used to store drainage basin boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This geodatabase and its component datasets are part of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 650 and were generated to store basin boundaries for U.S. Geological Survey streamgages and other sites in Colorado. The geodatabase and its components were created by the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center, and are used to derive the numeric drainage areas for Colorado that are input into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS) database and also published in the Annual Water Data Report and on NWISWeb. The foundational dataset used to create the basin boundaries in this geodatabase was the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This geodatabase accompanies a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods report (Book 11, Section C, Chapter 6) entitled "Digital Database Architecture and Delineation Methodology for Deriving Drainage Basins, and Comparison of Digitally and Non-Digitally Derived Numeric Drainage Areas." The Techniques and Methods report details the geodatabase architecture, describes the delineation methodology and workflows used to develop these basin boundaries, and compares digitally derived numeric drainage areas in this geodatabase to non-digitally derived areas. 1. COBasins.gdb: This geodatabase contains site locations and basin boundaries for Colorado. It includes a single feature dataset, called BasinsFD, which groups the component feature classes and topology rules. 2. BasinsFD: This feature dataset in the "COBasins.gdb" geodatabase is a digital container that holds the feature classes used to archive site locations and basin boundaries as well as the topology rules that govern spatial relations within and among component feature classes. This feature dataset includes three feature classes: the sites for which basins have been delineated (the "Sites" feature class), basin bounding lines (the "BasinLines" feature class), and polygonal basin areas (the "BasinPolys" feature class). The feature dataset

  15. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of .southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, ,adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  16. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  17. Aquatic biology of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Averett, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A 2-year study of the aquatic biota in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins of Redwood National Park indicated that the aquatic productivity is low. Densities of coliform bacteria were low except in Prairie Creek, a tributary to Redwood Creek, where a State park, county fish hatchery, grazing land, lumber mill, and scattered residential areas are potential sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Benthic invertebrate data indicated a diverse fauna which varied considerably between streams and among stream sections. Noteworthy findings include: (1) benthic invertebrates rapidly recolonized the streambed following a major storm, and (2) man-caused disruption or sedimentation of the streambed during low flow can result in drastic reductions of the benthic invertebrate community. Seven species of fish representing species typically found in northern California coastal streams were captured during the study. Nonparametric statistical tests indicate that condition factors of steelhead trout were significantly larger at sampling stations with more insolation, regardless of drainage basin land-use history. Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were diverse, variable in numbers, and dominated by diatoms. Seston concentrations were extremely variable between stations and at each station sampled. The seston is influenced seasonally by aquatic productivity at each station and amount of allochthonous material from the terrestrial ecosystem. Time-series analysis of some seston data indicated larger and sharper peak concentrations being flushed from the logged drainage basin than from the control drainage basin. (USGS)

  18. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  19. Hydrology and geochemistry of small tundra drainage basins in response to active layer disturbance. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, A.S.

    1986-06-01

    Hydrology of far northern drainage basins in which the shallow organic-rich surface layer overlies a permanently frozen substrate, is poorly known, yet is of great importance in evaluating natural stability and in predicting response to disturbances effecting flow and the distribution of nutrient and sedimentary ions. First-year study of a 2.5 km/sup 2/ watershed supports the primacy of the short duration melt-off in the yearly hydrologic/geochemical cycle. At this time basin storage capacity is minimum and total runoff carries with it a seasonal maximum of nutrient ions, suspended and dissolved solids. Subsequent to melt-off, base flow is high but decreases as thaw releases seasonally frozen water, including some temporarily stored melt-off. Spring storm events produce rapid peak discharges because of the low storage capacity in the catchment. Rare, high intensity, short duration storms in early season can produce discharges that rival diurnal peaks at melt-off. With activation of vegetation following melt-off, some nutrient ions are no longer detectable and pH becomes acid. Summer drought periods are common and if sufficiently protracted, reduce stream flow to barely measurable quantities. At such times hydrographs may show small diurnal fluctuations in response to evapotranspiration cycles. Ion concentrations show an increase as senescence commences in mid-August.

  20. Photogrammetrically Derived Estimates of Glacier Mass Loss in the Upper Susitna Drainage Basin, Alaska Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolken, G. J.; Whorton, E.; Murphy, N.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers in Alaska are currently experiencing some of the highest rates of mass loss on Earth, with mass wastage rates accelerating during the last several decades. Glaciers, and other components of the hydrologic cycle, are expected to continue to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming, thus, affecting the quantity and timing of river runoff. This study uses sequential digital elevation model (DEM) analysis to estimate the mass loss of glaciers in the upper Susitna drainage basin, Alaska Range, for the purpose of validating model simulations of past runoff changes. We use mainly stereo optical airborne and satellite data for several epochs between 1949 and 2014, and employ traditional stereo-photogrammetric and structure from motion processing techniques to derive DEMs of the upper Susitna basin glaciers. This work aims to improve the record of glacier change in the central Alaska Range, and serves as a critical validation dataset for a hydrological model that simulates the potential effects of future glacier mass loss on changes in river runoff over the lifespan of the proposed Susitna-Watana Hydroelectric Project.

  1. Drainage areas of New York streams, by river basins; a stream gazetteer; Part 1, Data compiled as of October 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic studies concerned with surface water require geographic data of several types, among which are stream length and size of drainage area from which runoff is contributed. This gazetteer presents all drainage-area data on New York streams that were available as of October 1980. The information is grouped by river basin, and each section consists of two lists. The first gives sites alphabetically by stream name and includes the body of water to which the stream is tributary, county in which the site is located, drainage area above the mouth, coordinates of the topographic quadrangle on the State index map , and the Geological Survey site number. The second list presents site information by U.S. Geological Survey site number (downstream order along the main stream) and includes drainage area, distance of measurement site above the mouth, and location by latitude and longitude. Data were compiled from published and unpublished sources, all of which are available for inspection at the U.S. Geological Survey in Albany, N.Y. Also included are updated values on several river basins that have been redelineated and whose drainage areas have been recomputed and retabulated since 1977. (USGS)

  2. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  3. Scales of colluvial sediment transfer and coupling in formerly glaciated mountain drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.; Hassan, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    We examine basin-wide colluvial sediment dynamics through the compilation of a 70-year landslide inventory in mountain environments of coastal British Columbia. In particular, we document the colluvial sediment cascade by characterizing the dominant sediment sources, and by identifying preferential sites of colluvial delivery and storage across landscape scales. Results reveal that open-slope landslides evacuating material to ephemeral or permanent streams and fluvial terraces are the preferential source-to-sink pathways. This pattern suggests high instability of the headmost channel network and its ongoing re-organization after generalized sediment recharge occurred during the last glacial maximum. In the study period, the colluvial sediment budget calculated across geomorphic process domains indicates net volume loss on planar slopes and source colluvial channels, whereas unchannelled valleys, sink colluvial channels and fluvially-dominated channels have been aggrading. In this context, we propose a novel approach to represent colluvial sediment yield as a function of drainage area. This scaling relation appears to be controlled by the spatial organization of geomorphic process domains, as imposed by the morphometry of the glacial palimpsest. It follows that colluvial yield is highest in unchannelled topography, decreases at the scale of channel initiation, and remains constant for drainage areas where source colluvial and hanging fluvial domains overlap. Colluvial sediment injections start declining consistently beyond areas larger than 0.6 km2, where fluvial environments are still partially coupled. Evaluation of the colluvial scaling trend in conjunction with British Columbia fluvial sediment yield, allows us to identify landscape scales of sediment aggradation and degradation, hence to infer preferential scales of contemporary sediment storage.

  4. The Potomac River Basin and Western Shore Chesapeake Bay Drainage as a Proposed CUAHSI Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J.; Smith, J. A.; Welty, C.; Eshleman, K. N.; Piasecki, M.; Prestegaard, K. L.; Brubaker, K. L.; Palmer, M. A.; Imhoff, P. T.; Wilcock, P. R.; Scanlon, T. M.; Fisher, G. T.; Shedlock, R. J.; Gellis, A. C.; Groffman, P. M.; Belt, K.; Toran, L.; Traver, R.; Jordan, T.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term hydrologic observatory is proposed for an area encompassing the Potomac River Basin and the basins that form the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay from the Gunpowder River on the north to the Rappahannock River on the south. The area is approximately 52,000 sq km and spans five physiographic provinces, with total relief of about 1200 m, and includes parts of MD, VA, PA, WV, and DC. The Potomac and adjacent mid-Atlantic drainage are characterized by a high frequency of floods and droughts, with attendant concerns about flood hazards and about the reliability of water supply. As of 2000, the population of the proposed study area was 8.26 million, with the highest density in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan region. Land use is 45 percent forested, 32 percent agriculture, 5.7 percent developed, and 4.8 percent open water. Heterogeneous natural landscape patterns have been influenced by the legacy of four centuries of human disturbance, including a wave of deforestation, agricultural land use, and land abandonment leading to reforestation contemporaneous with some of the most rapidly expanding urban areas in the U.S. A wealth of existing instrumented field sites forms a network of resources that will be woven together as part of this effort, including: the USGS NAWQA study in the Potomac River Basin; the NSF-funded Baltimore LTER; USDA-ARS sites in Beltsville, MD; the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin's work in overseeing management of the Potomac River; the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center's field sites, and active field sites of major research universities located in the region. This effort represents a significant partnership with local district offices of the U.S. Geological Survey. This poster presents study area attributes, preliminary study design, and a proposed core data program. The program is designed to attract researchers in the following areas of scientific inquiry: (1) orographic precipitation mechanisms, runoff

  5. Climate change impacts on the Lehman-Baker Creek drainage in the Great Basin National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) forced by increased CO2 emissions forecast anomalously dry and warm trends over the southwestern U.S. for the 21st century. The effect of warmer conditions may result in decreased surface water resources within the Great Basin physiographic region critical for ecology, irrigation and municipal water supply. Here we use downscaled GCM output from the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios to force a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed model developed for the Lehman and Baker Creeks Drainage (LBCD) in the Great Basin National Park, NV for a century long time period. The goal is to quantify the effects of rising temperature to the water budget in the LBCD at monthly and annual timescales. Dynamically downscaled GCM projections are attained from the NSF EPSCoR Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach project and statistically downscaled output is retrieved from the "U.S. Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections". Historical daily climate and streamflow data have been collected simultaneously for periods extending 20 years or longer. Mann-Kendal trend test results showed a statistically significant (α= 0.05) long-term rising trend from 1895 to 2012 in annual and monthly average temperatures for the study area. A grid-based, PRMS watershed model of the LBCD has been created within ArcGIS 10, and physical parameters have been estimated at a spatial resolution of 100m. Simulation results will be available soon. Snow cover is expected to decrease and peak runoff to occur earlier in the spring, resulting in increased runoff, decreased infiltration/recharge, decreased baseflows, and decreased evapo-transpiration.

  6. Morphometric analysis of the Koros drainage basin (Hungary/Romania) using historical topographic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Körös River drainage basin is located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, west of the Apuseni Mts., in the middle of the Pannonian Basin. The channels of the river and its tributaries are mostly meandering. The channel sinuosity of this river system is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of this area. The meandering rivers can demonstrate changes, which occurred recently, and cannot be seen with other methods. The changing sinuosity indicates the location of the vertical movements of the surface. The sinuosity calculations were made on the natural, uncontrolled riverbeds. These beds were digitized from the maps of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, which were measured before or during river control implementation. Digitized features were made on the geo-referred maps, which are in the Hungarian National Grid (EOV) coordinate system. The estimated accuracy of the map sheets to the modern system is 50-100 m, but the accuracy in Hungary remains under 30 m. In the study area, we identified several points of sinuosity change. To prove, that these are of neotectonic origin, seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Five fault lines are indicated to be neotectonically active according to the river planform changes. Activity of two of these five faults, and the subsidence in-between them caused the formation of the Nagy-Sárrét marshland. A Romanian river section, characterized by anastomosed planform, instead of meandering, indicates recent activity of another fault.

  7. Discharge and sediment loads in the Boise River drainage basin, Idaho 1939-40

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, S.K.; Benedict, Paul Charles

    1948-01-01

    The Boise River project is a highly developed agricultural area comprising some 520 square miles of valley and bench lands in southwestern Idaho. Water for irrigation is obtained from the Boise River and its tributaries which are regulated by storage in Arrow Rock and Deer Flat reservoirs. Distribution of water to the farms is effected by 27 principal canals and several small farm laterals which divert directly from the river. The- New York Canal, which is the largest, not only supplies water to smaller canals and farm laterals, but also is used to fill Deer Flat Reservoir near Nampa from which water is furnished to farms in the lower valley. During the past 15 years maintenance costs in a number of those canals have increased due to deposition of sediment in them and in the river channel itself below the mouth of Moore Creek. Interest in determining the runoff and sediment loads from certain areas in the Boise River drainage basin led to an investigation by the Flood Control Coordinating Committee of the Department of Agriculture. Measurements of daily discharge and sediments loads were made by the Geological Survey at 13 stations in the drainage basin during the 18-month period ended June 30, 1940. The stations were on streams in areas having different kinds of vegetative cover and subjected to different kinds of land-use practice. Data obtained during the investigation furnish a basis for certain comparisons of runoff and sediment loads from several areas arid for several periods of time. Runoff measured at stations on the. Boise River near Twin Springs and on Moore Creek near Arrow Rock was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and was below the average annual runoff for the period of available record. Runoff measured at the other stations on the project also was smaller during 1939 than during 1940 and probably did not exceed the average for the previous 25 years. The sediment loads measured during the spring runoff in 1939 were smaller at most stations than

  8. A geomorphic threshold for valley-floor erosion in reclaimed surface-mined drainage basins, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-12-31

    Surface-coal mining and reclamation in northwestern Colorado has caused substantial changes in geology, pedology, vegetation, hydrology, and geomorphology of many drainage basins. These changes have increased the potential for gully erosion on reclaimed valley floors. Gullies on some reclaimed valley floors may be affected by geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation. Valley-floor erosion in several reclaimed drainage basins is related to three geomorphic variables: drainage area, valley gradient, and valley-floor width. The product of drainage area and valley gradient defines the area-gradient index. Unstable valley floors were associated with larger area-gradient indicies than were stable valley floors. Clustering of data from stable and unstable valley-floor reaches and the relation between valley-floor width and the area-gradient index defined the valley-erosion threshold. Reclaimed valley floors that had valley-floor width less than the threshold were more likely to be gullied than valley floors that had widths greater than the threshold. Geomorphic thresholds may be useful as planning tools in future reclamation projects.

  9. Application of a rainfall-runoff model in estimating flood peaks for selected small natural drainage basins in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.C.; Schroeder, Elmer E.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric rainfall-runoff simulation model was used to synthesize long-term records of annual peak discharges for small natural drainage basins in Texas. Optimum model-parameter values were determined for each of the 40 basins studied by using short-term rainfall, evaporation, and discharge data. The calibrated model was used in conjunction with long-term records of rainfall and evaporation to synthesize a record of annual peaks for each site. Because the frequency curves of the simulated peaks had flatter slopes than those of the observed peaks, the synthetic frequency curves were adjusted for the loss of variance inherent in the modeling process.

  10. Mosses Indicating Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Sources in the Yangtze River Drainage Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Characterizing the level and sources of atmospheric N deposition in a large-scale area is not easy when using physical monitoring. In this study, we attempted to use epilithic mosses (Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.)) as a bioindicator. A gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 13.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 47.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was estimated on the basis of moss tissue N concentrations and the linear equation between them. The estimated results are reliable because the highest atmospheric N deposition occurred in the middle parts of the Yangtze River, where the highest TN concentrations were also observed. Moss δ15N values in cities and forests were found in distinctly different ranges of approximately -10‰ to -6‰ and approximately -2‰ to 2‰, respectively, indicating that the main N sources in most of these cities were excretory wastes and those in forests were soil emissions. A negative correlation between moss δ15N values and the ratios of NH4-N/NO3-N in deposition (y = -1.53 x + 1.78) has been established when the ratio increased from 1.6 to 6.5. On the basis of the source information, the negative moss δ15N values in this study strongly indicate that NHy-N is the dominant N form in N deposition in the whole drainage basin. These findings are supported by the existing data of chemical composition of local N deposition.

  11. Geologic control of rivers in the perimeter of Somes River Drainage Basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, I.; Rǎdoane, N.; Rusu, S.

    2012-04-01

    The present study highlights the role of geology (structure and neotectonics) on channel typology in the median and inferior parts of Someş River Drainage Basin (15.470 kmp, 124mc/s), NV Romania, based on channel morphology back in 1860 AD, channel planform dynamics between 1860 and 1977, and geological maps of the area. The geological heterogeneity of the area is responsible for abrupt alternation of different channel types, resulting in a mixture of alluvial and mixed sinuous - meandering - sinuous anabranched - meandering anabranched reaches. Additionally, along some tributaries with reduced flow discharges, lakes are reported behind natural dams imposed by resistant rocks occurred in the river's bed. This behavior is complicated by general slopes of graded profiles, superimposed on local structural and tectonic controls, which enforce the rivers to function on different energy levels. Based on channel typology and planform dynamic prior to large scale hydrotechnical intervention, river position in the floodplain perimeter, the type of rivers (main rivers vs. tributaries with less discharge), a general model of channel adjustment to lithology and neotectonic movements in the NV part of Romania is proposed.

  12. Assessing differences in topographic form between arctic and temperate drainage basins: Possible implications for dominant erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prancevic, J. P.; Rowland, J. C.; Wilson, C. J.; Marsh, P.; Wilson, H.

    2010-12-01

    The extent and topology of channel networks are first-order controls on the timing and magnitude of flood events, as well as the rate of landscape drainage. The latter is particularly important in arctic environments, where the release of greenhouse gases from organic-rich permafrost is partially governed by the presence of water. Recent studies are in disagreement as to whether arctic channel networks will contract or expand due to a warming climate. A challenge in predicting arctic landscape adjustment is quantifying the uncertain role permafrost and ground ice play in erosional processes. An improved understanding of the dominant geomorphic processes in low-order arctic drainage basins is required to better inform predictions of the network response to warming. In both temperate and Arctic systems, researchers often use topographic analyses to suggest scaling breaks at which there are transitions between processes. This study utilizes 2-m resolution digital elevation models to investigate divergence in topographic form between temperate systems and Trail Valley Creek basin (TVC), a 63-km2 basin in Northwest Territories, Canada that is underlain by continuous permafrost and high amounts of ground ice. The valley bottoms of the low-order basins in TVC contain vegetated swales in place of incised channels. We constructed cumulative drainage area distributions and slope-area plots in order to assess any differences in scaling breaks and network topology. We also calculated estimates of fluvial basal shear stress along flow paths with drainage areas larger than an estimated threshold (~10,000 to 20,000 m2). Our analysis includes five sub-basins within TVC, three exhibiting relatively well-developed ridge and valley topography and two less dissected landscapes that are drained by small, closely-spaced swales. The cumulative drainage area distribution curves for these sub-basins do not reveal any scaling breaks that are different from those seen in temperate regions

  13. Hydrology of the Albemarle-Pamlico region, North Carolina : A preliminary report on the impact of agricultural developments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Ralph C.

    1975-01-01

    First, changes in the water quality of the sounds and estuaries resulting from the rapid runoff of storm waters may prove harmful to the fishery resources. Second, lowering of the water table may cause relatively rapid subsidence of the land surface in an irregular pattern in the extensive areas underlain by thick peat deposits as a result of biochemical oxidation, peat fires, and wind.

  14. Geographic Information Systems Methods for Determining Drainage-Basin Areas, Stream-Buffered Areas, Stream Length, and Land Uses for the Neosho and Spring Rivers in Northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, Jason R.; March, Ferrella

    2006-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems have many uses, one of which includes the reproducible computation of environmental characteristics that can be used to categorize hydrologic features. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality are investigating Geographic Information Systems techniques to determine partial drainage-basin areas, stream-buffer areas, stream length, and land uses (drainage basin and stream characteristics) in northeastern Oklahoma. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, documented the methods used to determine drainage-basin and stream characteristics for the Neosho and Spring Rivers above Grand Lake Of the Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma and calculated the characteristics. The drainage basin and stream characteristics can be used by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to aid in natural-resource assessments.

  15. Hydrogeologic Framework in Three Drainage Basins in the New Jersey Pinelands, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Richard L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Watson, Kara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Pinelands Commission, began a multi-phase hydrologic investigation in 2004 to characterize the hydrologic system supporting the aquatic and wetland communities of the New Jersey Pinelands area (Pinelands). The Pinelands is an ecologically diverse area in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain underlain by the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The demand for ground water from this aquifer system is increasing as local development increases. To assess the effects of ground-water withdrawals on Pinelands stream and wetland water levels, three drainage basins were selected for detailed hydrologic assessments, including the Albertson Brook, McDonalds Branch and the Morses Mill Stream basins. Study areas were defined surrounding the three drainage basins to provide sub-regional hydrogeologic data for the ground-water flow modeling phase of this study. In the first phase of the hydrologic assessments, a database of hydrogeologic information and a hydrogeologic framework model for each of the three study areas were produced. These framework models, which illustrate typical hydrogeologic variations among different geographic subregions of the Pinelands, are the structural foundation for predictive ground-water flow models to be used in assessing the hydrologic effects of increased ground-water withdrawals. During 2004-05, a hydrogeologic database was compiled using existing and new geophysical and lithologic data including suites of geophysical logs collected at 7 locations during the drilling of 21 wells and one deep boring within the three study areas. In addition, 27 miles of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surface geophysical data were collected and analyzed to determine the depth and extent of shallow clays in the general vicinity of the streams. On the basis of these data, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was divided into 7 layers to construct a hydrogeologic framework model for each study area. These

  16. Chemical evolution of groundwater in a drainage basin of Holocene age, east-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallick, E. I.

    1981-12-01

    Chemical evolution of groundwater in a small drainage basin of glacial origin (10,250 yr. B.P., based on radiocarbon age dating of gyttja from a closed saline lake in the basin) was studied in order to understand the generation of salts in surface-mined areas on the interior plains of Alberta. The basin was considered to be a natural analogue of a surface-disturbed area because of the large volumes of rock that had been redistributed by glaciers with the resulting change in topography and drainage. The distributions of hydraulic head, total dissolved solids (TDS), and environmental isotopes essentially reflect the superimposition of groundwater flow systems associated with the post-glacial topography upon a regional bedrock flow system of older but undertermined age. In the glacial drift aquifers and aquitards (sands and till), the groundwater composition was typically Ca-Mg-bicarbonate type at depths less than 30 m, but at depths of 30-100 m, the composition was Na-bicarbonate-sulfate type. In the deeper bedrock aquifers (> 100 m), Nabicarbonate-sulfate and Na-bicarbonate-chloride types were present. TDS was as low as 400 mg/l in the shallow drift aquifer, generally constant at ˜1000 mg/l in the deep drift and shallow bedrock aquifer, and over 1700 mg/l in the deep bedrock aquifer system. Chemical evolution of groundwater in the area appears to be dominated by two depth zones having different types of water-rock interaction. In the shallow drift zone, the dissolution of soil CO 2 in infiltrating groundwater, oxidation of organic carbon, sulfur and pyrite result in the formation of carbonic and sulfuric acids that attack carbonate and silicate minerals. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, these minerals were calcite, dolomite, plagioclase feldspar, and smectite clays. However, in the deep regional bedrock aquifer, conditions are reducing (presence of methane), groundwater is alkaline (pH 8.6-10.3), and the Na-bicarbonate-chloride composition of groundwater

  17. Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Medicine Lodge Creek Drainage Basin with Implications for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Eastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsbach, M. L.; Rattray, G. W.; McCurry, M. O.; Welhan, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) is an unconfined, continuous aquifer located in a northeast-trending structural basin filled with basaltic lava flows and sedimentary interbeds in eastern Idaho. The ESPRA is not an inert transport system, as it acts as both a sink and source for solutes found in the water. More than 90% of the water recharged naturally to the ESRPA is from the surrounding mountain drainage basins. Consequently, in order to understand the natural geochemistry of water within the ESRPA, the chemistry of the groundwater from the mountain drainage basins must be characterized and the processes that control the chemistry need to be understood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho State University, has been studying these mountain drainage basins to help understand the movement of waste solutes in the ESRPA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This study focuses on the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin, which originates in the Beaverhead Mountains, extends onto the eastern Snake River Plain, and contributes recharge to the ESRPA beneath the INL as underflow along the northeastern INL boundary. Water and rock samples taken from the Medicine Lodge Creek drainage basin were analyzed to better understand water/rock interactions occurring in this system and to define the groundwater geochemistry of this drainage basin. Water samples were collected at 10 locations in the drainage basin during June 2012: 6 groundwater wells used for agricultural irrigation or domestic use and 4 springs. These water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, isotopes, and dissolved gasses. Samples of rock representative of the basalt, rhyolite, and sediments that occur within the drainage basin also were collected. These samples were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and petrographic study to determine the mineralogical constituents of the rock and the presence and

  18. Hydrology of the Prairie Dog Creek drainage basin, Rosebud and Big Horn Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Prairie Dog Creek drainage basin in southeastern Montana was investigated during 1978-79 to establish a basic understanding of its surface-water and ground-water resources and the quality of water in an area having coal-mining potential. The principal minable coal is the 40-to 60-foot-thick Wall and lower Wall coal beds near the middle part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age). Prairie Dog Creek, which originates from springs and seeps from coal and sandstone layers , maintained perennial flow in its upstream and middle reaches then lost flow until the channel near its mouth had only standing water or was dry. The dissolved-solids concentration of streamwater during periods of high flow (1 cubic foot per second) ranged from 700 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter and during periods of lesser flow (0.5 cubic foot per second) ranged from about 1,300 to 1,600 milligrams per liter. Relatively clean sandstone aquifers had transmissivities of about 15 feet squared per day and water of the magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate type, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from about 2 ,200 to 3,000 milligrams per liter; the water was of a sodium sulfate type and ranged from 1,820 to 4,190 milligrams per liter. The Brewster-Arnold coal aquifer had transmissivities similar to the Wall coal but its water was of a different type, sodium bicarbonate; it also contained large concentration of fluoride (more than 10 milligrams per liter) and had a very high sodium-adsorption ratio (more than 60). (USGS)

  19. Multisensor monitoring system for assessment of locust hazard risk in the Lake Balkhash drainage basin.

    PubMed

    Propastin, Pavel

    2012-12-01

    Satellite and ground-based data were combined in a monitoring system to quantify the link between climate conditions and the risk of locust infestations in the southern part of Lake Balkhash's drainage basin in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In this monitoring system, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from the SPOT-VGT satellite, was used for mapping potential locust habitats and monitoring their area throughout 1998 to 2007. TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason 1 altimeter data were used to track the interannual dynamics of water level in Balkhash Lake. Climate conditions were represented by weather records for air temperature and precipitation during the same period. The classification procedure, based on an analysis of multitemporal dynamics of SPOT-VGT NDVI values observed by individual vegetation classes, generated annual areas of ten land-cover types, which were then categorized as areas with low, medium, and high risk for locust infestation. Statistical analyses showed significant influences of the climatic parameters and the Balkhash Lake hydrological regime on the spatial extend of annual areas of potential locust habitats. The results also indicate that the linkages between locust infestation risk and environmental factors are characterized by time lags. The expansion of locust risk areas are usually preceded by dry, hot years and lower water levels in Balkhash Lake when larger areas of reed grass are free from seasonal flooding. Years with such conditions are favourable for locust outbreaks due to expansion of the habitat areas suitable for locust oviposition and nymphal development. In contrast, years with higher water levels in Balkhash Lake and lower temperature decrease the potential locust habitat area. PMID:22990684

  20. Net mass balance calculations for the Shirase Drainage Basin, east Antarctica, using the mass budget method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Yamanokuchi, Tsutomu; Doi, Koichiro; Shibuya, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    We quantify the mass budget of the Shirase drainage basin (SHI), Antarctica, by separately estimating snow accumulation (surface mass balance; SMB) and glacier ice mass discharge (IMD). We estimated the SMB in the SHI, using a regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.1). The SMB of the mainstream A flow region was 12.1 ± 1.5 Gt a-1 for an area of 1.985 × 105 km2. Obvious overestimation of the model round the coast, ∼0.5 Gt a-1, was corrected for. For calculating the IMD, we employed a 15-m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with a digital elevation model (DEM) to determine the heights at the grounding line (GL), after comparison with the interpolated Bamber DEM grid heights; the results of this are referred to as the measured heights. Ice thickness data at the GL were inferred by using a free-board relationship between the measured height and the ice thickness, and considering the measured firn depth correction (4.2 m with the reference ice density of 910 kg m-3) for the nearby blue-ice area. The total IMD was estimated to be 14.0 ± 1.8 Gt a-1. Semi-empirical firn densification model gives the estimate within 0.1-0.2 Gt a-1 difference. The estimated net mass balance, -1.9 Gt a-1, has a two-σ uncertainty of ±3.3 Gt a-1, and probable melt water discharge strongly suggests negative NMB, although the associated uncertainty is large.

  1. The relationship between conductivity and major ions within the Davis Spring drainage basin as a method to determine the source of spring discharge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Davis Spring drainage basin is a 190 km2 karst basin in Greenbrier County, West Virginia underlain by the 300+ m sequence of the Mississippian Greenbrier Limestone Group which rests on top of the Maccrady Shale. Davis Spring is the largest karst spring in West Virginia with average flows of 10 ...

  2. Drainage development of the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming and its bearing on fish biogeography, neotectonics, and paleoclimates.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Upper Green River flows southward out of the Green River Basin through a series of deep canyons across the Uinta Mountains in a course that post-dates the deposition of the Bishop Conglomerate (Oligocene). After the Eocene lakes disappeared, drainage was generally eastward across the present Continental Divide, until the Green River was captured near Green River, Wyo. by south-flowing drainage in middle Pleistocene time, ca., 600 kyr ago. Capture of the Upper Green River as recently as middle Pleistocene time, if a valid hypothesis, must take into account the marked differences between the endemic and indigenous fish fauna of the Green River and that of the North Platte. -from Author

  3. Potential hazards from floodflows within the John Muir House National Historic Site, Franklin Creek drainage basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The drainage-area-ratio method, adjusted by multiple regression coefficients, was used to determine flood magnitudes of specific recurrence intervals in the Franklin Creek drainage basin, John Muir House National Historic Site in California. Water-surface elevations and inundation areas were determined using hydraulic equations that assume uniform flow and stable channel geometry as surveyed in the 1984 water year. Franklin Creek is expected to overflow its banks during all floods greater than the 25-year flood. Maximum flood discharges within the historic site boundaries are limited by the large culvert that conveys floodwaters into the site. The historically significant structures were constructed above the flood elevation of the 100-year flood; therefore, with the exception of the carriage house, there is little or no danger to the irreplaceable structures at the site. The carriage house could be inundated several feet during the 100-year flood.

  4. Landscape Structure Changes in the Slepiotka River Drainage Basin in the Period 1824-1993 (The Silesian Upland, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Kinga

    2014-09-01

    The area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is the most important underground mining district in Poland. Coal mines, operating in the area since the eighteenth century, have contributed to massive transformations of the landscape structure. River valleys within range of intensive exploitation activities have been undergoing vast changes. The Slepiotka River drainage basin constitutes an interesting regional example of transformations in the river's watercourse as well as in its adjacent area. It is a left-hand tributary of the Klodnica River with a length of about 8.6 km. Changes in the landscape structure that occurred between 1824-1993 have been analyzed. The starting material consisted of topographical maps that were digitized and calibrated and served as a basis to create colorful compositions. The areas occupied by the different land cover types have been calculated, which allowed to determine their participation in the drainage basin. In about 169 years, significant changes took place in the area of research considering the share of different types of cover and land use. During this time, the river changed its course, both naturally and by human activities. Increasing urbanization and technological development contributed to the diametrical transformation of the landscape structure in the discussed area

  5. Drainage basin and topographic analysis of a tropical landscape: Insights into surface and tectonic processes in northern Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Manoj Joseph; Menier, David; Siddiqui, Numair; Ramkumar, Mu.; Santosh, M.; Kumar, Shashi; Hassaan, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the recent landscape development of Borneo through geomorphic analysis of two large drainage basins (Rajang and Baram basins). The extraction of morphometric parameters utilizing digital terrain data in a GIS environment, focusing on hydrography (stream length-gradient index, ratio of valley floor width to valley height, and transverse topographic symmetry factor) and topography (local relief and relief anomaly), was carried out in order to elucidate processes governing drainage and landscape evolution. Anomalously high and low values of stream length-gradient indices of main tributary streams associated with faults and multiple knick-points along the channel profiles are linked to deformation events. The development of deeply incised V-shaped valleys show enhanced incision capability of streams in response to steepening of hillslope gradients following tectonic inputs. Deflection of streams and probable dynamic reorganization of the drainage system through stream capture processes as feedbacks to tectonic uplift and orographic effect are observed. Local relief and relief anomaly maps highlight the presence of preserved elevation-accordant relict portions of landscapes characterized by low amplitude relief, nested between ridgelines in regions of complex folding. Our results reveal dynamic geomorphic adjustment of the landscape due to perturbations in tectonic and climatic boundary conditions. The implication is that the landscape of north Borneo experienced a tectonic phase of rapid uplift after 5 Ma and undergoes active folding of the Rajang Group thrust belts in the present-day. Active shortening combined with high rates of denudation in Sarawak, demonstrates transience emphasized by the drainage system attempting to adjust to tectonic and climatic forcing.

  6. Erosion and deposition as indicated by sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, Carl H.; Colby, Bruce R.

    1957-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of sediment accumulation in stock reservoirs in the powder River drainage basin upstream from Arvada, Wyo. The study was made to determine the net rates of erosion in the upland areas and the effects of the reservoirs on the amount of sediment transported to the parent stream. The climate of the area ranges from cold and humid on the high mountains to warm and semiarid on the plains. The average annual precipitation ranges from less than 15 inches on the plains to more than 27 inches in the high mountains, which have a maximum altitude of 13,165 feet. The rocks in the Powder River drainage basin range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The 25 stock reservoirs that were used in the study have drainage areas of 0.09 to 3.53 square miles, are from 3 to 51 years old, and impound water from areas that have land slopes averaging from about 3 to 41 percent. The ratio of average reservoir capacity to drainage area ranges from about 2 to nearly 200 acre-feet per square mile. After adjustment for trap efficiency the average annual sediment yield to the 25 reservoirs ranged from 0.04 to 1.49 acre-feet per square mile and averaged 0.50 acre-foot per square mile of drainage area. The average sediment yield from 6 drainage areas mostly underlain by shale was 0.80 acre-foot per year, 2.3 times greater than yields from the areas underlain by sandstone or sandy shales. Correlations show that the sediment yield increased approximately as the 1.5 power of the channel density, the 0.4 power oif the shape factor, the 0.7 power of the average land slope, and the -0.25 power of the age of the reservoir. Empirical equations for sediment yield and trap efficiency for the area studied are given.

  7. Geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Ginsbach, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is studying the fate and transport of waste solutes in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This effort requires an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic geochemistry of groundwater at the INL and of the important physical and chemical processes controlling the geochemistry. In this study, the USGS applied geochemical modeling to investigate the geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, which provide groundwater recharge to the ESRP aquifer underlying the northeastern part of the INL. Data used in this study include petrology and mineralogy from 2 sediment and 3 rock samples, and water-quality analyses from 4 surface-water and 18 groundwater samples. The mineralogy of the sediment and rock samples was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, and the mineralogy and petrology of the rock samples were examined in thin sections. The water samples were analyzed for field parameters, major ions, silica, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, tritium, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Groundwater geochemistry was influenced by reactions with rocks of the geologic terranes—carbonate rocks, rhyolite, basalt, evaporite deposits, and sediment comprised of all of these rocks. Agricultural practices near and south of Dubois and application of road anti-icing liquids on U.S. Interstate Highway 15 were likely sources of nitrate, chloride, calcium, and magnesium to groundwater. Groundwater geochemistry was successfully modeled in the alluvial aquifer in Camas Meadows and the ESRP fractured basalt aquifer using the geochemical modeling code PHREEQC. The primary geochemical processes appear to be precipitation or dissolution of calcite and dissolution of silicate minerals. Dissolution of evaporite minerals, associated with Pleistocene Lake

  8. Probability of drought occurrence in the Rhine drainage basin during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bülow, K.; Jacob, D.

    2010-09-01

    Germany was struck by a recent hot spell and drought in 2003, which had a devastating effect on the environment and the society. Substantial interest has emerged in the probability of the occurrence of extreme events. Therefore the results of different regional climate models are analysed, which describe today's and future climate and the occurrence of extreme events. To determine the size of uncertainty within regional climate model simulations, temperature and precipitation results of eight regional climate models from 1961 till 2000, with a horizontal resolution of 25 km are examined (RCM model data from the EU-Project ENSEMBLES). Their area means of three subregions in the Rhine drainage basin are compared to observation data sets. In order to describe future climate changes in the Rhine catchment area, numerous regional climate projections for the 21st century will be studied. These different regional climate projections were calculated with a large number of regional climate models embedded in information from various global models. The range of the regional climate projections will be evaluated using a value catalogue which has been specially designed for low water situations of the Rhine. Furthermore a generalized time series decomposition technique was applied, which shows that the temperature time series can be described by a realization of the Gauss distributed random variable with time dependent mean and variance. The precipitation is represented by a Gumbel distributed random variable with time dependent location and scale parameters. The two parameters, which describe the distribution, are each linear combinations of several orthogonal functions: a constant, four trend functions, three functions describing the annual cycle and three functions describing the seasonal cycle. Besides fixed annual and seasonal cycle, changes in amplitude and phase are allowed. For the amplitude linear and quadratic time dependencies are considered. The superposition of

  9. Geochemistry of Groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek Drainage Basins, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is studying the fate and transport of waste solutes in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This effort requires an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic geochemistry of groundwater at the INL and of the important physical and chemical processes controlling the geochemistry. In this study, the USGS applied geochemical modeling to investigate the geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, which provide groundwater recharge to the ESRP aquifer underlying the northeastern part of the INL. Data used in this study include petrology and mineralogy from two sediment and three rock samples and water-quality analyses from four surface-water and 18 groundwater samples. The mineralogy of the sediment and rock samples was analyzed with X-ray diffraction and the mineralogy and petrology of the rock samples were examined in thin sections. The water samples were analyzed for field parameters, major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, tritium, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. The groundwater geochemistry was influenced by reactions with rocks of the geologic terranes--carbonate rocks, rhyolite, basalt, evaporite deposits, and sediment comprised of all of these rocks. Agricultural practices near and south of Dubois and application of road anti-icing liquids on U.S. Interstate Highway15 were a source of nitrate, chloride, calcium, and magnesium to groundwater. Groundwater geochemistry was successfully modeled in the alluvial aquifer in Camas Meadows and the ESRP aquifer using the geochemical modeling code PHREEQC. The primary geochemical processes appear to be precipitation of calcite and dissolution of silicate minerals. Dissolution of evaporite minerals, associated with Pleistocene Lake Terreton, is an important contributor of

  10. Modelling key water storages and fluxes in the Arctic drainage basin to explain observed trends in river flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, David; Isberg, Kristina; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The pace of change in the arctic system during recent decades has captured the world's attention. Observations and model simulations both indicate that the arctic experiences an amplified response to climate forcing relative to that at lower latitudes. At the core of these changes is the arctic hydrologic system, which includes ice, gaseous vapor in the atmosphere, liquid water in soils and fluvial networks on land, and the freshwater content of the ocean. 11% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in the delicate fresh-water balance. River monitoring show increase in annual discharge from the largest rivers and spring snow-cover is reduced at a higher rate than estimated by climate projections. However, about 30% of the Arctic Ocean drainage basin is still ungauged, and thus, the total influence of interacting processes across the drainage basin still remains unknown. The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model was recently set-up for the entire drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean (excluding Greenland), simulating daily discharge rates for the period 1961-2010. The model domain cover 23 million km2 and is divided into 30 700 subbasins in the model set-up. The aim is to increase the understanding of climate impact on fine-scale hydrology in the entire drainage basin, with the aim to improve predictions of river discharge into the ocean in present and future climate. Special attention is given to key processes, which dominate the discharge pattern and/or are sensitive to climate change. Process descriptions and observed trends from several data sources are co-evaluated by using global earth observations and in-situ datasets for the region. The presentation will show spatial patterns of water load contribution to the sea for various seasons, tends terrestrial water cycle fluxes and storage (especially precipitation, evapotranspiration, snow, ice and lakes). We focus on separating changes in weather and

  11. Drainage and Landscape Evolution in the Bighorn Basin Accompanying Advection of the Yellowstone Hotspot Swell Through North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, E. F.; Meigs, A.

    2012-12-01

    basin is an ideal location to quantify long wavelength dynamic topography due to its low relief. Long river profiles streams that are transverse to the topographic swell in the basin suggest a transient advective signal preserved as profile knickpoints. Abandoned strath terraces, stream piracy, drainage reorganization, and lateral channel migration within the Bighorn Basin are all consistent indicators of the advection of a topographic swell. However, the lack of a high-resolution absolute age chronology precludes us from attributing the primary landscape and drainage forcing to climate change or dynamic topography. Our future work will focus on the timing of geomorphic and river profile evolution to disentangle competing effects of topographic advection, climate, and other factors.

  12. Hydrologic landscapes on the Delmarva Peninsula Part 1: Drainage basin type and base-flow chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Bachman, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between landscape characteristics and water chemistry on the Delmarva Peninsula can be determined through a principal-component analysis of basin characteristics. Two basin types were defined by factor scores: (1) well-drained basins, characterized by combinations of a low percentage of forest cover, a low percentage of poorly drained soil, and elevated channel slope; and (2) poorly drained basins, characterized by a combinations of an elevated percentage of forest cover, an elevated percentage of poorly drained soil, and low channel slopes. Results from base- flow sampling of 29 basins during spring 1991 indicate that water chemistry of the two basin types differ significantly. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, alkalinity, chloride, and nitrate are elevated in well- drained basins, and specific conductance is elevated. Concentrations of aluminum, dissolved organic carbon, sodium, and silica are elevated in poorly drained basins whereas specific conductance is low. The chemical patterns found in well-drained basins can be attributed to the application of agricultural chemicals, and those in poorly drained basins can be attributed to ground-water flowpaths. These results indicate that basin types determined by a quantitative analysis of basin characteristics can be related statistically to differences in base-flow chemistry, and that the observed statistical differences can be related to major processes that affect water chemistry.

  13. Interaction of marine ice-sheet instabilities in two drainage basins: simple scaling of geometry and transition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2015-04-01

    The initiation of a marine ice-sheet instability (MISI) is generally discussed from the ocean side of the ice sheet. It has been shown that the reduction in ice-shelf buttressing and softening of the coastal ice can destabilize a marine ice sheet if the bedrock is sloping upward towards the ocean. Using a conceptional flow-line geometry, we investigate the possibility of whether a MISI can be triggered from the direction of the ice divide as opposed to coastal forcing and explore the interaction between connected basins. We find that the initiation of a MISI in one basin can induce a destabilization in the other. The underlying mechanism of basin interaction is based on dynamic thinning and a consecutive motion of the ice divide which induces a thinning in the adjacent basin and a successive initiation of the instability. Our simplified and symmetric topographic setup allows scaling both the geometry and the transition time between both instabilities. We find that the ice profile follows a universal shape that is scaled with the horizontal extent of the ice sheet and that the same exponent of 1/2 applies for the scaling relation between central surface elevation and horizontal extent as in the pure shallow ice approximation (Vialov profile). Altering the central bed elevation, we find that the extent of grounding-line retreat in one basin determines the degree of interaction with the other. Different scenarios of basin interaction are discussed based on our modeling results as well as on a conceptual flux-balance analysis. We conclude that for the three-dimensional case, the possibility of drainage basin interaction on timescales on the order of 1 kyr or larger cannot be excluded and hence needs further investigation.

  14. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. PMID:9657709

  15. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River Drainage Basin of Nevada: Implications for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, M.S.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Leonard, T.L. Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV )

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 10[sup 9] g (4.0 x 10[sup 5] l) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km[sup 2] of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentration of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 [mu]g/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m[sup 3]. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study area is situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. PMID:9657709

  17. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  18. The effects of drainage basin geomorphometry on minimum low flow discharge: the study of small watershed in Kelang River Valley in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Ahmad Jailani Muhamed; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Salleh, Khairulmaini Osman

    2003-03-01

    This study investigate the relationships between geomorphometric properties and the minimum low flow discharge of undisturbed drainage basins in the Taman Bukit Cahaya Seri Alam Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. The drainage basins selected were third-order basins so as to facilitate a common base for sampling and performing an unbiased statistical analyses. Three levels of relationships were observed in the study. Significant relationships existed between the geomorphometric properties as shown by the correlation network analysis; secondly, individual geomorphometric properties were observed to influence minimum flow discharge; and finally, the multiple regression model set up showed that minimum flow discharge (Q min) was dependent of basin area (AU), stream length (LS), maximum relief (Hmax), average relief (HAV) and stream frequency (SF). These findings further enforced other studies of this nature that drainage basins were dynamic and functional entities whose operations were governed by complex interrelationships occurring within the basins. Changes to any of the geomorphometric properties would influence their role as basin regulators thus influencing a change in basin response. In the case of the basin's minimum low flow, a change in any of the properties considered in the regression model influenced the "time to peak" of flow. A shorter time period would mean higher discharge, which is generally considered the prerequisite to flooding. This research also conclude that the role of geomorphometric properties to control the water supply within the stream through out the year even though during the drought and less precipitations months. Drainage basins are sensitive entities and any deteriorations involve will generate reciprocals and response to the water supply as well as the habitat within the areas. PMID:12765268

  19. Stabilization of large drainage basins over geological time scales: Cenozoic West Africa, hot spot swell growth, and the Niger River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Dominique; Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Rouby, Delphine; Beauvais, Anicet; Christophoul, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing the evolving geometry of large river catchments over geological time scales is crucial to constraining yields to sedimentary basins. In the case of Africa, it should further help deciphering the response of large cratonic sediment routing systems to Cenozoic growth of the basin-and-swell topography of the continent. Mapping of dated and regionally correlated lateritic paleolandscape remnants complemented by onshore sedimentological archives allows the reconstruction of two physiographic configurations of West Africa in the Paleogene. Those reconstructions show that the geometry of the drainage is stabilized by the late early Oligocene (29 Ma) and probably by the end of the Eocene (34 Ma), allowing to effectively link the inland morphoclimatic record to offshore sedimentation since that time, particularly in the case of the Niger catchment—delta system. Mid-Eocene paleogeography reveals the antiquity of the Senegambia catchment back to at least 45 Ma and suggests that a marginal upwarp forming a continental divide preexisted early Oligocene connection of the Niger and Volta catchments to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Such a drainage rearrangement was primarily enhanced by the topographic growth of the Hoggar hot spot swell and caused a stratigraphic turnover along the Equatorial margin of West Africa.

  20. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective dispersive systems; 2. Reservoir theory for sub-drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.

    2006-09-01

    Groundwater age and life expectancy probability density functions (pdf) have been defined, and solved in a general three-dimensional context by means of forward and backward advection-dispersion equations [Cornaton F, Perrochet P. Groundwater age, life expectancy and transit time distributions in advective-dispersive systems; 1. Generalized reservoir theory. Adv Water Res (xxxx)]. The discharge and recharge zones transit time pdfs were then derived by applying the reservoir theory (RT) to the global system, thus considering as ensemble the union of all inlet boundaries on one hand, and the union of all outlet boundaries on the other hand. The main advantages in using the RT to calculate the transit time pdf is that the outlet boundary geometry does not represent a computational limiting factor (e.g. outlets of small sizes), since the methodology is based on the integration over the entire domain of each age, or life expectancy, occurrence. In the present paper, we extend the applicability of the RT to sub-drainage basins of groundwater reservoirs by treating the reservoir flow systems as compartments which transfer the water fluxes to a particular discharge zone, and inside which mixing and dispersion processes can take place. Drainage basins are defined by the field of probability of exit at outlet. In this way, we make the RT applicable to each sub-drainage system of an aquifer of arbitrary complexity and configuration. The case of the well-head protection problem is taken as illustrative example, and sensitivity analysis of the effect of pore velocity variations on the simulated ages is carried out.

  1. Impact of intensified irrigated agriculture and climate change on nitrogen loading in the Amu Darya drainage basin, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    Pollutant loading and water losses by evapotranspiration are two main problems of intensified irrigated agricultural in arid and semi-arid regions. Climatic changes can further increase water losses and alter transport pathways for contaminants and nutrients. Identification of dominant processes that control nitrogen (N) loading in the highly managed Amu Darya Drainage Basin (ADRB), the largest sub-basin in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB), is considered by looking at a 40-years (1960-2000) data record of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Furthermore, hydrologic distributed modelling was used to investigate how N transport pathways and travel times have changed with past irrigation expansion, and is likely to change further in response to projected future hydro-climatic trends. River discharge has decreased drastically during the considered 40-years period in ADRB. Future climate and land-use projections show that downstream regions even are at risk of total surface water depletion within a future 30-years period. Decreasing riverine DIN concentration was observed near the Aral Sea outlet despite increasing N fertilizer application throughout the 40-years period. The reduction in concentrations could not be explained by increased N crop uptake, improved fertilization application or improved irrigation efficiency. Instead, this must primarily be due to a considerable increase in reuse in irrigation which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N retention. A relationship between increased recirculation ratio (defined as the basin-scale return flow divided by the outflow) and decreased Cout/Cin ratio was developed, and shown to be valid for a relatively wide uncertainty range. An observed six-fold decrease in DIN load was primarily, but not exclusively, due to the drastic river flow reduction. Consequently, N accumulation in the soil-groundwater system has accelerated since the N fertilization has been maintained high throughout the period of considerable

  2. Description, instructions, and verification for Basinsoft, a computer program to quantify drainage- basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Craig A.; Eash, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical comparison tests indicate Basinsoft quantifications are not significantly different from manual topographic-map measurements for 9 of 10 basin characteristics tested. The results also indicate that elevation contours generated by ARC/INFO from l:250,000-scale digital elevation model (DEM) data are over-generalized when compared to elevation contours shown on l:250,000-scale topographic maps, and that quantification of basin-slope thus is underestimated using DEM data. A qualitative comparison test indicated that the Basinsoft module used to quantify basin slope is valid and that differences in the quantification of basin slope are due to sourcedata differences.

  3. Postglacial adjustment of steep, low-order drainage basins, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T.; Müller, T.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2013-12-01

    is generally argued that Pleistocene glaciation results in increased sediment flux in mountain systems. An important, but not well constrained, aspect of Pleistocene glacial erosion is the geomorphic decoupling of cirque basins from main river systems. This study provides a quantitative link between glacier-induced basin morphology, postglacial erosion, and sediment delivery for mountain headwaters (with basin area <10 km2). We analyze the morphology of 57 headwater basins in the Canadian Rockies and establish postglacial sediment budgets for select basins. Notable differences in headwater morphology suggest different degrees of erosion by cirque glaciers, which we classify into headwater basins with either cirque or noncirque morphology. Despite steeper slope gradients in cirque basins, higher-mean postglacial erosion rates in basins with noncirque morphology (0.43-0.6 mm a-1) compared to those in cirques (0.19-0.39 mm a-1) suggest a more complex relationship between hillslope erosion and slope gradient in calcareous mountain environments than implied by the threshold hillslope concept. Higher values of channel profile concavity and lower channel gradients in cirques imply lower transport capacities and, thus, lower sediment delivery ratios (SDR). These results are supported by (i) postglacial SDR values for cirques and noncirque basins of <15% and >28%, respectively, and (ii) larger fan sizes at outlets of noncirque basins compared to cirques. Although small headwater basins represent the steepest part of mountain environments and erode significant postglacial sediment, the majority of sediment remains in storage under interglacial climatic conditions and does not affect large-scale mountain river systems.

  4. Postglacial response of a stream in central Iowa to changes in climate and Drainage basin factors*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nest, Julieann; Bettis, E. Arthur

    1990-01-01

    Postglacial geomorphic development of the Buchanan Drainage, a small tributary to the South Skunk River, is reconstructed by documenting relationships among four allostratigraphic units and 17 radiocarbon dates. Formation and headward expansion of the valley was both episodic and time-transgressive. Response to downstream conditions in the South Skunk River largely controlled the early formation of the basin. Downcutting through Pleistocene deposits produced a gravelly lag deposit that was buried by alluvium in the downstream portion of the valley during the early Holocene (10,500-7700 yr B.P.). Lag deposits formed in a similar manner continued to develop in the upper portion of the drainageway into the late Holocene (3000-2000 yr B.P.). Episodes of aggradation during the middle Holocene (7700-6300 yr B.P.) and late Holocene (3000-2000 yr B.P.) were separated by a period of soil formation. Holocene geomorphic events in the drainageway coincide with some vegetational and climatic changes as documented in upland pollen sequences from central Iowa. Analysis of plant macrofossil assemblages recovered from alluvium indicates that during the middle Holocene forest contracted and prairie expanded into the uplands within the basin. Vegetational changes within the basin apparently had only minor influence on rates of hillslope erosion, and the widely accepted relationship between prairie (versus forest) vegetative cover and increased rates of hillslope erosion did not hold. Instead, greater amounts of erosion occurred under forested conditions when local water tables were higher and seepage erosion was more effective.

  5. Hawaii StreamStats; a web application for defining drainage-basin characteristics and estimating peak-streamflow statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are necessary for the safe and efficient design of roads, bridges, water-conveyance structures, and flood-control projects and for the management of flood plains and flood-prone areas. StreamStats provides a simple, fast, and reproducible method to define drainage-basin characteristics and estimate the frequency and magnitude of peak discharges in Hawaii?s streams using recently developed regional regression equations. StreamStats allows the user to estimate the magnitude of floods for streams where data from stream-gaging stations do not exist. Existing estimates of the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges in Hawaii can be improved with continued operation of existing stream-gaging stations and installation of additional gaging stations for areas where limited stream-gaging data are available.

  6. Ecological data collected in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages, North and South Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ecological investigations were conducted in 23 reaches of 16 streams in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages study unit in North and South Carolina during 1996-98. Habitat characteristics, such as stream width and depth, bank composition, bank vegetative cover, stream shading by overhanging vegetation, and streambed composition were recorded. Algal and benthic invertebrate communities were sampled using quantitative and qualitative techniques. These data will provide information needed to: (1) support findings of the effects of human landuse activities on water quality by augmenting or enhancing physical and chemical water-quality data, (2) provide a basic overview of aquatic community structure in selected stream reaches in the study unit, and (3) provide a means for comparing aquatic communities in subsequent years of the assessment program.

  7. Potential for Fuel Ignition after K Basin Drainage (Fauske and Associates Report FAI/99-71 Rev1)

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-11-17

    The potential for N reactor fuel ignition after hypothetical K basin drainage is considered here for fuel configurations and boundary conditions specified by the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP). Configurations include: (1) Scrap canisters (open K East canisters containing primarily fragmented fuel) partially covered by sludge (on the exterior); (2) IWTS (Integrated Water Treatment System) settlers filled with fine fuel particulate; (3) IWTS knock out pots filled with coarse fuel particulate; (4) Scrap (fragmented fuel) in stylized configurations residing on the process table, including hemispherical and cylindrical piles; and (5) Scrap in a scrap basket on the process table. Fuel mass, metal fraction, and surface area or ranges for these parameters are specified by the SNFP in each configuration. Fuel and container exteriors are specified to be dry after the hypothetical drainage event, except in the case of fine particulate in the settlers which physically must hold water. Credibility of the specified scenarios and input parameters is neither endorsed nor judged in this report. The purpose of the calculations is to determine thermal stability of fuel given the specified configurations, parameters, and boundary conditions.

  8. Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan A.; Slaymaker, H. Olav

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency, with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested areas, which are steeper by as much as 10°. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin well beyond 20 years.

  9. Isotopic and Geochemical signatures of different aged drained thaw lake basins (DTLBs) and drainage channels in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Perkins, G.; Rearick, M.; Altmann, G. L.; Cohen, L. R.; Hudak, M.; Gard, M.; Newman, B. D.; Heikoop, J. M.; Wilson, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic tundra contains a vast amount of C stored in permafrost soils, which are highly susceptible to thawing with climate change. Permafrost degradation has implications for land-atmosphere feedbacks through the release of stored C as greenhouse gases (CO2, methane), and runoff of dissolved C. Coastal Arctic topography and geomorphology in particular is highly complex, consisting of irregular polygonal ground features, drainage channel networks, and different aged drained thaw lake basins (DTLBs). Such substantial spatial variability complicates predictions of permafrost degradation with regard to land-atmosphere feedbacks affecting climate and regional ecosystem responses. The DOE Office of Science Biological and Environmental Research Program has funded the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project to assess the release of greenhouse gases from melting Arctic permafrost, with emphasis on regional geomorphology; and to establish a coordinated effort among several research institutions to link field observations with process-based Land models. Results will focus on geochemical and isotopic signatures of waters collected at different depths (surface; from the shallow organic layer; and from the deeper frost table) in Barrow, Alaska in July and September of 2013. Sampling sites were stationed across distinct microtopographic features, including polygonal terrain, different aged DTLBs, and larger drainage channels. The aims of these field campaigns were to assess geochemical and biogeochemical trends and isotopic variability in waters across unique micro-topographic features and with depth, and infer vertical and lateral flows of water and C by collecting field data to validate large-scale regional models. Preliminary results showed some differences with depth and across unique micro-topographic features. Redox indicators (Fe2+ and dissolved oxygen) showed greater reducing conditions with depth, as was expected. In particular, subsurface waters

  10. Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burggraf, G.B.

    1980-08-01

    The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age. (ACR)

  11. Isotope hydrology of karst drainage basins in Jamaica and Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Ellins, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    The findings of the study can be considered in three parts: (1) the characterization of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation recharging the White Limestone aquifer in the Martha Brae River Basin; (2) the identification of groundwater masses, patterns of groundwater movement, and recharge conditions in the Martha Brae River Basin, using {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O; and (3) the examination of groundwater/surface flow relationships in the Martha Brae River and the Rio Manati, using {sup 222}Rn. Mean {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values weighted by precipitation amount and geographic area were developed to characterize recharge to subareas of the Martha Brae River Basin. Using differences in isotopic composition of the waters sampled and their respective positions on the local meteoric water line (MWL), two distinct groundwater types were recognized. The isotopic data indicate that the groundwater in the Martha Brae Basin is recharged by rainfall from a mean elevation of 645 meters. The source of recharge to the Deeside-Bunkers Hill portion of the aquifer was identified as partially evaporated pondwater and local precipitation. The value of {sup 222}Rn as a geochemical tool in hydrologic research was unequivocally demonstrated for the first time in this study. {sup 222}Rn measurements made in the Martha Brae River and the Rio Manati permitted the location of groundwater inputs, quantification of the magnitude of groundwater influx, and estimation of stream losses to aquifer recharged.

  12. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of pesticides in agricultural irrigation-return flow from four drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 2002-04, and comparison with historical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Frans, Lonna M.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from sites in four irrigation return-flow drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project from July 2002 through October 2004. Ten samples were collected throughout the irrigation season (generally April through October) and two samples were collected during the non-irrigation season. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and a suite of 107 pesticides and pesticide metabolites (pesticide transformation products) and to document the occurrence, distribution, and pesticides transport and pesticide metabolites. The four drainage basins vary in size from 19 to 710 square miles. Percentage of agricultural cropland ranges from about 35 percent in Crab Creek drainage basin to a maximum of 75 percent in Lind Coulee drainage basin. More than 95 percent of cropland in Red Rock Coulee, Crab Creek, and Sand Hollow drainage basins is irrigated, whereas only 30 percent of cropland in Lind Coulee is irrigated. Forty-two pesticides and five metabolites were detected in samples from the four irrigation return-flow drainage basins. The most compounds detected were in samples from Sand Hollow with 37, followed by Lind Coulee with 33, Red Rock Coulee with 30, and Crab Creek with 28. Herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides, followed by insecticides, metabolites, and fungicides. Atrazine, bentazon, diuron, and 2,4-D were the most frequently detected herbicides and chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were the most frequently detected insecticides. A statistical comparison of pesticide concentrations in surface-water samples collected in the mid-1990s at Crab Creek and Sand Hollow with those collected in this study showed a statistically significant increase in concentrations for diuron and a statistically significant decrease for ethoprophos and atrazine in Crab Creek. Statistically significant increases were in concentrations of bromacil, diuron, and

  13. Agricultural pesticide applications and observed concentrations in surface waters from four drainage basins in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.J.; Ebbert, J.C.; Roberts, L.M.; Ryker, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the use and occurrence of agricultural pesticides were investigated in four drainage basins--two dominated by irrigated agriculture and two by dryland agriculture--in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington. For this study, 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites were selected for analysis from a list of nearly 400 compounds commonly used in the United States. Pesticide-use data included estimates of the total quantity of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to croplands in each of the four drainage basins and reported times of application for selected pesticides. Pesticide-occurrence data included concentrations of pesticides in samples collected at one surface-water site at or near the outflow of each of the four drainage basins, where surface waters were sampled one to five times a month from March 1993 through May 1994. Of the 85 pesticides or pesticide metabolites targeted for analysis, a total of 45 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites, ranging in concentration from at or near the limit of detection (as low as 0.001 microgram per liter) to a maximum of 8.1 micrograms per liter. None of the concentrations of pesticides exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards, but concentrations of five pesticides exceeded the USEPA freshwater-chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Forty-one different pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in surface waters sampled at the two sites representing irrigated agriculture drainage basins. The herbicides atrazine, DCPA, and EPTC were detected most frequently at the two sampling sites. Not all pesticides that were applied were detected, however. For example, disulfoton, phorate, and methyl parathion accounted for 15 percent of the insecticides applied in the two irrigated drainage basins, yet none of these pesticides were detected in

  14. An analytical study on artesian flow conditions in unconfined-aquifer drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Wörman, Anders; Wang, Heng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong

    2015-10-01

    Although it has been reported that flowing artesian wells could be topographically controlled, there is no quantitative research on artesian flow conditions in unconfined aquifers. In this study, the water table, which has a lower amplitude than the land surface, is damped from the topography and used as the boundary condition to obtain the analytical solution of hydraulic head of a unit basin with a single flow system. The term artesian head is defined to characterize the condition of flowing artesian wells. The zone with positive artesian head is called artesian zone while with negative artesian head is nonartesian zone. The maximum artesian head and the size of artesian zones are found to increase with the damping factor and the anisotropy ratio, and decrease with the ratio of basin width to depth and the depth-decay exponent of hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the artesian head increases with depth nearby the valley and decreases with depth near by the divide, and the variation rates are influenced by the decay exponent and the anisotropy ratio. Finally, the distribution of flowing artesian wells and the artesian head measurements in different depths of a borehole in a small catchment in the Ordos Plateau, Northwestern China is used to illustrate the theoretical findings. The change in artesian head with depth was used to estimate the anisotropy ratio and the decay exponent. This study opens up a new door to analyze basin-scale groundwater flow.

  15. Agricultural NPS control of phosphorus in the New York State, Lake Ontario Basin. Volume 2. Fertilizer trials on organic soils in the Lake Ontario Drainage Basin. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, S.; Duxbury, J.; Goyette, E.

    1991-02-01

    There are approximately 2.3 million hectares of cropland in New York. Cultivated organic soils comprise about 12,000 hectares or 0.5% of the total cropped land. The organic soils are used exclusively for intensive vegetable production with onions being the primary crop. About 50% of these soils are located within the Lake Ontario drainage basin. A comprehensive field study was conducted to evaluate the yield response of onions across a broad range of N, P, and K fertilizer inputs and to correlate the level of response with soil testing parameters. A primary objective was to develop an estimate of P loss in drainage water to the Lake Ontario drainage basin and how this loss is influenced by P fertilizer management.

  16. An Open Source approach to automated hydrological analysis of ungauged drainage basins in Serbia using R and SAGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    Drainage basins are for the most part ungauged or poorly gauged not only in Serbia but in most parts of the world, usually due to insufficient funds, but also the decommission of river gauges in upland catchments to focus on downstream areas which are more populated. Very often, design discharges are needed for these streams or rivers where no streamflow data is available, for various applications. Examples include river training works for flood protection measures or erosion control, design of culverts, water supply facilities, small hydropower plants etc. The estimation of discharges in ungauged basins is most often performed using rainfall-runoff models, whose parameters heavily rely on geomorphometric attributes of the basin (e.g. catchment area, elevation, slopes of channels and hillslopes etc.). The calculation of these, as well as other paramaters, is most often done in GIS (Geographic Information System) software environments. This study deals with the application of freely available and open source software and datasets for automating rainfall-runoff analysis of ungauged basins using methodologies currently in use hydrological practice. The R programming language was used for scripting and automating the hydrological calculations, coupled with SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientivic Analysis) for geocomputing functions and terrain analysis. Datasets used in the analyses include the freely available SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) terrain data, CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover data, as well as soil maps and rainfall data. The choice of free and open source software and datasets makes the project ideal for academic and research purposes and cross-platform projects. The geomorphometric module was tested on more than 100 catchments throughout Serbia and compared to manually calculated values (using topographic maps). The discharge estimation module was tested on 21 catchments where data were available and compared

  17. Future glaciation and river flow in the Vakhsh and Panj drainage basins, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Wagner, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Central Asia is well known as an area of substantial water problems mainly caused by climate change and careless consumption of water resources. As in other parts of the globe where high mountains are surrounded by arid and semi-arid zones, snow and glacier melt are major contributors to runoff and important resources for agriculture in the lowlands. The FAO-UNESCO has started a "Climate Impact Study on Streamflow" to estimate future discharge in the catchments of the rivers Vakhsh (39,100 km2) and Panj(114,000 km2), the two tributaries of Amu Darya river. According to the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) prepared in the mid 20th century, the Panj and Vakhsh catchments have glacier covers of 3,913 km2 and 3,675 km2, respectively. A new inventory was conducted in 2003 within the frame of the GLIMS project. We used a simple parametrization scheme based on steady state conditions to infer the ice volumes for the two different time periods in the past and to extrapolate future changes. The resulting volumes for the WGI are 170-200 km3 for the Panj catchment and 200-240 km3 for the Vakhsh catchment. From the mid of the 20th century to 2003, an area (volume) decrease of 8.2% (10.5%) for the Panj and 7.5% (4.1%) for the Vakhsh catchment was determined. A comparison of two digital elevation models (SRTM of 2001 and Aster 2008) show for the glacier areas a mean mass change of -0.61 m a-1 for the Vakhsh and -0.81 m a-1 for the Panj. Regional climate simulations project a warming of 1.8°C-2.9°C until 2050, while it remains unclear if and in what direction precipitation will change. Assuming a temperature increase of 2°C until 2050 and no change in precipitation, the ice reserves in the two catchments will decline at an accelerated rate in comparison to the past with total volume reduction of 75.5% for the Panj basin and of 53% for the Vakhsh basin. To simulate present-day and future runoff, the HBV-ETH hydrological model was set up in the two sub-basins of Abramov (56 km

  18. Pleistocene-Recent Drainage Evolution in the Western Himalayan Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, P. D.; Giosan, L.; Macklin, M.; Carter, A.; Tabrez, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The rivers of the upper Indus flood plains support large populations in an area where rainfall is relatively weak. Nonetheless, the region has been one in which early civilizations flourished and then dispersed, most notably the Indus Valley or Harappan Culture. We investigated potential links between human settlement and drainage evolution by drilling abandoned and filled river channels on the northern edge of the Thar Desert to see how they have evolved. Pb isotope data from single K-feldspar grains from Holocene and Pleistocene sands showed that the channels were sourced from Himalayan rivers before and at 6-8 ka, but that after that time the proportion of high isotopic ratio grains rose, indicating increased contribution from the Thar Desert dunes prior to ~4.5 ka when flow in the Ghaggar-Hakra ceased entirely. U-Pb dating of single zircon sand grains confirms this general pattern. Grain ages <300 Ma are typical of the Thar Desert and become more common around 6-8 ka as the river flux decreased and desert began to encroach. Zircons ages at ~1900 Ma can be linked to a westward flow of the Yamuna River into the Indus but this flow may have finished as early as 49 ka, so that this capture does not affect the Harappan Culture. After this time the Sutlej and Beas River flowed through the region until they were both captured away to the north prior to 6-8 ka. The Harappan centers on the north of the Thar Desert likely dispersed because of unpredictable water supply as the monsoon weakened and because the flow of major rivers had ceased well before 4 ka.

  19. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A water-resources data-network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 3, Northern Salinas River drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Schluter, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report evaluates existing data collection networks and possible additional data collection to monitor quantity and quality of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the northern Salinas River drainage basin, California. Of the 34 precipitation stations identified, 20 were active and are concentrated in the northwestern part of the study area. No precipitation quality networks were identified, but possible data collection efforts include monitoring for acid rain and pesticides. Six of ten stream-gaging stations are active. Two surface water quality sites are sampled for suspended sediment, specific conductance, and chloride; one U.S. Geological Survey NASOAN site and one site operated by California Department of Water Resources make up the four active sampling locations; reactivation of 45 inactive surface water quality sites might help to achieve objectives described in the report. Three local networks measure water levels in 318 wells monthly, during peak irrigation, and at the end of the irrigation season. Water quality conditions are monitored in 379 wells; samples are collected in summer to monitor saltwater intrusion near Castroville and are also collected annually throughout the study area for analysis of chloride, specific conductance, and nitrate. An ideal baseline network would be an evenly spaced grid of index wells with a density of one per section. When baseline conditions are established, representative wells within the network could be monitored periodically according to specific data needs. (USGS)

  1. A rainfall-runoff modeling procedure for improving estimates of T-year (annual) floods for small drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichty, Robert W.; Liscum, Fred

    1978-01-01

    Maps depicting the influence of a climatic factor, C, on the magnitude of synthetic T-year (annual) floods were prepared for a large portion of the eastern United States. The climatic factors were developed by regression analysis of flood data using a parametric rainfall-runoff model and long-term rainfall records. Map estimates of C values and calibrated values of rainfall-runoff model parameters were used as variables in a synthetic T-year flood relation to compute ' map-model ' flood estimates for 98 small drainage basins in a six-state study area. Improved estimates of T-year floods were computed as a weighted average of the map-model estimate and an observed estimate, with the weights proportional to the relative accuracies of the two estimates. The accuracy of the map-model estimates was appraised by decomposing components of variance into average time-sampling error associated with the observed estimates and average map-model error. Map-model estimates have an accuracy, in terms of equivalent length of observed record, that ranges from 6 years for the 1.25-year flood up to 30 years for the 50- and 100-year flood. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Establishing the geometry and nature of sediments trapped in either natural or artificial dam lakes in contrasted drainage basins from Western Europe (French Massif Central and Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapron, Emmanuel; Chassiot, Léo; Zouzou, Claude; Simonneau, Anaelle; Galop, Didier; Di Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary archives from artificial dam lakes are poorly documented both in terms of basin fill geometries and dominating sedimentary processes. In order to better understand their sensitivities to regional environmental changes, we performed a similar multidisciplinary study of French natural and artificial dam lakes in contrasted drainage basins from the volcanic Massif Central (lakes Aydat and Crégut) and two granitic sectors of the northern Pyrenees (lakes Fourcat and Orédon). Our approach combined high-resolution sub bottom profiling (14 kHz and 4 kHz chirp) and a detailed study of sediment cores based on qualitative and quantitative analysis (radiographies, sediment physical and chemical properties) together with radionuclide and radiocarbon dates. In all cases either changes in land uses within the drainage basin or the flooding of natural lakes by dams and the production of hydroelectricity induced changes in sedimentation rates and modes. Human activities affecting either the catchment or the lake itself favored enhanced clastic sediment supply in the lake basins and/or higher and fluctuating lake levels. Subaquatic slopes failures are also identified in Lake Aydat formed by a lava flow 8.5 kYrs ago and in glacial lakes Crégut (Massif Central) and Orédon (Pyrenees) now used to produce hydroelectricity and suggest that lake level changes and ground accelerations during earthquakes can remobilize distinct sectors of the basin fills and not only deltaic environments.

  3. Evaluation of Catrosat 1PAN Stereo and Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data for Morphometric Analysis, Delineation of Drainage Basins and Codification in Tamil Nadu, India and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Srinivasan, S.; Pandian, R.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Swaminathan. S, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital as well as visual

  4. Morphotectonics of Kid drainage basin, Southeastern Sinai: A landscape evolution coeval to Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Ahmed; Shawky, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    The Pleistocene fluvio-tectonic conditions have shaped the landscapes of Sinai Peninsula through development of small sedimentary traps following preexisting lineaments. In the Gulf of Aqaba region, orientation of these lineaments with respect to the Pleistocene stress field develops strike-slip simple and dip-slip pure extensional shear models that induced rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea fault system. The Beida and Nabq grabens are two major rift-related depressions at the southwestern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba region. Both grabens are landscapes that received alluvial sediments of the Kid drainage basin (KDB), which is one of the largest drainage systems in the western region of the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp. The Beida graben is formed at a horse tail structure next to Abiad and Kid faults, while the Nabq graben is a pull-apart structure formed as onshore continuation of the Dakar deep. The geometry and origin of these landscapes are the intrinsic themes of this study to investigate the morphotectonic evolution of the KDB terrain within the tectonic framework of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea rift. The hanging terraces and canyons being at higher elevations on the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp; and the accumulation of younger alluvial fans, talus cones and bajada on its footslope indicate that the KDB landscape is basically shaped; and evolutionary modified by hinterland uplifting of the Gulf of Aqaba region. Hence, two morphotectonic evolution periods of the KDB terrain coincide with the early NE- and late NNE-trending extensional Pleistocene axes. The early period started with deposition of the older alluvial fan sediments that emerged at the outlet of KDB, and partially buried the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp. Subsequent hinterland uplifting revived the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp with development of hanging alluvial and bed-rock terraces; and the older alluvial fan sediments are uplifted on the footwall of southward-dipping normal faults whose hanging

  5. Transportation and Distribution of Particulate Lignin in Changjiang (Yangtze River) Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2006-12-01

    Plant, soil and surface sediment and surface suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples from Yangtze River basin were analyzed for elements, stable isotopes and lignin phenols to investigate the transport and early diagenesis characteristics of terrestrial organic matter (OM). There was relatively large amount of less degraded lignin in soils of middle/down reaches, compared to that of upper reaches. OC%, ¦Ä13C and λ8 (yields of lignin phenols) also discriminated soils of northern tributaries from soils of southern tributaries. Lignin characteristics of sediments and SPM in main stream were similar to soils. C/V, S/V (molar ratio of syringyl phenols to vanillyl phenols) and (Ad/Al)v (ratio of vanillic acid to vanillin) suggested a non- woody angiosperm tissues origin in sediments of down reaches and a soil origin in upper reaches. The change of lignin contents in SPM along the main stream from upper reaches to down reaches was reversed to that of sediments and lignin was much fresher, which indicated more plant detritus contribution to SPM. A simple three-end-member model with ¦Ä13C and λ8 was applied to evaluate the contribution of sources (plant detritus, soils of northern tributaries and southern tributaries) to OM in SPM and sediments. Results of calculation indicated soils of northern tributaries account for nearly \\70% of the OM in sediments of upper reaches and \\30% of that of down reaches. The contribution of plant detritus was very low to sediments of upper reaches and gradually increased to around \\50% to that of down reaches. As to SPM, plant detritus and northern soils contributed nearly \\50% and \\40% respectively to upper reaches and about \\20% and \\10% to down reaches. A model was built up to explain the lignin transfer from land to river, from surface SPM to surface sediments and it proved that lignin was relative reserved in Changjiang. Physical processes such as hydrodynamic sorting, velocity of flow and sedimentation controlled the

  6. Proceedings Abstracts: American Water Resources Association's Symposium on the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program--November 7-9, 1994, Chicago, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K., (Edited By)

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 418,000 pounds of triazine herbicides are applied annually to control weeds in crops grown in the Albemarle-Pamilico Sound drainage basin, located in North Carolina and Virginia. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect concentrations of total triazine herbicides in streams draining into Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Water samples were collected in May and June during the application of triazine herbicides and in early September during low streamflows at approximately 40 sites on streams in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces. Triazine concentrations exceeded 0.2 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in 67 percent of the water samples collected In June, and 13 percent of the water samples exceeded 0.2 ?g/L in September during low streamflows. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total triazine herbicides provides a low-cost and rapid analytical method for screening water samples prior to sending them to a laboratory and for semiquantitatively assessing seasonal concentrations of triazine herbicides in streams throughout a large region.

  7. Phase II modification of the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) for Kentucky: The sinkhole-drainage process, point-and-click basin delineation, and results of karst test-basin simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Charles J.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Ulery, Randy L.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Cinotto, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes Phase II modifications made to the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER), which applies the process-based TOPMODEL approach to simulate or predict stream discharge in surface basins in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The previous (Phase I) version of WATER did not provide a means of identifying sinkhole catchments or accounting for the effects of karst (internal) drainage in a TOPMODEL-simulated basin. In the Phase II version of WATER, sinkhole catchments are automatically identified and delineated as internally drained subbasins, and a modified TOPMODEL approach (called the sinkhole drainage process, or SDP-TOPMODEL) is applied that calculates mean daily discharges for the basin based on summed area-weighted contributions from sinkhole drain-age (SD) areas and non-karstic topographically drained (TD) areas. Results obtained using the SDP-TOPMODEL approach were evaluated for 12 karst test basins located in each of the major karst terrains in Kentucky. Visual comparison of simulated hydrographs and flow-duration curves, along with statistical measures applied to the simulated discharge data (bias, correlation, root mean square error, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients), indicate that the SDPOPMODEL approach provides acceptably accurate estimates of discharge for most flow conditions and typically provides more accurate simulation of stream discharge in karstic basins compared to the standard TOPMODEL approach. Additional programming modifications made to the Phase II version of WATER included implementation of a point-and-click graphical user interface (GUI), which fully automates the delineation of simulation-basin boundaries and improves the speed of input-data processing. The Phase II version of WATER enables the user to select a pour point anywhere on a stream reach of interest, and the program will automatically delineate all upstream areas that contribute drainage to that point. This capability enables

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 3,900-square-mile (mi2) San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter San Diego) study unit was investigated from May through July 2004 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southwestern California in the counties of San Diego, Riverside, and Orange. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Diego study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 58 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as the primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the San Diego study unit. The San Diego study unit consisted of four study areas: Temecula Valley (140 mi2), Warner Valley (34 mi2), Alluvial Basins (166 mi2), and Hard Rock (850 mi2). The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers. For example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination than groundwater in deep water-bearing zones. This study had two components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first component of this study-the status assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource-was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to

  9. Using river long profiles and geomorphic indices to evaluate the geomorphological signature of continental scale drainage capture, Duero basin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, Loreto; De Vicente, Gerardo; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Stokes, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Well-constrained case studies of transient landscape responses are needed to improve our understanding of erosion processes associated with drainage captures. The Duero basin is an excellent location for such a study because the landscape is currently undergoing pronounced geomorphological changes resulting from the opening of a former closed drainage. The present-day continental interior basin (> 50,000 km2) drains to the Atlantic Ocean via the Duero River, but during the Cenozoic the basin experienced a long endorheic period marked by the formation of evaporites. Currently, the entire continental interior is an area of relative tectonic quiescence, characterised by a relict low-relief upland topography (Meseta). Systematic variations in lithology and a well-constrained tectonic setting throughout the basin and adjacent areas allow for the comparison of channel morphology between the Cenozoic Duero basin and its western fringe. To explore the signal of transient geomorphic response to capture and opening of the former endorheic basin, the main channel and 24 tributaries were analysed in terms of their longitudinal profiles and the application of geomorphic indices (concavity index [Ci], valley floor width-to-height ratio [Vf], and stream-length gradient index [SL]). The analysis reveals two zones with distinctive morphologies: (1) an upper reach domain consisting of broad flat valleys and low-gradient streams where concave longitudinal profiles dominate and (2) a middle reach domain characterised by steep, deeply incised canyons where a convex long profile dominates marking a major kinckzone. The quantitative information on channel shapes and long profile geometries allows the interpretation of these patterns in terms of driving forces for fluvial landscape development. Large-scale morphometric analysis highlights the transient response of the entire basin to a capture-related base level lowering and illustrates the importance of drainage captures as potential

  10. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  11. Verification of LANDSAT imagery for morphametric and topological studies of drainage basins in a section of the western plateau of Sao Paulo State: Tiete-Aguapei watershed. M.S. Thesis; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camargo, J. C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of using LANDSAT MSS imagery for morphometric and topological studies of drainage basins was verified. Using Tiete and Aguapei watershed (Western Plateau) as the test site because of its homogeneous landscape. Morphometric variables collected for ten drainage basins include: circularity index; river density; drainage density; topographic texture; areal and index length; basin parameter; and main river length 1st order and 2nd order channel length. The topographical variables determined were: order; magnitude; bifuraction ratio; weighted bifuraction ratio; number of segments; number of linking; trajectory length; and topological diameter. Data were collected on topographical maps at the scale of 1:250,000 and 1:59,000 and on LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000. The results which were summarized on tables for further analysis, show that LANDSAT imagery can supply the lack of topographic charts for drainage studies.

  12. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  13. The geomorphology of Patagonian ice dammed lake basins: Insights from remote sensing of a modern lake and reconstruction of a Late Quaternary lake drainage event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl

    2016-04-01

    The geomorphology of ice dammed lake basins can be complex due to geomorphic responses to multiple base level changes from repeated filling and emptying, as well as the potential for catastrophic drainage events. Refining landscape models of Quaternary ice dammed palaeolake systems has the potential to improve our understanding of glacier and meltwater dynamics during deglaciation phases. In this poster two case studies are presented to shed light on the range of geomorphic processes exhibited within ice dammed lake basins. Using Google Earth Pro and repeat LANDSAT imagery the geomorphology resulting from multiple base level changes of an ice dammed lake of the Viedma Glacier (Southern Patagonia Icefield) is presented. The LANDSAT imagery shows transgressive lake phases inundating already formed delta and terrace surfaces, whilst the high resolution Google Earth Pro images reveal a complex suite of incised terrace levels developed on the valley floor following lake drainage events. Secondly, the impact of catastrophic drainage of the Late Pleistocene Palaeolake Cochrane (Northern Patagonia Icefield) is investigated through geomorphological mapping. Here an outburst flood and rapid lowering of the lake has led to large scale eddy scouring of glacio-lacustrine sediments, with scarp slopes of ca. 30-40 m in height, and the formation of boulder bars during the final stages of lake fall. The implications of the mapping for interpretations of Late Quaternary palaeolake sediment-landform assemblages and rates of landscape change are discussed.

  14. Statistical Summary of Hydrologic and Water-Quality Data from the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Michael F.; Young, Stacie T.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides statistical summaries of rainfall, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data collected in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe drainage basins before, during, and after construction of the H-3 Highway on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Methods of data collection also are described. Data collected during water years 1983 through 1999 at eight streamflow and six stream water-quality gaging stations, and two water-quality stations located in Waimaluhia Reservoir are included. Physiographic data for all basins contributing to the 14 stream stations as well as brief land-use descriptions of the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe drainage basins are provided.

  15. Drainage Areas of Selected Streams in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Donald C.; Wiegand, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Drainage areas were determined for more than 1,600 basins in the three major river basins of Virginia -- the North Atlantic Slope, South Atlantic Slope, and Ohio River Basins. Drainage areas range from 0.004 square mile to 7,866 square miles. A geographic information system was used to digitize and store data associated with the drainage basins. Drainage divides were digitized from digital U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute, 1:24,000-scale, topographic quadrangles using procedures recommended by the Subcommittee on Hydrology, Federal Interagency River Basin Committee. Digital drainage basins were quality assured, polygons of the closed drainage basins were generated, and drainage areas were computed.

  16. Role of Pb mining in Contamination of Groundwater and Surface water, Case study: Bastam drainage basin, Northeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarian, Abdolreza

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater will normally look clear and clean because the ground naturally filters out particulate matter. But, natural and human-induced chemicals can be found in groundwater. As groundwater flows through the ground, metals such as Lead and Cd are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water. Because water is "Universal Solvent" it can contain lots of dissolved chemicals. And since groundwater moves through rocks and subsurface soil, it has a lot of opportunity to dissolve substances as it moves. For that reason, groundwater will often have more dissolved substances than surface water will. Bastam watershed with ca 1250 km2 area and ca 600 km stream networks, contains around 100 spring, ca 300 irrigation wells, and ca 100 Qanat ( one of a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels). This watershed is one of the largest drainage basins in northeastern Iran and also it provides drinking water for 3 town and several villages. An abandoned Pb mine located at northwest of this watershed. To determine contamination of these metals in groundwater and surface water, 8 water samples around this mine, from wells, springs and streams were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (Pb, Cd, and Zn) by AAs method. Pb, Cd, and Zn concentration in these samples are range of 0.11 to 0.18 mg/L, 0.010 to 0.021 mg/L, and 0.0079 to 0.0485 mg/L respectively. Comparison between these results and regulation guidelines of WHO, and United State EPA, reveal high level concentration of Pb and Cd in groundwater and surface water in this water resources. Based on regulation guidelines of WHO maximum contaminant level (MCL) for lead, and Cadmium are 0.015 mg/L, and 0.005 mg/L respectively. As a result, these water resource are affected by high level contaminate of Pb (ca 10 fold of WHO regulation guideline) and Cd (ca 3 fold of WHO regulation guidelines) maybe derived from Galena and other Pb rock minerals from this mining area. To reduce

  17. Holocene Evolution of the Indus River Basin: the effect of climate and drainage reorganization on the Harappan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, A. H.; Clift, P. D.; Vanlaningham, S.; Giosan, L.; Carter, A.; Hillier, S.; Macklin, M. G.; Duller, G. A.; Durcan, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Indus River basin has evolved significantly during the Holocene and may have affected the Harappan Civilization which is believed to have collapsed around 2000 BC. We aim to understand the links between drainage evolution, the intensity of the South Asian Monsoon and the development of this early human society. Sediment was sampled from modern rivers, pits and shallow boreholes in the alluvial plains of the Indus and the inactive Ghaggar-Hakra tributary. A suite of techniques are used to resolve sediment source changes during, the Holocene, including bulk and clay mineralogy (XRD), garnet geochemistry, U-Pb dating of zircon grains, Ar-Ar dating of mica, and bulk Nd isotopic analyses. We report preliminary 14C and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, U-Pb dating of zircon and mineralogical data from a delta core site (Keti Bandar), as well as two core sites and two shallow pits from the eastern upper Indus flood plain. Sediments from the delta show that the mineralogical changes are coherent with the regional climate changes in the Early Holocene. XRD mineralogy shows that illite concentrations peak around 14% in Early Holocene and decrease to 4% around 8 ka, while plagioclase feldspar ranges from 9% in the Early Holocene to 17% at the peak of the monsoon. The mineralogy in general shows a coherent trend when plotted against oxygen isotope measurements from speleothems. 14C and OSL age results from the eastern Indus flood plain cluster around 5-6 ka suggesting an active river at and before this time, and coincide with when the Harappan flourished. This eastern palaeo-tributary (Ghaggar-Hakra) of Indus drains the Lesser and the Higher Himalayas and is different from the trunk Indus stream which has sediment derived mainly from the Karakoram, Transhimalayas, Hindu Kush and Kohistan ranges. U-Pb zircon ages from Mid-Holocene sands along the path of the Ghaggar-Hakra River are very similar to the Indus and Thar Desert sands. We suggest that the Ghaggar

  18. ESTIMATION OF INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER CONSTITUENT CONCENTRATIONS FROM THE REMOTE-SENSING REFLECTANCE SPECTRA IN THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The decomposition of remote sensing reflectance (RSR) spectra into absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients, and scattering phase function is an important issue for estimating water quality (WQ) components. For Case 1 waters RSR decomposition can be easily accompli...

  19. Drainage density, slope angle, and relative basin position in Japanese bare lands from high-resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhou; Oguchi, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    Relationships between drainage density and slope angle for three bare lands in Japan were analyzed with special attention to channels at early erosion stages and channels in a badland-type terrain. Two of the bare lands were caused by volcanic eruptions 1 or 30-40 years ago, and the other one is a landslide scar formed more than 100 years ago. Raster digital elevation models (DEMs) with a 1-m resolution and ortho aerial photos were generated using digital photogrammetry to enable detailed stream-net extraction and topographic analyses. Data for drainage density, slope angle, and relative height for 88 subwatersheds were obtained from the DEMs and derived stream-nets. The relationship between drainage density and slope angle for each subwatershed can be divided into two types: downward sloping and convex upward. Although previous studies suggested that drainage density positively correlates with slope angle if overland flow is dominant, this correlation seldom occurs in the study areas. The two types of drainage density-slope angle relationships correspond to differing channelization stages that reflect the extension and integration of existing channels, as well as the formation of new low-order streams in response to base-level lowering. The location of subwatersheds within each study area seems to play a major role in determining the stages of channel development and, in turn, the types of drainage density-slope angle relationships.

  20. Application of a watershed model (HSPF) for evaluating sources and transport of pathogen indicators in the Chino Basin drainage area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Church, Clinton D.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2011-01-01

    A watershed model using Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was developed for the urbanized Chino Basin in southern California to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, evaluate the flow-component and land-use contributions to bacteria contamination and water-quality degradation throughout the basin, and develop a better understanding of the potential effects of climate and land-use change on water quality. The calibration of the model for indicator bacteria was supported by historical data collected before this study and by samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from targeted land-use areas during storms in water-year 2004. The model was successfully calibrated for streamflow at 5 gage locations representing the Chino Creek and Mill Creek drainages. Although representing pathogens as dissolved constituents limits the model's ability to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, the bacteria concentrations measured over the period 1998-2004 were well represented by the simulated concentrations for most locations. Hourly concentrations were more difficult to predict because of high variability in measured bacteria concentrations. In general, model simulations indicated that the residential and commercial land uses were the dominant sources for most of the pathogen indicator bacteria during low streamflows. However, simulations indicated that land used for intensive livestock (dairies and feedlots) and mixed agriculture contributed the most bacteria during storms. The calibrated model was used to evaluate how various land use, air temperature, and precipitation scenarios would affect flow and transport of bacteria. Results indicated that snow pack formation and melt were sensitive to changes in air temperature in the northern, mountainous part of the Chino Basin, causing the timing and magnitude of streamflow to shift in the natural drainages and impact the urbanized areas of the central Chino Basin. The relation between

  1. Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  3. Adequacy of Nasqan data to describe areal and temporal variability of water quality of the San Juan River Drainage basin upstream from Shiprock New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses indicate that water quality in the San Juan River drainage basin upstream from Shiprock, New Mexico, is quite variable from station to station. Analyses are based on water quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey WATSTORE files and the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division 's files. In the northeastern part of the basin, most streams are calcium-bicarbonate waters. In the northwestern and southern part of the basin, the streams are calcium-sulfate and sodium-sulfate waters. Geology, climate, and land use and water use affect the water quality. Statistical analysis shows that streamflow, suspended-sediment, dissolved-iron, dissolved-orthophosphate-phosphorus, dissolved-sodium, dissolved-sulfate, and dissolved-manganese concentrations, specific conductance, and pH are highly variable among most stations. Dissolved-radium-226 concentration is the least variable among stations. A trend in one or more water quality constituents for the time period, October 1, 1973, through September 30, 1981, was detected at 15 out of 36 stations tested. The NASQAN stations Animas River at Farmington and San Juan River at Shiprock, New Mexico, record large volumes of flow that represent an integration of the flow from many upstream tributaries. The data collected do not represent what is occurring at specific points upstream in the basin, but do provide accurate information on how water quality is changing over time at the station location. A water quality, streamflow model would be necessary to predict accurately what is occurring simultaneously in the entire basin. (USGS)

  4. A fingerprinting mixing model approach to generate uniformly representative solutions for distributed contributions of sediment sources in a Pyrenean drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazón, Leticia; Gaspar, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Blake, Will; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Spanish Pyrenean reservoirs are under pressure from high sediment yields in contributing catchments. Sediment fingerprinting approaches offer potential to quantify the contribution of different sediment sources, evaluate catchment erosion dynamics and develop management plans to tackle the reservoir siltation problems. The drainage basin of the Barasona reservoir (1509 km2), located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, is an alpine-prealpine agroforest basin supplying sediments to the reservoir at an annual rate of around 350 t km-2 with implications for reservoir longevity. The climate is mountain type, wet and cold, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean influences. Steep slopes and the presence of deep and narrow gorges favour rapid runoff and large floods. The ability of geochemical fingerprint properties to discriminate between the sediment sources was investigated by conducting the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (minimization of Wilk's lambda). This standard procedure selects potential fingerprinting properties as optimum composite fingerprint to characterize and discriminate between sediment sources to the reservoir. Then the contribution of each potential sediment source was assessed by applying a Monte Carlo mixing model to obtain source proportions for the Barasona reservoir sediment samples. The Monte Carlo mixing model was written in C programming language and designed to deliver a user-defined number possible solutions. A Combinatorial Principals method was used to identify the most probable solution with associated uncertainty based on source variability. The unique solution for each sample was characterized by the mean value and the standard deviation of the generated solutions and the lower goodness of fit value applied. This method is argued to guarantee a similar set of representative solutions in all unmixing cases based on likelihood of occurrence. Soil samples for the different potential sediment

  5. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  6. Implications for the tectonic transition zone of active orogeny in Hoping drainage basin, by landscape evolution at the multi-temporal timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Q.; Chen, R. F.; Lin, W.; Hsieh, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    In an actively orogeny the landscape are transient state of disequilibrium in response to climatic and tectonic inputs. At the catchment scale, sensitivity of river systems plays an important role in landscape evolution. Hoping drainage basin is located at the tectonic transition zone in the north-eastern Taiwan, where the behavior of Philippine Sea plate switches from overriding above the east-dipping Eurasian Continental plate to northward subducting under the Ryukyu arc. However, extensive deep-seated landslides, debris flow, and numerous large alluvial terraces can be observed, suggesting strong surface processes in this watershed. This effect on regional climate fundamentally changed the landscape by reconfiguring drainage patterns and creating a vast influx of sediments into the basin. In this study we review the morphological evidence from multi-temporal timescale, including in-situ cosmogenic nuclides denudation rate and suspension load data, coupled with the analysis of the longitudinal profiles. The main goal of this study is to compare Holocene erosion rates with thermochronology and radiometric dating of river terraces to investigate the erosion history of Hoping area. The result shows that short-term erosion rate is around twice as large as the long-term denudation rate, which might due to the climate-driven erosion events such as typhoon-induced landslide. We've also mapped detail morphological features by using the high-resolution LiDAR image, which help us to identify not only the landslide but also tectonic features such as lineation, fault scarps, and fracture zones. The tectonic surface features and field investigation results show that the drainage basin is highly fractured, suggesting that even though the vertical tectonic activity rate is small, the horizontal shortening influenced by both southward opening of the back-arc Okinawa trough and the north-western collision in this area is significant. This might cause the reducing in rock strength

  7. Estimating debris-flow probability using fan stratigraphy, historic records, and drainage-basin morphology, Interstate 70 highway corridor, central Colorado, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Parise, M.; Moscariello, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have used stratigraphic and historic records of debris-flows to estimate mean recurrence intervals of past debris-flow events on 19 fans along the Interstate 70 highway corridor in the Front Range of Colorado. Estimated mean recurrence intervals were used in the Poisson probability model to estimate the probability of future debris-flow events on the fans. Mean recurrence intervals range from 7 to about 2900 years. Annual probabilities range from less than 0.1% to about 13%. A regression analysis of mean recurrence interval data and drainage-basin morphometry yields a regression model that may be suitable to estimate mean recurrence intervals on fans with no stratigraphic or historic records. Additional work is needed to verify this model. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  8. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    The State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program was implemented on January 1, 2001. The program includes the collection of rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data at selected sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin. Rainfall and streamflow data were collected from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001. Few storms during the year met criteria for antecedent dry conditions or provided enough runoff to sample. The storm of June 5, 2001 was sufficiently large to cause runoff. On June 5, 2001, grab samples were collected at five sites along North Halawa and Halawa Streams. The five samples were later analyzed for nutrients, trace metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, biological and chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids.

  9. The supply of trace elements from the atmosphere recorded in a natural archive by the example of the Ilas ombrotrophic bog in the White Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Kusnetsov, O. L.; Politova, N. V.; Zaretskaya, N. E.; Kutenkov, S. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studies are presented for the elemental composition of peat from the Ilas ombrotrophic bog (White Sea drainage basin). The calculations of enrichment factors of trace elements over the section of the bog peat relatively to the average composition of the Earth's continental crust showed that the concentrations of most of chemical elements is determined by the contributions of lithogenic and biogenic sources, and the content of trace elements is equal to the background level. Enrichment growth since the beginning of intense development of European industry until the early 21th century was revealed only for Zn, Sb, Pb, and Cd. These elements were supplied to the bog resulting from long-range air transport and precipitation from the atmosphere. No pronounced heavy-metal contamination caused by the Arkhangelsk agglomeration was revealed for the peat in the Ilas bog.

  10. Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes

  11. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here. PMID:26624737

  12. Quantitative catchment profiling to apportion faecal indicator organism budgets for the Ribble system, the UK's sentinel drainage basin for Water Framework Directive research.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Crowther, J; McDonald, A T; Kay, D; Greaves, J; Wither, A; Watkins, J; Francis, C; Humphrey, N; Bradford, M

    2008-06-01

    Under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) 20/60/EC and the US Federal Water Pollution Control Act 2002 management of water quality within river drainage basins has shifted from traditional point-source control to a holistic approach whereby the overall contribution of point and diffuse sources of pollutants has to be considered. Consequently, there is a requirement to undertake source-apportionment studies of pollutant fluxes within catchments. The inclusion of the Bathing Water Directive (BWD), under the list of 'protected areas' in the WFD places a requirement to control sources of faecal indicator organisms within catchments in order to achieve the objectives of both the BWD (and its revision - 2006/7/EC) and the WFD. This study was therefore initiated to quantify catchment-derived fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters originating from both point and diffuse sources. The Ribble drainage basin is the single UK sentinel WFD research catchment and discharges to the south of the Fylde coast, which includes a number of high profile, historically non-compliant, bathing waters. Faecal indicator concentrations (faecal coliform concentrations are reported herein) were measured at 41 riverine locations, the 15 largest wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and 15 combined sewer overflows (CSOs) across the Ribble basin over a 44-day period during the 2002 bathing season. The sampling programme included targeting rainfall-induced high flow events and sample results were categorised as either base flow or high flow. At the riverine sites, geometric mean faecal coliform concentrations showed statistically significant elevation at high flow compared to base flow. The resultant faecal coliform flux estimates revealed that over 90% of the total organism load to the Ribble Estuary was discharged by sewage related sources during high flow events. These sewage sources were largely related to the urban areas to the south and east of the Ribble basin, with over half the

  13. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2010-05-01

    Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) were detected in

  14. Sediment-transport characteristics and effects of sediment transport on benthic invertebrates in the Fountain Creek drainage basin upstream from Widefield, southeastern Colorado, 1985-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Sediment and benthic-invertebrate data were collected during water years 1985 through 1988 in the Fountain Creek drainage basin upstream from Widefield, Colorado. Sediment data collected include suspended-sediment concentrations and particle size analysis of suspended sediment, bedload, and bed material. Sediment-transport equations were derived for total suspended-sediment discharge and suspended-sand discharge at seven periodic sampling sites. Annual suspended-sediment loads for water years 1985 through 1988 and mean suspended-sediment yields were computed for the seven periodic sampling sites. Mean annual suspended-sediment yield for 1985 through 1988 increased about 73% downstream in the Fountain Creek drainage basin primarily as a result of sediment discharging from Monument Creek. Bedload discharge was computed at six of the periodic sampling sites and ranged from 2.6 to 3,570 tons/day. Bedload discharge, as a percentage of total sediment discharge, ranged from 6 to 92%, and the smaller values occurred during rainfall runoff. Number of taxa, species density, and similarity indices were determined for benthic invertebrates at five of the periodic sampling sites. Multiple comparison tests were used to test for similarity of benthic invertebrates between the five sites. Multiple-regression analysis was done to determine the effects of sediment transport on benthic-invertebrate densities. Median grain size of bed material collected in conjunction with benthic- invertebrate samples and flooding during the 30 days prior to sampling consistently accounted for the most variation in mean densities of total organisms and major taxa groups sampled. (USGS)

  15. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  16. Factors affecting water quality and net flux of solutes in two stream basins in the Quabbin Reservoir drainage basin, central Massachusetts,1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rittmaster, R.L.; Shanley, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The factors that affect stream-water quality were studied at West Branch Swift River (Swift River), and East Branch Fever Brook (Fever Brook), two forested watersheds that drain into the Quabbin Reservoir, central Massachusetts, from December 1983 through August 1985. Spatial and temporal variations of chemistry of precipitation, surface water; and ground water and the linkages between chemical changes and hydrologic processes were used to identify the mechanisms that control stream chemistry. Precipitation chemistry was dominated by hydrogen ion (composite p.H 4.23), sulfate, and nitrate. Inputs of hydrogen and nitrate from pre- cipitation were almost entirely retained in the basins, whereas input of sulfate was approximately balanced by export by streamflow draining the basins. Both streams were poorly buffered, with mean pH near 5.7, mean alkalinity less than 30 microequivalents per liter, and sulfate concen- trations greater than 130 microequivalents per liter. Sodium and chloride, derived primarily from highway deicing salts, were the dominant solutes at Fever Brook. After adjustments for deicing salts, fluxes of base cations during the 21-month study were 2,014 and 1,429 equivalents per hectare in Swift River and Fever Brook, respectively. Base cation fluxes were controlled primarily by weathering of hornblende (Fever Brook) and plagioclase (Swift River). The overall weathering rate was greater in the Swift River Basin because easily weathered gabbro underlies one subbasin which comprises 11.2 percent of the total basin area but contributed about 77 percent of the total alkalinity. Alkalinity export was nearly equal in the two basins, however, because some alkalinity was generated in wetlands in the Fever Brook Basin through bacterial sulfate reduction coupled with organic-carbon oxidation.

  17. Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry at a site of strategic importance: the Pareja Limno-reservoir drainage basin (Guadalajara, central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Vicente, Rosa; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    A small calcareous basin in central Spain was studied to establish the role of groundwater in the Pareja Limno-reservoir. Limno-reservoirs aim to preserve a constant water level in the riverine zone of large reservoirs to mitigate the impacts arising from their construction. Groundwater flow contribution (mean 60 %) was derived by recharge estimation. In situ measurements (spring discharge, electrical conductivity and sulfate) were undertaken and spring discharge was compared with a drought index. Twenty-eight springs were monitored and three hydrogeological units (HGUs) were defined: a carbonate plateau (HGU1), the underlying aquitard (HGU2), and the gypsum-enriched HGU3. HGU1 is the main aquifer and may play a role in the preservation of the limno-reservoir water level. Hydrogeochemical sampling was conducted and the code PHREEQC used to describe the main geochemical processes. Weathering and dissolution of calcite and gypsum seem to control the hydrogeochemical processes in the basin. Water progresses from Ca2+-HCO3 - in the upper basin to Ca2+-SO4 2- in the lower basin, where HGU3 outcrops. A clear temporal pattern was observed in the limno-reservoir, with salinity decreasing in winter and increasing in summer. This variation was wider at the river outlet, but the mixing of the river discharge with limno-reservoir water buffered it.

  18. Dissolution rates and vadose zone drainage from strontium isotope measurements of groundwater in the Pasco Basin, WA unconfined aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Michael J.; Maher, Katharine; DePaolo, Donald J.; Conrad, Mark E.; Dresel, P. EVAN

    2006-04-30

    Strontium isotope compositions measured in groundwater samples from 273 wells in the Pasco Basin unconfined aquifer below the Hanford Site show large and systematic variations that provide constraints on groundwater recharge, weathering rates of the aquifer host rocks, communication between unconfined and deeper confined aquifers, and vadose zone-groundwater interaction. This article describes the evaluation of strontium geochemistry of a major aquifer.

  19. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites, Wind River and part of Bighorn River drainage basins, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, J.G.; Montague, Ellen; Lenz, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly streamflow records from gaging stations with more than 5 years of record were extended to a 50-year base period, 1941-90, using a mixed- station, record-extension model. Monthly streamflow characteristics were computed from the extended record. Four statistical methods--basin characteristics, active-channel width, concurrent measurement, and weighted average were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites and at streamflow-gaging stations with fewer than 5 years of record. Linear- regression models were used with the basin characteristic and active-channel-width methods to define the relations between the monthly streamflow characteristics and physical basin, climatic, and channel characteristics. The concurrent-measurement method used a Maintenance of Variance Extension, Type 1 curve-fitting technique to correlate discharge at active streamflow-gaging stations, which had computed streamflow characteristics, with discharge measured at ungaged sites. The weighted-average method is a weighted combination of estimates from any two or all three of the other methods. For the basin-characteristics method, the standard errors of estimate ranged from 37 to 83 percent and for the active-channel-width method, 34 to 100 percent. Standard errors for the concurrent- measurement method ranged from 27 to 151 percent. The standard error for the weighted-average method, ranged from 18 to 82 percent, which was lower than any individual method. Application of the equations for estimating monthly streamflow characteristics is limited to perennial streams with physical-basin, climatic, and active channel- width characteristics that are within the range of values used in the study. The equations are not applicable to estimate flow for ephemeral streams.

  20. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara

    2013-05-01

    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  1. Metal Distribution and Contamination Assessment in Drainage Ditch Water in the Main Rice/Vegetable Area of Sichuan Hilly Basin.

    PubMed

    Kumwimba, Mathieu Nsenga; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Zhao; Muyembe, Diana Kavidia

    2016-02-01

    In order to assess the impact of four land use changes on metal concentrations in the hilly Sichuan Basin of China, 71 surface water samples were collected in July and November 2014. Samples from residential ditch water were found to have higher metal concentrations than those in other types of ditches, while the lowest occurred in barren land ditch water. However, the selected metals were below the Chinese surface water quality standards and WHO (2011). The pollution index of four determined land use types was also below the critical pollution index, suggesting there were low levels of pollution in Sichuan Basin. Arsenic was the most important pollutant of concern. Results indicate steps should be taken to control and reduce the risk of metals released from residential ditch water. PMID:26662271

  2. Pipe downchute stormwater drainage system

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    SCS Engineers (SCS) was provided with the challenge of developing a completely enclosed pipe downchute system for stormwater drainage at the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the largest landfill in the world. With a total landfill drainage subshed totaling over 1000 acres, and an average yearly precipitation at the site of approximately 4.2 feet, the final constructed stormwater drainage system would capture and convey over 591 million gallons of stormwater runoff per year, and discharge it into 17 stormwater basins.This paper describes the drainage system.

  3. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two

  4. Solute load concentrations in some streams in the Upper Osun and Owena drainage basins, central western Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeje, L. K.; Ogunkoya, O. O.; Oluwatimilehin, J. M.

    1999-12-01

    The solute load dynamics of 12 third-order streams in central western Nigeria are presented, during storm and non-storm runoff events. The relevance of the Walling and Foster model for explaining storm period solute load dynamics in the humid tropical environment was assessed and it was found that this model was generally applicable to the study area. Exceptions appear to be streams draining settlements and/or farms where fertilizers are applied heavily. The solute load ranged from 5 mg l -1 to 580 mg l -1 with streams draining basins with tree-crop plantations ( Theobroma cacao, Cola sp.) as the dominant land cover having the highest solute load.

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Arsenic Cycling by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium as Influenced by N:P Ratios: A Potential Biologic Control in an Iron-Limited Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated As levels are common in South Texas surface waters, where As is derived from the natural weathering of geogenic sources and a byproduct of historical uranium mining. The impacted surface waters of the Nueces River drainage basin supply Lake Corpus Christi (LCC), a major drinking water reservoir for the Corpus Christi area. The soils and sediments of the Nueces River drainage basin generally have low levels of reactive iron (average concentration of 2780 mg/kg), limiting the control of iron oxyhydroxides on As geochemistry and bioavailability. Given these conditions, biologic cycling of As may have a large influence on As fate and transport in LCC. Sediment cores from LCC show evidence for cyanobacterial blooms after reservoir formation based upon stable isotopes, total organic matter and specific elemental correlations. While algae have been shown to accumulate and reduce inorganic As(V), few studies have reported biologic cycling of As by cyanobacteria. Therefore, As(V) uptake, accumulation, reduction, and excretion in a 1.0 μ M As(V) solution by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120, was measured over time as a function of low, middle and high N:P ratios (1.2, 12, 120) to determine nutrient effects on As cycling by the cyanobacterium. Total As(V) reduction was observed in all three conditions upon completion of the ten-day experiment. Maximum As(V) reduction rates ranged from (0.013 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the low N:P solution to (0.398 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the high N:P solution. Increased cell biomass in the low N:P ratio solution compensated for the low maximum reduction rate to allow total As(V) reduction. Kinetic equations commonly used to model algal-nutrient interactions were utilized in modeling the current data. The Michaelis-Menten enzyme saturation equation modified with a competitive inhibition term adequately modeled As(III) excretion in the high and middle N:P ratio test conditions. The low N:P test condition further

  6. Carbon isotopes and iodine concentrations in a Mississippi River delta core recording land use, sediment transport, and dam building in the river's drainage basin.

    PubMed

    Santschi, Peter H; Oktay, Sarah D; Cifuentes, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Sedimentary material from coastal and nearshore areas in the Mississippi Delta region are comprised of different organic carbon sources with diverse ages that require isotopic and elemental records for resolving the various sources of plant residues. Carbon isotopic ((13)C, (14)C) values were used to differentiate contributions from plants using the C3, C4, and/or CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) carbon fixation pathways., and iodine concentrations indicated that wetland plant residues are a significant source of organic carbon in a sediment core from the Mississippi River delta region collected at a 60 m water depth. This sediment core had been extensively described in Oktay et al. [Oktay, S.D., Santschi, P.H., Moran, J.E., Sharma, P., 2000. The (129)Iodine Bomb Pulse Recorded in Mississippi River delta Sediments: Results from Isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (6), 989-996.] and significantly, includes unique features that had not previously been seen in the marine environment. These special features include a plutonium isotopic close-in fallout record that indicates a purely terrestrial source for these sediment particles and the elements associated with it, and a distinct iodine isotopic peak (as well as peaks for plutonium and cesium isotopes) that indicate little bioturbation in this core. Our carbon isotopic and iodine data can thus be compared to published records of changes in drainage basin land use, river hydrology, and hydrodynamic sorting of suspended particles to elucidate if these changes are reflected in nearshore sediments. This comparison suggests a significant contribution for organic carbon (OC) from C4 plants to these sediments during the 1950's to early 1960's. Relative older carbon isotopes, and episodically high iodine concentrations (up to 34 ppm) were observed during this time period that (1) indicate sediment deposition that is coincident with the times of major hydrological changes induced from dam and levee

  7. Potential Effects of a Warming Climate on Water Resources within the Lehman and Baker Creek Drainages, Great Basin National Park, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, John M.

    Warming trends in near-surface air temperature across the Southwestern U.S. have been observed over the last century and are projected to continue over the 21st century. This warming trend will result in decreased snowpack and earlier snowmelt in mountainous basins throughout the West; however, predictions of future precipitation in the Southwest are much more uncertain among global climate models (GCMs). In this study, the objective was to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of projected warming on streamflow in the Lehman and Baker Creek drainages. The drainages are located in Great Basin National Park that encompasses the highest elevations in the southern part of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to evaluate impacts of warming on streamflow. Calibration and validation periods had total errors between 0.6 and 12 percent in simulated streamflow. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures for a future 90-year period were used in the model to evaluate how warming temperatures may affect streamflow. Daily temperatures were statistically downscaled and bias corrected using daily projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 4.0 for four representative greenhouse gas concentration trajectories. A 30-year record of historical precipitation was repeated three times over the 90-year simulation. Results from the 90-year simulation were divided into three 30-year periods (water years 2009--2038, 2039--2068, and 2069--2098) and were compared among the four greenhouse gas concentration trajectories such that volumes and variations in precipitation were identical and changes could be directly related to different projected warming temperatures. The study area was sensitive to small increases in temperature; results include shifts to earlier snowmelt timing for most warming trajectories from May to April with an increase in winter streamflow. For a temperature rise of 5.5°F by

  8. Hierarchy of factors exerting an impact on nutrient load of the Baltic Sea and sustainable management of its drainage basin.

    PubMed

    Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Jóźwik, Adam; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zalewski, Maciej

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate 23 catchment factors that determine total phosphorus and total nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea. Standard correlation analysis and clustering were used. Both phosphorus and nitrogen loads were found to be positively related to the number of pigs and the human population associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) per km(2), while the number of cattle and agricultural area were found to influence nitrogen rather than phosphorus load, and the area of forests is negatively related to loads of both nutrients. Clustering indicates an overall north-south pattern in the spatial co-occurrence of socio-ecological factors, with some exceptions discussed in the paper. Positive steps in the Baltic Sea region have already been taken, but much remains to be done. The development of coherent response policies to reduce eutrophication in the Baltic Sea should be based on a comprehensive knowledge base, an appropriate information strategy and learning alliance platform in each drainage river catchments. PMID:25262405

  9. Cretaceous( )-Paleocene uplift, drainage, and depositional basins along the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau, NW Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The SW margin of the Colorado Plateau has over 1,200 m of paleorelief partially buried by arkosic sediments with intercalated fossiliferous limestones of middle Eocene or greater age, indicating a Laramide origin for nearly 1.5 km of uplift by late Cretaceous or Paleocene time. The arkosic sediments contain 30-cm clasts currently 100 to 150 km from potential source areas bordering the plateau margin. Clast studies of stratigraphic sequences 150+ m thick and at elevations from 975 to 2,010 m (3,200 to 6,600 ft) demonstrate an initial unroofing of upper Paleozoic rocks from source terranes to the south and west, followed by an increase in the percentages of Precambrian quartzites and older crystalline basement clasts. These basal gravels give way to an influx of exotic volcanic debris (exceeding 50% of total clasts) with measured ages in the 63 to 80 Ma range. The upward change to predominantly exotic volcanic clasts in some sections is interpreted to record Laramide tectonism, erosion, and syntectonic sedimentation along the Plateau margin, accompanying late Cretaceous volcanism. Erosional unroofing of plausible Laramide source terranes beginning after volcanism could not have produced the observed vertical distribution of clasts. Clast lithologies also demonstrate a convergence of several distinct drainages toward the Hurricane fault structural zone, paralleling the northward trends of other Laramide monoclines. Stratigraphic and paleogeographic field relations at three sites suggest some monoclinal deformation accompanied sedimentation and paleocanyon incision. Thus a strong case exists for syntectonic Laramide sedimentation following Cretaceous uplift.

  10. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The

  11. Effect of erosion-control structures on sediment and nutrient transport, Edgewood Creek drainage, Lake Tahoe basin, Nevada, 1981-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    Three sites in the Edgewood Creek basin with a combined drainage area of about 1.2 sq mi were selected to assess the effect of erosion-control structures along Nevada State Highway 207, on sediment and nutrient transport. The flow at site one is thought to have been largely unaffected by urban development, and was completely unaffected by erosion control structures. The flow at site two was from a basin affected by urban development and erosion control structures. Site three was downstream from the confluence of streams measured at sites one and two. Most data on streamflow and water quality were collected between June 1981 and May 1983 to assess the hydrologic characteristics of the three sites. As a result of the erosion control structures, mean annual concentrations of total sediment were reduced from about 24,000 to about 410 mg/l at site two and from about 1,900 to about 190 ml/l at site three. Sediment loads were reduced from about 240 to about 10 tons/year at site two and from about 550 to about 110 tons/year at site three. At site one, in contrast, mean concentrations and loads remained low throughout the study period. At site two, sediment particle size changed from predominately coarse prior to construction, to predominately fine thereafter; at site three, it changed from about half coarse sediments to predominately fine. Mean concentration and loads of total iron also were significantly reduced after construction at sites two and three, whereas mean concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species did not change appreciably. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Necchi-Júnior, O; Branco, L H Z; Branco, C C Z

    2003-11-01

    Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season) in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19 masculine 45'-21 masculine 25'S, 49 masculine 05'-51 masculine 30'W), situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40%) and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5%) and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%). Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta) and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta), were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta) and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%), free filaments (27%), gelatinous filaments (27%), crusts (7%), tufts (3%), and gelatinous colonies (3%). The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8%) with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species) were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity) were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems. PMID:15029374

  13. Susceptibility to Myxobolus cerebralis among Tubifex tubifex populations from ten major drainage basins in Colorado where Cutthroat Trout are endemic.

    PubMed

    Nehring, R Barry; Lukacs, P M; Baxa, D V; Stinson, M E T; Chiaramonte, L; Wise, S K; Poole, B; Horton, A

    2014-03-01

    Establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (Mc) resulted in declines of wild Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in streams across Colorado during the 1990s. However, the risk for establishment and spread of this parasite into high-elevation habitats occupied by native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii was unknown. Beginning in 2003, tubificid worms were collected from all major drainages where Cutthroat Trout were endemic and were assayed by quantitative PCR to determine the occurrence and distribution of the various lineages of Tubifex tubifex (Tt) oligochaetes. Over a 5-year period, 40 groups of Tt oligochaetes collected from 27 streams, 3 natural lakes, 2 private ponds, and a reservoir were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to Mc. Exposure groups were drawn from populations of pure lineage III Tt, mixed-lineage populations where one or more of the highly resistant (lineage I) or nonsusceptible lineages (V or VI) were the dominant oligochaete and susceptible lineage III worms were the subdominant worm, or pure lineage VI Tt. Experimental replicates of 250 oligochaetes were exposed to 50 Mc myxospores per worm. The parasite amplification ratio (total triactinomyxons [TAMs] produced / total myxospore exposure) was very high among all pure lineage III Colorado exposure groups, averaging 363 compared with 8.24 among the mixed-lineage exposure groups. Lineage III oligochaetes from Mt. Whitney Hatchery in California, which served as the laboratory standard for comparative purposes, had an average parasite amplification ratio of 933 among 10 exposed replicates over a 5-year period. Lineage I oligochaetes were highly resistant to infection and did not produce any TAMs. Lineages V and VI Tt did not become infected and did not produce any TAMs. These results suggest that the risk of establishment of Mc is high for aquatic habitats in Colorado where Cutthroat Trout and lineage III Tt are sympatric. PMID:24689955

  14. Dryness of ephemeral lakes and consequences for dust activity: the case of the Hamoun drainage basin, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rashki, A; Kaskaoutis, D G; Goudie, A S; Kahn, R A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the influence of changes in the water coverage in the Hamoun dry-bed lakes on visibility, dust outbreaks, aerosol loading and land-atmospheric fluxes over the region covering the period 1985-2005. The Hamoun basin, located on the southeastern Iran and western Afghanistan borders, has been recognized as one of the major dust source regions in south Asia and is covered by shallow, marshy lakes that are fed by the Helmand and Farahrood rivers. When the water in watersheds that support the lakes is drawn down for natural or human-induced reasons, the end result is a decrease in the water coverage in the basin, or even complete dryness as occurred in 2001. Then, strong seasonal winds, mainly in summer, blow fine sand and silt off the exposed lakebed, enhancing dust activity and aerosol loading over the region. Satellite (Landsat) and meteorological observations reveal that the water levels in the Hamoun lakes exhibit considerable inter-annual variability during the period 1985-2005 strongly related to anomalies in precipitation. This is the trigger for concurrent changes in the frequency of the dusty days, aerosol loading and deterioration of visibility over the region, as satellite (TOMS, MODIS, MISR) observations reveal. On the other hand, soil moisture and latent heat, obtained via model (GLDAS_noah-10) simulations are directly linked with water levels and precipitation over the region. The desiccation of the Hamoun lakes in certain years and the consequent increase in frequency and intensity of dust storms are serious concerns for the regional climate, ecosystems and human health. PMID:23831801

  15. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia coli Populations in the South Nation River Drainage Basin, Eastern Ontario, Canada ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lyautey, Emilie; Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Scott, Andrew; Berkers, Tanya; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface waters from multiple watersheds within the South Nation River basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. The basin is composed of mixed but primarily agricultural land uses. From March 2004 to November 2007, a total of 2,004 surface water samples were collected from 24 sampling sites. E. coli densities ranged from undetectable to 1.64 × 105 CFU 100 ml−1 and were correlated with stream order and proximity to livestock production systems. The diversity of 21,307 E. coli isolates was characterized using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR), allowing for the identification of as many as 7,325 distinct genotypes, without capturing all of the diversity. The community was temporally and spatially dominated by a few dominant genotypes (clusters of more than 500 isolates) and several genotypes of intermediary abundance (clustering between 10 and 499 isolates). Simpson diversity indices, assessed on a normalized number of isolates per sample, ranged from 0.050 to 0.668. Simpson indices could be statistically discriminated on the basis of year and stream order, but land use, discharge, weather, and water physical-chemical properties were not statistically important discriminators. The detection of Campylobacter species was associated with statistically lower Simpson indices (greater diversity; P < 0.05). Waterborne E. coli isolates from genotypes of dominant and intermediary abundance were clustered with isolates obtained from fecal samples collected in the study area over the same period, and 90% of the isolates tested proved to share genotypes with fecal isolates. Overall, our data indicated that the densities and distribution of E. coli in these mixed-use watersheds were linked to stream order and livestock-based land uses. Waterborne E. coli populations that were distinct from fecal isolates were detected and, on this basis, were possibly naturalized E. coli strains. PMID

  16. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  17. Metal loading assessment of a small mountainous sub-basin characterized by acid drainage -- Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Melick, Roger; Bove, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    strongly affected by natural acidity from pyrite weathering. Metal content in the water column is a composite of multiple sources affected by hydrologic, geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic conditions. Identifying sources of metals from various drainage areas was determined using a tracer injection approach and synoptic sampling during low flow conditions on September 29, 1999 to determine loads. The tracer data was interpreted in conjunction with detailed geologic mapping, topographic profiling, geochemical characterization, and the occurrence and distribution of trace metals to identify sources of ground-water inflows. For this highly mineralized sub-basin, we demonstrate that SO4, Al, and Fe load contributions from drainage areas that have experienced historical mining?although substantial?are relatively insignificant in comparison with SO4, Al, and Fe loads from areas experiencing natural weathering of highlyaltered, pyritic rocks. Regional weathering of acid-sulfate mineral assemblages produces moderately low pH waters elevated in SO4, Al, and Fe; but generally lacking in Cu, Cd, Ni, and Pb. Samples impacted by mining are also characterized by low pH and large concentrations of SO4, Al, and Fe; but contained elevated dissolved metals from ore-bearing vein minerals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb. Occurrences of dissolved trace metals were helpful in identifying ground-water sources and flow paths. For example, cadmium was greatest in inflows associated with drainage from inactive mine sites and absent in inflows that were unaffected by past mining activities and thus served as an important indicator of mining contamination for this environmental setting. The most heavily mine-impacted reach (PG153 to PG800), contributed 8% of the discharge, and 11%, 9%, and 12% of the total SO4, Al, and Fe loads in Prospect Gulch. The same reach yielded 59% and 37% of the total Cu and Zn loads for the subbasin. In contrast, the naturally acidic inflows from the Red Chemotroph

  18. Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.

    2002-01-01

    The State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program was implemented on January 1, 2001. The program includes the collection of rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data at selected sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin. Rainfall data were collected at two sites, and streamflow data were collected at 3 sites for the year July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002. Water-quality data were collected at five sites, which include the three streamflow sites. Six storms were sampled during the year July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002, for a total of 44 samples. For each storm event, grab samples were collected nearly simultaneously at all five sites, and flow-weighted, time-composite samples were collected at the three sites equipped with automatic samplers. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, trace metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Quality assurance samples were also collected to verify analytical procedures and insure proper cleaning of equipment.

  19. Water Quality in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Selected water-quality data collected before, during, and after construction of the H-3 Highway at 13 water-quality stations were compared to the State of Hawaii Department of Health water-quality standards to determine the effects of highway construction on the water quality of the affected streams. Highway construction had no effect on the high concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen observed except for increased nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations at one station on Hooleinaiwa Stream. Exceedences of the 10- and 2-percent-of-the-time concentration standards for total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and turbidity, all constituents associated with sediment, occurred more commonly and at more stations during construction than either before or after. These exceedences may be, in part, due to land disturbance caused by highway construction. Highway construction had no effect on the physical water-quality properties of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance except at North Halawa and Kuou Streams, where specific-conductance values increased throughout the study period, most likely due to highway construction. No effects on selected trace metals and organic chemical compounds were observed due to highway construction. No effects due to highway construction were observed in the water quality of Waimaluhia Reservoir. Runoff from areas of urban land use in the Kaneohe drainage basin contributed more to the higher loads of selected water-quality constituents than did runoff from areas affected by highway construction.

  20. Data and statistical summaries of background concentrations of metals in soils and streambed sediments in part of Big Soos Creek drainage basin, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, E.A.; Kresch, D.L.; Ebbert, J.C.; Turney, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-nine soil samples from 14 holes at 9 sites in part of the Big Soos Creek drainage basin in southwest King County, Washington, were collected and analyzed to obtain data on the magnitude and variability of background concentrations of metals in soils. Seven streambed-sediment samples and three streamwater samples from three sites also were collected and analyzed. These data are needed by regulating government agencies to determine if soils at sites of suspected contamination have elevated concentrations of metals, and to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation at sites with known contamination. Concentrations of 43 metals were determined by a total method, and concentrations of 17 metals were determined by a total-recoverable method and two different leaching methods. Metals analyzed for by all methods included most of those on the U.S. Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants, plus alluminum, iron, and manganese. Ranges of concentrations of metals determined by the total method are within ranges found by others for the conterminous United States. Concentrations of mercury, manganese, phosphorus, lead, selenium, antimony, and zinc as determined by the total method, and of some of these plus other metals as determined by the other methods were larger in shallow soil (less than 12 inches deep) than in deep soil (greater than 12 inches). Concentrations of metals in streambed sediments were more typical of shallow than deep soils.

  1. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected between 1990 and 1992 as part of a detailed study by the U.S. Department of Interior of the effects of irrigation drainage on aquatic resources in the Klamath Basin of California and Oregon. Most of the sites for data collection were in and around the upper and lower sump of Tule Lake, in the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and along major drains in Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. The physical and chemical data consist of particle-size determinations and concentrations of carbon, mercury, arsenic, chlorophenoxy acid, and organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides in bottom sediment; and concentrations of organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides, major and trace inorganic constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in water. Continuous dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc- tance, and temperature data from selected sites in 1991 and 1992 are presented in graphical form to summarize the diel water-quality conditions. The biological data consists of concentrations of inorganic constituents and organochlorine pesticides in tissue, invertebrate and fish population surveys, fish health surveys, frog call surveys, egg shell thickness of avian eggs, and in situ and static toxicity bioassay data collected in 1991 and 1992 using aquatic bacteria, plants, invertebrates, fish, and bird species as test organisms.

  2. Ecologically based targets for bioavailable (reactive) nitrogen discharge from the drainage basins of the Wet Tropics region, Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Brodie, Jon E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Turner, Ryan D R

    2015-08-15

    A modelling framework is developed for the Wet Tropics region of the Great Barrier Reef that links a quantitative river discharge parameter (viz. dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration, DIN) with an eutrophication indicator within the marine environment (viz. chlorophyll-a concentration, chl-a). The model predicts catchment-specific levels of reduction (%) in end-of-river DIN concentrations (as a proxy for total potentially reactive nitrogen, PRN) needed to ensure compliance with chl-a 'trigger' guidelines for the ecologically distinct, but PRN-related issues of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) outbreaks, reef biodiversity loss, and thermal bleaching sensitivity. The results indicate that even for river basins dominated by agricultural land uses, quite modest reductions in end-of-river PRN concentrations (∼20-40%) may assist in mitigating the risk of primary COTS outbreaks from the mid-shelf reefs of the Wet Tropics. However, more significant reductions (∼60-80%) are required to halt and reverse declines in reef biodiversity, and loss of thermal bleaching resistance. PMID:26072049

  3. Heavy metal distribution and partitioning in the vicinity of the discharge areas of Lisbon drainage basins (Tagus Estuary, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Bernardo; Silva, Gilda; Costa, José Lino; Medeiros, João Paulo; Azeda, Carla; Sá, Erica; Metelo, Inês; Costa, Maria José; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Worldwide estuarine ecosystems are by their privileged geographic location, anthropogenically impacted systems. Heavy metal contamination in estuarine waters and sediments are well known to be one of the most important outcomes driven from human activities. The partitioning of these elements has been widely focused, due to its importance not only on the estuarine biogeochemistry but also on its bioavailability to the trophic webs. As observed in other estuaries, in the Tagus basin, no increase in the partition coefficients with the increasing suspended particulate matter concentrations was observed, mostly due to a permanent dilution process of the suspended matter, rich in heavy metals and less contaminated and resuspended bottom sediments. Another important outcome of this study was the common origin of all the analysed heavy metals, probably due to the large industrialization process that the margins of the Tagus estuary suffered in the past, although no relationship was found with the presence of the different discharge areas. In fact, metal partitioning seems to be mostly influenced by the chemical species in which the pollutant is delivered to the system and on water chemistry, with a higher emphasis on the metal cycling essentially between the particulate and dissolved phase. This partitioning system acquires a relevant importance while evaluating the impacts of marine construction and the associated dredging operations, and consequent changes in the estuarine water chemistry.

  4. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-05-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  5. Using the UKCP09 probabilistic scenarios to model the amplified impact of climate change on drainage basin sediment yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, T. J.; Ramirez, J.; Fowler, H. J.; Glenis, V.

    2012-11-01

    Precipitation intensities and the frequency of extreme events are projected to increase under climate change. These rainfall changes will lead to increases in the magnitude and frequency of flood events that will, in turn, affect patterns of erosion and deposition within river basins. These geomorphic changes to river systems may affect flood conveyance, infrastructure resilience, channel pattern, and habitat status as well as sediment, nutrient and carbon fluxes. Previous research modelling climatic influences on geomorphic changes has been limited by how climate variability and change are represented by downscaling from global or regional climate models. Furthermore, the non-linearity of the climatic, hydrological and geomorphic systems involved generate large uncertainties at each stage of the modelling process creating an uncertainty "cascade". This study integrates state-of-the-art approaches from the climate change and geomorphic communities to address these issues in a probabilistic modelling study of the Swale catchment, UK. The UKCP09 weather generator is used to simulate hourly rainfall for the baseline and climate change scenarios up to 2099, and used to drive the CAESAR landscape evolution model to simulate geomorphic change. Results show that winter rainfall is projected to increase, with larger increases at the extremes. The impact of the increasing rainfall is amplified through the translation into catchment runoff and in turn sediment yield with a 100% increase in catchment mean sediment yield predicted between the baseline and the 2070-2099 High emissions scenario. Significant increases are shown between all climate change scenarios and baseline values. Analysis of extreme events also shows the amplification effect from rainfall to sediment delivery with even greater amplification associated with higher return period events. Furthermore, for the 2070-2099 High emissions scenario, sediment discharges from 50-yr return period events are predicted to

  6. Assessment of drainage network extractions in a low-relief area of the Cuvelai Basin (Namibia) from multiple sources: LiDAR, topographic maps, and digital aerial orthophotographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persendt, F. C.; Gomez, C.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate delineation of drainage networks (DNs) is crucial for hydrological or hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. This task presents challenging aspects in complex lowland terrains with subtle relief and particularly for data poor-areas like the Cuvelai river basin (CRB), Namibia, where the present study takes place. In the CRB standard methods of drainage network extraction from low resolution gridded digital elevation models (DEMs) are unsuitable, hence airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) solutions have been utilized. However, LiDAR also presents challenges to large areal applications, especially with a surface roughness exceeding the capacity of numerous algorithms. Indeed, LiDAR-based DEMs (2 and 50 m resolutions) need to be hydrologically corrected and smoothed to enable the extraction of scale-relevant geomorphologic features such as DNs. In the present contribution, channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs, heads-up digitized channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The 'maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8)' GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Different progressive flow accumulation threshold values (12) were used to delineate channels with these methods. Validation was performed between the field-mapped channels, the modelled channels and those derived from multiple sources. Additionally, spatial and quantitative analyses were performed on geomorphologic parameters and indices. The results have shown that hydrologically corrected LiDAR DEMs offer useful details for identifying low order stream segments in headwaters, while blue lines derived from the national hydrography datasets for watersheds, located in elevated and low-lying areas of the study

  7. Deployment of Indicator of Reduction in Soils (IRIS) Probes in Arctic Drained Thaw Lake Basins and Drainages: Time Integrated Signals of Soil Saturation and Redox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Hudak, M.; Gard, M.; Altmann, G.; Throckmorton, H.; Wilson, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate driven warming and degradation of permafrost may lead to changes in the hydrology of low gradient regions like the North Slope of Alaska. Hydrologic changes will affect the saturation and redox state of soils in drained thaw lake basins (DTLBs), interlake areas, and associated drainages. These changes are being investigated at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) and surroundings as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment - Arctic project. As a complement to traditional redox and aqueous chemistry measurements, the use of indicator of reduction in soils (IRIS) probes is being assessed as a simple and cost-effective way to monitor redox changes. The probes consist of PVC sheets coated with a ferrihydrite paint. Under reducing conditions iron on these probes will partially dissolve. The amount of dissolution can be quantified by image analysis and related in a semi-quantitative fashion to redox conditions in the soils. IRIS probes have been successfully utilized in numerous temperate settings to demonstrate, for example, the presence of reducing soils for wetlands delineation. Test probes were installed in saturated soils for 48 hours in July, 2013. After 48 hours, minor reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite was observed. No sulfide precipitation was noted. As such, probes were installed in quadruplicate at 14 locations representing primarily outlet drainages from different-aged DTLBs and interlake areas. In each case, the probes were installed to refusal at the frost table within the active layer overlying the permafrost. IRIS probes were deployed adjacent to arrays of rhizon samplers used for soil pore water sampling so that time-integrated IRIS probe results can be compared to chemical results (a snapshot in time) obtained at the beginning and end of the monitoring period (probes will be extracted in September). Image analysis will employ LANL's GENIE technology. Field measurements of ferrous iron in water samples showed significant redox

  8. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  9. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dileanis, P.D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal

  10. Major and trace-element analyses of acid mine waters in the Leviathan Mine drainage basin, California/Nevada; October, 1981 to October, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Water issuing from the inactive Leviathan open-pit sulfur mine has caused serious degradation of the water quality in the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin which drains into the East Fork of the Carson River. As part of a pollution abatement project of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic and water quality data for the basin during 1981-82. During this period a comprehensive sampling survey was completed to provide information on trace metal attenuation during downstream transport and to provide data for interpreting geochemical processes. This report presents the analytical results from this sampling survey. Sixty-seven water samples were filtered and preserved on-site at 45 locations and at 3 different times. Temperature, discharge, pH, and Eh and specific conductance were measured on-site. Concentrations of 37 major and trace constituents were determined later in the laboratory on preserved samples. The quality of the analyses was checked by using two or more techniques to determine the concentrations including d.c.-argon plasma emission spectrometry (DCP), flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Additional quality control was obtained by comparing measured to calculated conductance, comparing measured to calculated Eh (from Fe-2 +/Fe-3+ determinations), charge balance calculations and mass balance calculations for conservative constituents at confluence points. Leviathan acid mine waters contain mg/L concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, T1, V and Zn, and hundreds to thousands of mg/L concentrations of Al, Fe, and sulfate at pH values as low as 1.8. Other elements including Ba, B, Be, Bi, Cd , Mo, Sb, Se and Te are elevated above normal background concentrations and fall in the microgram/L range. The chemical and 34 S/32 S isotopic analyses demonstrate that these

  11. Refinement of regression models to estimate real-time concentrations of contaminants in the Menomonee River drainage basin, southeast Wisconsin, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Magruder, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District initiated a study to develop regression models to estimate real-time concentrations and loads of chloride, suspended solids, phosphorus, and bacteria in streams near Milwaukee, Wisconsin. To collect monitoring data for calibration of models, water-quality sensors and automated samplers were installed at six sites in the Menomonee River drainage basin. The sensors continuously measured four potential explanatory variables: water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Discrete water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for five response variables: chloride, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, Escherichia coli bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria. Using the first year of data, regression models were developed to continuously estimate the response variables on the basis of the continuously measured explanatory variables. Those models were published in a previous report. In this report, those models are refined using 2 years of additional data, and the relative improvement in model predictability is discussed. In addition, a set of regression models is presented for a new site in the Menomonee River Basin, Underwood Creek at Wauwatosa. The refined models use the same explanatory variables as the original models. The chloride models all used specific conductance as the explanatory variable, except for the model for the Little Menomonee River near Freistadt, which used both specific conductance and turbidity. Total suspended solids and total phosphorus models used turbidity as the only explanatory variable, and bacteria models used water temperature and turbidity as explanatory variables. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), used to compare the coefficients in the original models to those in the refined models calibrated using all of the data, showed that only 3 of the 25 original models changed significantly. Root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs

  12. GIS and MCDM analysis to evaluate and zoning of soil erosion in Junaghan drainage sub-basin in Karun , SW-Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Khalil; Yavari, Shahla; Khodabakhsh, Saeid; Mohseni, Hasan; Bozorgzadeh, Eisa

    2010-05-01

    Problems involving the processing of spatial data such as soil erosion are multi-facetted challenges. Recently, absolute determination of sediment production with using quality and quantity data of drainage basins is one of the most important factors in soil protection management. In this research, we use MPSIAC method for calculating of annually sediment production and then we compare results with other methods. Results showed 21.93% difference with field observations. As there are many agents affecting on erosion and they depend on geographical location, soil, topography, climate, land use, geology and hydrology of selected area, solutions for these problems involve highly complex spatial data analysis processes and frequently require advanced means to address physical suitability conditions, while considering the multiple ecological and geological variables. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making techniques (MCDM) are two common tools employed to solve these problems. However, each suffers from serious shortcomings. GIS, which deals mainly with physical suitability analysis, has very limited capability of incorporating the decision maker's preferences into the problem solving process. MCDM, which deals mainly with analyzing decision problems and evaluating the alternatives based on a decision maker's values and preferences, lacks the capability of handling spatial data (e. g., buffering and overlay) that are crucial to spatial analysis. The need for combining the strengths of these two techniques has prompted researchers to seek integration of GIS and MCDM. Also, in this research, MCDM methods have been integrated with a GIS to provide a map for soil erosion based upon a variety of different choice criteria (agent) and on the importance (weight) a decision maker might attach to these. This integration could benefit environmental, soil and water planners and decision makers. Key words: soil erosion, MPSIAC, GIS, MCDM.

  13. Water-quality characteristics of streams in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek drainage basins, northwestern Colorado, water years 1977-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tobin, R.L.; Stranathan, H.E.; Covay, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical and chemical data for streams in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek drainage basins, Colorado collected during the 1977-81 water years are summarized. Stream temperatures ranged from -0.5 to 35.0 degrees Celsius and were warmest near the downstream reaches of Piceance and Yellow Creeks. Minimum concentrations of dissolved oxygen were greater than 3.0 milligrams per liter in Piceance and Yellow Creeks, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen exceeded saturation during periods of active photosynthesis. Values of pH in streams ranged from 6.9 to 9.0 and were least during snowmelt runoff and greatest in low flows in the lower reaches of Piceance and Yellow Creeks. Concentrations of suspended sediment exceeded 100 ,000 milligrams per liter in localized runoff. Specific conductance varied inversely with discharge. Sodium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions and concentration ranges of dissolved solids between 400 and 1,700 milligrams per liter were characteristic of the water quality of the perennial streams. Calcium and bicarbonate dominated the major ions, and concentrations of dissolved solids normally were less than 600 milligrams per liter in the intermittent streams during storm and snowmelt runoff. Augmentation to Piceance and Yellow Creeks from ground-water sources in the lower reaches of both streams increased concentrations of dissolved solids several thousand milligrams per liter during medium and low flows and caused a change in water-quality type from sodium magnesium bicarbonate to a high-percentage sodium bicarbonate. Increases in dissolved concentrations of arsenic, boron, fluoride, lithium, strontium, and sulfate were related to ground-water sources or discharges from areas of energy resource development. (USGS)

  14. Streamflow and Suspended-Sediment Loads Before and During Highway Construction, North Halawa, Haiku, and Kamooalii Drainage Basins, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Barry R.

    1996-01-01

    Concern over potential effects from construction of the H-3 highway on Oahu, Hawaii, prompted a long-term study of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport at a network of five stream-gaging stations along the highway route. This report presents results for 1983-91, which included pre-construction and construction periods at all stream-gaging stations. Annual rainfall, streamflow, and suspended-sediment loads were generally higher during construction than before construction. Data collected before and during construction were compared using analysis of covariance to determine whether streamflow and suspended-sediment loads changed significantly during construction after accounting for effects of increased rainfall. Streamflow at stream-gaging stations was compared with streamflow at an index stream-gaging station unaffected by construction. Streamflow data were divided into low- and high-flow classes, and the two flow classes were analyzed separately. Low flows increased 117 percent during construction at one station. This increase probably was related to the removal of vegetation for highway construction. Low flows decreased 28 percent at another station, probably as a result of increased ground-water withdrawals and highway construction activities. No significant changes in low flows were detected at the other stations, and no significant changes in high flows were detected at any stations. Suspended-sediment loads increased significantly during construction at three stations. Highway construction contributed between 56 and 76 percent of the suspended-sediment loads measured at these stations during construction. Loads did not change significantly at a station downstream of a reservoir, and loads decreased at a station downstream of a drainage basin that was heavily used for agriculture before construction. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to assess compliance with applicable State water-quality standards. State water-quality standards for suspended

  15. Impact of Drainage Basin Geology and Geomorphology on Detrital Thermochronometric Data from Modern River Sands: A Case Study in the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutand, I.; Whipp, D. M., Jr.; Bookhagen, B.; Grujic, D.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital thermochronology has become an important tool to quantify the erosional history of mountainous regions. Despite an increasing number of studies utilizing detrital records, it remains unclear how the record of spatially variable erosion of upstream drainage basins is preserved in the thermochronologic signal contained in the sediments. This important spatiotemporal problem is a first-order unknown that limits the interpretation of the geological significance of the detrital signal. To improve our understanding of detrital records in terms of spatiotemporal erosion rates, we use a three-step approach to study modern fluvial sediments from the Bhutan Himalaya. First, based on a preferred tectonomorphic scenario extracted by inversion of in situ multi-thermochronological ages, we predict apatite fission-track (AFT) age distributions in 18 catchments using the Pecube software. Second, we compare AFT age distributions from modern sand bars collected at each catchment outlet to distributions extracted from Monte Carlo sampling of the predicted catchment ages. We find that observed and predicted age distributions are statistically equivalent for only ~75% of the catchments. Third, we calculate predicted detrital age distributions by scaling the prevalence of ages in the catchment in proportion to topographic and climatic metrics (e.g., local relief, steepness index, specific stream power weighted by precipitation rate) or landslide-driven erosion to quantify their effects and relationships to the observed detrital AFT age distributions. Preliminary results suggest erosion in proportion to the topographic metrics cannot reproduce the observed age distributions, but bedrock landsliding may provide sufficient age variability to reproduce the observations. Ongoing work is determining whether variable target mineral concentrations in bedrock geological units or non-uniform sediment sourcing from moraine- or glacier-covered regions can reproduce the observed ages.

  16. Drainage area data for Alabama streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallings, J.S.; Peirce, L.B.

    1957-01-01

    The drainage area of a river basin is an important parameter in many engineering equations used for hydrologic design. It is not a parameter, however, that always requires precise measurement. Factors in the hydrologic cycle such as rainfall, runoff, transpiration, and infiltration cannot be measured nearly as closely as drainage area. Largely for this reason, drainage areas are often measured to varying degrees of precision depending upon the immediate need, with little thought to some other use or some other user of the figure obtained. It can readily be appreciated that this practice, continued for long by many different agencies, will result in a heterogeneous collection of drainage area figures, often discordant and of an accuracy unknown to any but those who computed them. Figures of drainage area published by various Federal agencies are frequently discrepant or contradictory, giving rise to confusion in the use of drainage area data. Seeking to better this situation, the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee (FIARBC) in November 1951 published its Bulletin No. 4, Inter-Agency Coordination of Drainage Area Data. That Bulletin recommended procedures to be followed by the interested Federal agencies “for coordinating drainage area data in the interest of promoting uniformity, reducing confusion and contradiction of published figures, and improving the ready availability of drainage area data pertaining to drainage basins of the United States and its possessions.”

  17. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  18. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  19. Debris-flow frequency and dynamics of an Alpine catchment during the past 150 years, the Schimbrig drainage basin, Central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Sara; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on links between landsliding and debris-flow activity in a ca. 4 km2-large drainage basin located at the northern foothills of the Central Swiss Alps. Debris-flow frequency of the recent past was reconstructed using dendrogeomorphic methods. In addition, the source area was mapped in detail to assess the spatial distribution of landslides, and to determine the connectivity between hillslopes and the channel network. The geomorphic map indicates that the hillslopes host abundant landslides sourced in Paleogene Flysch and Molasse sandstone-mudstone alternations. Major differences in the landscape architecture between the eastern and western sides were identified. In particular, the eastern segment is characterized by a >300'000 m2 large earth flow (Schimbrig landslide) that is 5-10 m deep. This flow experienced a phase of high slip rates >2m day-1 between September 1994 and May 1995, transferring a total of 350'000 m3 of material. In contrast, the western side is characterized by a network of deeply incised channels (>50 m) bordered by hillslopes that host landslides that generally measure <15'000 m2. On these hillslopes, the downslope transfer of sediment is dominated by soil creep or by rotational and translational slip. The depositional fan at the outlet of the catchment has an approximate size of 50'000 m2. The surface is characterized by levees, lobes and channels and is covered by a conifer forest comprising spruces (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and firs (Abies alba Mill.). A total of 325 increment cores were sampled from 162 trees obviously influenced by past debris-flow activity. Preliminary analysis of the tree samples indicate that 64% of the tree grew up between 1900 and 2009. 34% of the tree samples showed germination dates between 1800 and 1900, and the remaining 2% of the sampled specimens germinated before 1800. Dendrogeomorphic analyses depict that nearly 50% of the sampled trees were affected by debris-flow activity in the 1990s. This

  20. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  1. Water-quality characteristics and trend analyses for the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins, Wyoming and Montana, for selected periods, water years 1991 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is an area of ongoing coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development. Waters produced during CBNG development are managed with a variety of techniques, including surface impoundments and discharges into stream drainages. The interaction of CBNG-produced waters with the atmosphere and the semiarid soils of the Powder River structural basin can affect water chemistry in several ways. Specific conductance and sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of CBNG-produced waters that are discharged to streams have been of particular concern because they have the potential to affect the use of the water for irrigation. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted since 2001 at main-stem and tributary sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins in response to concerns about CBNG effects. A study was conducted to summarize characteristics of stream-water quality for water years 2001–10 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2010) and examine trends in specific conductance, SAR, and primary constituents that contribute to specific conductance and SAR for changes through time (water years 1991–2010) that may have occurred as a result of CBNG development. Specific conductance and SAR are the focus characteristics of this report. Dissolved calcium, magnesium, and sodium, which are primary contributors to specific conductance and SAR, as well as dissolved alkalinity, chloride, and sulfate, which are other primary contributors to specific conductance, also are described. Stream-water quality in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins was variable during water years 2001–10, in part because of variations in streamflow. In general, annual runoff was less than average during water years 2001–06 and near or above average during water years 2007–10. Stream water of the Tongue River had the smallest specific conductance values, sodium adsorption ratios

  2. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence of incision-induced halokinetic uplift and dissolution subsidence in transverse drainages crossing the evaporite-cored Barbastro-Balaguer Anticline (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucha, Pedro; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The evaporite-cored Barbastro-Balaguer Anticline, located in the northeastern sector of the Ebro Tertiary Basin, NE Spain, is traversed perpendicularly by several drainages coming from the Pyrenees, including the Cinca, Noguera-Ribagorzana and Segre rivers. The terraces associated with these discordant fluvial systems, deposited upon evaporitic and detrital formations across the anticline, allow the analysis of geomorphic and stratigraphic anomalies related to the soluble and ductile nature of the halite-bearing rocks in the core of the anticline. Geomorphological mapping reveals that the gravels discontinuously capping the evaporitic core of the anticline, together with some alluvial mantles disconnected from the present-day river valleys, constitute the oldest sediments deposited under exorheic conditions in this sector of the Ebro Tertiary Basin. These alluvial deposits inset into the basin fill record an early post-capture palaeogeographic stage during which the drainage was dominated by unconfined distributary channels developed on extensive alluvial fans fed by perennial rivers coming from the Pyrenees. The terraces associated with the present-day fluvial valleys correspond to a later palaeogeographic stage characterized by a well-integrated drainage confined to fluvial valleys entrenched in the basin fill. These terraces show evidence of both dissolution-induced subsidence and halokinesis restricted to areas underlain by the evaporites of the anticline core. The deposits of the highest terrace levels of the Noguera-Ribagorzana and Segre rivers and its tributaries, Lo Reguer Creek and Farfanya River, are locally thickened filling basins generated by dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence up to several kilometers long and more than 100 m deep. Subsidence caused by the karstification of the evaporites reached higher magnitude and extent during the early stages of development of the new external drainage network, when the more soluble halite-bearing units

  3. Testing models of drainage stability in East Asia: a source-to-sink study of the Neogene-recent Amur River and its delta in the North Sakhalin Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Uisdean; Poynter, Sarah; Clift, Peter; Macdonald, David

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the Neogene the North Sakhalin Basin in the Russian Far East was supplied with clastic sediment by the Amur River, one of the ten largest rivers on Earth, with a catchment area of more than 1.8M km2, and a trunk stream more than 4,500 km long. This river drains a complex collage of tectonic terranes which make up the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, as well as adjacent cratons. We use an extensive dataset from more than 200 sandstone samples, together with seismically-derived sediment budget calculations, to provide a comprehensive source-to-sink analysis for the Amur River and to test models of Neogene drainage capture. The majority of sand-sized sediment in the Amur River and its delta comes from upstream of the Lesser Khingan Ridge, shown by the composition of the deltaic sediments the lower 1700 km of the river. Stable mineral ratios, U-Pb age spectra and garnet geochemistry show little stratigraphic provenance-specific variation in the Neogene delta, and the grain assemblages indicate that much of the sediment was derived from the upper catchment of the Amur throughout the Neogene. This renders Miocene-Pliocene drainage capture models unlikely. Sediment budget calculations show significant temporal variations in Neogene sediment flux, which we attribute to climatic processes and uplift and recycling of deltaic sediment in the North Sakhalin Basin.

  4. Natural factors and mining activity bearings on the water quality of the Choapa basin, North Central Chile: insights on the role of mafic volcanic rocks in the buffering of the acid drainage process.

    PubMed

    Parra, Amparo; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Kretschmer, Nicole; Meza, Francisco; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    This contribution analyzes water chemical data for the Choapa basin, North Central Chile, for the period 1980-2004. The parameters considered are As, Cu Fe, pH, EC, SO₄⁻², Cl⁻¹, and HCO[Formula: see text], from samples taken in nine monitoring stations throughout the basin. Results show rather moderate contents of As, Cu, and Fe, with the exception of the Cuncumén River and the Aucó creek, explained by the influence of the huge porphyry copper deposit of Los Pelambres and by the presence of mining operations, respectively. When compared against results obtained in previous researches at the neighboring Elqui river basin, which host the El Indio Au-Cu-As district, a much reduced grade of pollution is recognized for the Choapa basin. Considering the effect of acid rock drainage (ARD)-related Cu contents on the fine fraction of the sediments of both river basins, the differences recorded are even more striking. Although the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit, on the headwaters of the Choapa river basin, is between one and two orders of magnitude bigger than El Indio, stream water and sediments of the former exhibit significantly lower copper contents than those of the latter. A main factor which may explain these results is the smaller degree of H( + )-metasomatism on the host rocks of the Los Pelambres deposit, where mafic andesitic volcanic rocks presenting propylitic hydrothermal alteration are dominant. This fact contrast with the highly altered host rocks of El Indio district, where most of them have lost their potential to neutralize ARD. PMID:21170583

  5. A comparison of drainage basin nutrient inputs with instream nutrient loads for seven rivers in Georgia and Florida, 1986-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asbury, C.E.; Oaksford, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    Instream nutrient loads of the Altamaha, Suwannee, St. Johns, Satilla, Ogeechee, Withlacoochee, and Ochlockonee River Basins were computed and compared with nutrient inputs for each basin for the period 1986-90. Nutrient constituents that were considered included nitrate, ammonia, organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Sources of nutrients considered for this analysis included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, animal waste, wastewater-treatment plant discharge, and septic discharge. The mean nitrogen input ranged from 2,400 kilograms per year per square kilometer (kg/yr)km2 in the Withlacoochee River Basin to 5,470 (kg/yr)km2 in the Altamaha River Basin. The Satilla and Ochlockonee River Basins also had large amounts of nitrogen input per unit area, totaling 5,430 and 4,920 (kg/yr)km2, respectively.Fertilizer or animal waste, as sources of nitrogen, predominated in all basins. Atmospheric deposition contributed less than one-fourth of the mean total nitrogen input to all basins and was consistently the third largest input in all but the Ogeechee River Basin, where it was the second largest.The mean total phosphorus input ranged from 331 (kg/yr)km2 in the Withlacoochee River Basin to 1,380 (kg/yr)km2 in both the Altamaha and Satilla River Basins. The Ochlockonee River Basin had a phosphorus input of 1,140 (kg/yr)km2.Per unit area, the Suwannee River discharged the highest instream mean total nitrogen and phosphorus loads and also discharged higher instream nitrate loads per unit area than the other six rivers. Phosphorus loads in stream discharge were highest in the Suwannee and Ochlockonee Rivers.The ratio of nutrient outputs to inputs for the seven studied rivers ranged from 4.2 to 14.9 percent, with the St. Johns (14.9 percent) and Suwannee (12.1 percent) Rivers having significantly higher percentages than those from the other basins. The output/input percentages for mean total phosphorus ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 percent, with the St. Johns (6.2 percent) and

  6. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  7. Agricultural drainage water management: Potential impact and implementation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  8. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2015-01-01

    An examination was conducted to understand why the 1987 single-variable RREs seem to provide better accuracy and less bias than either of the 2013 multi- or single-variable RREs. A comparison of 1-percent annual exceedance-probability regression lines for hydrologic regions 1-4 from the 1987 single-variable RREs and for flood regions 1-3 from the 2013 single-variable RREs indicates that the 1987 single-variable regional-regression lines generally have steeper slopes and lower discharges when compared to 2013 single-variable regional-regression lines for corresponding areas of Iowa. The combination of the definition of hydrologic regions, the lower discharges, and the steeper slopes of regression lines associated with the 1987 single-variable RREs seem to provide better accuracy and less bias when compared to the 2013 multi- or single-variable RREs; better accuracy and less bias was determined particularly for drainage areas less than 2 mi2, and also for some drainage areas between 2 and 20 mi2. The 2013 multi- and single-variable RREs are considered to provide better accuracy and less bias for larger drainage areas. Results of this study indicate that additional research is needed to address the curvilinear relation between drainage area and AEPDs for areas of Iowa.

  9. CATAWISSA CREEK MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of flooding underground coal mine workings in an isolated basin of coal, thereby restoring or partially restoring the groundwater table in the basin and reducing the production of acid mine drainage. Flooding the mined ...

  10. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  11. Predicting community-environment relationships of stream fishes across multiple drainage basins: insights into model generality and the effect of spatial extent.

    PubMed

    Troia, Matthew J; Gido, Keith B

    2013-10-15

    Resource managers increasingly rely on predictive models to understand species-environment relationships. Stream fish communities are influenced by longitudinal position within the stream network as well as local environmental characteristics that are constrained by catchment characteristics. Despite an abundance of studies quantifying species-environment relationships, few studies have evaluated the generality of these relationships among basins and spatial extents. We modeled community composition of stream fishes in thirteen sub-basins, nested within three basins in Kansas, USA using constrained ordination and environmental predictor variables representing (1) longitudinal network position, (2) local habitat, and (3) catchment characteristics. We tested the generality of species-environment relationships by quantifying the variation in model performance and the importance of environmental variables among the thirteen sub-basins and among three spatial extents (sub-basin, basin, state). Model performance was variable across the thirteen sub-basins, with adjusted constrained inertia ranging from 0.13 to 0.36. The importance of environmental variables was also variable among sub-basins, but longitudinal network position consistently predicted more variation in community composition than local or catchment variables. Model performance did not differ among spatial extents, but the importance of longitudinal network position decreased at broader spatial extents whereas local and catchment variables increased in importance. Results of this study support the longstanding frameworks of the river continuum and hierarchically-structured habitat. We show that (1) the relative importance of longitudinal network position, local characteristics, and catchment characteristics can vary from one region to another and (2) the spatial extent at which predictive habitat models are developed can influence the perceived importance of different environmental predictor variables

  12. Effects of Coal-Mine Drainage on Stream Water Quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins-Sulfate Transport and Trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sams, James I., III; Beer, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1980, the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers transported a sulfate load of 1.2 million and 1.35 million tons, respectively, to the Ohio River at Pittsburgh. The Monongahela River Basin had a sulfate yield of 184 tons per square mile per year compared to 105 tons per square mile per year for the Allegheny River Basin. Within the large Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins, the subbasins with the highest sulfate yields in tons per square mile per year were those of Redstone Creek (580), Blacklick Creek (524), Conemaugh River (292), Buffalo Creek (247), Stonycreek River (239), Two Lick Creek (231), Dunkard Creek (212), and Loyalhanna Creek (196). These basins have been extensively mined. The sulfate yields of Brokenstraw and Conewango Creeks, which are outside the area underlain by coal and thus contain no coal mines, were 25 and 24 tons per square mile per year, respectively. Within the Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins, seven sites showed significant trends in sulfate concentration from 1965 to 1995. Dunkard Creek and Stonycreek River show significant upward trends in sulfate concentration. These trends appear to be related to increases in coal production in the two basins from 1965 to 1995. Blacklick Creek at Josephine and Loyalhanna Creek at Loyalhanna Dam show significant downward trends in sulfate concentration between 1965 and 1995. Blacklick Creek had a 50-percent decrease in sulfate concentration. Coal production in the Blacklick Creek Basin, which reached its peak at almost 4 million tons per year in the 1940's, dropped to less than 1 million tons per year by 1995. In the Loyalhanna Creek Basin, which had a 41-percent decrease in sulfate concentration, coal-production rates dropped steadily from more than 1.5 million tons per year in the 1940's to less than 200,000 tons per year in 1995.

  13. Application of the groundwater-balance equation to indicate interbasin and vertical flow in two semi-arid drainage basins, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.

    2000-09-01

    An analysis of horizontal inflow and outflow in the groundwater-budget equation and the significance for interbasin flow are presented. Two field cases in Mexico, one in the Baja California peninsula and another in central Mexico, highlight the influence of interbasin flow. A significant proportion (approximately 70%) of the ed (thermal) groundwater probably originates outside the drainage basin. A conclusion is that a groundwater-balance study is an unsatisfactory method for determining some parameters, such as storativity (S). Specifically, the groundwater-balance approach provides unreliable results when vertical inflow is ignored or cannot be adequately defined. Vertical flow is indicated by the presence of groundwater temperatures as much as 23 °C higher than ambient temperature. Regional faults could be the pathways for upward flow. When vertical inflow is ignored, uncertainty in the estimation of the storativity through regional groundwater-balance calculation results. On the basis of the groundwater-balance equation, a value of S=0.19 appears to represent the confined condition of the developed part of the aquifer; this result is several orders of magnitude higher than would be reasonable according to the geological conditions. Findings are useful in evaluating whether a groundwater resource is being "overexploited". Conclusions are instructive in the application of transient-flow computer models, in which vertical flow of less dense water from beneath is not included. Résumé. L'article présente une analyse des entrées et des sorties horizontales dans l'équation du bilan d'une nappe et leur signification dans les écoulements entre bassins. Deux exemples provenant du Mexique, l'un dans la péninsule de Basse Californie, l'autre dans le centre du Mexique, mettent en lumière l'influence de l'écoulement entre bassins, où une proportion significative (environ 70%) de l'eau souterraine extraite, thermale, a probablement son origine hors du bassin. Une

  14. Mismatch between sediment metal distribution and pollution source gradient: a case study of a small-size drainage basin (Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Noronha, Frederico Ricardo C; Schultz, Mario Sergio; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Silveira, Carla Semiramis

    2015-06-01

    Metal contamination in aquatic environments may occur when the anthropogenic emission exceeds the natural contribution although other factors might influence the metal distribution. In the small-size Macaé river basin, most of the metal emission was originated from anthropogenic sources suggesting a contamination status. Total and exchangeable metal concentrations were determined in sediments from the pristine upstream to the urban estuary and compared to the metal content in rocks to establish contamination and background concentrations. The enrichment of Pb in sediments compared to the regional background and high exchangeable concentrations suggest the influence of anthropogenic sources on Pb distribution. Al, Fe Mn, Zn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni concentrations in sediments were similar to the rock content and the values were considered regional background. Spatial distribution did not follow the whole-basin emission source gradient suggesting that despite actual anthropogenic sources, the sediment mineralogy and basin geomorphology might influence the sediment metal distribution. PMID:25792107

  15. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Robalo, Joana I.; Pereira, Ana M.; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  16. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Pereira, Ana M; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  17. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  18. Quaternary Stratigraphy, Drainage-Basin Development, and Geomorphology of the Lake Manix Basin, Mojave Desert: Guidebook for Fall Field Trip, Friends of the Pleistocene, Pacific Cell, October 4-7, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Miller, David M.; Redwine, Joanna L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 field trip of the Pacific Cell, Friends of the Pleistocene, visited features of the Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Lake Manix basin in the Mojave Desert. This report is the guidebook for this trip and includes some discussion of relations observable along the road and at various field trip stops. The Mojave River originates in the San Bernardino Mountains and in high-water years flows north and east to its terminus in Silver Lake playa north of Baker, Calif. Along this course, the river passes through or near several basins that were internally drained prior to integration by the Mojave River, including the Victorville, Harper, Manix, and Soda Lake basins. Sediments in the Lake Manix basin record Mojave River discharge and lake fluctuations that began during the middle Pleistocene and continued through most of the late Pleistocene.

  19. Structural and Hydrologic Implications of Joint Orientations in the Warner Creek and Stony Clove Drainage Basins, Catskill Mountains, Eastern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskins, M. N.; Vollmer, F. W.; Rayburn, J. A.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    To investigate joint control on hydrology as well as tectonic implications, we conducted a study of joint orientations near the Stony Clove and Warner Creek drainages of the Catskill Mountains, Eastern New York. Specific goals of this research were to determine joint control on stream orientations and groundwater flow, to compare results with previous studies in the area, and to investigate their tectonic significance. Trails, streams, and road cuts were traversed to locate bedrock outcrops whose positions were determined using topographic maps and a handheld GPS unit. Additional outcrops were located using aerial photographs and GIS data. Joint orientations were measured using a standard Brunton pocket transit. The data was analyzed using Orient (Vollmer, 2010), an orientation analysis program, to plot joint and stream orientations on rose diagrams. ArcGIS was used to produce topographic, hill-shade, and stream drainage maps. Over 500 joint orientations at over 100 outcrop stations were collected. The data were plotted on a rose diagrams, and two major joint sets were found, one with a mean strike of 021° and one with a mean strike of 096°. Stream orientations were also plotted on a rose diagram showing an axial mean of 022°, and indicate that the joint set with mean strike of 021 may have a significant control on stream orientations. The hill-shade maps also demonstrate clearly the strong control of jointing on the topography. The data collected in this research expands on previous joint orientation studies of Engelder and Geiser (1980) in the southwestern and central Catskills, and is similar to joint orientations found by Isachsen et al. (1977) in their study of the Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible impact-related feature. The origin of this jointing is thought to be related to Alleghanian (Permian) and possibly Acadian (Devonian) orogenic events.

  20. Effects of Landscape History and Forest Management on Landslide-Driven Sediment Dynamics in Mountain Drainage Basins of Coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.

    2006-12-01

    domains. In this context, the contemporary, specific fluvial sediment yield (suspended) of British Columbia exceeds the specific landslide yield for drainage areas comprised between 5 and 50 km{2}. Cumulative daily yield indicates that colluvial sediment redistribution across landscape scales is limited to relatively small drainage areas; specifically, 90% of the colluvial load is injected within contributing area of about 0.6 km{2}.

  1. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, Sivajini; Gates, Alexander; Szabo, Zoltan; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-03-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH < 3, minimum pH 1.78) into the first-order Copper Mine Brook (CMB) that drains into the Hudson River. The pyrrhotite-rich Phillips Mine is located in the Highlands region, a critical water source for the New York metro area. A conceptual model for derivation/dissolution, sequestration, transport and dilution of contaminants is proposed. The acidic water interacts with the tailings, leaching and dissolving the trace metals. AMD evaporation during dry periods concentrates solid phase trace metals and sulfate, forming melanterite (FeSO4·7H2O) on sulfide-rich tailings surfaces. Wet periods dissolve these concentrates/precipitates, releasing stored acidity and trace metals into the CMB. Sediments along CMB are enriched in iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation.

  2. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Szabo, Z.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH < 3, minimum pH 1.78) into the first-order Copper Mine Brook (CMB) that drains into the Hudson River. The pyrrhotite-rich Phillips Mine is located in the Highlands region, a critical water source for the New York metro area. A conceptual model for derivation/dissolution, sequestration, transport and dilution of contaminants is proposed. The acidic water interacts with the tailings, leaching and dissolving the trace metals. AMD evaporation during dry periods concentrates solid phase trace metals and sulfate, forming melanterite (FeSO4???7H2O) on sulfide-rich tailings surfaces. Wet periods dissolve these concentrates/precipitates, releasing stored acidity and trace metals into the CMB. Sediments along CMB are enriched in iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Assessing the effect of natural controls and land use change on sediment yield in a major Andean River: the Magdalena drainage basin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Juan Darío; Syvitski, James P M

    2006-03-01

    The Magdalena River, a major fluvial system draining most of the Colombian Andes, is a world-class river, in the top 10 in terms of sediment load (approximately 150 MT/yr). In this study, we explore the major natural factors and anthropogenic influences behind the patterns in sediment yield on the Magdalena basin and reconstruct the spatial and temporal pattern of deforestation and agricultural intensification across the basin to test the relationships between land use change and trends in sediment yield. Our results show that sediment yield for the whole Magdalena catchment can be explained by natural variables, including runoff and maximum water discharge. These two estimators explain 58% of variance in sediment yield. Temporal analyses of sediment discharges and land use show that the extent of erosion within the catchment has increased over the last 10 to 20 years. Many anthropogenic influences, including a forest decrease by 40% in a 20-year period, an agriculture and pasture increase by 65%, poor soil conservation and mining practices, and increasing rates of urbanization, may have accounted for the overall increasing trends in sediment yield on a regional scale. PMID:16722251

  4. Field screening of water, soil, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project and the Macos River basin, southwestern Colorado, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation for the National Irrigation Water Quality Program in 1990 indicated elevated selenium concentrations in some water and biota samples collected in the Dolores Project in southwestern Colorado. High selenium concentrations also were indicated in bird samples collected in the Mancos Project in 1989. In 1994, field screenings were done in parts of the Dolores Project and Mancos River Basin to collect additional selenium data associated with irrigation inthose areas. Selenium is mobilized from soils in newly irrigated areas of the Dolores Project called the Dove Creek area, which includes newly (since 1987) irrigated land north of Cortez and south of Dove Creek.Selenium was detected in 18 of 20stream samples, and the maximum concentration was 12micrograms per liter. The Dove Creek area is unique compared to other study areas of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program becauseselenium concentrations probably are indicative of initial leaching conditions in a newly irrigated area.Selenium concentrations in nine shallow soil samples from the Dove Creek area ranged from 0.13 to 0.20 micrograms per gram. Selenium concentrations in bottom sediment from six ponds were less than the level of concern for fish and wildlife of 4 micrograms per gram. Many biota samples collected in the Dove Creek area had elevated selenium concentrations when compared to various guidelines and effect levels,although selenium concentrations in water, soil, and bottom sediment were relatively low. Selenium concentrations in 12 of 14 aquatic-invertebratesamples from ponds exceeded 3 micrograms per gram dry weight, a dietary guideline for protection of fish and wildlife. The mean seleniumconcentration of 10.3 micrograms per gram dry weight in aquatic bird eggs exceeded the guideline for reduced hatchability of 8 micrograms per gramdry weight. Two ponds in the Dove Creek area had a high selenium hazard rating based on a new protocol for assessing selenium hazard in

  5. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  6. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  7. On the surging potential of polar ice streams: Part 2, Ice streams and physical characteristics of the Ross Sea drainage basin, West Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, D.; Budd, W.F.; Smith, I.N.; Radok, U.

    1985-01-01

    The West Antarctic region from which ice drains into the Ross Sea is described and analyzed on a twenty km grid with the assumption that the ice is in a steady state of zero overall mass balance. The most striking features of the basin are five major ice streams moving in their lower reaches with velocities two orders of magnitude larger than the ice in which they are embedded. These high velocities are produced by driving stresses which markedly decrease downstream; this suggests that basal sliding takes over from internal deformation as dominant mode of flow. Algebraic expressions for both velocity components are given in terms of the downslope driving (or basal shear) stress, the ice thickness excess above the maximum thickness that can float on rock below mean sea level (''thickness above buoyancy''), and the basal temperature. Thus computed the velocities agree broadly with those derived directly from the condition of steady-state mass conservation (''balance velocities'') but there remain large local discrepancies. The latter fully define the three-dimensional strain rate fields and permit the residence times and ages of the ice to be estimated. They also enter into solutions of thermodynamic energy balance equations which give the temperatures in the ice and define regions where basal melting can be expected to occur for different values of the geothermal heat flux. The associated melt water layer is the key feature for a deeper understanding of the sliding and surging processes in ice streams and for improving the agreement between modeled and observed ice velocities.

  8. Agricultural Drainage Water Management: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies for Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (and the Lake Erie Basin) area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Dra...

  9. In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for < 12% of the ammonium consumed, indicating that other ammonium-consuming processes were also occurring. In dark incubations, nitrite and nitrate consumption were dominant processes, while ammonium was produced rather than consumed. At a downstream location nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

  10. Role of Geologic Framework, Paleotopography, Sediment Supply, and Human Modification in the Evolutionary Development of the Northeastern North Carolina Barrier Island System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, S. R.; Thieler, E. R.; Mallinson, D. A.; Culver, S. J.; Corbett, D. R.; Hoffman, C. W.

    2002-12-01

    The NE North Carolina coastal system contains an exceptionally thick and well preserved Quaternary stratigraphic record that is the focus of a five-year Cooperative Coastal Geology Program between the USGS, several academic institutions, and state agencies. The major goal is to map this Quaternary section on the inner continental shelf, Outer Banks barrier islands, Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, and adjacent land areas. The program objectives are to define the geologic framework, develop the detailed evolutionary history, and understand the ongoing process dynamics driving this large, complex, and rapidly changing, high-energy coastal system. Preliminary data synthesis demonstrates that the major controls dictating the present health and future evolution of this coastal system include the following. 1) The regional late Pleistocene morphology constitutes the underlying geologic framework that the Holocene system has inherited. 2) The controlling paleotopography is a series of lowstand drainage basins consisting of trunk and tributary streams and associated interstream divides that are being drowned. 3) Three major sediment sources dictate the highly variable sand resources available to specific barrier segments and include riverine channel and deltaic deposits associated with lowstand trunk streams, the large cross-shelf cape shoal sand deposits, and sand-rich units occurring within the adjacent shoreface and inner-self strata. 4) Wherever large sand supplies have historically been available, the barrier segments occur as complex islands with large sand volumes producing high and wide barriers, whereas barrier segments without adequate sand supplies are sediment starved and occur as simple overwash barriers. 5) Human modification of the barrier islands over the past seven decades represents a major force that has significantly changed the barrier island dynamics and evolution. 6) The Albemarle Embayment appears to have a slightly higher rate of sea-level rise

  11. Hydrologic Conditions and Water-Quality Conditions Following Underground Coal Mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek Drainage Basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed. During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus-Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001. Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999-2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by land

  12. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  13. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  14. Fluvial drainage networks: the fractal approach as an improvement of quantitative geomorphic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Liucci, Luisa; Vergari, Francesca; Ciccacci, Sirio; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Drainage basins are primary landscape units for geomorphological investigations. Both hillslopes and river drainage system are fundamental components in drainage basins analysis. As other geomorphological systems, also the drainage basins aim to an equilibrium condition where the sequence of erosion, transport and sedimentation approach to a condition of minimum energy effort. This state is revealed by a typical geometry of landforms and of drainage net. Several morphometric indexes can measure how much a drainage basin is far from the theoretical equilibrium configuration, revealing possible external disarray. In active tectonic areas, the drainage basins have a primary importance in order to highlight style, amount and rate of tectonic impulses, and morphometric indexes allow to estimate the tectonic activity classes of different sectors in a study area. Moreover, drainage rivers are characterized by a self-similarity structure; this promotes the use of fractals theory to investigate the system. In this study, fractals techniques are employed together with quantitative geomorphological analysis to study the Upper Tiber Valley (UTV), a tectonic intermontane basin located in northern Apennines (Umbria, central Italy). The area is the result of different tectonic phases. From Late Pliocene until present time the UTV is strongly controlled by a regional uplift and by an extensional phase with different sets of normal faults playing a fundamental role in basin morphology. Thirty-four basins are taken into account for the quantitative analysis, twenty on the left side of the basin, the others on the right side. Using fractals dimension of drainage networks, Horton's laws results, concavity and steepness indexes, and hypsometric curves, this study aims to obtain an evolutionary model of the UTV, where the uplift is compared to local subsidence induced by normal fault activity. The results highlight a well defined difference between western and eastern tributary basins

  15. Validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from altimetry over the Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin, Greenland - Round Robin results from ESA's Ice_Sheets_CCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Ticconi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Satellite observations have been used to monitor changes occurring on Earth's surface for more than a decade. The high temporal and spatial resolution of such measurements provides us with unique possibilities for monitoring the effects of the climate changes over glaciers and ice sheets. In order to ensure long-term climate records, ESA has launched the Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), which puts focus on 13 different Essential Climate Variables, one of them being Ice Sheets. In this program, four selected key parameters will be determined: Surface elevation changes (SEC), surface velocities, calving front locations, and grounding line locations. This work focuses on the first mentioned parameter, and the goal is to develop the best routine for estimating SEC on the Greenland Ice Sheet using radar altimeter data. In order to find the most optimal approach we have completed a Round Robin experiment in which researchers from various European and US institutions have provided SEC estimates derived from either ENVISAT or ICESat data, for the test area by Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin. This has allowed us to compare the results from radar vs. laser altimetry, cross-over vs. along-track analyses, and the use of time series vs. a direct estimation of SEC. The results were validated against airborne lidar data from NASA's IceBridge and ESA's CryoVex campaigns. It was found that both radar and laser altimetry resolve the surface elevation changes quite well, and that the erroneous results found mainly in the coastal region can be improved by combining the methods of repeat-tracks and cross-overs. The former has a higher spatial resolution however is limited by rarely overlapping ground tracks, and hence interpolation methods need to be introduced. Furthermore, errors are introduced particularly along the ice margin due to slope effects while, for both methods, penetration of the signal into the firn pack needs to be accounted for. Cross-overs have a lower spatial

  16. Downeast Drainage: Characterization of Upland Drainage Attributes for Parameterization of Gulf of Maine Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, B. M., Jr.; Smith, S. M.; Beard, K.; Peckenham, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Research undertaken by the New England Sustainability Consortium includes use of multi-scale elevation data ranging from one arc-second (~30m) NED to two-meter LiDAR for delineation and subsequent characterization of watersheds draining to the Gulf of Maine. Watersheds within the study area range from the Penobscot River (drainage area > 22,000 km2) to small coastal streams with drainage basins <1km2. The research seeks to relate fresh water flows to water quality conditions within bathing beaches and shellfish harvesting areas along the Maine coast. Although spatial analysts typically pursue topographic data with the highest available resolution, use of multi-scale elevation data is necessary in regions where datasets are created from different survey methods. The sizes of the watersheds draining to the Gulf of Maine vary substantially, with several large interior-reaching watersheds dwarfing most of the coastal basins. An elevation raster at a two meter grid size can produce large file sizes and long processing times, presenting cost-benefit considerations due to the relatively low level of detail necessary for comparison of the largest watersheds to the rest of the study basins. Our watershed delineation method involves a multi-step approach to capture the inland portions of large watersheds using 10m and 30m USGS DEMs, while maintaining use of two-meter coastal LiDAR to accurately delineate the small coastal basins. Our delineated watersheds are parameterized based on multiple geomorphological and land use characteristics to facilitate evaluation of the relation between watershed and coastal water quality conditions at monitoring stations along the Maine coast. Landscape characteristics under consideration include watershed size (drainage area), surface drainage network density, soil drainage, vegetation cover, and impervious surface area.

  17. Regulation of agricultural drainage to San Joaquin River

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, G.E.; Watkins, D.A. )

    1989-02-01

    A technical committee reported on: (1) proposed water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River Basin; (2) proposed effluent limitations for agricultural drainage discharges in the basin to achieve these objectives; and (3) a proposal to regulate these discharges. The costs and economic impact of achieving various alternative water quality objectives were also evaluated. The information gathered by the technical committee will be used by the Regional Board along with other information in their review of the San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Control Plan and their actions to regulate agricultural drainage in the San Joaquin Valley. The results of the Technical Committee's efforts as reported in Regulation of Agricultural Drainage to the San Joaquin River, August 1987. Based on the available information, the improvement in water quality resulting from implementation of the interim selenium objective and long-term objectives for salts, molybdenum and boron is necessary to provide reasonable protection to beneficial uses. The costs needed to implement these objectives seem reasonable. However, data on the: (1) concentrations of selenium that protect aquatic ecosystems in the basin; (2) concentrations of selenium that protect human consumers of fish and wildlife; and (3) drainage flows and quality produced in and upgradient of the drainage study area need to be developed and reviewed before a long-term selenium water quality objective is implemented. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  19. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  20. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  1. Preoperative biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Payal; Kumbhari, Vivek; Zein, Mohamad E L; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    The role of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with distal or proximal biliary obstruction secondary to resectable tumors has been a matter for debate. A review of the literature using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases was undertaken for studies evaluating routes of drainage (endoscopic or percutaneous) and stent types (plastic or metal) in patients with resectable disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is indicated for relief of symptomatic jaundice, cholangitis, patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy or those patients where surgery may be delayed. Endoscopic methods are preferred over percutaneous methods because of lower complication rates. In patients with proximal biliary obstruction, PBD should be guided by imaging studies to aid in selective biliary cannulation for unilateral drainage in order to reduce the risk of cholangitis in undrained liver segments. PMID:25293587

  2. Fluvial drainage systems: Margaritifer Sinus and Agyre (NC, NE) quadrangles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fluvial drainage systems, delineated by mapping on stereo pairs of Viking Orbiter images, have developed in various-sized basins in the Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19) and Agyre (MC-26) Quadrangles, Mars. The Ladon Valles system is the largest, draining into and through two multi-ringed impact basins. Smaller fluvial basins to the southeast of the Ladon structural basin appear to have internal drainage. An intermediate-scale fluvial basin containing Himera Vallis extends along a north-south axis at 22 W and opens northward toward outflow channels south of Margaritifer Chaos. Stereo-pair mapping was extended furhter to the east, in MC-19 Ne, Se, and MC-26 NE, to investigate sources of outflow to the Ares Vallis system. The direction of flow in the channel at the northeast quadrant of the Ladon Basin is unresolved at present because of the poor quality of images available to form stereo pairs. However, an easterly drainage basin boundary running north-south along longitude 9 W, and extending westward at latitude 32-35 S, encloses a series of longitudinal drainage systems. Both the Parana Valles-Loire Vallis system and the Samara Valles system appear to drain in a northwesterly direction. The Samara flows to the Himera drainage basin, and the Parana-Loire to the northeast Ladon channel area.

  3. Drainage networks after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Predicting runoff and erosion from watersheds burned by wildfires requires an understanding of the three-dimensional structure of both hillslope and channel drainage networks. We investigate the small-and large-scale structures of drainage networks using field studies and computer analysis of 30-m digital elevation model. Topologic variables were derived from a composite 30-m DEM, which included 14 order 6 watersheds within the Pikes Peak batholith. Both topologic and hydraulic variables were measured in the field in two smaller burned watersheds (3.7 and 7.0 hectares) located within one of the order 6 watersheds burned by the 1996 Buffalo Creek Fire in Central Colorado. Horton ratios of topologic variables (stream number, drainage area, stream length, and stream slope) for small-scale and large-scale watersheds are shown to scale geometrically with stream order (i.e., to be scale invariant). However, the ratios derived for the large-scale drainage networks could not be used to predict the rill and gully drainage network structure. Hydraulic variables (width, depth, cross-sectional area, and bed roughness) for small-scale drainage networks were found to be scale invariant across 3 to 4 stream orders. The relation between hydraulic radius and cross-sectional area is similar for rills and gullies, suggesting that their geometry can be treated similarly in hydraulic modeling. Additionally, the rills and gullies have relatively small width-to-depth ratios, implying sidewall friction may be important to the erosion and evolutionary process relative to main stem channels.

  4. Bearing, azimuth and drainage (bAd) calculator: A new GIS supported tool for quantitative analyses of drainage networks and watershed parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, A. C.; Joseph Markose, Vipin; Jayappa, K. S.

    2012-11-01

    We present ‘bAd Calculator', a new software developed in Visual Basic programme which can be applied for analyses of various drainage basin parameters, directional aspects, etc. The graphical user interface of bAd Calculator can be used for several applications such as determination of bearing and azimuth of linear features and their representation in rose diagram. Various drainage basin parameters such as drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm), steam length ratio (Rl) , drainage texture (T), texture ratio (Rt), dissection index (DI), length of overland flow (Lg), RHO coefficient, circulatory ratio (Rc), hypsometric integral (HI), etc. can be easily calculated by using the software. The software provides a point-and-click technique for rapid acquisition of watershed parameters with user-specified grids/sub-basins.

  5. Climate and Tectonics Need Not Apply: Transient Erosion Driven by Drainage Integration, Aravaipa Creek, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungers, M.; Heimsath, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Periods of transient erosion during landscape evolution are most commonly attributed to fluvial systems' responses to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Dramatic changes in base level and sudden increases in drainage area associated with drainage reorganization can, however, drive punctuated events of incision and erosion equal in magnitude to those driven by tectonics or climate. In southeastern Arizona's Basin and Range, a mature portion of the North American physiographic province, the modern Gila River system integrates a network of previously internally drained structural basins. One basin in particular, Aravaipa Creek, is the most recent to join the broader Gila River fluvial network. Following drainage integration, Aravaipa Creek rapidly incised to equilibrate with its new, much lower, base level. In doing so, it carved Aravaipa Canyon, excavated a large volume of sedimentary basin fill, and captured drainage area from the still internally drained Sulphur Springs basin. Importantly, this dramatic episode of transient incision and erosion was the result of drainage integration alone. We hypothesize that the adjustment time for Aravaipa Creek was shorter than the timescale of any climate forcing, and regional extensional tectonics were quiescent at the time of integration. We can, therefore, explicitly quantify the magnitude of transient incision and erosion driven by drainage reorganization. We use remnants of the paleo-basin surface and modern landscape elevations to reconstruct the pre-drainage integration topography of Aravaipa Creek basin. Doing so enables us to quantify the magnitude of incision driven by drainage reorganization as well as the volume of material eroded from the basin subsequent to integration. Key control points for our landscape reconstruction are: (1) the inferred elevation of the spillover point between Aravaipa Creek and the San Pedro River; (2) Quaternary pediment-capping gravels above Aravaipa Canyon (3) perched remnants of

  6. Drainage Water Filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tile drainage discharge from managed turf is known to carry elevated concentrations of agronomic fertilizers and chemicals. One approach being considered to reduce the transport is end-of-tile-filters. Laboratory and field studies have been initiated to address the efficacy of this approach. Result...

  7. Drainage divide migration induced by rainfall gradient in orogenic landscape and the split of the associated drainage networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, S.

    2009-12-01

    Although numerical models demonstrate that topography in orogens is asymmetric when forced by orographic precipitations, drainage divide migration (the mechanism responsible for this asymmetry) has never been documented in natural orogens, even though the latter actually exhibits an asymmetric topography in most cases (e. g., Taiwan, southern Alps). Drainage divide migration is investigated here in the laboratory modelling of erosion and landscape dynamics under spatially-constant uplift forcing but with a lateral precipitation gradient. As observed numerically, precipitation gradient induces the migration of the drainage divide toward the drier side of the landscape and the development of an asymmetric topography. The divide is simultaneously uplifted such that the mean topographic slope of the wetter side of the landscape remains constant during its elongation. On the opposite, the progressive shortening of the drier side of the landscape results in a progressive steepening of its topography. This leads to a very unstable landscape and an original mechanism that splits the drainage networks is observed there: each initial drainage network progressively splits into two individual networks that become separated by the growth of a new hillcrest. Through this mechanism, the numbers of drainage basins extending to the main divide increases during divide migration such that the universal law of drainage outlet spacing is maintained. Given the pattern of rainfall, the migration of the drainage divide induces a continuous decrease in the mean runoff within the drainage basins located on the drier side of the landscape. There, the area of the drainage basins decreases because of the combination of (i) the continuous size reduction which is the direct consequence of the divide migration, and (ii) the abrupt size reduction consecutive to the split of the drainage networks and the individuation of two drainage basins from a previous single one. By continually reducing the

  8. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  9. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de heridas What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  10. Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-continent has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental

  11. Physical modeling of transverse drainage mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, J. C.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    Streams that incise across bedrock highlands such as anticlines, upwarps, cuestas, or horsts are termed transverse drainages. Their relevance today involves such diverse matters as highway and dam construction decisions, location of wildlife corridors, better-informed sediment budgets, and detailed studies into developmental histories of late Cenozoic landscapes. The transient conditions responsible for transverse drainage incision have been extensively studied on a case-by-case basis, and the dominate mechanisms proposed include: antecedence, superimposition, overflow, and piracy. Modeling efforts have been limited to antecedence, and such the specific erosional conditions required for transverse drainage incision, with respect to the individual mechanisms, remains poorly understood. In this study, fifteen experiments attempted to simulate the four mechanisms and constructed on a 9.15 m long, 2.1 m wide, and 0.45 m deep stream table. Experiments lasted between 50 and 220 minutes. The stream table was filled with seven tons of sediment consisting of a silt and clay (30%) and a fine to coarse sand (70%) mixture. The physical models highlighted the importance of downstream aggradation with regard to antecedent incision versus possible defeat and diversion. The overflow experiments indicate that retreating knickpoints across a basin outlet produce a high probability of downstream flooding when associated with a deep lake. Misters used in a couple of experiments illustrate a potential complication with regard to headward erosion driven piracy. Relatively level asymmetrically sloped ridges allow for the drainage divide across the ridge to retreat from headward erosion, but hindered when the ridge's apex undulates or when symmetrically sloped. Although these physical models cannot strictly simulate natural transverse drainages, the observed processes, their development over time, and resultant landforms roughly emulate their natural counterparts. Proposed originally from

  12. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941

  13. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System.

    PubMed

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk

    2015-05-01

    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941

  14. Agricultural drainage practices in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, T. D.

    1986-02-01

    Agricultural drainage practices are reviewed under two main headings: arterial drainage of river catch-ments by developing main channels, and field drainage of smaller parcels of land using pipes and open trenches. The use of cost/benefit analysis on the arterial drainage program is considered and the inherent errors are discussed. Conservation of the environment is described as it applies to land-scaping, fisheries, and wildlife, and the drainage authorities are shown to have an enlightened attitude to proper preservation of the world around us.

  15. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  16. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  17. Observing a catastrophic thermokarst lake drainage in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and drainage of thermokarst lakes have reshaped ice-rich permafrost lowlands in the Arctic throughout the Holocene. North of Teshekpuk Lake, on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, thermokarst lakes presently occupy 22.5% of the landscape, and drained thermokarst lake basins occupy 61.8%. Analysis of remotely sensed imagery indicates that nine lakes (>10 ha) have drained in the 1,750 km2 study area between 1955 and 2014. The most recent lake drainage was observed using in situ data loggers providing information on the duration and magnitude of the event, and a nearby weather station provided information on the environmental conditions preceding the lake drainage. Lake 195 (L195), an 80 ha thermokarst lake with an estimated water volume of ~872,000 m3, catastrophically drained on 05 July 2014. Abundant winter snowfall and heavy early summer precipitation resulted in elevated lake water levels that likely promoted bank overtopping, thermo-erosion along an ice-wedge network, and formation of a 9 m wide, 2 m deep, and 70 m long drainage gully. The lake emptied in 36 hours, with 75% of the water volume loss occurring in the first ten hours. The observed peak discharge of the resultant flood was 25 m3/s, which is similar to that in northern Alaska river basins whose areas are more than two orders of magnitude larger. Our findings support the catastrophic nature of sudden lake drainage events and the mechanistic hypotheses developed by J. Ross Mackay.

  18. Numerical simulations of drainage flows on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Thomas R.; Howard, Alan D.

    Data collected by Viking Landers have shown that the meteorology of the near surface Martian environment is analogous to desertlike terrestrial conditions. Geological evidence such as dunes and frost streaks indicate that the surface wind is a potentially important factor in scouring of the martian landscape. In particular, the north polar basin shows erosional features that suggest katabatic wind convergence into broad valleys near the margin of the polar cap. The pattern of katabatic wind drainage off the north polar cap is similar to that observed on Earth over Antarctica or Greenland. The sensitivity is explored of Martian drainage flows to variations in terrain slope and diurnal heating using a numerical modeling approach. The model used is a 2-D sigma coordinate primitive equation system that has been used for simulations of Antarctic drainage flows. Prognostic equations include the flux forms of the horizontal scalar momentum equations, temperature, and continuity. Parameterization of both longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation is included. Turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain since relevant measurements are essentially nonexistent.

  19. Numerical simulations of drainage flows on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, Thomas R.; Howard, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    Data collected by Viking Landers have shown that the meteorology of the near surface Martian environment is analogous to desertlike terrestrial conditions. Geological evidence such as dunes and frost streaks indicate that the surface wind is a potentially important factor in scouring of the martian landscape. In particular, the north polar basin shows erosional features that suggest katabatic wind convergence into broad valleys near the margin of the polar cap. The pattern of katabatic wind drainage off the north polar cap is similar to that observed on Earth over Antarctica or Greenland. The sensitivity is explored of Martian drainage flows to variations in terrain slope and diurnal heating using a numerical modeling approach. The model used is a 2-D sigma coordinate primitive equation system that has been used for simulations of Antarctic drainage flows. Prognostic equations include the flux forms of the horizontal scalar momentum equations, temperature, and continuity. Parameterization of both longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation is included. Turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain since relevant measurements are essentially nonexistent.

  20. UNDERGROUND MINE DRAINAGE CONTROL SNOWY CREEK-LAUREL RUN, WEST VIRGINIA, FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted at the Snowy Creek - Laurel Run basin near Terra Alta, West Virginia, to determine the feasibility of demonstrating mine drainage control by known abatement techniques in abandoned coal mine areas having shallow overburden. The basin contains two abandoned m...

  1. Storm water management: Potential for lower cost & more benefits if farmers & municipalities cooperate on tile drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common approach to protect communities from the ravages of stream flooding is to construct storm water retention basins upstream from the property to be protected. Retention basins are an expensive solution and often take valuable agricultural land out of production. Improved drainage of agricultu...

  2. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Bird, Deanne

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of morphometric parameters of two drainage networks derived from different sources was done to determine the influence of sub-basins to flooding on the main channel in the Havran River basin (Balıkesir-Turkey). Drainage networks for the sub-basins were derived from both topographic maps scaled 1:25.000 and a 10-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) using geographic information systems (GIS). Blue lines, representing fluvial channels on the topographic maps were accepted as a drainage network, which does not depict all exterior links in the basin. The second drainage network was extracted from the DEM using minimum accumulation area threshold to include all exterior links. Morphometric parameters were applied to the two types of drainage networks at sub-basin levels. These parameters were used to assess the influence of the sub-basins on the main channel with respect to flooding. The results show that the drainage network of sub-basin 4—where a dam was constructed on its outlet to mitigate potential floods—has a lower influence morphometrically to produce probable floods on the main channel than that of sub-basins 1, 3, and 5. The construction of the dam will help reduce flooding on the main channel from sub-basin 4 but it will not prevent potential flooding from sub-basin 1, 3 and 5, which join the main channel downstream of sub-basin 4. Therefore, flood mitigation efforts should be considered in order to protect the settlement and agricultural lands on the floodplain downstream of the dam. In order to increase our understanding of flood hazards, and to determine appropriate mitigation solutions, drainage morphometry research should be included as an essential component to hydrologic studies.

  3. Inorganic Carbon Isotopes and Chemical Characterization of Watershed Drainages, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Heikoop, Jeffrey H.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.

    2015-09-25

    Data include results from geochemical and isotopic analyses for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska during July and September 2013. Samples were soil pore waters from 17 drainages that could be interlake (basins with polygonal terrain), different-aged drain thaw lake basins (young, medium, old, or ancient), or a combination of different aged basins. Samples taken in different drainage flow types at three different depths at each location in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory. This dataset used in Throckmorton, et.al. 2015.

  4. Determination of drainage density for surface-mine reclamation in the western US. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.I.; Schumm, S.A.; Watson, C.C.

    1985-07-01

    As part of any surface-mined land reclamation plan, quantitative geomorphic data is required in order that relatively stable landforms can be constructed. Drainage density is an extremely important characteristic of the landscape that reflects the interaction between eroding forces and the erodibility of an area. There is a characteristic drainage density for each location, and when this is identified, it should be used in reclamation design. Mining and reclamation will change other properties of drainage basins, which will, in turn, affect drainage density. Baselevel control provided by resistant bedrock outcrops may be removed; infiltration capacity may be decreased by mixing fine-textured subsoil with topsoil; and relief may be increased through bulking of overburden or decreased by removal of thick coal seams. Therefore, the characteristic drainage densities will require adjustment as a result of these changes, and additional research is needed in order to refine estimates of drainage density.

  5. Insulated waterproof drainage material

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, P.L.

    1988-03-15

    An insulative waterproof drainage material is described comprising: a sheet of rigid material having hills and valleys therein to define a core having opposed surfaces; permeable fabric material attached to one of the opposed surfaces; and a layer of thermally insulative material on the other of the opposed surfaces. The insulative material has first surface covering the hills and valleys and a second surface oppositely disposed from the first surface defining an outer surface. The outer surface is spaced a preselected distance D from the hills of the core. The pre-selected distance D define an insulative material thickness corresponding to a pre-selected thermal value.

  6. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Laabs, Benjamin J.C.; Forester, Richard M.; McGeehin, John P.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Bright, Jordon

    2005-01-01

    Mapping and dating of surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin were undertaken to provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores taken from deposits beneath Bear Lake, which sometimes receives water and sediment from the glaciated Bear River and sometimes only from the small drainage basin of Bear Lake itself. Analyses of core sediments by others are directed at (1) constructing a high-resolution climate record for the Bear Lake area during the late Pleistocene and Holocene, and (2) investigating the sources and weathering history of sediments in the drainage basin. Surficial deposits in the upper Bear River and Bear Lake drainage basins are different in their overall compositions, although they do overlap. In the upper Bear River drainage, Quaternary deposits derived from glaciation of the Uinta Range contain abundant detritus weathered from Precambrian quartzite, whereas unglaciated tributaries downstream mainly contribute finer sediment weathered from much younger, more friable sedimentary rocks. In contrast, carbonate rocks capped by a carapace of Tertiary sediments dominate the Bear Lake drainage basin.

  7. Delineation of a Re-establishing Drainage Network Using SPOT and Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Self, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, The Philippines, provided a unique opportunity to study the effects on the landscape of a large eruption in part because it took place after the advent of regular satellite-based observations. The eruption formed one large (>100km2) ignimbrite sheet, with over 70% of the total deposit deposited in three primary drainage basins to the west of the volcano. High-resolution (20 m/pixel) satellite images, showing the western drainage basins and surrounding region both before and after the eruption were used to observe the re-establishment and evolution of drainage networks on the newly emplaced ignimbrite sheet. Changes in the drainage networks were delineated from a time series of SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) and Landsat multi-spectral satellite images. The analysis of which was supplemented by ground- based observations. The satellite images showed that the blue prints for the new drainage systems were established early (within days of the eruption) and at a large-scale followed the pre-eruption pattern. However, the images also illustrated the ephemeral nature of many channels due to the influence of secondary pyroclastic flows, lahar- dammed lake breakouts, stream piracy and shifts due to erosion. Characteristics of the defined drainage networks were used to infer the relative influence on the lahar hazard within each drainage basin.

  8. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  9. Integrated on-farm drainage management for drainage water disposal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Providing environmentally safe methods for drainage water disposal is a significant challenge for irrigated agriculture. Subsurface drainage water contains salt and nutrients that may have significant deleterious effects on surface water quality. A system was developed for the reuse of saline drai...

  10. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    SciTech Connect

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25/sup 0/C during summer and about 20/sup 0/C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s/sup -1/ and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin.

  11. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time.

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River Basin, northeastern Montana 1986-87

    SciTech Connect

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic uranium and vanadium in Dry Lake Unit, and boron in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain and two shallow domestic wells were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation and gross beta radiation were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediment of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium, copper, nickel, vanadium, and zinc that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. 46 refs., 13 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 12. Stable isotopic evaluation of thermal water occurrences in the Weiser and Little Salmon River drainage basins and adjacent areas, west-central Idaho with attendant gravity and magnetic data on the Weiser area

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.; Bideganeta, K.; Palmer, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Fifteen thermal springs, two thermal wells, and eight cold springs in the Weiser and Little Salmon river drainages were sampled for deuterium and oxygen-18 analysis during the fall of 1981. The straight-line fit of delta D and delta /sup 18/O versus latitude and longitude observed in the data is what would be expected if the recharge areas for the thermal and non-thermal waters were in close proximity to their respective discharge points. The discrete values of delta D and delta /sup 18/O for each thermal discharge suggest that none of the sampled thermal systems have common sources. The depleted deuterium and oxygen-18 contents of most thermal relative to non-thermal waters sampled suggests that the thermal waters might be Pleistocene age precipitation. The isotopic data suggest little or no evidence for mixing of thermal and non-thermal water for the sampled discharges. Thermal waters from Weiser, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, and White Licks hot springs show enrichment in oxygen-18 suggesting that these waters have been at elevated temperatures relative to other sampled thermal discharges in the area. Gravity and magnetic data gathered by the Idaho State University Geology Department in the Weiser Hot Springs area suggest that southeastward plunging synclinal-anticlinal couples, which underlie the hot springs, are cut south of the springs by a northeast trending boundary fault.

  14. [Thoracic drainage technique for emergencies].

    PubMed

    Orsini, B; Bonnet, P M; Avaro, J P

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a simple, reproducible technique for pleural drainage. This technique that requires scant resources should be used only in life-threatening situations calling for pleural drainage. It is not intended to replace conventional techniques. PMID:20337108

  15. DRAINAGE MATERIALS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An historical account of the development and innovation of drainage materials in the World is given. For more than 100 years prior to 1970, clay and concrete tile were the most common for agricultural drainage. Smooth-wall plastic pipe was used to a limited extent in the late 1950's for subdrain con...

  16. An alternative basin characteristic for use in estimating impervious area in urban Missouri basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southard, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A previous regression analysis of flood peaks on urban basins in St. Louis County, Missouri, indicated that the basin characteristics of percentage of impervious area and drainage area were statistically significant for estimating the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-. and 100-yr peak discharges at ungaged urban basins. In this statewide regression analysis of the urban basins for Missouri, an alternative basin characteristic called the percentage of developed area was evaluated. A regression analysis of the percentage of developed area (independent variable), resulted in a simple equation for computing percentage of impervious area. The percentage of developed area also was evaluated using flood-frequency data for 23 streamflow gaging stations, and the use of this variable was determined to be valid. Using nationwide data, an urban basin characteristic known as the basin development factor was determined to be valid for inclusion in urban regression equations for estimating flood flows. The basin development factor and the percentage of developed area were compared for use in regression equations to estimate peak flows of streams in Missouri. The equations with the basin development factor produced peak flow estimates with slightly smaller average standard errors of estimate than the equation with the percentage of developed area; however, this study indicates that there was not enough statistical or numerical difference to warrant using the basin development factor instead of the percentage of developed area in Missouri. The selection of a basin characteristic to describe the physical conditions of a drainage basin will depend not only on its contribution to accuracy of regression equations, but also on the ease of determining the characteristics; the percentage of developed area has this advantage. A correlation analysis was made by correlating drainage area to percentage of impervious area, the percentage of developed area, and the basin development factor. The results of

  17. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Arsenic Speciation and Accumulation In Evapoconcentrating Waters Of Agricultural Evaporation Basins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To sustain agricultural productivity, evaporation basins (or ponds) have been widely used for the disposal of agricultural drainage in areas requiring subsurface drainage in the San Joaquin Valley of California, USA. The drainage water contains elevated concentration of trace elements including sele...

  19. A modified binary tree codification of drainage networks to support complex hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiejian; Wang, Guangqian; Chen, Ji

    2010-11-01

    A new codification method (named a modified binary tree codification method) is developed for coding drainage networks. To express the inner topological structure of a drainage basin, it is necessary to delineate and code digital drainage networks from digital elevation model datasets. In this study, the established software TOPAZ is used to delineate river reaches, and the new codification method is applied, which is based on the application of binary-tree structures and hierarchical zones. A coded drainage network can then be stored in a relational database management system to achieve efficient manipulation of data items for topological operations. The utility of the new codification method is demonstrated by an example applied to the Digital Yellow River Model. The drainage network of the Middle Yellow River in northern China has been coded and the hydrological and soil erosion processes of its sub-basin, the Chabagou River basin, are simulated. Because more details of the drainage network can be efficiently and effectively described, the new codification method can support complex hydrological models and extract more information from hydrological simulations than ever before.

  20. Rainfall, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008; Halawa Stream Drainage Basin and the H-1 Storm Drain, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Young, Stacie T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream and to assess the effects from the H-1 storm drain on Manoa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at three stations, continuous discharge data at four stations, and water-quality data at six stations, which include the four continuous discharge stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected over two storms during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008, within the Halawa Stream drainage area. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Some samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes because an insufficient volume of sample was collected by the automatic samplers. Three additional quality-assurance/quality-control samples were collected concurrently with the storm samples. A total of 16 environmental samples were collected over four storms during July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2008 at the H-1 Storm Drain. All samples at this site were collected using an automatic sampler. Samples generally were analyzed for total suspended solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc), although some samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes. During the storm of January 29, 2008, 10 discrete samples were collected. Varying constituent concentrations were detected for the samples collected

  1. Influence of DEM resolution on drainage network extraction: A multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza-Villaverde, A. B.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.

    2015-07-01

    Different hydrological algorithms have been developed to automatically extract drainage networks from digital elevation models (DEMs). D8 is the most widely used algorithm to delineate drainage networks and catchments from a DEM. This algorithm has certain advantages such as simplicity, the provision of a reasonable representation for convergent flow conditions and consistency among flow patterns, calculated contributing areas and the spatial representation of subcatchments. However, it has limitations in selecting suitable flow accumulation threshold values to determine the pixels that belong to drainage networks. Although the effects of DEM resolution on some terrain attributes, stream characterisation and watershed delineation have been studied, analyses of the influence of DEM resolution on flow accumulation threshold values have been limited. Recently, multifractal analyses have been successfully used to find appropriate flow accumulation threshold values. The application of this type of analysis to evaluate the relationship between DEM resolution and flow accumulation threshold value needs to be explored. Therefore, this study tested three DEM resolutions for four drainage basins with different levels of drainage network distribution by comparing the Rényi spectra of the drainage networks that were obtained with the D8 algorithm against those determined by photogrammetric restitution. According to the results, DEM resolution influences the selected flow accumulation threshold value and the simulated network morphology. The suitable flow accumulation threshold value increases as the DEM resolution increases and shows greater variability for basins with lower drainage densities. The links between DEM resolution and terrain attributes were also examined.

  2. Streamflow and Suspended-Sediment Loads Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, North Halawa, Haiku, South Fork Kapunahala, and Kamooalii Drainage Basins, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Michael F.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    A long-term study (1983?99) was conducted to determine the effects of the H-3 Highway construction on streamflow and suspended-sediment transport on Oahu, Hawaii. Data were collected at five streamflow-gaging stations before, during, and after construction and at two stream-gaging stations during and after construction. Drainage areas at the seven streamflow-gaging stations ranged from 0.40 to 4.01 mi2 and highway construction affected from 4 to 15 percent of these areas. Analysis of covariance and regression techniques were used to assess changes in streamflow and suspended-sediment loads during and after construction, relative to before-construction conditions. Streamflow at the seven streamflow-gaging stations was compared to streamflow at an index station unaffected by highway construction. Streamflow data were divided into low- and high-flow classes, and the two flow classes were analyzed separately. Additionally, instantaneous peak flows were analyzed at three streamflow-gaging stations. During construction, observed low flows significantly increased by 108 percent at Luluku Stream, a tributary to Kamooalii Stream, and decreased by 31 percent at Kamooalii Stream. After construction, low flows increased by 47 percent at North Halawa Stream near Honolulu compared to low flows during construction. Low flows at Luluku Stream increased by 99 percent after construction compared to before construction. Increased low flows were attributed to removal of vegetation for construction and the increase of impervious areas that reduced infiltration. Decreased low flows were attributed to increased ground-water withdrawals and construction activities. High flows observed during highway construction compared to before construction increased significantly only at Haiku Stream (by 25 percent). Observed high flows after construction compared to during construction increased significantly only at Kamooalii Stream (by 34 percent). Observed high flows after construction compared to

  3. Rainfall, Discharge, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009 - Halawa Stream Drainage Basin and the H-1 Storm Drain, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. The program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream, and to assess the effects from the H-1 storm drain on Manoa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at three stations, continuous discharge data at five stations, and water-quality data at six stations, which include the five continuous discharge stations. This report summarizes rainfall, discharge, and water-quality data collected between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2009. Within the Halawa Stream drainage area, three storms (October 25 and December 11, 2008, and February 3, 2009) were sampled during July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. A total of 43 environmental samples were collected during these three storms. During the storm of October 25, 2009, 31 samples were collected and analyzed individually for metals only. The other 12 samples from the other two storms were analyzed for some or all of the following analytes: total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, nutrients, chemical oxygen demand, and selected trace metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc). Additionally, grab samples were analyzed for some or all of the following analytes: oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, fecal coliform, and biological oxygen demand. Some grab and composite samples were analyzed for only a partial list of these analytes, either because samples could not be delivered to the laboratory in a timely manner, or an insufficient volume of sample was collected by the automatic samplers. Two quality-assurance/quality-control samples were collected after cleaning automatic sampler lines to verify that the sampling lines were not contaminated. Four environmental samples were collected at the H-1 Storm Drain during July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009. An oil and grease sample and a composite sample were collected during the

  4. Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Nocturnal Cold Air Drainage Over a Simple Slope Using Thermal Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikani, V.; Chokmani, K.; Fathollahi, L.; Granberg, H.; Fournier, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of climatic processes such as cold air drainage flows are problematic over mountainous areas. Observation of cold air drainage is not available in the existing observation network and it requires a special methodology. The main objective of this study was to characterize the cold air drainage over regions with a slope. A high resolution infrared camera, a meteorological station and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were used. The specific objective was to derive nocturnal cold air drainage velocity over the slope. To address these objectives, a number of infrared measurement campaigns were conducted during calm and clear sky conditions over an agricultural zone (blackcurrant farm) in Canada. Using thermal infrared images, the nocturnal surface temperature gradient were computed in hourly basis. The largest gradient magnitudes were found between 17h -20h. The cooling rates at basin area were two times higher in comparison to the magnitudes observed within slope area. The image analysis illustrated this considerable temperature gradient of the basin may be partly due to transport of cold air drainage into the basin from the slope. The results show that thermal imagery can be used to characterize and understand the microclimate related to the occurrence of radiation frost in the agricultural field. This study provided the opportunity to track the cold air drainage flow and pooling of cold air in low lying areas. The infrared analysis demonstrated that nocturnal drainage flow displayed continuous variation in terms of space and time in response to microscale slope heterogeneities. In addition, the analysis highlighted the periodic aspect for cold air drainage flow.

  5. Hydrologically Induced Basal Slip Triggers Greenland Supraglacial Lake Drainages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L. A.; Behn, M. D.; McGuire, J. J.; Das, S. B.; Joughin, I. R.; Herring, T.; Shean, D. E.; King, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate what triggers the rapid drainage of a large supraglacial lake on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet using a Network Inversion Filter (NIF) (Segall and Matthews, 1997) to invert a dense local network of GPS observations over three summers (2011-2013). The NIF is used to determine the spatiotemporal variability in ice sheet behavior (1) prior to lake drainage, and in response to (2) vertical hydro-fracture crack propagation and closure, (3) the opening of a horizontal cavity at the ice-sheet bed that accommodates the rapid injection of melt-water, and (4) extra basal slip due to enhanced lubrication. The NIF also allows us to infer the distribution of melt-water at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after drainage. Our data show that the opening and propagation of each summer's lake-draining hydro-fracture is preceded by a local stress perturbation associated with ice sheet uplift and enhanced slip above pre-drainage background velocities. Within <1 day after the onset of each precursor, a vertical crack propagates through the lake basin and the lake drains rapidly (<5 hours). The NIF shows that the precursors are not associated with slow propagation of the lake draining hydrofracture, but rather pre-existing crevasses and/or moulins, which allow substantial amounts of melt-water to reach the bed and activate enhanced basal slip up to a day before hydro-fracture crack initiation. Identification of these precursors combined with the fact that drainages are observed to occur across a range of lake volumes and geometries, suggests that lakes do not spontaneously hydro-fracture once they surpass a specific threshold despite the numerous healed hydro-fracture cracks present within the lake basin from the prior years' drainage events. These results have implications for rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes in less crevassed, interior regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the rapid collapse of Antarctic ice shelves through melt pond

  6. Uncertainty assessment of an integrated urban drainage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-07-01

    SummaryOver the last few years, the use of mathematical models has gained importance in urban drainage system management; indeed, such models enable the combined analysis of different components that constitute a drainage system; the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and the receiving water body. The effectiveness of an integrated approach has been widely demonstrated in the past and is presented in the EU Water Framework Directive, which also introduces a new point of view regarding the water quality management of the whole system, requiring a global analysis at the river basin scale for pollutant sources. However, integrated urban drainage models introduce several uncertain factors that are due to the high complexity level of the adopted approaches as well as to the lack of data for a robust model calibration. This paper presents the uncertainty assessment of an integrated urban drainage model developed in previous studies by means of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The analysis has been applied to an experimental catchment in Bologna (Italy) which covers a part of the Bologna sewer network and a reach of the Savena River.

  7. Drainage-basis-scale geomorphic analysis to determine refernce conditions for ecologic restoration-Kissimmee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warne, A.G.; Toth, L.A.; White, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria.

  8. Redescription of Gobio nigrescens from the Hari River drainage (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Ganjbakhsh, Babak; Geiger, Matthias F; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Gobio nigrescens, from the Hari River drainage, is redescribed. It represents a valid species distinguished from congeners in the adjacent Caspian and Aral Sea basins by a combination of characters: a naked breast, 16 circumpeduncular scales and 6-7 irregularly shaped, black or brown blotches on back behind dorsal-fin base. PMID:27395112

  9. Nitrate-Nitrogen, Landuse/Landcover, and Soil Drainage Associations at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of non-point-source pollution of water to meet beneficial uses requires knowledge of landuse/landcover (LULC) influences at watershed scales. To gain a better understanding of relationships among LULC, soil drainage, and dissolved nitrate-N dynamics within the Calapooia Basin in Western Oreg...

  10. Using RZWQM-DSSAT to Stimulate Drainage Water Management Across the United States Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the surface water bodies of the Mississippi River basin have resulted from the widespread practice of subsurface drainage in agricultural systems throughout the region. Also, hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has been linked directly to the transport of ni...

  11. Nitrate-Nitrogen, Landuse/Landcover, and Soil Drainage Associations at Multiple Spatial Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing non–point-source pollution of water requires knowledge of land use/land cover (LULC) influences at altering watershed scales. To gain improved understanding of relationships among LULC, soil drainage, and dissolved nitrate-N dynamics within the Calapooia River Basin in w...

  12. Use of control drainage in ditch management on the Delmarva Peninsula for improved water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay region is partly linked to agricultural activities. In the Choptank River basin, one way of nutrient transport from agricultural fields is through extensive drainage open ditches. Studies have shown that annually an average of 6% of nitrate applied to agricu...

  13. A proposed drainage evolution model for Central Africa—Did the Congo flow east?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the origin of Sub-Saharan biodiversity requires knowing the history of the region's paleo-ecosystems. As water is essential for sustaining of life, the evolving geometry of river basins often have influence on local speciation. With this in mind, we analyse drainage patterns in Central and East Africa. Evidence from marine fossils suggests the Congo Basin was submerged for much of the Cretaceous, and after being uplifted drained eastwards through a paleo-Congo river towards the Indian Ocean. Two remnant peneplains in the Congo Basin are interpreted as evidence that this basin was tectonically stable on at least two occasions in the past. The lower peneplain is interpreted as the base level of the drainage pattern that had its outlet in Tanzania, at the present Rufiji Delta that was once over 500 km wide. The Luangwa, today a tributary of the Zambezi river, was a part of this drainage network. This pattern was subsequently disrupted by uplift associated with the East African Rifting in the Oligocene-Eocene (30-40 Ma). The resulting landlocked system was captured in the Miocene (5-15 Ma) by short rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean, producing the drainage pattern of Central Africa seen today.

  14. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  15. Relative tectonics and debris flow hazards in the Beijing mountain area from DEM-derived geomorphic indices and drainage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weiming; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shangmin

    2016-03-01

    The geomorphic setting of the tectonically active area around Beijing is a result of complex interactions involving Yanshan neotectonic movements and processes of erosion and deposition. The Beijing Mountain study area contains the junction of two mountain ranges (the Yanshan Mountains and the Taihang Mountains). Tectonic activity has significantly influenced the drainage system and the geomorphic situation in the area, leading to a high probability of the development of debris flows, which is one of the major abrupt geological disasters in the region. Based on 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM data, a total of 752 drainage basins were extracted using ArcGIS software. A total of 705 debris flow valleys were visually interpreted from ALOS satellite images and published documents. Seven geomorphic indices were calculated for each basin including the relief amplitude, the hypsometric integral, the stream length gradient, the basin shape indices, the fractal dimension, the asymmetry factor, and the ratio of the valley floor width to the height. These geomorphic indices were divided into five classes and the ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins for each geomorphic index was computed and analyzed for every class. Average class values of the seven indices were used to derive an index of relative active tectonics (IRAT). The ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins was computed for every class of IRAT. The degree of probable risk level was then defined from the IRAT classes. Finally, the debris flow hazard was evaluated for each drainage basin based on the combined effect of probable risk level and occurrence frequency of the debris flows. The result showed a good correspondence between IRAT classes and the ratio of the number of the debris flow valleys to the number of the drainage basins. Approximately 65% of the drainage basins with occurred debris flow valleys are at a high risk level

  16. The watershed depositon tool : a tool for incorporating atmospheric deposition in water-quality analyses {sup 1}.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwede, D. B.; Dennis, R. L.; Bitz, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; NOAA; EPA

    2009-08-01

    A tool for providing the linkage between air and water-quality modeling needed for determining the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and for analyzing related nonpoint-source impacts on watersheds has been developed. Using gridded output of atmospheric deposition from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, the Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) calculates average per unit area and total deposition to selected watersheds and subwatersheds. CMAQ estimates the wet and dry deposition for all of its gaseous and particulate chemical species, including ozone, sulfur species, nitrogen species, secondary organic aerosols, and hazardous air pollutants at grid scale sizes ranging from 4 to 36 km. An overview of the CMAQ model is provided. The somewhat specialized format of the CMAQ files is not easily imported into standard spatial analysis tools. The WDT provides a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize CMAQ gridded data and perform further analyses on selected watersheds or simply convert CMAQ gridded data to a shapefile for use in other programs. Shapefiles for the 8-digit (cataloging unit) hydrologic unit code polygons for the United States are provided with the WDT; however, other user-supplied closed polygons may be used. An example application of the WDT for assessing the contributions of different source categories to deposition estimates, the contributions of wet and dry deposition to total deposition, and the potential reductions in total nitrogen deposition to the Albemarle-Pamlico basin stemming from future air emissions reductions is used to illustrate the WDT capabilities.

  17. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate.

  18. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Neil F.; Jansson, Krister N.; Duller, Geoffrey A. T.; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface “hosing” to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  19. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Neil F; Jansson, Krister N; Duller, Geoffrey A T; Singarayer, Joy; Holloway, Max; Harrison, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large freshwater lakes formed in North America and Europe during deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum. Rapid drainage of these lakes into the Oceans resulted in abrupt perturbations in climate, including the Younger Dryas and 8.2 kyr cooling events. In the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere major glacial lakes also formed and drained during deglaciation but little is known about the magnitude, organization and timing of these drainage events and their effect on regional climate. We use 16 new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates to define three stages of rapid glacial lake drainage in the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Cohrane/Pueyrredón basins of Patagonia and provide the first assessment of the effects of lake drainage on the Pacific Ocean. Lake drainage occurred between 13 and 8 kyr ago and was initially gradual eastward into the Atlantic, then subsequently reorganized westward into the Pacific as new drainage routes opened up during Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments using HadCM3 with an imposed freshwater surface "hosing" to simulate glacial lake drainage suggest that a negative salinity anomaly was advected south around Cape Horn, resulting in brief but significant impacts on coastal ocean vertical mixing and regional climate. PMID:26869235

  20. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Fittings. Drainage fittings shall be recessed drainage pattern with smooth interior waterways of the same... vent. Where required by structural design, wet-vented drain piping may be offset vertically when...

  1. Benefits of digital thoracic drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Danitsch, Debbie

    A number of risks and complications are associated with traditional chest drainage systems. A trust decided to trial digital drainage systems, and found the new systems improved treatment time and patient mobility. PMID:22536712

  2. Estimation of recharge through selected drainage wells and potential effects from well closure, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Drainage wells have been used in Orange County, Florida, and surrounding areas to alleviate flooding and to control lake levels since 1904. Over 400 drainage wells have been drilled in the county, but many are now redundant because of surface drainage systems that have been installed within the last two or three decades. Most of the drainage wells emplace water into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a zone of high transmissivity within the Floridan aquifer system. In 1992, the Orange County Stormwater Management Department identified 23 wells that were considered noncritical or redundant for current drainage control. These wells were targeted for closure to eliminate maintenance and possible contamination problems. A 3-year study (1992 through 1994) encompassed several drainage basins in the county. Inflow to 18 of the 23 drainage wells on the noncritical list and the effects of closure of these noncritical wells on the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer were estimated. Three sites were chosen for intensive study and were used for further extrapolation to other noncritical sites. The total average annual recharge rate through the 18 selected wells was estimated to be 9 cubic feet per second, or about 6 million gallons per day. The highest rate of long-term recharge, 4.6 cubic feet per second, was to well H-35. Several wells on the noncritical list were already plugged or had blocked intakes. Yields, or the sum of surface-water outflows and drainage-well recharge, from the drainage basins ranged from 20 to 33 inches per year. In some of the basins, all the yield from the basin was recharge through a drainage well. In other basins, most of the yield was surface outflow through canals rather than to drainage wells. The removal of the recharge from closure of the wells was simulated by superposition in a three-dimensional ground-water flow model. As a second step in the model, water was also applied to two sites in western Orange County that could receive

  3. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  4. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage systems. 3280.610 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Plumbing Systems § 3280.610 Drainage systems. (a) General. (1) Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be installed with...

  5. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  6. Mine Drainage Control and Treatment Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is the third in a series of webinars for Region 10's Hardrock Mine Geochemistry and Hydrology Webinar Workshops. It will discuss briefly how mine drainage forms, some suggested mitigation methods, how ions in the drainage change if drainage does get to the envi...

  7. Nitrate in tile drainage of the semiarid Palouse Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topographically heterogeneous landscapes can enhance fertilizer NO3 contamination of streams due to the rapid downslope transport of water to poorly drained bottom slopes and shallow groundwater. In the semi-arid dry-land wheat production area of the Palouse region of Washington State, large areas ...

  8. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  9. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  10. Condeep drainage systems speed consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The foundation drainage systems underlying the 6 Condeep platforms installed in the North Sea have successfully speeded up the rate of sediment consolidation and stabilization of the platform. The systems on 2 of the first concrete gravity units have now been shut down after full consolidation. The drainage, or antiliquefaction system, is vital during the first storm periods before full consolidation has taken place. In the case of the last Condeep platforms installed on stiff clays, full consolidation has taken place within a period of 2 yr. As the base of each concrete gravity platform is divided into skirt compartments, it is possible to adjust the water pressure within each compartment separately and adjust for the tilting of the structure.

  11. Modeling Antarctic Subglacial Lake Filling and Drainage Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  12. Modeling Antarctic subglacial lake filling and drainage cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Christine F.; Werder, Mauro A.; Nowicki, Sophie; Walker, Ryan T.

    2016-07-01

    The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to examine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of our idealized ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from a large catchment, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water beneath the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it steepens the hydraulic gradient out of the overdeepened lake basin and allows greater flux. Eventually this flux is large enough to melt channels that cause the lake to drain. Lake drainage also depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  13. Review of habitat classification schemes appropriate to streams, rivers, and connecting channels in the Great Lakes drainage system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Griffiths, R.W.; Wheaton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of lotic classification, zonation, and distribution carried out since the turn of the century were reviewed for their use in developing a habitat classification scheme for flowing water in the Great Lakes drainage basin. Seventy papers, dealing mainly with fish but including benthos, were organized into four somewhat distinct groups. A heirarchical scale of habitat measurements is suggested, and sources of data and inventory methods, including statistical treatment, are reviewed. An outline is also provided for developing a classification system for riverine habitat in the Great Lakes drainage basin.

  14. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Patrick G; Matheny, Terry A; Ro, Kyoung S; Stone, Kenneth C; Vanotti, Matias B

    2008-07-15

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales. PMID:18569323

  15. Numeric Modeling of Valley Networks and Drainage Systems on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A.

    2006-12-01

    Valley networks observed on Mars are often invoked to support the historical presence of water on the surface of Mars. There is a need for quantification of these networks and the drainage processes associated with them. Numerical modeling of these streams and drainage basins within a GIS environment allows for rapid assessment of hydrologic surface processes. In this study, several areas of valley networks which had been previously mapped visually using Viking, MOC, and MOLA datasets were re-examined using numeric processes and tools available in ArcGIS. Specifically, stream length and drainage density were quantified using the MOLA gridded DEM and ArcGIS tools. This process is significantly faster than the visual identification and delineation techniques used in the past. The project sought to test whether or not computer-assisted techniques were comparable in accuracy and precision to previous studies using visual techniques. To do this, two quadrangles previously visually mapped by Carr (1995) and Hynek and Phillips (2003) were analyzed. Total valley network length at the first site was found to be 18,300 km, compared to previous estimates of 1,308 km (Carr) and 11,100 km (Hynek and Phillips). Drainage density was calculated to be 0.0605/km, compared to previous estimates of 0.0076/km (Carr) and 0.065/km (Hynek and Phillips). The highest stream order found was 5th, compared to 3rd (Carr) and 6th (Hynek and Phillips). In the second quadrangle, total valley network length was measured at 4,010 km, compared to 453 km and 3,496 km. The drainage density was calculated to be 0.068/km, compared to 0.011/km and 0.082/km. The highest stream order found was 4th, compared to 2nd and 5th. Results were very similar to those using visual interpretation of MOC shaded relief by Hynek and Phillips. A difference in stream order, however, suggests that the computer-aided technique may not connect systems that visually have been connected. Still, automated results offer an

  16. A hierarchical pyramid method for managing large-scale high-resolution drainage networks extracted from DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Tiejian, Li; Huang, Yuefei; Jiaye, Li; Wang, Guangqian; Yin, Dongqin

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resolution of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and the development of drainage network extraction algorithms make it possible to develop high-resolution drainage networks for large river basins. These vector networks contain massive numbers of river reaches with associated geographical features, including topological connections and topographical parameters. These features create challenges for efficient map display and data management. Of particular interest are the requirements of data management for multi-scale hydrological simulations using multi-resolution river networks. In this paper, a hierarchical pyramid method is proposed, which generates coarsened vector drainage networks from the originals iteratively. The method is based on the Horton-Strahler's (H-S) order schema. At each coarsening step, the river reaches with the lowest H-S order are pruned, and their related sub-basins are merged. At the same time, the topological connections and topographical parameters of each coarsened drainage network are inherited from the former level using formulas that are presented in this study. The method was applied to the original drainage networks of a watershed in the Huangfuchuan River basin extracted from a 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM and applied to the full Yangtze River basin in China, which was extracted from a 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM. In addition, a map-display and parameter-query web service was published for the Mississippi River basin, and its data were extracted from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM. The results presented in this study indicate that the developed method can effectively manage and display massive amounts of drainage network data and can facilitate multi-scale hydrological simulations.

  17. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  18. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes. PMID:27620096

  19. Application of GIS and RS for Morphometric Analysis of Upper Bhima Basin: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Amol D.; Sarup, Jyoti; Mittal, Sushil Kumar

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a morphometric analysis of Upper Bhima Basin (UBB), located in state of Maharahstra, India. Study area is in western part of Maharashtra State, which has a huge socio—economic impact as many towns and metros are emerged as important centres for employment, industrial hubs, and Information Technology (IT) parks. The study focuses only on the morphometric analysis of UBB. Analysis done using ArcGIS software, by digitizing the toposheets, georeferencing them and then analyzing in the GIS environment. The analysis revealed that the basin was of seventh order with dendritic type of drainage pattern. Results revealed that the value of bifurcation ratio Rb lies between 3 and 5. Values of drainage density range from 1.60 to 0.01 km/km2, indicating low drainage density. Average value of drainage density is 0.374 km/km2 for entire basin, so classifying the basin as coarse.

  20. Drainage in a rising foam.

    PubMed

    Yazhgur, Pavel; Rio, Emmanuelle; Rouyer, Florence; Pigeonneau, Franck; Salonen, Anniina

    2016-01-21

    Rising foams created by continuously blowing gas into a surfactant solution are widely used in many technical processes, such as flotation. The prediction of the liquid fraction profile in such flowing foams is of particular importance since this parameter controls the stability and the rheology of the final product. Using drift flux analysis and recently developed semi-empirical expressions for foam permeability and osmotic pressure, we build a model predicting the liquid fraction profile as a function of height. The theoretical profiles are very different if the interfaces are considered as mobile or rigid, but all of our experimental profiles are described by the model with mobile interfaces. Even the systems with dodecanol are well known to behave as rigid in forced drainage experiments. This is because in rising foams the liquid fraction profile is fixed by the flux at the bottom of the foam. Here the foam is wet with higher permeability and the interfaces are not in equilibrium. These results demonstrate once again that it is not only the surfactant system that controls the mobility of the interface, but also the hydrodynamic problem under consideration. For example liquid flow through the foam during generation or in forced drainage is intrinsically different. PMID:26554500

  1. NATIONAL ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION PROGRAM (NADP), 4 NC SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Atmospheric Depostion Program (NADP) data for 4 sites in North Carolina - those within or in close proximity to the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. No Virginia sites are within this watershed. See included text files for file contents. Separate directories for each ...

  2. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  3. LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

  4. LAND USE/LAND COVER , NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC (RASTER VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Infor- mation and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine S...

  5. 7.5-MINUTE DIGITAL RASTER GRAPHICS (DRG), VA PORTION OF ALBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    7.5-minute DRG for Virginia portion of Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Files obtained from www.runet.edu:8800/~geoserve/Virginia.html at Radford University.
    Digital Raster Graphics (DRGs) come from the US Geological Survey in Universal Trans Mercator (UTM), North American...

  6. HEAVY METAL AND ORGANIC-RICH MUD POLLUTANT SAMPLE SITES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    East Carolina University, Geology Department and the School of Medicine, with financial support from the US Environmental Protection Agency, Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study of the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, collected and studied bottom sediments in t...

  7. Subsurface drainage volume reduction with drainage water management: Case studies in Ohio, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the main contributors to poor water quality in the Mississippi River and aeral increase in the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico is intensive drainage of the cropland within the watershed. Controlled drainage has been demonstrated as an approach to curb totla drainage outflow and nutrient di...

  8. Urban drainage control applying rational method and geographic information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldalur, Beatriz; Campo, Alicia; Fernández, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method of controlling urban drainages in the town of Ingeniero White motivated by the problems arising as a result of floods, water logging and the combination of southeasterly and high tides. A Rational Method was applied to control urban watersheds and used tools of Geographic Information Technology (GIT). A Geographic Information System was developed on the basis of 28 panchromatic aerial photographs of 2005. They were georeferenced with control points measured with Global Positioning Systems (basin: 6 km2). Flow rates of basins and sub-basins were calculated and it was verified that the existing open channels have a low slope with the presence of permanent water and generate stagnation of water favored by the presence of trash. It is proposed for the output of storm drains, the use of an existing channel to evacuate the flow. The solution proposed in this work is complemented by the placement of three pumping stations: one on a channel to drain rain water which will allow the drain of the excess water from the lower area where is located the Ingeniero White city and the two others that will drain the excess liquid from the port area.

  9. Observations of drainage network change in a recently burned watershed using terrestrial laser scanning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis; Wasklewicz, Thad; Kean, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire enhances the geomorphic response of a watershed to precipitation events, effectively altering the form of the hillslope and channel drainage network. Typically, drainage networks expand following rainfall on a recently burned watershed. Expansion of drainage networks following wildfire increases in erosion and sediment transport rates, and the probability of flash-flooding and debris-flows at downstream locations. Observations of the response of hillslope and channel drainage to individual precipitation events are vital to unraveling the dynamics of erosion processes in recently burned watersheds. Here, we apply terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) methods to produce digital terrain models (DTMs) of a recently burned watershed at an unprecedented spatial resolution. The DTM data aid the quantification of changes in the hillslope and channel drainage networks at several spatial scales. Two TLS surveys were conducted, one survey between 28-30 September 2008 to document pre-rainfall conditions, and one between 18-21 December 2008, three days after 52 mm of rainfall over a period of 22 hours. A Leica Geosystems ScanStation 2 TLS was used to generate 1 cm resolution DTMs, from which the hillslope and channel drainage networks were derived. The location and magnitude of erosion and deposition for each pixel within the basin was determined by calculating the topographic differences between DTMs. Changes in the drainage network morphology were identified through the analysis of bifurcation ratio, drainage density (including rills), rill length, horizontal migration of rills, width-depth ratios and upstream migration of knickpoints. Comparisons of these measures were made between morphologically distinct sub-basins within the study area, and between surveys. Analyses of bifurcation ratios, and measures of rill position and gullyhead migration indicate an expansion of the rill network and upstream migration of knickpoints. These results suggest that expansion of the

  10. The effect of drainage reorganization on paleoaltimetry studies: An example from the Paleogene Laramide foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Wiegand, Bettina A.; Carroll, Alan R.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2008-11-01

    Using multiple isotope systems, we examine the complex effects of drainage reorganization in the Laramide Foreland in the context of stable isotope paleoaltimetry. Strontium, oxygen and carbon isotopic data from lacustrine carbonates formed in the southwestern Uinta Basin, Utah between the Late Cretaceous and late Middle Eocene reveal a two stage expansion in the drainage basin of Lake Uinta beginning at ~ 53 Ma culminating in the Mahogany highstand at 48.6 Ma. A marked increase in 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of samples from the Main Body of the Green River Formation is interpreted as the result of water overflowing the Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming and entering Lake Uinta from the east via the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. This large new source of water caused a rapid expansion of Lake Uinta and was accompanied by a significant and rapid increase in the O isotope record of carbonate samples by ~ 6‰. The periodic overspilling of Lake Gosiute probably became continuous at ~ 49 Ma, when the lake captured low- δ18O water from the Challis and Absaroka Volcanic Fields to the north. However, evaporation in the Greater Green River and Piceance Creek Basins meant that the waters entering Lake Uinta were still enriched in 18O. By ~ 46 Ma, inflows from the Greater Green River Basin ceased, resulting in a lowstand of Lake Uinta and the deposition of bedded evaporites in the Saline Facies of the Green River Formation. We thus show that basin development and lake hydrology in the Laramide foreland were characterized by large-scale changes in Cordilleran drainage patterns, capable of confounding paleoaltimetry studies premised on too few isotopic systems, samples or localities. In the case of the North American Cordillera of the Paleogene, we further demonstrate the likelihood that (1) topographic evolution of distal source areas strongly influenced the isotopic records of intraforeland basins and (2) a pattern of drainage integration between the hinterland and

  11. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  12. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drainage system. 3285.604 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage system. 3285.604 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one...

  14. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  15. Modeling coastal plain drainage ditches with SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the low-relief Eastern Shore region of Maryland, extensive land areas used for crop production require drainage systems either as tile drains or open ditches. The prevalence of drainage ditches in the region is being linked to increased nutrient loading of the Chesapeake Bay. Process-based water ...

  16. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  17. Quaternary Faults and Basin-fill Sediments of the Las Vegas Basin, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, W. J.; Fossett, E.; Luke, B.; Snelson, C.; Rasmussen, T.; McCallen, D.; Rodgers, A.; Louie, J.

    2003-12-01

    The N-S elongated extensional Las Vegas basin, southern Nevada, contains 100's of meters of Cenozoic basin-fill sediments that are cut by several Quaternary (Q) faults. These faults define or influence the basin geometry. The basin is generally an asymmetrical half graben defined by the W-dipping, Q Frenchman Mountain fault (FMF) along its E side and a series of smaller offset E-dipping faults to the W. The N terminus of the basin is controlled by the Las Vegas Valley shear zone, along which the majority of the offset occurred prior to the Q. Here, we asses the influence of the Q faults on the distribution of the sedimentary units. Well, exposure, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data show that sedimentary units of different grain sizes or seismic velocity dominate different parts of the basin. Sections dominated by coarse clastic deposits occupy a narrow area along the E side of the basin. Coarse clastic sediments are mixed with finer grained sediments in a broader area along the W side of the basin. Based on provenance and alluvial fan distribution, the coarse deposits along the E side of the basin appear to be trapped in close proximity to the W-dipping FMF. The coarse-grained deposits along the opposite, W side of the basin, are sourced from the nearby Spring Mountains. Because of the structural asymmetry of the basin, these sediments traveled farther from their source area than those on the E side. Some of these E-dipping faults influence the depth to Paleozoic bedrock and some faults form small sub-basins filled with finer grained sediments. Along a WNW trend near the center of the basin and near the present-day Las Vegas Wash, a change in the grain size distribution occurs up stratgraphic section: continuous clay layers are less common and coarse-grained deposits are more common. This difference may reflect a change from internal drainage early in the basin history to external drainage through the Las Vegas Wash in the latter history of the basin

  18. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Wood, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  19. Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

  20. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  1. Drainage network over the migrating front of dynamic uplift in Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandet, Louise; Robert, Xavier; Audin, Laurence; Husson, Laurent; Guillaume, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic topography disturbs the regional morphology at long wavelength and with very low topographic gradients. Nevertheless, fluvial erosion and the drainage pattern should respond to the spatial and temporal topographic variations. In Patagonia, the mid-Miocene, opening and northward migration of an asthenospheric window beneath the South American plate triggered a northward propagating wave of dynamic topography. Based on a morphometric analysis, we explore the long-wavelength response of the drainage system to the recent dynamics of the continental lithosphere. Our analysis of Patagonian rivers (stream profile analysis) and basins (R/Sr analysis) shows a transient state of the drainage network responding to a likely recent signal that prevails at the latitudes of the Chile Triple Junction in Argentina. Moreover, the distribution of the perturbation signal among the drainage network shows a South-to-North gradient, with the low Strahler order tributaries more affected with increasing latitudes. We interpret this observation as the differential timing of response to a Northward propagating signal of dynamic topography. We further use the geometry of the drainage network combined to numerical model predictions to infer the characteristic response time of the surface processes. While the main tributaries respond within ~1-3 Ma, the lower order remain disturbed for longer times. This observation is further supported by the persistently high mean elevation where incision is high, which we take as indicative of the fact that erosion has not yet thoroughly achieved its resurfacing action.

  2. Carving and adaptive drainage enforcement of grid digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soille, Pierre; Vogt, Jürgen; Colombo, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    An effective and widely used method for removing spurious pits in digital elevation models consists of filling them until they overflow. However, this method sometimes creates large flat regions which in turn pose a problem for the determination of accurate flow directions. In this study, we propose to suppress each pit by creating a descending path from it to the nearest point having a lower elevation value. This is achieved by carving, i.e., lowering, the terrain elevations along the detected path. Carving paths are identified through a flooding simulation starting from the river outlets. The proposed approach allows for adaptive drainage enforcement whereby river networks coming from other data sources are imposed to the digital elevation model only in places where the automatic river network extraction deviates substantially from the known networks. An improvement to methods for routing flow over flat regions is also introduced. Detailed results are presented over test areas of the Danube basin.

  3. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away from buildings and foundations, minimize earth settlement and erosion, and assure that drainage...

  4. 7 CFR 1924.108 - Grading and drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affect the structure and show proposed solutions. Grading will promote drainage of surface water away from buildings and foundations, minimize earth settlement and erosion, and assure that drainage...

  5. Endoscopic Gallbladder Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125

  6. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  7. Retroperitoneoscopic drainage of a psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Katara, Avinash N; Shah, Rasik S; Bhandarkar, Deepraj S; Unadkat, Rajan J

    2004-09-01

    Pyogenic psoas abscess in the pediatric age group is a primary condition caused mostly by Staphylococcus aureus. The preferred treatment is percutaneous or surgical drainage under a cover of systemic antibiotics. Laparoscopic drainage scores over open surgery in terms of minimal invasion, shorter hospital stay, better patient comfort, and more complete drainage compared with the percutaneous approach. The authors report a case of a 4-year-old boy with a psoas abscess that was effectively drained laparoscopically through an extraperitoneal approach. PMID:15359416

  8. Tectonic controls for transverse drainage and timing of the Xin-Ding paleolake breach in the upper reach of the Hutuo River, north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin; Meigs, Andrew J.; Yeats, Robert S.; Ding, Rui; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-02-01

    The upper reach of the Hutuo River flows along the Xin-Ding basin and cuts a transverse drainage through the Xizhou Mountain and the Taihang Range into the North China Plain. Previous studies showed that the Xin-Ding basin was occupied by a lake during the early-middle Pleistocene. However, the timing of the paleolake breach and the mechanism for the creation of the transverse drainage are unknown. We constructed the fluvial terrace sequence in the upper reach of the Hutuo drainage combined with thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, as well as the timescale of the overlying loess-paleosol sequence. Our results reveal that (1) five terraces (T5-T1) developed along the upper reach of the Hutuo River, amongst which terraces T4-T1 were formed synchronously at ~ 600, ~ 120-130, ~ 20-26 and ~ 6-7 ka, respectively; (2) the creation of the transverse drainage and breach of the Xin-Ding paleolake occurred between ~ 600 and ~ 130 ka; and (3) the mechanism for the creation of the transverse drainage is via river piracy of paleostreams on both sides of the drainage divide. Localized differential uplift and associated tilting of the Xizhou Mountain block during the middle Pleistocene result in the formation of the transverse drainage and breach of the Xin-Ding paleolake.

  9. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE - STORMWATER MANAGEMENT INC., CATCH BASIN STORMFILTER®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Stormwater Management CatchBasin StormFilter® (CBSF) was conducted on a 0.16 acre drainage basin at the City of St. Clair Shores, Michigan Department of Public Works facility. The four-cartridge CBSF consists of a storm grate and filter chamber inlet b...

  11. Toward strict liability for abandoned mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    This note examines ways to impose responsibility for abating the pollution caused by mine drainage. It describes coal mine drainage and control techniques, then examines abatement responsibility under the common law doctrine of public nuisance, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. More statutory and regulatory controls will probably be devised in the near future, given the serious problem such drainage poses and the lack of existing controls. It is also likely, given the trend apparent in the statutes and cases, that such controls will adopt rules of strict liability for abandoned mine drainage based on mere ownership of property. 175 references.

  12. 24 CFR 3285.203 - Site Drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Site Preparation § 3285.203 Site Drainage. (a... other physical conditions prohibit this slope, the site must be provided with drains or swales...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.203 - Site Drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Site Preparation § 3285.203 Site Drainage. (a... other physical conditions prohibit this slope, the site must be provided with drains or swales...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.203 - Site Drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Site Preparation § 3285.203 Site Drainage. (a... other physical conditions prohibit this slope, the site must be provided with drains or swales...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.203 - Site Drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Site Preparation § 3285.203 Site Drainage. (a... other physical conditions prohibit this slope, the site must be provided with drains or swales...

  16. PRIORITY POLLUTANT REMOVAL FROM MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of the removal of selected priority pollutants from acid mine drainage was conducted at EPA's Crown, West Virginia, site. The pollutants studied were the volatiles benzene, chloroform, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethene, toluene, trans-dichloroethene; the semivolatiles...

  17. [The value of wound drainage with or without suction].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J; Hasselbach, A; Schnorr, W; Baranek, T; Letsch, R

    2005-11-01

    Even though the discussion for desisting from wound drainage has arisen, this is not reflected in the reality of surgical treatment. In more than 90% of all procedures wound drainage is used. It remains to be proven whether suction drainage actually is superior to gravity drainage in everyday use. In a random study with 200 patients it was proven that suction drainage shows no significant advantage in liquid quantum, haematoma and the frequency of complications. We conclude that the economically favourable gravity drainage can replace the more expensive suction drainage in most cases. PMID:16228157

  18. Speciation and behavior of arsenic in evaporation basins, California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline subsurface drainage waters from croplands into evaporation basins (or ponds) in the San Joaquin Valley of California causes excessive accumulation of salts and elevated concentrations of arsenic (As), a potentially high risk element with little information about its fate, in the a...

  19. SNOW: THE REAL WATER SUPPLY FOR THE RIO GRANDE BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande basin in Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico is an important drainage in southwestern North America, vital for water consumption by a rapidly growing population, irrigated agriculture, economic development, preservation of endangered species, and energy generation. The most impor...

  20. IRRIGATION ON LEVEL-BASIN FIELD IN LOUISIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land owners in Southeastern states have been grading fields to low (0.2%) slope to improve drainage and increase machine and irrigation water use efficiency. Some land owners are grading fields to zero slope (level-basin) for use in growing rice. Measurement by the YMD Joint Water Management Distr...

  1. Flood peaks and discharge summaries in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, A.A.; Farsett, Harry A.; Green, J. Wayne

    1981-01-01

    This report contains streamflow data from 299 continuous and partial-record gaging stations in the Delaware River basin. The location, drainage area, period of record, type of gage, and average flow (discharge) is given for each continuous station. Also included, are annual flood peak discharges and discharges above a selected base, annual and monthly mean discharges, and annual and monthly runoff. (USGS)

  2. FISH ASSEMBLAGE GROUPS IN THE UPPER TENNESSEE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hierarchical clustering technique was used to classify sites in the upper Tennessee River basin based on relative abundance of fish species. Five site groups were identified. These groups differed mainly by the occurrence of minnow and darter species. Drainage area and ecore...

  3. Controls of climate, topography, vegetation and lithology on drainage density extracted from high resolution topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangireddy, H.; Carothers, R. A.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Drainage density is a useful topographic metric that varies as a function of geomorphic processes and that serves to quantify links with topography, climate, vegetation, and lithology. Here we analyze 101 sub-basins across thirteen states in the USA using high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) in combination with data on the spatial variation of precipitation, soil, geology, and land cover. We test the following hypotheses: (1) Drainage density carries strong, codependent signatures of rainfall variability, soil type, and topographic relief; (2) Drainage density reflects the extent of landscape dissection on the sub-catchment scale and the subsequent processes of vegetation recovery and gullying.We employ a dimensionless drainage density (Ddd) metric defined as the ratio of likely channelized pixels in a basin to its total number of pixels, and map this metric across meter-resolution lidar DTMs using GeoNet [Passalacqua et al., 2010]. We assess the resolution-dependent scaling of Ddd and observe that it is a much weaker scaling function of DTM resolution than the dimensional formulation of drainage density (Dg), which is classically defined as the ratio of total channel length to total basin area.In order to characterize the correlation structure of drainage density with climatic parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP), we use a Gaussian mixture model and identify two sub-groups of landscapes that display different correlations. We observe that Ddd and MAP are negatively correlated in arid and semi-arid environments and positively correlated in humid environments. The transition occurs at a MAP around 900-1000mm/yr and coincides with the maximum observed values of soil thickness and available water content. Landscape relief has a negative correlation with Ddd in arid environments while the correlation is positive in humid climates. We discuss the implication of our results for understanding eco-geomorphic processes and for modeling landscape

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts

    PubMed Central

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage, or surgical drainage. The aim of this review is to assess critically the current literature concerning EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage and to review the place of the procedure in the clinical decision management algorithms of these patients. PMID:26643700

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Andreas; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are fluid collections in the peripancreatic tissues associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage has become an established indication, having better results as compared to percutaneous drainage, nonguided endoscopic drainage, or surgical drainage. The aim of this review is to assess critically the current literature concerning EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage and to review the place of the procedure in the clinical decision management algorithms of these patients. PMID:26643700

  6. The influence of spatial variability of lithological and morphometric characters on drainage network arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, Laura; Buccolini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    Several factors control the spatial setting and temporal development of the drainage systems: climate, sea level changes, lithology, tectonics, morphometry, land use and land cover. The present work deals with the role of spatial variability of lithology and morphometry on drainage networks arrangement and presents some preliminary evaluations. The test area was the Periadriatic belt of central Italy, composed of Plio-Pleistocene foredeep succession (clay, sands and conglomerate) arranged in a northeastern vergence monocline. We analyzed 37 small basins directly flowing in the Adriatic Sea (18 in Abruzzi and 19 in Marche Region) that have homogenous climatic, eustatic, tectonic, land use and land cover features. For this reason, we could focus our research on lithology and morphometry. We used 10 m cell-size Italian DEM (TINITALY) supplying by INGV (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) [from http://tinitaly.pi.ingv.it/] as source of morphometric data, and extracted watersheds and stream networks through an automatic procedure included in TauDEM toolbox within ArcGIS 9.3 [freely downloaded from http://hydrology.usu.edu/taudem/taudem5/index.html]. For each drainage basin, we reconstructed the topography prior to the inception of fluvial incision through the Topo-to-Raster interpolation tool, considering the heights of the watershed divide as elevation points and obtaining the pre-incision DEM in which the fluvial valleys resulted filled. On this DEM, we calculated the Morphometric Slope Index (MSI), developed by Buccolini et al. (2012), using the formula M SI = Rc -L -Ar/A2D in which Rc is circularity ratio, L is slope length, A2D and Ar are plane and surface area, respectively. In particular, Ar represents the three-dimensional area calculated on the pre-incision DEM. This index is a unique reference index for basin morphometry including both areal and linear features, such as size, shape, inclination, length and width. As drainage network parameter we

  7. A network description on geometry and economics of Yangtze drainage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binbin; Xu, Tian; He, Da-Ren

    2004-03-01

    Drainage basin of large rivers can be viewed as a network. This is well known in geomorphology. Recently, Dodds and Rothman performed an investigation of detailed geometry of river networks [1]. After them, we have investigated geometry and economics of drainage area of Yangtze, the largest river in China. In our first-degree network, we define all the anabranches of Yangtze as the nodes, and the flowing water as the directed edges. A statistics has been performed with 2332 anabranches. Six statistical properties have been obtained, which are in a good agreement with the conclusions reported in Ref. [1] and show that the drainage basin of Yangtze is a scale-free network. In our second-degree network, we define all the open ports along the anabranches as the nodes, and the trade relationship between each pair of nodes as an edge. Population, GDP, berth number, and the large quantities of goods taken in and sent out of 229 open ports have been investigated. A simple model has been suggested to describe the trade process. The results are in a good agreement with the statistical data and show that our second-degree network is also scale-free. [1] P. S. Dodds and D. H. Rothman, Phys. Rev. E 63, (2000) 016115; 016116; 016117.

  8. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  9. Location of agricultural drainage pipes and assessment of agricultural drainage pipe conditions using ground penetrating radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  10. Metabolic principles of river basin organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Caylor, K. K.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  11. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  12. Bibliography of selected water-resources information for the Arkansas River basin in Colorado through 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuzmiak, John M.; Strickland, Hyla H.

    1994-01-01

    The Arkansas River basin composes most of southeastern Colorado, and the numerous population centers and vast areas of agricultural development are located primarily in the semiarid part of the basin east of the Continental Divide. Because effective management and development of water resources in this semiarid area are essential to the viability of the basin, many hydrologic data- collection programs and investigations have been done. This report contains a bibliography of selected water-resources information about the basin, including regularly published information and special investigations, from Federal, State, and other organizations. To aid the reader, the infor- mation is indexed by author, subject, county, and hydrologic unit (drainage basin).

  13. Efficacy of methoprene for mosquito control in storm water catch basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of methoprene, a widely used juvenile hormone mimic, formulated as 30-day slow release Altosid? pellets, at controlling mosquitoes in underground storm water drainage catch basins. Data from applications to ?-sized cement catch basins in the laboratory, field observations from treated and untreated basins, and an experiment that confined mosquito larvae in floating emergence jars in catch basins showed that methoprene effectively controlled mosquitoes for a month under field conditions and substantially longer under laboratory conditions when applied at a dose of 3.5 g pellets per average-sized catch basin.

  14. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  15. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Casey D.; Bataille, Clement; Liu, Zhongfang; Ale, Srinivasulu; VanDeVelde, Justin; Roswell, Charles R.; Bowling, Laura C.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryDrainage tiles buried beneath many naturally poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to "short circuit" pools of NO3--laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the mechanisms controlling this regionally pervasive practice of artificial drainage at the field-plot scale, an integrative assessment of the effect of drainage density (i.e., the number of tile drains per unit area) on the transport of nutrients and solutes in streams at the catchment scale is lacking. In this study, we quantified the flux and hydrological pathways of agricultural NO3- and road-salt Cl- from catchments lying within the Wabash River Basin, a major source of NO3- to the Mississippi River. The paired catchments differ primarily in drainage density (70% vs. 31%, by catchment area), with essentially all other agricultural management, land use, and soil drainage characteristics remaining equal. Our study revealed two significant hydrological responses to increased drainage density: (1) more near-surface storm event water (dilute in both NO3- and Cl) was transported early in the storm and (2) higher transport of Cl--laden pre-event soil water relative to shallow groundwater elevated in NO3- occurred later in the storm. These patterns are consistent with a proposed conceptual model in which increased drainage density results in (1) greater transport of soil water to streams and (2) a delayed rise in the water table. With respect to nutrient management implications, these results indicate that increased drainage density impacts subsurface pools of Cl- and NO3- differently, a finding that we propose is linked to soil/ground water dynamics in artificially drained agricultural catchments.

  16. Foam drainage placed on a porous substrate.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi-Tash, O; Kovalchuk, N; Trybala, A; Starov, V

    2015-05-14

    A model for drainage/imbibition of a foam placed on the top of a porous substrate is presented. The equation of liquid imbibition into the porous substrate is coupled with a foam drainage equation at the foam/porous substrate interface. The deduced dimensionless equations are solved using a finite element method. It was found that the kinetics of foam drainage/imbibition depends on three dimensionless numbers and the initial liquid volume fraction. The result shows that there are three different regimes of the process. Each regime starts after initial rapid decrease of a liquid volume fraction at the foam/porous substrate interface: (i) rapid imbibition: the liquid volume fraction inside the foam at the foam/porous substrate interface remains constant close to a final liquid volume fraction; (ii) intermediate imbibition: the liquid volume fraction at the interface with the porous substrate experiences a peak point and imbibition into the porous substrate is slower as compared with the drainage; (iii) slow imbibition: the liquid volume fraction at the foam/porous substrate interface increases to a maximum limiting value and a free liquid layer is formed between the foam and the porous substrate. However, the free liquid layer disappears after some time. The transition points between these three different drainage/imbibition regimes were delineated by introducing two dimensionless numbers. PMID:25811970

  17. [Appropriate Biliary Drainage Methods for Unresectable Cholangiocarcinomas].

    PubMed

    Oishi, Tatsurou; Kanemoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshioka, Yuuta; Sawada, Ryuuichirou; Sekine, Sachi; Miyanaga, Hiroto; Sakahira, Hideki; Takahashi, Hironori; Miyamoto, Katsufumi; Koyama, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the efficacy of different biliary drainage methods for the treatment of unresectable cholangiocarcinomas. We performed a retrospective study of 28 patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinomas who underwent biliary drainage at our hospital between January 2008 and June 2014 to compare the incidence of post-drainage stent dysfunction (SD) and reintervention (RI) for SD according to primary drainage method, lesion site, and complication status (the presence or absence of cholangitis). The duration of stent patency was compared between the different stent types. No significant differences in the incidence of SD and RI were found according to primary drainage methods, lesion site, or the presence or absence of cholangitis. The mean durations of stent patency for plastic and metal stents were 2.7 months and 7.4 months, respectively, suggesting that metal stents should be selected when the estimated prognosis is ≥2 months. Furthermore, metal stent placement, rather than the additional placement of plastic stents, should be considered a feasible option in cases of SD. PMID:26805093

  18. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  19. Drainage Asperities on Subduction Megathrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    the stress-state in the forearc hanging-wall switches from compressional reverse-slip faulting before failure to extensional normal-slip faulting postfailure, as occurred during the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku megathrust rupture. Mean stress and fault-normal stress then change from being greater than vertical stress prefailure, to less than vertical stress postfailure. Postfailure reductions in overpressure are expected from a combination of poroelastic effects and fluid loss through fault-fracture networks, enhancing vertical permeability. Mineralised fault-fracture meshes in exhumed fore-arc assemblages (e.g. the Alaska-Juneau Au-quartz vein swarm) testify to the episodic discharge of substantial volumes of hydrothermal fluid (< tens of km3). Localized drainage from the subduction interface shear zone increases frictional strength significantly, giving rise to a postfailure strength asperities. Anticipated strength increases from such fluid discharge depends on the magnitude of the drop in overpressure but are potentially large (< hundreds of MPa). Time to the subsequent failure is then governed by reaccumulation of fluid overpressure as well as shear stress along the subduction interface.

  20. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive. PMID:26420092

  1. [Drainage for Subcutaneous Emphysema after Pulmonary Resection].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Yasunobu; Ohmori, Kenichi; Takeda, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    Severe subcutaneous emphysema sometimes develops after pulmonary resection. We report our management of ten patients who were treated with subcutaneous Penrose drainage. Water seal test at chest closure showed no air leakage in 5, and a small amount in 5. Chest X-ray at the progression of massive subcutaneous emphysema showed no obvious pneumothorax in 2, and slight apical pneumothorax in 8. Subcutaneous emphysema developed after removal of chest tubes in 6, and before removal in 4. Subcutaneous drains were inserted at the midclavicular line or the side chest in 8, and both in 2. Subcutaneous emphysema improved immediately after subcutaneous Penrose drainage with active compressive massage. Subcutaneous penrose drainage is easy and useful for relieving massive subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:27220920

  2. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  3. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  4. Breast cancer patient with an uncommon lymphatic drainage evidenced by SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Groheux, David; Ferré, Romuald; Rubello, Domenico; Vercellino, Laetitia; Hindié, Elif

    2014-02-01

    SPECT/CT reinforces the role of lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer by solving some cases with difficult reading on planar scintigraphy. An 80-year-old woman was referred to our institution for management of a screen-detected, nonpalpable, invasive lobular carcinoma of lower inner quadrant of the left breast. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed before surgery. Planar images showed an axillary sentinel node and 2 medially located hot spots. SPECT/CT allowed determining that one of the extra-axillary drainage sites was to the internal mammary basin, while the second corresponded to a mediastinal lymph node. Although this drainage was unexpected, mediastinum is a common site of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23797233

  5. Biopsy and drainage techniques in children.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Mark J; Hoffer, Fredric A

    2010-12-01

    Drainage and biopsy are mainstay procedures in pediatric interventional radiology. As in the adult population, percutaneous biopsy and fluid collection drainage can be performed almost anywhere in the body, in almost all organ systems, and for myriad indications. However, there are some technique differences in children. Radiation protection is paramount, requiring alterations in imaging and guidance. Children have unique sedation and anesthetic requirements, and smaller patients provide both advantages and disadvantages that require/allow for alteration of the procedural techniques. This article will focus on these differences and describe specific techniques applicable to pediatric patients. PMID:21055674

  6. Effect of Salts on Drainage of Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sett, Soumyadip; Karakashev, Stoyan; Smoukov, Stoyan; Yarin, Alexander

    Gravitational drainage from thin planar vertical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films in the presence of inorganic salts was experimentally studied. Strong ion-specific effects of the counter ions were found to affect the stability and the rate of drainage of the planar foam films as a function of concentration of the inorganic salts. The counter-ions can either stabilize (below the critical concentration) or destabilize the foam films. We found that the strongest foam stabilizer salt became the strongest foam destabilizer beyond its critical concentration.

  7. Geohydrology of the Irondequoit Creek Basin near Rochester, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Kappel, William M.

    1985-01-01

    Geohydrologic information on the area within and surrounding the Irondequoit Creek basin near Rochester, in north-central New York, is presented on five maps at 1:24,000 scale indicating: (1) locations of glacial geomorphic features, (2) surficial geology, (3) soil permeability, (4) potentiometric-surface altitude and directions of groundwater movement, and (5) groundwater recharge and flow patterns. Also included are 20 geologic sections showing statigraphic relationships, aquifer composition, and depth to bedrock. Each map includes a short text and a list of references. Results indicate that groundwater within the basin flows northward to Irondequoit Bay and Lake Ontario and that the groundwater drainage system is considerably smaller than the overlying surface drainage area. These maps, based on available records and published data, depict the location of major recharge areas, relative rates of recharge, and the direction and rates of groundwater flow within the basin for use in aquifer management. (USGS)

  8. Odiel River, acid mine drainage and current characterisation by means of univariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Sainz, A; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2003-04-01

    Water pollution caused by sulfide oxidation responds to two geochemical processes: a natural one of temporal patterns, and the 'acid mine drainage', an accelerated process derived from the extractive activity. The Odiel River is located in Southwestern Spain; it flows to the south and into the Atlantic Ocean after joining the Tinto River near its mouth, forming a common estuary. There are three kinds of metallic mining in the Odiel River Basin: manganese, gold and silver, and pyrite mining, the latter being the most important in this basin, which is the object of this study. The main objective of the present study is centred in the characterisation of the sources responsible for the 'acid mine drainage' processes in the Odiel River Basin, through the sampling and subsequent chemical and statistical analyses of water samples collected in three types of sources: mine dumps, active mines and abandoned mines. The main conclusion is that mean pH values in the target area are remarkably lower than those in other active and abandoned mines outside of the study zone. On the contrary, mean values for heavy metal sulfates are much higher. Regarding mine dumps, mean values for pH, sulfates and heavy metals are within a similar range to those data known for areas outside the study zone. PMID:12605937

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  10. Morphometric properties of the trans-Himalayan river catchments: Clues towards a relative chronology of orogen-wide drainage integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Sinha, Sayan; Misra, Arindam

    2015-03-01

    transverse watersheds occurring in the middle of the catchments resemble a series of small drainage basins formed on the precursor topography of the modern Himalayas. The lower parts of the catchments were shaped instead by drainage diversions induced by deformations related to the frontal thrust. We show how the shape of the catchments represents an integration of processes such as headward drainage enlargement, capture of pre-existing drainage, and diversion of drainage in response to crustal deformation at successive stages of Himalayan mountain growth. We further show that there is a systematic change in the morphological characters and organization of the watersheds, nested in the catchments, from the middle towards the flanks of the Himalayas indicating the variations in relative influence of different drainage evolution processes and the orogen-scale heterogeneity in tectonic style.

  11. Constraints on the events surrounding the drainage of glacial Lake Ojibway based on James Bay Lowlands sedimentary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Dell'Oste, F.; Parent, M.; Veillette, J.

    2009-12-01

    Deglaciation of the James Bay region was closely related to the development of glacial Lake Ojibway. The northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide sheet in this region was punctuated by at least three late-glacial (Cochrane) readvances into the Lake Ojibway basin, which occurred around late deglaciation time, shortly before the abrupt and final drainage of Lake Ojibway and concomitant incursion of the post-glacial Tyrrell Sea ~8 ka. Although paleogeographic reconstructions have traditionally portrayed the drainage of the lake occurring through the collapse of the residual ice mass, recent glaciological modeling suggests an alternative mechanism centered on subglacial flood(s). These glaciological considerations suggest that more than one drainage event may have occurred, possibly through different drainage pathways. Here we focus on the events that surround the drainage of Lake Ojibway by documenting late-glacial and Holocene stratigraphic sequences exposed along the Harricana, Nottaway, Broadback, and Rupert rivers in the James Bay lowlands, a region that lies near the final resting position of the ice margin during deglaciation. Our investigations indicate that the deglacial sequence consists of a carbonate-bearing readvance till, extensive Ojibway varves, and thick marine sediments. The contact between the glaciolacustrine and glaciomarine sediments is marked by a 50 cm-thick horizon composed of thinly laminated reddish and grey silt beds containing abundant rounded clay balls and disseminated clasts. This horizon is interpreted to reflect the abrupt drainage of Lake Ojibway. Radiocarbon dating of mollusks and foraminifers extracted from the uppermost part of the drainage horizon yielded ages of 7.64 and 8.02 14C ka BP. Micropaleontological examinations of the upper varve sequence revealed the presence of freshwater ostracods (Candona sp.), along with foraminifers. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analyses on ostracods and foraminifers originating from

  12. Extent of Pleistocene lakes in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.

    1999-01-01

    During the Pliocene to middle Pleistocene, pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin repeatedly rose to levels much higher than those of the well-documented late Pleistocene pluvial lakes, and some presently isolated basins were connected. Sedimentologic, geomorphic, and chronologic evidence at sites shown on the map indicates that Lakes Lahontan and Columbus-Rennie were as much as 70 m higher in the early-middle Pleistocene than during their late Pleistocene high stands. Lake Lahontan at its 1400-m shoreline level would submerge present-day Reno, Carson City, and Battle Mountain, and would flood other now-dry basins. To the east, Lakes Jonathan (new name), Diamond, Newark, and Hubbs also reached high stands during the early-middle(?) Pleistocene that were 25-40 m above their late Pleistocene shorelines; at these very high levels, the lakes became temporarily or permanently tributary to the Humboldt River and hence to Lake Lahontan. Such a temporary connection could have permitted fish to migrate from the Humboldt River southward into the presently isolated Newark Valley and from Lake Lahontan into Fairview Valley. The timing of drainage integration also provides suggested maximum ages for fish to populate the basins of Lake Diamond and Lake Jonathan. Reconstructing and dating these lake levels also has important implications for paleoclimate, tectonics, and drainage evolution in the western Great Basin. For example, shorelines in several basins form a stair-step sequence downward with time from the highest levels, thought to have formed at about 650 ka, to the lowest, formed during the late Pleistocene. This descending sequence indicates progressive drying of pluvial periods, possibly caused by uplift of the Sierra Nevada and other western ranges relative to the western Great Basin. However, these effects cannot account for the extremely high lake levels during the early middle Pleistocene; rather, these high levels were probably due to a combination of increased

  13. Water quality of runoff to the Clarksville Memorial Hospital drainage well and of Mobley Spring, Clarksville, Tennessee, February and March, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    A drainage well and a spring in Clarksville, Tennessee, have been instrumented to collect storm related data in order to define the types and concentrations of water quality characteristics in stormwater runoff and in the receiving groundwater basin. Water quality samples of storm runoff at the drainage well at Clarksville Memorial Hospital and of nearby Mobley Spring were collected during four storms and during normal flow conditions during February and March 1988. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic water quality constituents, selected trace metals, and organics. Several samples from the drainage well and the spring had trace-metals concentrations that exceeded maximum contaminant levels for State drinking-water standards. Organic compounds including phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and other base-neutral extractable organic substance are present in samples from both the drainage well and spring. (USGS)

  14. Using nocturnal cold air drainage flow to monitor ecosystem processes in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Pypker, Thomas G; Unsworth, Michael H; Mix, Alan C; Rugh, William; Ocheltree, Troy; Alstad, Karrin; Bond, Barbara J

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents initial investigations of a new approach to monitor ecosystem processes in complex terrain on large scales. Metabolic processes in mountainous ecosystems are poorly represented in current ecosystem monitoring campaigns because the methods used for monitoring metabolism at the ecosystem scale (e.g., eddy covariance) require flat study sites. Our goal was to investigate the potential for using nocturnal down-valley winds (cold air drainage) for monitoring ecosystem processes in mountainous terrain from two perspectives: measurements of the isotopic composition of ecosystem-respired CO2 (delta13C(ER)) and estimates of fluxes of CO2 transported in the drainage flow. To test if this approach is plausible, we monitored the wind patterns, CO2 concentrations, and the carbon isotopic composition of the air as it exited the base of a young (approximately 40 yr-old) and an old (>450 yr-old) steeply sided Douglas-fir watershed. Nocturnal cold air drainage within these watersheds was strong, deep, and occurred on more than 80% of summer nights. The depth of cold air drainage rapidly increased to tower height or greater when the net radiation at the top of the tower approached zero. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 in the drainage system holds promise as an indicator of variation in basin-scale physiological processes. Although there was little vertical variation in CO2 concentration at any point in time, we found that the range of CO2 concentration over a single evening was sufficient to estimate delta 13C(ER) from Keeling plot analyses. The seasonal variation in delta 13C(ER) followed expected trends: during the summer dry season delta 13C(ER) became less negative (more enriched in 13C), but once rain returned in the fall, delta 13C(ER) decreased. However, we found no correlation between recent weather (e.g., vapor pressure deficit) and delta 13C(ER) either concurrently or with up to a one-week lag. Preliminary estimates suggest that the nocturnal CO2

  15. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  16. GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

  17. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  18. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be used to join copper tubing to threaded pipe. (c) Drain outlets. (1) Each manufactured home shall.... (2) (e) Size of drainage piping—(1) Fixture load. Except as provided by § 3280.611(d), drain pipe.... (2) Size. A wet-vented drain pipe shall be 2 inches minimum diameter and at least one pipe...

  19. BEHAVIOR OF DOUBLE GEONET DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geonets have become a popular component of leak detection systems at surface impoundments, waste piles, landfills and heap leach systems. hey provide a reasonable alternative to gravel drainage designs which become costly when large quantities of leachate are anticipated. This pa...

  20. Use of Water Fluxmeters to Measure Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Andy L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Anandacoomaraswamy, A.

    2004-03-24

    Water supplies throughout the world are rapidly diminishing in quantity and quality. Efforts over the next decade must focus on methods which use water more efficiently for agriculture, industry, and recreational purposes, and at the same time reduce the potential for groundwater pollution. To assist in this effort, we have developed an improved method to simultaneously measure drainage quantity and quality using a water fluxmeter. Our water fluxmeter is a wick-lysimeter fitted with a small tipping-spoon and a solution-collection system. The only moving part is the tipping spoon. We have tested our fluxmeters under a range of conditions, from non-vegetated desert settings in Washington State USA, to irrigated tea plantations in Sri Lanka. Conditions of over-irrigation have been documented with our fluxmeters. When 4200 mm of water was applied to sandy soil via drip irrigation, at the Washington State site, over 3100 mm of drainage occurred. In contrast, at the same site, in the absence of both irrigation and vegetation, drainage was found to range from 0 mm/yr for a 1-m-deep silt loam soil to more than 100 mm/yr for a coarse-gravel surface. Solute transport, related to nitrate leaching can also be analyzed using water fluxmeters. Water fluxmeters have provided a reliable and inexpensive method to assess both quantity and quality of drainage waters over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  1. DESIGN MANUAL: NEUTRALIZATION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was prepared to assist designers and operators of mine drainage treatment plants in the selection of processes, equipment, and procedures. Included is a review of the most popular neutralizing agents and the methods used to handle, prepare, and feed these alkalies. Al...

  2. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  3. FISH HABITATS IMPACTED BY ACIDIC MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set represents in-stream fish spawning and hatching areas that have been impacted by elevated acid content waters discharging from areas near mining activities. It is based on an EPA fisheries survey completed in 1995. Acid Mine Drainage, or AMD, occurs when water co...

  4. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  5. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., correctly located according to the size and type of fixture to be connected. (1) Water closet connection.... (2) (e) Size of drainage piping—(1) Fixture load. Except as provided by § 3280.611(d), drain pipe.... (2) Size. A wet-vented drain pipe shall be 2 inches minimum diameter and at least one pipe...

  6. ON-FARM IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides a technical discussion of irrigation and drainage design and water management practices associated with irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. Surface irrigation being the principal method used in most arid areas is discussed in detail with the various types being outlined and...

  7. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology. PMID:26504507

  8. SODA ASH TREATMENT OF NEUTRALIZED MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of acid mine drainage (AMD) streams as a source of potable and industrial water has become a major goal of several proposed AMD treatment schemes. From among the various schemes available, the lime neutralization/soda ash softening process was selected for use at Alto...