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Sample records for albendazole sulphoxide abzso

  1. Placental transfer of albendazole sulphoxide enantiomers in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capece, B P S; Pérez, R; Andaluz, A; Pérez, F; Garcia, F; Castells, G; Arboix, M; Cristòfol, C

    2002-03-01

    Albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) is an anthelmintic drug used in veterinary practice. Its molecule has a chiral centre in the sulphur atom and racemic formulations are always used. The kinetics of the ABZSO enantiomers in the last third of pregnancy in ewes, and the placental transfer to the fetus, were studied after a single-dose oral administration (7.5 mg/kg) of a racemic formulation. In mothers, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and C(max) values of (+)-ABZSO (42.4+/-10.5 microg/mL and 1.9+/-0.4 microg/mL, respectively) were higher than those of (-)-ABZSO (15.3+/-5.1 microg/mL and 1.0+/-0.3 microg/mL). The MRT values were 17.0+/-1.6 h for (+)-ABZSO and 13.1+/-1.8 h for (-)-ABZSO. Similar kinetic parameters were obtained in the fetus for both enantiomers, but the fetal concentrations were lower compared with values for the dam. The AUC ratio between (-)-ABZSO/(+)-ABZSO in the dam was 0.36 and in the fetuses 0.64, indicating a higher impairment for the (+)-enantiomer in its placental transfer to the fetus. PMID:12093190

  2. Uptake of albendazole and albendazole sulphoxide by Haemonchus contortus and Fasciola hepatica in sheep.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L I; Imperiale, F A; Sánchez, S F; Murno, G A; Lanusse, C E

    2000-12-20

    The pattern of in vivo uptake of albendazole (ABZ) and its major metabolite, ABZ-sulphoxide (ABZSO), by Haemonchus contortus and Fasciola hepatica recovered from ABZ-treated sheep, was investigated. Concentration profiles of both compounds were simultaneously measured in target tissues/fluids from the same infected sheep. In addition, the proportion of the (+) and (-) ABZSO enantiomers was determined in plasma, bile and F. hepatica recovered from treated sheep. Sheep naturally infected with H. contortus were intraruminally (i.r.) treated with ABZ (micronized suspension, 7. 5mg/kg) and the plasma concentrations of ABZSO and ABZ-sulphone (ABZSO(2)) determined in addition to the concentration of ABZ and ABZSO in H. contortus, abomasal mucosa and fluid content samples. In addition, F. hepatica artificially infected sheep were treated i.r. with the same ABZ suspension (7.5mg/kg), and samples of blood, bile, liver tissue and adult flukes were collected and analysed by HPLC to determine the concentrations of ABZ and both enantiomers of ABZSO. ABZSO and ABZSO(2) were the analytes recovered in plasma with ABZ and ABZSO present in H. contortus. ABZ was the analyte recovered at the highest concentration in H. contortus and abomasal mucosa, whereas higher concentrations of ABZSO were measured in abomasal fluid content. Only low concentrations of ABZ were detected in F. hepatica and bile, but markedly higher concentrations of ABZ were measured in liver tissue. ABZSO was the main molecule recovered in F. hepatica, plasma and bile samples collected from ABZ-treated sheep. The (+) enantiomer of ABZSO was recovered at a higher proportion in plasma (75%), bile (78%) and F. hepatica (74%) after ABZ administration to infected sheep. PMID:11078946

  3. Placental and fetal toxicity of albendazole sulphoxide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Miriam T; Felipe, Antonio E; Solana, Hugo D; Sallovitz, Juan M; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2003-06-01

    This work characterized the effects of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) on placental and fetal parameters in Wistar rats on day 20 of gestation. ABZSO was fed in laboratory chow at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/d from day 6 to 15 of gestation to pregnant rats. Data of resorptions, placental and fetal characteristics and fetal skeletal malformations were recorded. Resorption percentages in the 20 and 30 mg/kg/d groups were significantly higher compared to the control group. Placentas of ABZSO-treated rats had lower weight and smaller size than untreated rats. The fetal weight and size were lower in the 5 mg/kg/d dose compared to no treatment. In the 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/d groups, reductions in ossification process were observed. ABZSO induced malformations and/or fetal death when orally administered to pregnant rats. This data contributes to characterization of the reproductive toxicity of ABZSO, the main active metabolite of albendazole. PMID:12776788

  4. Albendazole sulphoxide kinetic disposition after treatment with different formulations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dib, A; Palma, S; Suárez, G; Farías, C; Cabrera, P; Castro, S; Allemandi, D; Moreno, L; Lanusse, C; Sánchez Bruni, S

    2011-04-01

    New therapeutic strategies based on the search of alternative formulations of albendazole (ABZ) and albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) are under current development to optimize posology and antiparasite efficacy in dogs. In an incomplete block design, nine dogs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6). Treatments were carried out in two phases as follows. Phase I: Group I (treatment A), animals received ABZ at 25 mg/kg of conventional formulation. Group II (treatment B), dogs received 25 mg/kg of a modified poloxamer-ABZ formulation. Group III (treatment C), animals were treated with ABZSO in equimolar amount to ABZ doses. After 21 days of wash-out period the experiment was repeated (Phase II). Blood samples were collected over 24 h and subsequently analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. ABZSO and ABZSO(2) were the analytes recovered in plasma. Significant higher (P < 0.001) ABZSO area under the concentration-time curve (+500%) and C(max) (+487%) values were obtained for the treatment C in comparison with treatments A and B. However, no statistical differences on pharmacokinetic parameters were found between formulations A and B. In conclusion, the enhanced plasma concentration profile obtained for the ABZSO formulation used in treatment C may contribute to optimize the anthelmintic control in dogs. PMID:21395604

  5. Albendazole sulphoxide enantiomers in pregnant rats' embryo concentrations and developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Capece, B P S; Navarro, M; Arcalis, T; Castells, G; Toribio, L; Perez, F; Carretero, A; Ruberte, J; Arboix, M; Cristòfol, C

    2003-05-01

    Three single oral doses (8.5, 10, and 14 mg/kg) of a racemic formulation of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) were administered to pregnant rats on day 10 of gestation. Mother plasma and embryo concentrations of ABZSO enantiomers and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO(2)) were determined 9 h after administration. The (-)-ABZSO enantiomer showed higher peak concentrations in both maternal plasma and embryo than the (+) enantiomer. An increase in embryo concentrations of ABZSO enantiomers and ABZSO(2) was only observed when dose rose to 14 mg/kg. There was an increase in resorption when the dose increased, but significant differences were only found in the higher dose group when compared with the other groups. The incidence of external and skeletal malformations (mostly of the tail, vertebrae and ribs) rose significantly in the 10 mg/kg group, producing almost 20% and 90% of malformed fetuses, respectively, and gross external and skeletal abnormalities in the thoracic region and limbs were also found. PMID:12672373

  6. Evaluation of potential embryo toxicity of albendazole sulphoxide in CF1 mice.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Miriam; Dercole, Jaqueline; Catalano, Rodolfo

    2011-04-01

    Benzimidazole compounds are used in both humans and animals for controlling helminth parasites. Albendazole has teratogenic effects attributed to its active metabolite albendazole sulphoxide. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the latter compound when administered to pregnant CF1 mice during the preimplantation period. Females were superovulated by intraperitoneal injection of 10 IU of eCG and 10 IU of hCG (48h later) and were paired with males of proven fertility. Albendazole sulphoxide (200 mg/kg) was orally administered by gavages at day 1, 2 or 3 of pregnancy; the control group received only the vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose). Females were killed by cervical dislocation at day 4 of pregnancy and embryos were flushed from uteri with Ham F10 media supplemented with bovine serum albumin (0.4%). Number of collected embryos per female, percentage of morphologically normal embryos, differentiation rate and number of cells per embryos were recorded. The variables were analyzed on a per litter basis by Kruskal-Wallis test. There was no effect of albendazole sulphoxide on parameters evaluated (P>0.05). We conclude that the preimplantation mouse embryo development was not significantly affected by albendazole sulphoxide. PMID:21667669

  7. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes.

    PubMed

    García-Rodriguez, J J; Torrado, J; Bolás, F

    2001-06-01

    The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC) compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC) was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms) and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae). Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) enantiomer (-) were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC. PMID:11484352

  8. Gastrointestinal distribution of albendazole metabolites following netobimin administration to cattle: relationship with plasma disposition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, C E; Gascon, L H; Prichard, R K

    1993-03-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) distribution and plasma disposition kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) metabolites after oral administration of netobimin (NTB) to cattle were studied. Eight Holstein steers (150-180 kg) were surgically fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen, abomasum and ileum. After post-surgical recovery, the animals were treated orally with a suspension of netobimin zwitterion (400 mg/ml) at 20 mg/kg. Jugular blood and ruminal, abomasal and ileal fluid samples were taken serially over a 96 h period and analysed by HPLC for NTB and its metabolites, including ABZ, ABZ sulphoxide (ABZSO), ABZ sulphone (ABZSO2) and amino-albendazole sulphone (NH2ABZSO2). NTB parent drug was only found in the GI tract and for only 12-18 h post-treatment. ABZSO and ABZSO2 were the main metabolites found in plasma, being present for 30-36 h. These metabolites were exchanged between plasma and different GI fluids and were greatly concentrated in the abomasum. This phenomenon may account for the presence of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 in the GI tract for 72 h post-treatment despite the fact that ABZ was not detected in plasma and ABZSO and ABZSO2 were detected for only 30-36 h in plasma. The presence of ABZ and ABZSO in the abomasum and intestine for this extended period of time is probably relevant for anthelmintic efficacy against GI parasites. The NH2 ABZSO2 metabolite was detected in plasma, abomasum and ileum and its disposition kinetics were characterized for the first time. PMID:8478999

  9. Methimazole increases the plasma concentrations of the albendazole metabolites of netobimin in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, C E; Prichard, R K

    1992-03-01

    The influence of methimazole (MTZ) on the pharmacokinetics of netobimin (NTB) and its metabolites was investigated in adult sheep. NTB zwitterion suspension was administered at 20 mg kg-1 by intraruminal injection either alone or with simultaneous administration of MTZ intramuscularly at 1.5 mg kg-1. Blood samples were taken serially over a 120-h period and plasma was analysed by HPLC for NTB, albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO), and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2). NTB parent drug showed fast absorption, low area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and was rapidly removed from plasma after both treatments. The presence of MTZ did increase significantly the ABZ AUC (138 per cent) and mean residence time (MRT) (86 per cent). Concomitant treatment with MTZ resulted in a notably higher ABZSO plasma profile with significantly longer elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) (390 per cent) and MRT (252 per cent) and with significantly higher AUC (95 per cent). Also, MTZ induced significant increases in ABZSO2 t1/2 beta, AUC, and MRT. We have demonstrated a pharmacokinetic interaction between MTZ and NTB metabolites. MTZ may alter the liver biotransformation of ABZ metabolites which results in pronounced changes in the disposition kinetics of anthelmintically active metabolites. PMID:1550912

  10. Development of achiral and chiral 2D HPLC methods for analysis of albendazole metabolites in microsomal fractions using multivariate analysis for the in vitro metabolism.

    PubMed

    Belaz, Kátia Roberta A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Oliveira, Regina V

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the development of two multidimensional liquid chromatography methods coupled to a fluorescence detector is described for direct analysis of microsomal fractions obtained from rat livers. The chiral multidimensional method was then applied for the optimization of the in vitro metabolism of albendazole by experimental design. Albendazole was selected as a model drug because of its anthelmintics properties and recent potential for cancer treatment. The development of two fully automated achiral-chiral and chiral-chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites albendazole sulphoxide (ABZ-SO), albendazole sulphone (ABZ-SO2) and albendazole 2-aminosulphone (ABZ-SO2NH2) in microsomal fractions are described. These methods involve the use of a phenyl (RAM-phenyl-BSA) or octyl (RAM-C8-BSA) restricted access media bovine serum albumin column for the sample clean-up, followed by an achiral phenyl column (15.0×0.46cmI.D.) or a chiral amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) column (15.0×0.46cmI.D.). The chiral 2D HPLC method was applied to the development of a compromise condition for the in vitro metabolism of ABZ by means of experimental design involving multivariate analysis. PMID:23831523

  11. Effect of amphiphilic surfactant agents on the gastrointestinal absorption of albendazole in cattle.

    PubMed

    Virkel, Guillermo; Imperiale, Fernanda; Lifschitz, Adrián; Pis, Alejandra; Alvarez, Ana; Merino, Gracia; Prieto, Julio; Lanusse, Carlos

    2003-04-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used broad-spectrum benzimidazole (BZD) anthelmintic. Low hydrosolubility and poor/erratic gastrointestinal (GI) absorption play against the systemic availability and resultant clinical efficacy of BZD compounds. Different strategies are currently investigated to improve their bioavailability and efficacy in different animal species and humans. Surfactant agents facilitate dissolution of lipophilic drugs and increase membrane permeability. The influence of amphiphilic surfactants on the pattern of absorption and systemic availability of ABZ and its metabolites in cattle was characterized in the current trial. Twenty (20) parasite-free Holstein calves (100-120 kg) were randomly allocated into four groups and treated intraruminally (10 mg/kg) using one of the following ABZ suspensions: control without surfactant (75/25 dimetyl sulphoxide/saline solution) (group A), 5 mM sodium taurocholate (STC) in saline solution (group B), 8.27 mM sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in saline solution (group C) and a commercial formulation (Valbazen((R)), Pfizer Inc. SA) (group D). Jugular blood samples were taken over 72 h post-treatment and plasma analysed by HPLC. Albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone were the metabolites found in plasma. STC did not affect ABZ absorption while increased ABZSO peak plasma concentration (C(max)) (158% higher, P<0.001) was observed following co-administration of ABZ plus SLS, compared to the control group without surfactant. ABZSO plasma availability was significantly greater after the ABZ-SLS (164%) co-administration compared to that obtained in the control group without surfactant. A similar ABZSO plasma availability was obtained following the treatments with the ABZ-SLS and the commercially available formulation. SLS-mediated enhanced dissolution and absorption of ABZ accounted for the observed increased systemic availability of the active ABZSO metabolite in cattle. These results should be considered among

  12. Effects of feeding on the plasma disposition kinetics of the anthelmintic albendazole in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L

    2014-01-01

    1. To optimise the use of albendazole (ABZ) as an anthelmintic in hens, the effects of fasting and type of diet on the plasma kinetics of ABZ and its metabolites were evaluated. 2. Twenty-four hens were distributed into 4 groups: In experiment I the Fed group were fed ad libitum, while the Fasted group was fasted over a 12-h period. In experiment II the Pelleted group was fed with pelleted commercial food, while the Grain group was fed with cereal grains. All the groups were treated with ABZ by oral route. Blood samples were taken and plasma analysed by HPLC. 3. ABZ and its metabolites albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole-sulphone (ABZSO2) were recovered in plasma in all the groups. The 12-h fasting period did not modify the disposition kinetics of ABZ in hens. The type of feed affected ABZ kinetics. ABZSO concentration profile was higher and detected for longer in the Grain group compared to the Pelleted group. Statistical differences were not found for AUC0-∞ values, whereas the T1/2for and T1/2el were different between groups. 4. Factors affecting ABZ kinetic behaviour should be taken into account to optimise its use to ensure the sustainability of the limited available anthelmintic therapeutic tools in avian parasite control. PMID:25159169

  13. Modified plasma and abomasal disposition of albendazole in nematode-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L I; Sánchez, S F; Lanusse, C E

    1997-05-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) in plasma and abomasal fluid was investigated in sheep. A micronised suspension of ABZ was administered intraruminally at 7.5 mg kg-1 to the following groups of sheep: (a) non-parasitised (control); (b) artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus; (c) naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment and they were analysed by HPLC for ABZ and its metabolites. The ABZ parent drug was not detected in plasma at any time post-treatment, however the metabolites ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered in the bloodstream. The active metabolite ABZSO was recovered in plasma between 0.5 and 48 (uninfected), 60 (H. contortus infected) or 72 h (naturally infected sheep) post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) values for ABZSO were higher in both artificially infected (64.0 micrograms h ml-1) and naturally infected (79.3 micrograms h ml-1) sheep as compared with non-infected animals (41.8 micrograms h ml-1). Peak plasma concentrations for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were higher in both artificially and naturally infected sheep than in non-parasitised animals. No changes in the half-lives and mean residence times for these metabolites were observed in infected sheep. ABZ and its metabolites were found in the abomasum between 0.5 and 48 (infected animals) or 72 h (uninfected) post-treatment. The availability (total AUCs) of ABZ and its metabolites in abomasal fluid were lower in H. contortus infected sheep than in the uninfected control animals. The increased abomasal pH induced by the presence of the H. contortus infection may reduce the plasma/abomasum pH gradient, which results in a decreased ionic-trapping of ABZ and its metabolites in the abomasum. Such a

  14. Bioavailability and efficacy characteristics of two different oral liquid formulations of albendazole.

    PubMed

    García, Juan José; Bolás, Francisco; Torrado, Juan José

    2003-01-16

    The oral bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy in mice of a new formulation of albendazole (ABZ) dissolved in a solution of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) are compared with a conventional ABZ suspension of carboxymethylcellulose. Plasma concentrations of ABZ and albendazole sulphoxide (ABZ-SO), its active and main metabolite, were assayed by HPLC. The AUC(0- infinity ) and C(max) values obtained for both ABZ and ABZ-SO, after administration of the ABZ-HPCD solution were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those obtained from the ABZ suspension. Although, the differences between the ABZ and ABZ-SO-T(max) values were found not to be significant, regardless of the formulation. The anthelmintic activities against enteral (pre-adult) and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae) stages of Trichinella spiralis were studied in mice. The ABZ solution was more efficient against pre-adult and encysted larvae than the ABZ suspension. The efficacy differences between both formulations against the migrating larvae, were found to be not significant (P<0.05). For the migrating parasite stage, there was a linear correlation between the anthelmintic activity and pharmacokinetical parameters with respect to the ABZ-AUC(0- infinity ) value. Meanwhile, for the muscular encysted parasite stage, better relationships were obtained for AUC(0- infinity ) and C(max) values from ABZ-SO, which had correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.987, respectively. PMID:12527162

  15. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing

  16. Determination of albendazole and metabolites in silkworm Bombyx mori hemolymph by ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905-0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%-103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%-108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%-105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%-106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321

  17. Cystic echinococcosis therapy: Albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the oral bioavailability and efficacy in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Pensel, Patricia E; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela; Fabbri, Julia; Ceballos, Laura; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Alvarez, Luis I; Allemandi, Daniel; Benoit, Jean Pierre; Palma, Santiago D; Elissondo, María C

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and hydatid cysts. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) represent nanocarriers designed to encapsulate lipophilic drugs, such as ABZ. The goals of the current work were: (i) to characterize the plasma and cyst drug exposure after the administration of ABZ as ABZ-LNCs or ABZ suspension (ABZ-SUSP) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and ii) to compare the clinical efficacies of both ABZ formulations. Enhanced ABZ sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) concentration profiles were obtained in plasma and cysts from ABZ-LNC treated animals. ABZSO exposure (AUC0-LOQ) was significantly higher in plasma and cyst after the ABZ-LNC treatments, both orally and subcutaneously, compared to that observed after oral administration of ABZ-SUSP. Additionally, ABZSO concentrations measured in cysts from ABZ-LNC treated mice were 1.7-fold higher than those detected in plasma. This enhanced drug availability correlated with an increased efficacy against secondary CE in mice observed for the ABZ-LNCs, while ABZ-SUSP did not reach differences with the untreated control group. This new pharmacotechnically-based strategy could be a potential alternative to improve the treatment of human CE. PMID:26409727

  18. Enhanced plasma availability of the metabolites of albendazole in fasted adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Mastromarino, M; Lanusse, C

    1997-04-01

    The influence of fasting prior to treatment and of dosing rate on the plasma availability and disposition kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) metabolites was studied in adult sheep grazing on pasture. A micronized suspension of ABZ was administered orally at either 7.5 mg/kg (group A) or 11.3 mg/kg (group C) to sheep fed ad libitum, and at 7.5 mg/kg to sheep subjected to a 24 h fasting period prior to treatment (group B). Blood samples were taken serially over 96 h after treatment, and the plasma was analysed for ABZ and its metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography. ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered from the plasma. Fasting induced marked modifications in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of the ABZ metabolites in sheep. An extended absorption process, with a delayed peak concentration in the plasma, was observed for both metabolites in the fasted sheep. Significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) values were obtained for both metabolites in the fasted animals compared to those fed ad libitum. Delayed elimination with prolonged detection in plasma was also observed in the fasted sheep. Treatment with ABZ at 7.5 mg/kg in the starved animals resulted in bioequivalence to the administration of the compound at a 50% higher dose rate (11.3 mg/kg) in the fed animals. It is suggested that fasting enhances ABZ dissolution and absorption by delaying its passage down the digestive tract. PMID:9090047

  19. Dose-dependent activity of albendazole against benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in sheep: relationship between pharmacokinetics and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L; Echevarria, F; Muñoz, F; Alvarez, L; Sanchez Bruni, S; Lanusse, C

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the pharmacokinetic behaviour and the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) against benzimidazole (BZD)-resistant nematodes was studied in sheep. A micronized ABZ suspension was orally administered at two different dose levels to sheep naturally infected with BZD-resistant gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes. The experimental animals were allocated into the following groups (n = 8): (a) untreated control; (b) orally treated with ABZ at 3.8 mg/kg b.w.; and (c) orally treated with ABZ at 7.5 mg/kg b.w. Plasma samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment from both treated groups and analysed by HPLC to measure the concentrations of ABZ and its sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO(2)) metabolites. Faecal egg counts were performed prior to treatment and at the necropsy day. All experimental animals were sacrificed 10 days after treatment to perform GI worm counts. While ABZ parent drug was not recovered in the bloodstream, ABZSO and ABZSO(2) were the molecules found in plasma. ABZSO was the metabolite measured at the highest concentrations in the bloodstream for up to 36 (treatment at 3.8 mg/kg) or 60 h (treatment at 7.5 mg/kg) post-administration. There was a proportional relationship between the administered ABZ dose and the measured plasma concentrations of both ABZ metabolites. Over a 100% increment on the plasma AUC values for the anthelmintically active ABZSO metabolite was observed at the 7.5 mg/kg compared to the 3.8 mg/kg treatment. The low efficacy patterns (< 24%) observed against the GI nematodes investigated indicate a high level of resistance to ABZ given at 3.8 mg/kg an efficacious therapeutic dose rate recommended in some countries. However, the higher and prolonged plasma drug concentration measured after the 7.5 mg/kg treatment resulted in an improved efficacy pattern (estimated by both faecal egg and adult worm counts) against most of the GI nematodes studied compared to that obtained at the lower dose rate. A

  20. In vitro analysis of albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers shows that (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide is the active enantiomer against Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E; Cass, Quezia B

    2013-02-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (-)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  1. In Vitro Analysis of Albendazole Sulfoxide Enantiomers Shows that (+)-(R)-Albendazole Sulfoxide Is the Active Enantiomer against Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; de Campos Lourenço, Tiago; Marzal, Miguel; Rivera, Andrea; Dorny, Pierre; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H.; Cass, Quezia B.

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole is an anthelmintic drug widely used in the treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain with Taenia solium cysts. However, drug levels of its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), are erratic, likely resulting in decreased efficacy and suboptimal cure rates in NCC. Racemic albendazole sulfoxide is composed of ABZSO (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers that have been shown to differ in pharmacokinetics and activity against other helminths. The antiparasitic activities of racemic ABZSO and its (+)-(R)- and (−)-(S) enantiomers against T. solium cysts were evaluated in vitro. Parasites were collected from naturally infected pigs, cultured, and exposed to the racemic mixture or to each enantiomer (range, 10 to 500 ng/ml) or to praziquantel as a reference drug. The activity of each compound against cysts was assayed by measuring the ability to evaginate and inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parasite antigen release. (+)-(R)-ABZSO was significantly more active than (−)-(S)-ABZSO in suppressing the release of AP and antigen into the supernatant in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that most of the activity of ABZSO resides in the (+)-(R) enantiomer. Use of this enantiomer alone may lead to increased efficacy and/or less toxicity compared to albendazole. PMID:23229490

  2. Determination of Albendazole and Metabolites in Silkworm Bombyx mori Hemolymph by Ultrafast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905–0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%–103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%–108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%–105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%–106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321

  3. Comparative plasma disposition kinetics of albendazole and its new benzimidazol prodrug in dog.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Z; El Karbane, M; Faouzi, M E A; Ansar, M; Azougagh, M; El Harti, J; Taoufik, J

    2016-01-01

    The comparative pharmacokinetic behavior of albendazole (ABZ) and its new benzimidazol prodrug [1-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-5-propylthio-1-H-benzimidazol-2ylcarbamate of methyl] (ABZBoc), following their oral administration (10mg/kg) to healthy dogs was explored. Blood samples were obtained serially over a 24h period after treatment, then the plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to search the albendazole metabolites (ABZSO and ABZSO2). However, the albendazole parent drug was not detectable at any time after both treatments (ABZ and ABZBoc). By albendazole metabolites (ABZSO and ABZSO2) were the analytes recovered in the plasma after oral administration of ABZ and ABZBoc. Furthermore, some amounts of ABZBoc were also available in the plasma samples treated with this new produg. The plasma profile of each analyte followed a similar pattern after both treatments, the active metabolite (ABZSO) was the major analyte recovered in plasma (between 1 and 24h post-treatment). The pharmacokinetic parameters of both groups were calculated (Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-›∞), and analyzed using the Student's t-test, P<0.05. Thus,the pharmacokinetic analysis indicated four statistically significant changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters defined above of the albendazole metabolites (ABZSO, ABZSO2) between the group treated with albendazole (group A) and that treated with ABZBoc prodrug (group B). Hence, the levels of the various pharmacokinetics parameters were low in the group treated with prodrug, as well they did not reach equivalent concentrations to that of albendazole. These differences between albendazole and its new prodrug may be explained by the fact that ABZBoc prodrug was not effectively reduced in the intestine of dogs. PMID:26530448

  4. Clinical pharmacokinetics of albendazole in children with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Jung, H; Sánchez, M; González-Astiazarán, A; Martínez, J M; Suástegui, R; González-Esquivel, D F

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulphoxide, the main metabolite of albendazole, were studied in eight children with brain cysticercosis. Albendazole was given as a single oral dose of 15 mg per kg body weight (Zentel suspension; Smith Kline & Beecham, Philadelphia, PA). Blood samples were taken during 24 h and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Plasma levels showed great interindividual variation. Maximum plasma levels for albendazole sulphoxide ranged from 0.2-1.0 microg/mL. A double peak was found in four children. The half-life for albendazole sulphoxide was from 2.3-8.3 hours and mean residence time values were from 5. 1-13.6 hours. These values are shorter than those found in adults. The results suggest that when treating children with neurocysticercosis, albendazole should be administered three times a day rather than twice daily as is currently done in Mexico. PMID:10423586

  5. Disposition of netobimin, albendazole, and its metabolites in the pregnant rat: developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cristòfol, C; Navarro, M; Franquelo, C; Valladares, J E; Carretero, A; Ruberte, J; Arboix, M

    1997-05-01

    Netobimin (NTB), a benzimidazole prodrug with a good anthelmintic spectrum, was administered orally to female rats at a dose of 59.5 mg NTB/kg, to study its pharmacokinetic behavior and the disposition of its most important metabolites, albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), and albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2). ABZ was found in plasma after 6 hr. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and areas under curves (AUC) of ABZSO were eight- and fourfold higher, respectively, than those of ABZSO2. To study NTB disposition in pregnant rats, three different drug doses (50, 59.5, and 70.7 mg/kg) were given. No significant differences were found between plasma concentrations for each metabolite at the three doses studied. Only ABZ concentrations rose slightly as dose increased. ABZ, ABZSO, and ABZSO2 were found in amniotic sacs and embryos at concentrations that were higher than plasma at the same times. The fetuses obtained after administration of each of the doses of NTB were studied to detect developmental toxicity. A significant correlation was found between rate of developmental toxicity and metabolite concentration. ABZSO embryo concentrations could be the main factor accounting for toxicity. PMID:9169069

  6. An antioxidant response is involved in resistance of Giardia duodenalis to albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Argüello-García, Raúl; Cruz-Soto, Maricela; González-Trejo, Rolando; Paz-Maldonado, Luz María T.; Bazán-Tejeda, M. Luisa; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a therapeutic benzimidazole used to treat giardiasis that targets β-tubulin. However, the molecular bases of ABZ resistance in Giardia duodenalis are not understood because β-tubulin in ABZ-resistant clones lacks mutations explaining drug resistance. In previous work we compared ABZ-resistant (1.35, 8, and 250 μM) and ABZ-susceptible clones by proteomic analysis and eight proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, and antioxidant response were found as differentially expressed among the clones. Since ABZ is converted into sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) and sulphone (ABZ-SOO) metabolites we measured the levels of these metabolites, the antioxidant enzymes and free thiols in the susceptible and resistant clones. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of ABZ-SO/ABZ-SOO induced by ABZ were determined by fluorescein diacetate-based fluorescence and liquid chromatography respectively. The mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes (NADH oxidase, peroxiredoxin 1a, superoxide dismutase and flavodiiron protein) in these clones were determined by RT-PCR and proteomic analysis. The intracellular sulfhydryl (R-SH) pool was quantified using dinitrobenzoic acid. The results showed that ABZ induced ROS accumulation in the ABZ-susceptible Giardia cultures but not in the resistant ones whilst the accumulation of ABZ-SO and ABZ-SOO was lower in all ABZ-resistant cultures. Consistent with these findings, all the antioxidant enzymes detected and analyzed were upregulated in ABZ-resistant clones. Likewise the R-SH pool increased concomitantly to the degree of ABZ-resistance. These results indicate an association between accumulation of ABZ metabolites and a pro-oxidant effect of ABZ in Giardia-susceptible clones. Furthermore the antioxidant response involving ROS-metabolizing enzymes and intracellular free thiols in ABZ-resistant parasites suggest that this response may contribute to overcome the pro-oxidant cytotoxicity of ABZ. PMID

  7. Testing albendazole resistance in Fasciola hepatica: validation of an egg hatch test with isolates from South America and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Canevari, J; Ceballos, L; Sanabria, R; Romero, J; Olaechea, F; Ortiz, P; Cabrera, M; Gayo, V; Fairweather, I; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L

    2014-09-01

    The main goal of the current work was to develop and validate an in vitro fluke egg hatch test, as a method for the detection of albendazole (ABZ) resistance in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Fluke eggs (200/ml, n= 5) from six different isolates were used in the current experimental work. They were obtained from different geographical locations and named Cullompton (UK), CEDIVE (Chascomus, Argentina), INTA-Bariloche (Bariloche, Argentina), Rubino (Uruguay), Cajamarca (Perú) and Río Chico (Catamarca, Argentina). The fluke eggs were incubated (25 °C) for a 12-h period in the presence of either ABZ or its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZ.SO) (5, 0.5 or 0.05 nmol/ml). Untreated eggs were incubated as a control. Incubated eggs (with or without drug present) were kept in darkness at 25 °C for 15 days. Afterwards, the trematode eggs were exposed to daylight over a 2-h period. Hatched and unhatched eggs were evaluated using an optical microscope, and the ovicidal activity was assessed for each fluke isolate. A very low ovicidal activity ( ≤ 13.4%) was observed in the ABZ-resistant CEDIVE isolate for both ABZ and ABZ.SO. Conversely, in the INTA-Bariloche and Río Chico isolates, which are suspected to be susceptible to ABZ, ovicidal activities ≥ 70.3% were observed after incubation with ABZ at the lowest concentration tested (0.05 nmol/ml). This finding correlates with that previously described for the ABZ-susceptible Cullompton. Finally, the Cajamarca and Rubino isolates behaved as ABZ resistant, since no ovicidal activity was observed after eggs were incubated with ABZ at 0.5 nmol/ml. Considering the specific results obtained for each isolate under assessment, the egg hatch test described here may be a suitable method for detection of ABZ resistance in F. hepatica. PMID:23510506

  8. Diet-induced modulation of pharmacokinetics of albendazole in Sahiwal cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, P K; Rawte, D; Kerketta, A E; Kumbhakar, N K; Kumar, D; Pal, S; Baghel, K R; Bisen, S

    2016-09-01

    The influence of diet type and pre-treatment fasting on the kinetic disposition of albendazole was evaluated in Sahiwal heifers following oral and intra-ruminal administration of the drug. The anthelmintically active moiety albendazole sulphoxide appeared early and was eliminated early in cattle offered green fodder, with decreased maximum concentration (C max) and area under concentration-time curve (AUC) when the drug was administered both through oral and intra-ruminal routes. Further, the elimination half-life (t ½β) revealed significantly increased values for albendazole sulphoxide in cattle administered albendazole through the intra-ruminal route. An increased AUC and t ½β is reflective of increased bioavailability of albendazole in animals offered dry fodder. Increased values (P <  0.05) of C max, time to C max (T max), AUC and t ½β for albendazole sulphoxide occurred in cattle with a pre-treatment 24-h fast, resulting in its increased bioavailability. Extrapolation of data of the active metabolite albendazole sulphoxide levels in terms of drug-parasite contact revealed increased exposure of parasites to the drug in cattle administered albendazole through the intra-ruminal route and with 24-h pre-treatment fasting. PMID:26306773

  9. Efficacy of pharmacokinetic interactions between piperonyl butoxide and albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in goats.

    PubMed

    Kumbhakar, N K; Sanyal, P K; Rawte, D; Kumar, D; Kerketta, A E; Pal, S

    2016-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that modulation of hepatic microsomal sulphoxidation and sulphonation by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide could increase bioavailability of albendazole, the present study was undertaken to understand the pharmacokinetics of albendazole in goats at a dose of 7.5 mg kg- 1 body weight with and without co-administration with piperonyl butoxide at 63.0 mg kg- 1 body weight. Plasma albendazole sulphoxide metabolite, the anthelmintically active moiety, reached its maximum concentration of 0.322 ± 0.045 μg ml- 1 and 0.384 ± 0.013 μg ml- 1 at 18 h and 24 h after administration of albendazole alone and co-administration of albendazole with piperonyl butoxide, respectively. Analysis of the data revealed statistically increased albendazole sulphoxide levels at 24 (P 0.05) in values of maximum concentration (normal and calculated) could be observed between groups of goats. However, values of time to reach the concentration maximum (normal and calculated), area under the concentration-time curve (0-∞ and calculated), minimum residence time, distribution half-life, elimination half-life and total area under the first movement of plasma drug concentration-time curve were significantly higher (P <  0.05) in plasma levels of albendazole sulphoxide in goats following single oral co-administration of albendazole with piperonyl butoxide. The faecal egg count reduction and lower 95% confidence limit for the group treated with albendazole alone were 97 and 68%, while for co-administration of albendazole and piperonyl butoxide the values were 99 and 97%, respectively. The ED50 for egg hatch was 0.196, indicating suspected resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics. The drug combination proved efficacious against an albendazole-resistant nematode parasite population in goats. PMID:26566193

  10. Simultaneous determination of albendazole and its metabolites in fish muscle tissue by stable isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Hanxiang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yuanming; Dai, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuechang

    2011-08-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to determine albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone, and albendazole 2-aminosulfone in fish muscle tissue. The fish samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, then the organic phase was evaporated to dryness, and the residue was reconstituted in methanol-water solution and cleaned up by n-hexane. Reversed-phase separation of target compounds was achieved using a BEH C18 column and a gradient consisting of 0.2% (v/v) formic acid and methanol. Tandem mass spectrometry analyses were performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. In the whole procedure, the isotope-labeled internal standards were used to correct the matrix effect and variations associated with the analysis. The method was validated with respect to linearity, specificity, accuracy, and precision. The method exhibited a linear response from 0.1 to 20 ng mL(-1) (r(2) > 0.9985). The limit of quantitation for albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), and albendazole 2-aminosulfone (ABZ-2-NH(2)SO(2)) was 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean recoveries of ABZ, ABZSO, ABZSO(2), and ABZ-2-NH(2)SO(2) spiked at a level of 0.2-5.0 ng g(-1) were 95.3-113.7%, and the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day measurements were less than 6.38%. The method was later successfully applied to the determination of albendazole and its three metabolites in 60 fish samples collected from local markets. PMID:21633840

  11. Albendazole in environment: faecal concentrations in lambs and impact on lower development stages of helminths and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Podlipná, Radka; Lamka, Jiří; Dědková, Tereza; Skálová, Lenka; Vokřál, Ivan; Lecová, Lenka; Vaněk, Tomáš; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-07-01

    Albendazole (ABZ), widely used benzimidazole anthelmintic, administered to animals enters via excrements into environment and may impact non-target organisms. Moreover, exposure of lower development stages of helminths to anthelmintics may also encourage the development of drug-resistant strains of helminths. In present project, the kinetics of ABZ (10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and its metabolite (ABZ.SO, ABZSO2) elimination in faeces from treated Texel lambs were studied using UHPLC/MS/MS with the aim to find out their concentrations achievable in the environment. Consequently, the effect of these compounds on lower development stages of Barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) and on germination of white mustard (Sinapis alba) seeds was evaluated. The results showed that ABZ concentrations in faeces excreted in 4-60 h after treatment were above the concentrations lethal for H. contortus eggs. Moreover, pre-incubation with sub-lethal doses of ABZ and ABZ.SO did not increase the resistance of H. contortus eggs and larvae to anthelmintics. On the other hand, concentrations of ABZ and ABZ.SO in faeces are so high that might have negative influence on non-target soil invertebrates. As neither ABZ nor its metabolites affect the germination of mustard seeds, phytoremediation could be considered as potential tool for detoxification of ABZ in the environment. PMID:26996913

  12. Pharmacokinetics of albendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A

    1980-07-01

    The concentrations of albendazole and its two major metabolites, the sulfoxide and sulfone, were measured in plasma and in ruminal and abomasal fluid of three sheep (surgically prepared with permanent ruminal and abomasal cannulae) orally given albendazole as a suspension at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg. Albendazole was not detectable in plasma at any time in one sheep (detection limit, 0.02 micrograms/ml) and in the other sheep, only transiently detectable. Albendazole sulfoxide was detectable in plasma and in abomasal fluid at mean peak concentrations of 3.2 and 26.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, 20 hours after administration. It is probable that much of the anthelmintic activity of albendazole in sheep is due to the metabolically formed sulfoxide and sulfone. PMID:7436109

  13. Studies on haemin in dimethyl sulphoxide/water mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Collier, G S; Pratt, J M; De Wet, C R; Tshabalala, C F

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the complexes and equilibria shown by solutions of protohaemin in dimethyl sulphoxide/water mixtures and in the presence of acid and base were studied by u.v.-visible spectrophotometry. In neutral solutions containing from 40 to 100% dimethyl sulphoxide, haemin is present as a monomeric complex in which the Cl-ion is not coordinated. Only a single pH-dependent equilibrium pK12 is observed over the range 40-80% dimethylsulphoxide, corresponding to formation of the mu-oxo dimer. As the dimethyl sulphoxide content is lowered below 35%, so the single equilibrium (pK12) is replaced by two equilibria (pK1 and pK2); with solutions of 5 microM-haemin, pK1 decreases (from pK12 7.55 in 65% dimethyl sulphoxide to pK1 approx. 1.5 in 0.01% dimethyl sulphoxide), whereas pK2 hardly changes (from pK12 7.55 in 65% to pK2 approx. 7.5 in 0.01%). PMID:486081

  14. Improvement of albendazole efficacy against enteral, but not against parenteral stages of Trichinella spiralis by preparing solid dispersions in polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M L; Torrado, S; Torrado, S; Martínez, A R; Bolás, F

    1997-01-01

    A comparison was made, in the Trichinella/mouse model, of the anthelmintic effects of albendazole (ABZ) and ricobendazole (RBZ) formulated as solid dispersions in polyvinylpyrrolidone with regard to ABZ formulated as a suspension in carboxymethylcellulose. A solid dispersion significantly increased (p < 0.01) the efficacy of the drugs against intestinal preadult but not against migrating and muscle stages of the parasite. The anthelmintic efficacy of RBZ given as a solid dispersion was equivalent to (against preadult and encysted larvae) or significantly lower than (against migrating larvae) that of ABZ with the same formulation. The pharmacokinetic profiles of ABZSO as measured by HPLC showed no significant differences in the Cmax and AUC following administration of ABZ formulated as a suspension or solid dispersion although the Tmax was significantly lower for the dispersion. PMID:9395857

  15. The antimicrosporidial activity of albendazole.

    PubMed

    Haque, A; Hollister, W S; Willcox, A; Canning, E U

    1993-09-01

    The antimicrosporidial activity of albendazole was tested on Nosema bombycis in vitro in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and in vivo in Heliocoverpa zea larvae and pupae. Significant reductions in the percentage of infected S. frugiperda cells were obtained using a concentration of 5.3 micrograms/ml albendazole in tissue culture medium but recrudescence occurred after the drug was withdrawn from the cultures. Significant reductions in the number of spores harvested from 6th-instar larvae or pupae were obtained when doses of 0.2 to 4.0 mg were incorporated into the diet but, with the lower doses, some resurgence of infection occurred in pupae after cessation of drug intake. Established infections were almost eliminated from 6th-instar larvae and pupae after consumption of 2 or 4 mg albendazole and infections were not established at all when 4 mg was consumed concurrently with the infective spores. Even at the highest dose albendazole had no deleterious effect on the growth and viability of H. zea. Clumped chromatin in the nuclei of meronts, revealed by electron microscopy, reflected the selective anti-tubulin activity of albendazole and there was massive disorganization of sporogonic development. PMID:8228321

  16. Methimazole-mediated modulation of netobimin biotransformation in sheep: a pharmacokinetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, C E; Gascon, L; Prichard, R K

    1992-09-01

    The effects of modulation of liver microsomal sulphoxidation on the disposition kinetics of netobimin (NTB) metabolites were investigated in sheep. A zwitterion suspension of NTB was given orally at 7.5 mg/kg to sheep either alone (control treatment) or co-administered with methimazole (MTZ) orally (NTB + MTZ oral treatment) or intra-muscularly (NTB + MTZ i.m.) at 3 mg/kg. Blood samples were taken serially over a 72 h period and plasma was analysed by HPLC for NTB and its major metabolites, i.e. albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2). Only trace amounts of NTB parent drug and ABZ were detected in the earliest samples after either treatment. There were significant modifications to the disposition kinetics of ABZSO in the presence of MTZ. ABZSO elimination half-life increased from 7.27 h (control treatment) to 14.57 h (NTB + MTZ oral) and to 11.39 h (NTB + MTZ i.m.). ABZSO AUCs were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) for the NTB + MTZ oral treatment (+55%) and for the NTB + MTZ i.m. treatment (+61%), compared with the NTB alone treatment. The mean residence times for ABZSO were 12.66 +/- 0.68 h (control treatment), 18.85 +/- 2.35 h (NTB + MTZ oral) and 17.02 +/- 0.90 h (NTB + MTZ i.m.). There were no major changes in the overall pharmacokinetics of ABZSO2 for the concomitant MTZ treatments. However, delayed appearance of this metabolite in the plasma resulted in longer ABZSO2 lag times and a delayed Tmax for treatments with MTZ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1433490

  17. [Treatment of hydatidosis with albendazol].

    PubMed

    Magnussen, P; Gelletlie, R; Bygbjerg, I C

    1989-10-23

    Eight patients with hydatidosis treated with albendazol in daily doses of 10 mg/kg daily in courses of 28 days (4-6 courses) were analysed. The patients came from Morocco, Spain, Turkey and Yugoslavia. Seven patients had a cyst (or cysts) in the liver and one had also cysts in the kidneys. One patient had cysts in the muscles of the extremities. As assessed by ultrasonic scanning, computed tomography of the cysts, general condition, serology and the presence of hydatid antigen in the serum, treatment was effective in six patients. One patient developed an allergic reaction to albendazol. All of the patients had varying degrees of liver involvement which were reversible. Neutropenia did not occur. Various parameters for assessing the therapeutic effect are mentioned. Albendazol appears to be effective in the treatment of non-operable hydatid disease and to prevent recurrence after surgery. PMID:2588356

  18. Pharmacokinetic profiles of netobimin metabolites after oral administration of zwitterion and trisamine formulations of netobimin to cattle.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, C E; Trudeau, C; Ranjan, S; Prichard, R K

    1991-03-01

    Pharmacokinetic profiles of the major metabolites of netobimin were investigated in calves after oral administration of the compound (20 mg/kg) as a zwitterion suspension and trisamine salt solution in a two-way cross-over design. Blood samples were taken serially over a 72-h period and plasma was analysed by HPLC for netobimin (NTB) and its metabolites, including albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2). NTB was occasionally detected in plasma between 0.5 and 1.0 h post-treatment. ABZ was not detectable at any time. ABZSO was detected from 0.5-0.75 h up to 32 h post-administration, with a Cmax for the zwitterion suspension of 1.21 +/- 0.13 micrograms/ml and AUC of 18.55 +/- 1.45 micrograms.h/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than the Cmax (0.67 +/- 0.12 micrograms/ml) and AUC (8.57 +/- 0.91 micrograms.h/ml) for the trisamine solution. ABZSO2 was detected in plasma between 0.75 and 48 h post-administration. The zwitterion suspension resulted in a Cmax (2.91 +/- 0.10 micrograms/ml) and AUC (51.67 +/- 1.95 micrograms.h/ml) for ABZSO2, which were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for the trisamine solution (Cmax = 1.67 +/- 0.11 micrograms/ml and AUC = 22.77 +/- 1.09 micrograms.h/ml). The ratio of AUC for ABZSO2/ABZSO was 2.92 +/- 0.26 (zwitterion) and 2.80 +/- 0.20 (trisamine). The MRT for ABZSO2 was significantly longer (P less than 0.01) after treatment with the zwitterion suspension than after treatment with the trisamine solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2038091

  19. Transplacental transport of netobimin metabolites in ewes.

    PubMed

    Cristofol, C; Carretero, A; Fernandez, M; Navarro, M; Sautet, J; Ruberte, J; Arboix, M

    1995-01-01

    Neither netobimin (NTB) nor its metabolite albendazole (ABZ) were found in plasma after an oral administration of 20 mg/kg of NTB to pregnant ewes during the last third of gestation. ABZ metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were found in plasma 30 min and 2 h, respectively, after administration. The maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of ABZSO was detected at 11.6 +/- 1.0 h and for ABZSO2 at 16.5 +/- 2.3 h. The plasma levels of the latter remained constant for 36 h, and decreased as ABZSO was removed from the blood. Jugular plasma levels of both metabolites did not differ significantly from those observed in the ovarian vein, suggesting that there were no exchanges between foetal and placental tissues. Both metabolite concentrations were similar in the umbilical vein and artery and in the amniotic and allantoic fluids, their values were half the maternal plasma concentration, leading to the conclusion that there was transplacental movement of metabolites. Both metabolites reached the foetus and could be responsible for the teratogenicity of NTB in sheep. PMID:8751036

  20. Albendazole and its metabolites in the breast milk of lactating women following a single oral dose of albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-tawab, Ahmed M; Bradley, Mark; Ghazaly, Essam A; Horton, John; El-Setouhy, Maged

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Albendazole (ABZ) is used in several anthelminthic drug programmws. ABZ side-effects are generally mild, but ABZ-induced pancytopenia may be serious. In filariasis programmes, it may be necessary to administer ABZ to breastfeeding women. Few data are available on safety of ABZ for breastfed infants. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites in human milk is insufficiently investigated. The aim was to study pharmacokinetics of ABZ and its metabolites [ABZ sulphoxide (ABSX) and ABZ sulphone] in the breast milk lactating women after one single oral dose of ABZ. METHODS Thirty-three lactating women (age 18–40 years) participated in the study. They received a single oral 400-mg dose of ABZ. Five milk samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. One serum sample was taken after 6 h. Samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. RESULTS ABZ was detectable in milk samples 6 h after the oral dose. The mean concentration of serum ABZ was 63.7 ± 11.9 ng ml−1. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ABSX were calculated as follows: 351.9 ± 32.4 ng ml−1, 6.9 ± 0.5 h, 12.4 ± 2.2 h and 5190.3 ± 482.8 ng*h ml−1 for Cmax, Tmax, t½ and AUC0–36, respectively. The milk-to-serum ratios (range) for ABZ and ABSX were 0.9 (0.2–6.5) and 0.6 (0.1–1.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS After an oral dose of 400 mg, ABZ and ABSX attain low concentrations in breast milk that are unlikely to be considered harmful for the breastfed infant. PMID:19916998

  1. Albendazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat neurocysticercosis (infection caused by the pork tapeworm in the muscles, brain, and eyes that may ... cystic hydatid disease (infection caused by the dog tapeworm in the liver, lung, and lining of the ...

  2. Albendazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... threadworm, whipworm, pinworm, flukes, and other parasites (a plant or animal that lives within another living organism ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  3. Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L; Erb, H N

    1993-06-01

    Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) are highly effective and non-toxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs. PMID:8323064

  4. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  5. Effect of dimethyl sulphoxide on the crystal structure of porcine pepsin

    SciTech Connect

    Kesavulu, Muppuru Muni; Ramasubramanian, Sundaramoorthy; Suguna, Kaza . E-mail: suguna@mbu.iisc.ernet.in

    2005-06-17

    The structure of porcine pepsin crystallized in the presence of dimethyl sulphoxide has been analysed by X-ray crystallography to obtain insights into the structural events that occur at the onset of chemical denaturation of proteins. The results show that one dimethyl sulphoxide molecule occupies a site on the surface of pepsin interacting with two of its residues. An increase in the average temperature factor of pepsin in the presence of dimethyl sulphoxide has been observed indicating protein destabilization induced by the denaturant. Significant increase in the temperature factor and weakening of the electron density have been observed for the catalytic water molecule located between the active aspartates. The conformation of pepsin remains unchanged in the crystal structure. However, the enzyme assay and circular dichroism studies indicate that dimethyl sulphoxide causes a slight change in the secondary structure and complete loss of activity of pepsin in solution.

  6. Oral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Evrard, B; Chiap, P; DeTullio, P; Ghalmi, F; Piel, G; Van Hees, T; Crommen, J; Losson, B; Delattre, L

    2002-12-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative bioavailability is obtained with the solution containing the ABZ-HP-beta-CD complex as measured by ABZSO plasma levels. The area under the curve (AUC(0--> proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. PMID:12480310

  7. Enantiomeric resolution of albendazole sulfoxide by semipreparative HPLC and in vitro study of growth inhibitory effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Belaz, Kátia Roberta A; Denadai, Marina; Almeida, Ana Paula; Lima, Raquel T; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Pinto, M Madalena; Cass, Quezia B; Oliveira, Regina V

    2012-07-01

    Analytical and semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography methods using polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases were developed for the enantiomeric resolution of albendazol sulfoxide. The enantioseparation of this compound was evaluated with four chiral stationary phases: cellulose and amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate), amylose tris[(S)-1-phenylethylcarbamate] and amylose tris(3,5-dimethoxyphenylcarbamate), under three elution conditions: normal, reversed-phase and polar organic mode. The influences of the mobile phase and of the structure of the chiral stationary phase on the enantiomeric separation are discussed. The best chiral performances were achieved on an amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) phase under normal (R(s)=4.96) and polar organic mode (R(s)=2.60 and 3.09). A polar organic condition using methanol as mobile phase offered shorter retention factors (k(1)=0.34) and was scaled up to semipreparative HPLC to obtain milligram quantities of both albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers for further in vitro studies. Optical rotation and circular dichroism of both enantiomers of albendazole sulfoxide was determined. The compounds ABZ, ABZ-SO, (R)-(+)-ABZ-SO and (S)-(-)-ABZ-SO were all evaluated regarding their capacity to inhibit the in vitro growth of three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and A375-C5 (melanoma). In addition, the effect of the (R)-(+)-ABZ-SO compound in the cell cycle profile and apoptosis of MCF-7 cells were also studied. Results indicated that compound ABZ was the most potent regarding cell growth inhibition and that the (+)-(R)-ABZ was a more potent inhibitor of cell growth than the (S)-(-)-ABZ-SO, particularly in the MCF-7 cell line. In addition, the (R)-(+)-ABZ-SO significantly increased the levels of apoptosis of the MCF-7 cells. PMID:22487592

  8. Synthesis of an Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Nunez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly,…

  9. The effect of intestinal trichinellosis on oral bioavailability of albendazole in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan José García; de Prada, Inmaculada; Durán, Juan José Torrado; Fernández, Francisco Bolás

    2009-07-01

    The effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered albendazol has been investigated in mice during the intestinal phase of the disease. Swiss CD-1 mice were orally infected with 300 +/- 50 muscle larvae of T. spiralis and then treated with albendazole (ABZ) formulated in hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrins at the dose of 10 mg/kg given orally on days 0, 5, 10 and 22 post-infection (p.i.). Blood samples were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 5, 6 and 24 h post-treatment (p.t.). Adult worm establishment as well as the histopathological alterations induced in the small intestine was assessed on days 0, 5, 10 and 22 p.i. The area under the blood concentrations to time curve (AUC) for ABZ sulphoxide was not significantly higher in infected mice than in control during the first step of intestinal infection (day 5 p.i.), whereas in the late step (day 10 p.i.), it was significantly lower. On day 22 p.i., the AUC showed similar values in both groups. The histopathological analysis showed a transient acute inflammatory reaction that varied from moderate to severe as the infection progressed from the early to the late intestinal stage. After intestinal infection, the inflammation was mild or absent with no signs of chronic effects. The histopathological studies correlated with the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and show that after transient inflammation induced by intestinal T. spiralis infection, the mucosa is restored to allow absorption of ABZ up to levels comparable to those observed in non-infected controls. PMID:19241092

  10. Dimethyl sulphoxide modifies growth and senescence and induces the non-revertible petite phenotype in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kakolyri, Maria; Margaritou, Aikaterini; Tiligada, Ekaterini

    2016-03-01

    Dimethyl sulphoxide is extensively used in chemical, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, but its specific biological actions remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to comprehensively explore the effects of dimethyl sulphoxide on eukaryotic growth and senescence by using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reliable model organism. Rather than focusing on single cells or on either the replicative or the chronological lifespan approach, well-established microbiological procedures were integrated to monitor a combination of physiological parameters. Cell proliferation, survival, reproductive competence and morphology were recorded at various time points during incubation of asynchronous yeast populations with increasing concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide. The findings demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the compound on yeast proliferation, survival and reproduction. In parallel, dimethyl sulphoxide induced the acquisition of the non-revertible petite phenotype and promoted morphological alterations that characterize senescence, driving the yeast populations towards the reproductive incompetent state. These findings point to the need for the investigation of the complex cellular and/or molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of dimethyl sulphoxide in eukaryotic cells and for the evaluation of their exploitation potential. PMID:26833420

  11. A Cell-Based Screen Reveals that the Albendazole Metabolite, Albendazole Sulfone, Targets Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Walter M.; White, Pamela M.; Ruybal, Jordan; Lokey, R. Scott; Debec, Alain; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts carried by filarial nematodes give rise to the neglected diseases African river blindness and lymphatic filariasis afflicting millions worldwide. Here we identify new Wolbachia-disrupting compounds by conducting high-throughput cell-based chemical screens using a Wolbachia-infected, fluorescently labeled Drosophila cell line. This screen yielded several Wolbachia-disrupting compounds including three that resembled Albendazole, a widely used anthelmintic drug that targets nematode microtubules. Follow-up studies demonstrate that a common Albendazole metabolite, Albendazole sulfone, reduces intracellular Wolbachia titer both in Drosophila melanogaster and Brugia malayi, the nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. Significantly, Albendazole sulfone does not disrupt Drosophila microtubule organization, suggesting that this compound reduces titer through direct targeting of Wolbachia. Accordingly, both DNA staining and FtsZ immunofluorescence demonstrates that Albendazole sulfone treatment induces Wolbachia elongation, a phenotype indicative of binary fission defects. This suggests that the efficacy of Albendazole in treating filarial nematode-based diseases is attributable to dual targeting of nematode microtubules and their Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:23028321

  12. 21 CFR 556.34 - Albendazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for albendazole 2-aminosulfone (marker residue) are: (1) Cattle—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.2 parts per million (ppm). (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (2) Sheep—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (3) Goat—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) (c) Related conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 556.34 - Albendazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for albendazole 2-aminosulfone (marker residue) are: (1) Cattle—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.2 parts per million (ppm). (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (2) Sheep—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (3) Goat—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) (c) Related conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 556.34 - Albendazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for albendazole 2-aminosulfone (marker residue) are: (1) Cattle—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.2 parts per million (ppm). (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (2) Sheep—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (3) Goat—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) (c) Related conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 556.34 - Albendazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for albendazole 2-aminosulfone (marker residue) are: (1) Cattle—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.2 parts per million (ppm). (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (2) Sheep—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (3) Goat—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) (c) Related conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 556.34 - Albendazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for albendazole 2-aminosulfone (marker residue) are: (1) Cattle—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.2 parts per million (ppm). (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (2) Sheep—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) Muscle: 0.05 ppm. (3) Goat—(i) Liver (target tissue): 0.25 ppm. (ii) (c) Related conditions of use....

  17. Albendazole treatment in cystic echinococcosis: pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of two different aqueous formulations.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Laura; Elissondo, Celina; Moreno, Laura; Dopchiz, Marcela; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Denegri, Guillermo; Alvarez, Luis; Lanusse, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviour and clinical efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) against hydatid cysts in mice were assessed after treatment with two different ABZ pharmaceutical formulations. BalbC mice received ABZ (0.5 mg/kg) prepared either as solution or suspension (50 microg/ml) for oral administration (PK study). Blood samples were collected up to 16 h post-treatment and processed to measure ABZ/metabolites concentrations in plasma. The clinical efficacy assessment was performed in BalbC mice infected 8 months earlier with Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Infected animals were allocated into three experimental treatment groups: (a) untreated control, (b) ABZ-solution treated, (c) ABZ-suspension treated. Both treated groups received ABZ (0.5 mg/kg) administered under two different therapeutic schemes: dosing every 48 h over 30 days (regimen I) or treated every 12 h during 15 days (regimen II). Experimental mice were sacrificed 12 h after treatment, and cysts were recovered, weighed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Enhanced ABZ sulphoxide (the main ABZ metabolite) concentration profiles were measured in animals treated with the ABZ solution. Any positive clinical response was obtained after treatment every 48 h (30 days therapy). However, consistent with the observed PK results, both ABZ formulations were clinically effective in infected mice treated with a 12-h dosing interval (15 days therapy). PMID:18465143

  18. Albendazole in the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Misra, P K; Pande, N K; Jagota, S C

    1985-01-01

    A single dose of 2% albendazole suspension (400 mg in 20 ml) was administered to 77 patients (42 males and 35 females), ages ranging between 2 to 12 years, with helminthic infections. Ascariasis was the most prevalent infection. Patients were followed-up for 3 weeks. The results showed that albendazole was highly effective against Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Enterobius vermicularis. Significant improvement was also observed in patients having infections due to Trichuris trichiura. Albendazole was well tolerated and did not produce any significant side-effects. Single dose albendazole appears to be appropriate for mass chemotherapy to control intestinal nematode infections in highly infected communities. PMID:4028809

  19. Neurocysticercosis with Diplopia Responds Well to Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akihiro; Nakamura, Itaru; Fujita, Hiroaki; Fukushima, Shinji; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Fujii, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of neurocysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a headache and diplopia. Oculomotor disturbances with a left adduction deficit were observed. Fundoscopy revealed papilledema. Additionally, computed tomography of the brain revealed more than 20 small cysts within the parenchyma, most of which were associated with ring enhancement. Moreover, serum antibody testing (Western blotting) for Taenia solium-cysticerci was positive. The patient received albendazole and corticosteroids, and progressive resolution of the neurological symptoms and papilledema was observed starting approximately three days after administration. This patient has been asymptomatic for more than one year. PMID:27150884

  20. Modification by simetryn sulphoxide of a specific thiol group in rat haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, G J; de Jong, C; Fischer, R W; Winterhalter, K H; Wilson, K J

    1981-01-01

    Native rat haemoglobins were found to bind simetryn sulphoxide to an extent 40-fold greater than human haemoglobin. This specific behaviour was studied by using only high-pressure ('performance') liquid chromatography for the preparative separation of globin chains and the isolation of peptides resulting from chemical and enzymic degradation. High recoveries (greater than 80%) of peptides throughout the procedures in combination with microsequence techniques, allow a definitive assignment of the residue undergoing modification. The haemoglobin beta-chain cystine-125 residue, with a stoichiometry of one per tetramer of rat haemoglobin, was found to be modified. Stereochemical implications of this finding are discussed. Simetryn sulphoxide would appear to be useful as a specific reagent for the mapping of exposed thiol residues in proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:7337714

  1. Genetic aspects of the polymodally distributed sulphoxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine in man.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, S C; Waring, R H; Haley, C S; Idle, J R; Smith, R L

    1984-01-01

    Interindividual variation in the sulphoxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (750 mg p.o.) was investigated in 200 healthy volunteers. Nearly a 100-fold difference was observed between individuals with respect to the amount of sulphoxide metabolites detected in their 0-8 h urine (0.6 to 59.1% recovery). Such a difference was shown to be reproducible over several months in 40 subjects who spanned the entire range of capacities. Cumulative plots and maximum likelihood analysis of the distribution indicated that a bimodal model was most probable. Analysis of pedigree data obtained from 12 families suggested a genetic effect with overlying environmental influences. Images Figure 4 PMID:6487492

  2. Photochemical reactions of Heracleum laciniatum. Influence of dimethyl sulphoxide and corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Kavli, G; Midelfart, K; Volden, G; Krokan, H

    1983-07-01

    Phytophotodermatitis of Heracleum laciniatum is quite common in Tromsø during the summer months. The clinical picture varies from mild to severe erythematous reactions with or without vesicles or bullae on the exposed parts of the body. Phototoxic reactions of Heracleum laciniatum are reported. The influences on phototoxic reactions by bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) and UV-A by treating the skin with a membrane labilizing agent, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and a membrane stabilizing agent, the steroid desoximethasone, are evaluated. PMID:6860581

  3. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  4. Albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers: preparative chiral separation and absolute stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Tiago C; Batista, João M; Furlan, Maysa; He, Yanan; Nafie, Laurence A; Santana, Cesar C; Cass, Quezia B

    2012-03-23

    The enantiomeric separation of albendazole sulfoxide was carried out by simulated moving bed chromatography with variable zones (VARICOL). An overall recovery of 97% was achieved and enantiomeric ratios of 99.5% for raffinate and 99.0% for extract were attained. A total of 880 mg of (+)-albendazol sulfoxide and 930 mg of its antipode were collected after 55 cycles or 11 h of process, resulting in a mass rate of 2 g/day. Furthermore the absolute configuration of the enantiopure compounds was determined for the first time by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) with the aid of theoretical calculations as (-)-(S) and (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide. PMID:22341660

  5. [Pharmacokinetics and urinary metabolism of albendazole in man].

    PubMed

    Penicaut, B; Maugein, P; Maisonneuve, H; Rossignol, J F

    1983-11-01

    Albendazole, a new broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, has been administered in 10 male volunteers. Administration was randomized using 100 mg tablets, 200 mg tablets and a 2% suspension. Blood samples were obtained 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 3.5; 4; 5; 6; 8; 12; 24; 72 h after treatment. Albendazole sulfoxide, one of the mains albendazole blood metabolites, was assayed by HPLC and the blood half life was calculated as 8 1/2 h. The three different pharmaceutical formulations were considered bioequivalent. Urines were collected, and using T. L. C. Technics, main metabolites were identified and characterized. Hydrolysis of the carbamate function and oxidation of the sulfur atom, the alkyle chain and the aromatic ring were the main biotransformations observed. PMID:6370482

  6. (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR studies on albendazole and cyclodextrin albendazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M João G; García, A; Leonardi, D; Salomon, Claudio J; Lamas, M Celina; Nunes, Teresa G

    2015-06-01

    (13)C and (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded from albendazole (ABZ) and from ABZ:β-cyclodextrin, ABZ:methyl-β-cyclodextrin, ABZ:hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and ABZ:citrate-β-cyclodextrin, which were prepared by the spray-drying technique. ABZ signals were typical of a crystalline solid for the pure drug and of an amorphous compound obtained from ABZ:cyclodextrin samples. Relevant spectral differences were correlated with chemical interaction between ABZ and cyclodextrins. The number and type of complexes revealed a strong dependence on the cyclodextrin group substituent. Solid-state NMR data were consistent with the presence of stable inclusion complexes. PMID:25843843

  7. Dimethyl sulphoxide and haemin induce ferrochelatase mRNA by different mechanisms in murine erythroleukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Y; Fujita, H; Taketani, S; Sassa, S

    1993-03-01

    The level of mRNA encoding ferrochelatase (FeC), the terminal enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway, was examined in murine erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells when they were induced to undergo erythroid cell differentiation by treatment with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), or haemin. FeC mRNA increased within 12 h after DMSO or haemin treatment of MEL cells, and its level continued to increase for 48 h. Treatment of cells with succinylacetone (SA), a potent inhibitor of haem synthesis, suppressed a DMSO-mediated increase in FeC mRNA, and haemin treatment reversed a SA-mediated decrease in FeC mRNA. Nuclear runoff analyses showed that, while DMSO increased the rate of transcription of FeC mRNA, haemin did not. These results indicate that the induction of FeC mRNA by DMSO is largely transcriptional, while that by haemin is post-transcriptional. PMID:8485055

  8. A comparative clinical trial of albendazole versus metronidazole in giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Misra, P K; Kumar, A; Agarwal, V; Jagota, S C

    1995-03-01

    The adverse effects and treatment failures to some of the currently recommended drugs for giardia infection have given rise to the need for alternative antigiardial agents. In an open, randomized parallel group study, the safety and efficacy of albendazole was compared with that of metronidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in children. Sixty two children aged between 2-12 years were randomized to receive either albendazole suspension 400 mg daily for 5 days or metronidazole suspension 7.5 mg/kg thrice daily for 5 days. The mean days required for cure, as evident by absence of cysts and/or trophozoites in the stool specimen, was 3.7 + 1.4 and 4.5 + 1.1 days, respectively for children on albendazole and metronidazole therapy. Six children on metronidazole therapy developed anorexia 2 to 4 days after the treatment. Albendazole proved as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardia infection in children with the added advantage of absence of anorexia. PMID:8613282

  9. A review of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with the anthelmintic medications albendazole and mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Pawluk, Shane Ashley; Roels, Craig Allan; Wilby, Kyle John; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-04-01

    Medications indicated for helminthes and other parasitic infections are frequently being used in mass populations in endemic areas. Currently, there is a lack of guidance for clinicians on how to appropriately manage drug interactions when faced with patients requiring short-term anthelmintic therapy with albendazole or mebendazole while concurrently taking other agents. The objective of this review was to systematically summarize and evaluate published literature on the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when taken with other interacting medications. A search of MEDLINE (1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (1974 to October 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to October 2014), Google, and Google Scholar was conducted for articles describing the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when given with other medications (and supplemented by a bibliographic review of all relevant articles). Altogether, 17 articles were included in the review. Studies reported data on pharmacokinetic parameters for albendazole or mebendazole when taken with cimetidine, dexamethasone, ritonavir, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, ivermectin, praziquantel, diethylcarbamazine, azithromycin, and levamisole. Cimetidine increased the elimination half-life of albendazole and maximum concentration (Cmax) of mebendazole; dexamethasone increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of albendazole; levamisole decreased the Cmax of albendazole; anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine) decreased the AUC of albendazole; praziquantel increased the AUC of albendazole; and ritonavir decreased the AUC of both albendazole and mebendazole. No major interactions were found with ivermectin, azithromycin, or diethylcarbamazine. Future research is required to clarify the clinical relevance of the interactions observed. PMID:25691367

  10. Methionine sulphoxide reductases revisited: free methionine as a primary target of H₂O₂stress in auxotrophic fission yeast.

    PubMed

    García-Santamarina, Sarela; Boronat, Susanna; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2013-12-01

    Amino acid methionine can suffer reversible oxidation to sulphoxide and further irreversible over-oxidation to methionine sulphone. As part of the cellular antioxidant scavenging activities are the methionine sulphoxide reductases (Msrs), with a reported role in methionine sulphoxide reduction, both free and in proteins. Three families of Msrs have been described, but the fission yeast genome only includes one representative for two of these families: MsrA/Mxr1 and MsrB/Mxr2. We have investigated their role in methionine reduction and H2 O2 sensitivity. We show here that MsrA/Mxr1 is able to reduce free oxidized methionine. Cells lacking each one of the genes are not significantly sensitive to different types of oxidative stresses, neither display altered life span. However, only when deletion of msrA/mxr1 is combined with deletion of met6, which confers methionine auxotrophy, the survival upon H2 O2 stress decreases by 100-fold. In fact, cells lacking only Met6, and which therefore require addition of methionine to the growth media, are extremely sensitive to H2 O2 stress. These and other evidences suggest that oxidation of free methionine is a primary target of peroxide toxicity in cells devoid of methionine biosynthetic capacity, and that an important role of Msrs is to recycle this oxidized free amino acid. PMID:24118096

  11. [EXPERIENCE IN TREATING HELMINTHISM WITH MICRONIZED ALBENDAZOLE (GELMODOL)].

    PubMed

    Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Zelya, O P; Tikhonova, D V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the results of treatment with micronized albendazole (Gelmodol-BM, World Medicine, UK) in 87 patients of the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Diagnostic Center, Clinical Center, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Thirty-two patients with echinococcosis 8 with alveococcosis (including 4 inoperable patients), 10 with ascariasis, 10 with toxocariasis, 15 with enterobiasis, and 12 people diagnosed with larva migrans were treated in 2013-2014. The drug's routine doses and dosage regimens were used. Albendazole (Gelmodol, World Medicine, UK) showed a high efficacy with good tolerability, which is highly competitive with that of the drugs manufactured by IPCA Laboratories Ltd., India (such as nemozole). Both medicaments above-mentioned may be successfully used in the treatment of many helminthisms. PMID:26827590

  12. Therapy of human hydatid disease with mebendazole and albendazole.

    PubMed Central

    Teggi, A; Lastilla, M G; De Rosa, F

    1993-01-01

    We report our experience in the treatment with benzoimidazole carbamates (mebendazole and albendazole) of 337 patients affected by hydatid cysts with different localizations. The treated cysts showed degenerative modifications in 50.6% of the cases after mebendazole treatment and in about 80% after albendazole treatment. Relapses after therapy were observed in 30% of the cases; about 95% of the recurring cysts showed good susceptibility to a further cycle of therapy with benzoimidazole carbamates. Side effects observed with either drug were not severe and always reversible, consisting mainly of abdominal pains and increased levels of transaminases in serum. Among the factors that may influence the therapeutic results are the drug employed, the age of the cysts, the age of the patient, and the localization of the cysts and their morphological characteristics. Moreover, it can be hypothesized that each hydatid cyst has an intrinsic sensitivity to benzoimidazole carbamates. PMID:8215283

  13. Cell lysis with dimethyl sulphoxide produces stable homogeneous solutions in the dichlorofluorescein oxidative stress assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guqi; Gong, Yu; Burczynski, Frank J; Hasinoff, Brian B

    2008-05-01

    The oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin, DCFH) to a fluorescent product, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), is commonly used to quantitatively measure oxidative stress in cells using a fluorescence microplate reader. However, many cell lines tend to grow non-uniformly in the wells. This non-uniform distribution results in a high degree of variability in the fluorescence signal and decreases the precision of the method. Also, samples treated in large culture plates, dishes or flasks cannot be assayed directly in fluorescence microplate readers. This study reports an improved DCF assay method that lyses cells with DMSO/PBS (90% dimethyl sulphoxide/10% phosphate buffered saline). Oxidative stress was induced with either hydrogen peroxide or an hypoxia-reoxygenation treatment. Cell lysis with DMSO/PBS resulted in highly stable fluorescence signals in comparison to Triton X-100/PBS lysed cells. The precision of DCF fluorescence measurements of DMSO/PBS lysed cells was much better than for attached cells measured directly in 96-well plates. While DCF fluorescence in PBS was strongly quenched by albumin, no quenching occurred in DMSO/PBS. In conclusion this study describes a more convenient and accurate method for measuring cellular oxidative stress that also makes it possible to assay cells treated in large culture plates. PMID:18484276

  14. Tolerability and efficacy of single dose albendazole, diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) or co-administration of albendazole with DEC in the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti in asymptomatic microfilaraemic volunteers in Pondicherry, South India: a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Pani, SP; Subramanyam Reddy, G; Das, LK; Vanamail, P; Hoti, SL; Ramesh, J; Das, PK

    2002-01-01

    Background The tolerability and efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg), diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) (6 mg/kg bodyweight) or co-administration of albendazole (400 mg) + DEC (6 mg/kg bodyweight) was studied in 54 asymptomatic Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemic volunteers in a double blind hospital-based clinical study. Results There was no significant difference in the overall incidence of adverse reactions between the three drug groups [42.1% (albendazole), 52.9% (DEC) and 61.1% (albendazole + DEC); P > 0.05]. The mean score of adverse reaction intensity did not differ significantly between the DEC and albendazole + DEC groups. However, the values in these two groups were significantly higher compared to that of albendazole alone [1.8 ± 3.0 (albendazole) vs. 5.6 ± 7.1 (DEC), 6.7 ± 6.6 (albendazole + DEC); P < 0.05]. By day 360 post-therapy there was no significant difference between the three drug groups in relation to the clearance of microfilaria [26.3% (albendazole), 17.6% (DEC), 27.8% (albendazole + DEC)], reduction in geometric mean parasite density [94.7% (albendazole), 89.5% (DEC), 95.4% (albendazole + DEC)] or reduction in filarial antigenaemia [83% (albendazole), 87% (DEC), 75% (albendazole + DEC)]. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in mean geometric parasite density (P < 0.05) as well as antigenaemia optical density values (P < 0.01) between pre-therapy levels and day 360 post-therapy in all three groups. Conclusions This study has shown that single dose albendazole (400 mg) has similar efficacy in the clearance of microfilaria as that of DEC or the co-administration of the two drugs. The results strengthen the rationale of using albendazole for mass annual single dose administration for the control of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:12537598

  15. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. Objectives To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. Main results We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe). In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence). In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole

  16. Axial and equatorial conformations of penicillins, their sulphoxides and sulphones: the role of NH⋯S and CH⋯O hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangia, Ashwini; Desiraju, Gautam R.

    1999-01-01

    The thiazolidine ring of the penam skeleton exists in two distinct conformations wherein the 3α-CO 2H group is in the axial or equatorial orientation. Crystal structure data have been retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) on 49 penams. These include 30 penicillins, 10 sulphoxides and 9 sulphones. Of the penicillins, 24 are in the axial conformation and 6 are in the equatorial conformation. The 19 sulphoxides and sulphones are exclusively in the equatorial conformation. It is suggested that the axial conformation in penicillins is stabilised by intramolecular NH⋯S and CH⋯O hydrogen bonds, jointly worth about 3 kcal/mol. Calculations show that the sulphoxides and sulphones do not adopt the axial conformation because of a repulsive C⋯O interaction between the gem-dimethyl group in the C2 position and the sulphoxide/sulphone O-atom. The pharmocophore groups of the penicillin antibiotics and the sulphoxides/sulphones lie in distinct, well-defined regions and this suggests that the biologically active conformation is the one with the axially oriented 3α-CO 2H group.

  17. The use of albendazole for the treatment of trematodiasis in two tree shrews (Tupala glis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beehler, B.A.; Tuggle, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic of the benzimidazole group which has been tested in several rodents and domestic animals. Albendazole has been used effectively to treat trematodes in sheep, cattle, dogs, and cats. The use of this anthelmintic in exotic small mammals has not been reported to the authors' knowledge.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    PubMed

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  19. Albendazole in the treatment of intestinal helminthiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R; Mathur, P P; Taneja, V K; Jagota, S C

    1985-01-01

    One hundred sixteen children between 2 and 15 years of age entered a clinical trial of albendazole after examination of their stools revealed ova of one or more intestinal helminths. The drug was administered as a single 400-mg dose (20 ml of 2% suspension) to all the patients except those having Hymenolepis nana infection, who received treatment for three consecutive days. The stools were reexamined on days 7 and 14 posttreatment and after three months for Taenia infections. Patients were considered cured if all parasitological examinations of the feces were negative after treatment. After a single oral dose, albendazole was highly effective in ascariasis (91.9%), ancylostomiasis caused by Ancylostoma duodenale (87.2%), and H nana infection (71.4%). The drug was well tolerated, and no abnormalities were observed in hematological or blood chemistry values. Since the drug is safe and effective as a single-dose treatment of common helminthic infections, it should be considered for mass therapy in the community. PMID:3986860

  20. Comparative Plasma Exposure of Albendazole after Administration of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Silvina G.; Dib, Alicia; Suarez, Gonzalo; Allemandi, Daniel; Lanusse, Carlos; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Palma, Santiago D.

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b) to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form. PMID:24063016

  1. The toxicity of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for the dog, pig, rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Noel, P R; Barnett, K C; Davies, R E; Jolly, D W; Leahy, J S; Mawdesley-Thomas, L E; Shillam, K W; Squires, P F; Street, A E; Tucker, W C; Worden, A N

    1975-01-01

    Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was tested for oral toxicity in rats and dogs, and dermal toxicity in rabbits and pigs. Oral administration was by gastric intubation as a 50% equeous solution, 5 days/week at levels equivalent to 9.0, 3.0 or 1.0 ml undiluted DMSO/hg/day. For dermal application 50% and 90% equeous solutions were used to give levels equivalent to 8.1, 4.5, 2.7 or 1.5 ml DMSO/hg/day, as one daily application for rabbits, and divided into two applications/day for pigs. Dogs were dosed for approximately 2 years and pigs for 1 year, although half the animals of both species were dosed for only 18 weeks. Rats were dosed for 18 months, but some were used for interim sacrifice after a year. Rabbits received applications to normal and abraded skin for 6 months. Minor changes in bodyweight and haematological values were observed, together with a physiological diuretic response to DMSO, but the target organ was the eye, principally the lenticular nucleus. Ocular effects in dogs started after 5-10 weeks dosing at 9 ml/kg and consisted of central (nuclear) lens changes with alteration of the refractive index (myopia); transitory equatorial opacities during the 5th month; central (nuclear) opalescence; and changes in the vitreous humour. Similar changes occurred more slowly at 3 ml/kg, the alterations to the vitreous being first observed after 9-10 months at this level. Progressive nuclear refractive changes occurred after dosing for considerably longer than 6 months at 1ml/kg, but none of the animals in this group manifested the opalescence. Biochemical investigation of the lenses revealed reduction of soluble protein (mainly alpha-crystallin), glutathione and water levels, and an increase of insoluble protein. Evidence of recovery was limited mainly to a reduction in the number of dioptres needed to correct nuclear refractive change. Cessation of dosing led to regression of refractive nuclear changes but did not prevent the appearance of opalescence at 3 ml/kg and

  2. Two novel ternary albendazole-cyclodextrin-polymer systems: dissolution, bioavailability and efficacy against Taenia crassiceps cysts.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; González, Cesar Rivas; Bernad-Bernad, Ma Josefa; Montiel, María Dolores Castillo; Hernández, Guadalupe Palencia; González-Hernández, Iliana; Castro-Torres, Nelly; Estrada, Enrique Pinzón; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of two water-soluble polymers: pectin and polyvinylpyrrolidone in combination with beta-cyclodextrin, on the dissolution, bioavailability and cysticidal efficacy of albendazole was evaluated using a commercial suspension as reference product. The dissolution of the albendazole-beta-cyclodextrin-pectin formulation was slow and incomplete (44.7%). No statistical differences in C(max) and AUC were found between this formulation and the reference. Also its cysticidal efficacy (33%) was similar to the reference (38%). The albendazole-beta-cyclodextrin-polyvinylpyrrolidone formulation exhibited the highest dissolution rate (78.5%) and its bioavailability was also significantly increased (2.3-fold). In addition, the cysticidal activity of this formulation (83%) was greater than a commercial suspension. Our results suggest that the ternary system of albendazole-beta-cyclodextrin-polyvinylpyrrolidone could be a potential alternative for the treatment of systemic helmintic diseases and it is worth to continue its preclinical evaluation. PMID:19769931

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics of netobimin metabolites in pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Cristòfol, C; Franquelo, C; Navarro, M; Carretero, A; Ruberte, J; Arboix, M

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of netobimin (NTB) metabolites has been investigated in ewes. Non-pregnant ewes and ewes in the first and last third of pregnancy were dosed orally with 20 mg kg bodyweight of NTB. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein from 30 minutes to 72 hours after administration and plasma samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. Neither NTB nor albendazole (ABZ) were detected in any of the samples analysed. No statistically significant differences were found between the pharmacokinetic parameters of albendazole suphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) among the three groups of ewes. The peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) ABZSO and ABZSO2 were reached about 10 and 20 hours respectively after administration in all three groups. The ratios of ABZSO/ABZSO2 for Cmax and the areas under the curve (AUCzero-infinity) were 6 and 3, respectively, in each group and suggest a low rate of oxidation of sulfoxide to sulphone. PMID:9243708

  4. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G; Bustos, Javier A; Zimic, Mirko; Escalante, Diego; Saavedra, Herbert; Gavidia, Martin; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Najar, Enrique; Umeres, Hugo; Pretell, E Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Neurocysticercosis causes a substantial burden of seizure disorders worldwide. Treatment with either praziquantel or albendazole has suboptimum efficacy. We aimed to establish whether combination of these drugs would increase cysticidal efficacy and whether complete cyst resolution results in fewer seizures. We added an increased dose albendazole group to establish a potential effect of increased albendazole concentrations. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients with viable intraparenchymal neurocysticercosis were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of combined albendazole (15 mg/kg per day) plus praziquantel (50 mg/kg per day), standard albendazole (15 mg/kg per day), or increased dose albendazole (22·5 mg/kg per day). Randomisation was done with a computer generated schedule balanced within four strata based on number of cysts and concomitant antiepileptic drug. Patients and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was complete cyst resolution on 6-month MRI. Enrolment was stopped after interim analysis because of parasiticidal superiority of one treatment group. Analysis excluded patients lost to follow-up before the 6-month MRI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00441285. Findings Between March 3, 2010 and Nov 14, 2011, 124 patients were randomly assigned to study groups (41 to receive combined albendazole plus praziquantel [39 analysed], 43 standard albendazole [41 analysed], and 40 increased albendazole [38 analysed]). 25 (64%) of 39 patients in the combined treatment group had complete resolution of brain cysts compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (rate ratio [RR] 1·75, 95% CI 1·10–2·79, p=0·014). 20 (53%) of 38 patients in the increased albendazole group had complete cyst resolution at 6-month MRI compared with 15 (37%) of 41 patients in the standard albendazole group (RR 1·44, 95% CI 0·87–2·38, p=0·151

  5. Preparation and characterization of albendazole beta-cyclodextrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, J A; Palomo-Canales, J; Garcia, J J; Lastres, J L; Bolas, F; Torrado, J J

    1999-12-01

    Albendazole (ABZ), mebendazole (MBZ), and ricobendazole (RBZ) are low-soluble anthelmintic benzimidazole carbamate drugs. To increase their aqueous solubility, three different types of beta-cyclodextrins (CyDs): beta-cyclodextrin (CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) were used. Solubility depended on the type of CyDs. Increased solubility was obtained when the more substituted CyDs (HPCD or MCD) were used instead of nonsubstituted CD. Stability constants were calculated assuming a 1:1 stoichiometry. Calculated stability constant values depended on initial solubility of drug and pH of the medium. Solid ABZ complexes were prepared by coprecipitation and freeze-drying methods. These products were compared with physical mixtures of ABZ and CyDs. The characterization of these products was made by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and drug release studies. True inclusion complexes were obtained only by the freeze-drying method. Drug release studies showed that the freeze-dried inclusion complexes increased the solubility rate of ABZ, although a supersaturation effect was observed when drug release studies were performed in nonsink conditions. A bioavailability study on mice was done with a formulation of ABZ:HPCD complex and was compared to a conventional ABZ suspension. A significantly (p < .05) shorter Tmax of absorption was obtained by using the complex formulation. Greater and significant (p < .05) differences for AUC and Cmax were observed. PMID:10612019

  6. Effects of dimethyl sulphoxide on the synthesis of plasma proteins in the human hepatoma HepG2. Induction of an acute-phase-like reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, F; Galbraith, R A; Sassa, S

    1988-01-01

    Effects of dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) on the synthesis of plasma proteins by the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 were examined. Me2SO treatment resulted in decreased synthesis of albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and in increased synthesis of haptoglobin. Plasma-protein profiles induced by Me2SO treatment were very similar to those seen in acute-phase reactions. PMID:3140793

  7. The effects of acute-phase inducers and dimethyl sulphoxide on delta-aminolaevulinate synthase activity in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, F; Sassa, S; Kappas, A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of acute-phase inducers and dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) on delta-aminolaevulinate (ALA) synthase in HepG2 cells were examined. Treatment of cells with Me2SO resulted in a significant increase in ALA synthase activity. Interleukin-6 increased ALA synthase activity only slightly, but it substantially potentiated the induction of ALA synthase by Me2SO. These data suggest that ALA synthase activity in liver is altered during acute-phase reactions. PMID:2541694

  8. [COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALBENDAZOLE VERSUS NITROFURANS AND NITROIMIDAZOLES IN THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIASIS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed

    Chan Del Pino, Manuel; Cueva Cornejo, Lina; Troyes Rivera, Lucinda

    1999-01-01

    A prospective, longitudinal, comparative, open and aleatory study in Jaen (Cajamarca--Peru), was performed during November 1997 and January of 1998. The objective was to demonstrate the efficacy and tolerance of Albendazol compared with Metronidazol, Furazolidona, Tinidazol and Secnidazol in the treatment of giardiasis in children. 79 children with giardiasis, confirmed by parasitologic studies were evaluated and distributed randorrily for aleatory code in A,B,C,D and E groups. The A group received Albendazol (5 days), the B group Metronidazol (10 days), the C group Furazolidona (10 days), the D group Tinidazol (1 d a) and the E group Secnidazol (1 d a); Clinical controls and coproparasitologic studies were performad during and after the treatment. The cl nical efficacy in the groups was of 100% and the efficacy coproparas tological of 94.1% with Albendazol, 93.3% with Secnidazol and 100% with Metronidazol. Furazolidona and Tinidazol. The global efficacy was excel lent with Al bendazol in 64,7% and in less than 40% with the other drugs, being the biggest pharmacological tolerance with Albendazol (82,3%) and Secnidazol (80%). We conclude that Albendazol is as effective as Metronidazol, Furazolidona, Tinidazol and Secnidazol but faster in eradicating the Giardia lambila in children and with better tolerance that Metronidazol, Furazolidona and Tinidazol. We consider necessary to control Epidemiological factor associated, to eradicate the parasite permanently. PMID:12196811

  9. Albendazole therapy and reduced decline in haemoglobin concentration during pregnancy (Sierra Leone).

    PubMed

    Torlesse, H; Hodges, M

    2001-01-01

    WHO recommends that anthelmintic treatment be included in strategies to improve maternal nutrition in areas where hookworms are endemic and anaemia is prevalent. At present, few countries have adopted this recommendation, partly owing to the lack of data to support the adverse effects of hookworms on maternal health. A longitudinal study was conducted on 125 women in Sierra Leone (in 1995/96) to measure the impact of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) and daily iron-folate supplements (36 mg iron and 5 mg folate) on haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentration during pregnancy. Women who received both albendazole and iron-folate supplements experienced no significant change (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of anaemia and iron-deficiency anaemia between the first and third trimesters. These prevalence levels significantly increased (P < 0.05) in women who received either albendazole or iron-folate supplements or neither. After controlling for baseline haemoglobin concentration and season, the mean decline in haemoglobin concentration between the first and third trimester in women who received albendazole was 6.6 g/L less than in women who received the control (P = 0.0034). The corresponding value for iron-folate supplements was 13.7 g/L haemoglobin (P < 0.001). The effects of albendazole and iron-folate supplements were additive. These findings lend support to WHO's recommendation for anthelmintic treatment during pregnancy. PMID:11355560

  10. Development of bone marrow toxicosis after albendazole administration in a dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Stokol, T; Randolph, J F; Nachbar, S; Rodi, C; Barr, S C

    1997-06-15

    Bone marrow toxicosis was detected in a dog and cat following albendazole administration. Both animals were admitted with pancytopenia. In the dog, pancytopenia was attributed to severe panmarrow hypoplasia, whereas the cat had hypoplasia of erythroid and megakaryocytic series, but with a left-shifted granulocytic hyperplasia. Results of cytologic examination of bone marrow from both animals were compatible with acute injury. Both animals had been treated with albendazole for giardiasis prior to the onset of clinical signs. Bone marrow toxicosis was attributed to albendazole administration for the following reasons: this was the only or most recent drug administered, other causes of bone marrow toxicosis were not found, and both animals recovered rapidly with supportive care that consisted of fluid and antibiotic administration. Albendazole induced toxicosis appeared to be dose related in the dog and idiosyncratic in the cat. On the basis of the findings in this report, there is a potential for the development of albendazole induced bone marrow toxicosis in dogs and cats; therefore, veterinarians should exercise caution when using this drug. PMID:9187723

  11. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of zinc gluconate associated with dimethyl sulphoxide for sexually mature canine males chemical neutering.

    PubMed

    Soto, F R M; Viana, W G; Mucciolo, G C B; Hosomi, F Y M; Vannucchi, C I; Mazzei, C P; Eyherabide, A R; de Fátima Lúcio, C; Dias, R A; de Azevedo, S S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of zinc gluconate associated with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for chemical neutering in canine males. Fifteen sexually mature male dogs were divided in two groups, named control and treated. An injection was administered to both testicles, at a concentration of 26.2 mg zinc gluconate per ml and 0.5% DMSO in the treated group (11 dogs). The control group was given injections of saline solution (four dogs). Clinical examination and blood collection for a haemogram were done both before and after drug injection. There were 12 spermograms performed to analyse sperm motility, sperm vigour, ejaculate volume, testicle size, pathology and sperm concentrations. Libido was also measured. An ultrasound examination and histopathology were performed at the end of the experiment. Dogs' libido after chemical injection was reduced by over 50%. The spermogram analysis showed final mean results of 14.54% for sperm motility, 0.72 of sperm vigour and 37,150 per million spermatozoa per millilitre, values considered below the necessary levels at which fertilization can occur. Ultrasound and histopathology analyses of testicles for the treated group revealed more intense injuries when compared with the control group, with compromised testicular parenchyma and a decrease of germ cell number leading to total atrophy, indicating that the treatment reduced the fertilizing potential of male dogs, promoting a possible subfertile status. PMID:18992122

  12. Studies of the conformation of bilirubin and its dimethyl ester in dimethyl sulphoxide solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, D; Navon, G

    1982-01-01

    The conformation of bilirubin and its dimethyl ester in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was investigated by n.m.r. spectroscopy. The chemical shifts of the pyrrole NH and Lactam protons of bilirubin and its dimethyl ester in DMSO indicate a strong interaction with the solvent. Inter-proton distances were calculated from nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE), selective and non-selective relaxation times (T1) and rotational correlation times taken from 13C relaxation times. The interproton distances indicate that the conformation of the skeleton of bilirubin and its dimethyl ester in DMSO is similar to that of bilirubin and mesobilirubin in the crystalline state and in chloroform solutions, except for a possible slight twist of the pyrrolenone rings about the methine bonds, which may be a consequence of solvation of the NH groups by DMSO. Unlike in chloroform solutions, no direct hydrogen-bonding occurs between the carboxylic acid and the lactam groups of bilirubin in DMSO, as shown by the absence of an NOE between these groups. The fast exchange of the pyrrole NH protons with 2H shows that no hydrogen-bonding occurs between these protons and the propionic residues, in line with their solvation by DMSO. From the above results, and from the slowness of the internal motion of the propionic residues of bilirubin and its dimethyl ester, it is concluded that these residues are tied to the skeleton via bound solvent molecules. PMID:6284124

  13. Safety of the Combined Use of Praziquantel and Albendazole in the Treatment of Human Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Belhassen-Garcia, Moncef; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Pérez del Villar, Luis; Valverde-Merino, María Paz; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    There is still no well-established consensus about the clinical management of hydatidosis. Currently, surgery continues to be the first therapeutic option, although treatment with anti-parasitic drugs is indicated as an adjuvant to surgery to decrease the number of relapses and hydatid cyst size. When surgery is not possible, medical treatment is indicated. Traditionally, albendazole was used in monotherapy as the standard treatment. However, combined therapy with albendazole plus praziquantel appears to improve anti-parasitic effectiveness. To date, no safety studies focusing on such combined therapy have been published for the treatment of hydatidosis. In this work, we analyze the adverse effects seen in 57 patients diagnosed with hydatidosis who were treated with praziquantel plus albendazole combined therapy between 2006 and 2010. PMID:24615131

  14. Efficacy of an albendazole feed formulation against bovine gastrointestinal nematodes including arrested larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi.

    PubMed

    Courtney, C H; Greiner, E C; Whitten, R D

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of an albendazole feed premix formulation was compared with that of an albendazole drench suspension for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in 31 beef cattle. The premix (11 cattle) and drench suspension (9 cattle) were found to have similar efficacies at a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight. When compared with controls (11 cattle), both formulations caused significant (P less than 0.05) reductions in worm counts with an efficacy of 98% or greater against adult Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia punctata, and C pectinata. There was no significant effect against arrested 4th-stage larvae of O ostertagi. Adverse effects of albendazole treatment were not observed, and the premix formulation was readily consumed by cattle. PMID:3946888

  15. Efficacy and safety of albendazole against experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in goats.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1988-01-01

    Forty 8-week-old goats were allocated to five groups of equal size to determine the optimal dosage of albendazole against experimentally induced 14-week-old Fasciola hepatica infections. Albendazole suspension given orally at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 15 mg kg-1 of body weight was 73.3, 88.2, 88.3 and 95.9% effective, respectively, when compared to untreated controls. Mean number of F. hepatica in the untreated control goats was 75.4. No signs of toxicity were observed. When albendazole was given to eight, 8-week-old goats orally at 75 mg kg-1 (five times the optimal dosage), no signs of toxicity were observed. PMID:3347986

  16. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    PubMed

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana. PMID:11818981

  17. [The experimental chemotherapy of larval alveolar echinococcosis. The search for an optimal regimen of albendazole use].

    PubMed

    Dzhabarova, V I; Novik, T S

    1999-01-01

    The antiechinococcal activity of albendazole resynthesized at the E. I. Martsinovskiĭ Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine was studied on infection models in rats and mouse in different experimental modifications. The efficiency of the therapy was determined in relation to the dose of the drug and its routes administrations, to the single or intermittent daily dose, to the presence or absence of intervals in the treatment regimen, to dosage forms. The trials indicated that albendazole was most active against larval alveolar echinococcosis of mice or cotton rats when it was used with their feed, i.e. through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:10414050

  18. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Oyeduntan A.; Uwalaka, Emmanuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. PMID:26579232

  19. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats.

    PubMed

    Adediran, Oyeduntan A; Uwalaka, Emmanuel C

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. PMID:26579232

  20. A comparative clinical trial of albendazole versus metronidazole in children with giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Misra, P K; Kumar, A; Agarwal, V; Jagota, S C

    1995-07-01

    The adverse effects and treatment failures to some of the currently recommended drugs for giardia infection have given rise to the need for alternative antigiardial agents. In an open, randomized parallel group study, the safety and efficacy of albendazole was compared with metronidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in children. Sixty four children of age ranging from 2-12 years was randomized to receive either albendazole suspension 400 mg daily for 5 days or metronidazole suspension 400 mg daily for 5 days or metronidazole suspension 7.5 mg/Kg thrice daily for 5 days. The mean days required for cure, as evident by absence of cysts and/or trophozoites in the stool specimen, were 3.7 +/- 1.4 and 4.5 +/- 1.1 days, respectively for children on albendazole and metronidazole therapy. Six children on metronidazole therapy developed anorexia 2 to 4 days after the treatment. Albendazole proved as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardia infection in children with the added advantage of the absence of anorexia. PMID:8617554

  1. Comparative efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, R L; Williams, M L; Benz, G W; Gross, S J

    1985-07-01

    In a dosage-confirmation trial, anthelmintic activities of clorsulon and albendazole against Fasciola hepatica were evaluated and compared. Twenty-eight cattle (8 to 12 months old) with natural F hepatica infections were randomly allotted to 4 groups of 7 cattle each: group 1, no treatment (controls); group 2, clorsulon suspension given orally at 3.5 mg/kg of body weight; group 3, clorsulon suspension given orally at 7 mg/kg; and group 4, albendazole paste given orally at 10 mg/kg. At necropsies, performed 7 and 8 days after treatment, control cattle harbored a geometric mean of 133.2 F hepatica, 16.0 of which were immature. Clorsulon administered at 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg resulted in greater than 99% removal of F hepatica, including immatures. Albendazole treatment resulted in a 76% overall reduction in F hepatica, including a 91% reduction of immatures. Fascioloides magna also were found in the cattle, but neither clorsulon nor albendazole caused significant reductions of the parasite. Adverse reactions to the 2 drugs were not observed. PMID:4026039

  2. Increasing the solubility characteristics of albendazole with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Kata, M; Schauer, M

    1991-01-01

    Albendazole is a veterinary anthelminthic drug with excellent effect. Since it is only slightly soluble in water, it is processed in a suspension dosage form as a drench. The solubility and bioavailability of the pharmacon were successfully increased with cyclodextrin derivatives. PMID:1872189

  3. Synergistic effects in solvent-extraction systems based on alkylsalicylic acids. III. Extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and yttrium from chloride media in the presence of dialkyl and diaryl sulphoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, J.S.; Preez, A.C. du

    1996-08-01

    Dialkyl and diaryl sulphoxides were found to cause synergistic shifts in the pH{sub 50} values for the extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and yttrium from sodium chloride media by solutions of alkylsalicylic acids in xylene. The extent of the synergistic shift for a given sulphoxide increases with increasing steric bulk of the alkylsalicylic acid used. With the homologous series of dialkyl sulphoxides R{sub 2}SO, where R = n-butyl, n-hexyl, and n-octyl, there is little variation in the size of the synergistic shift for a given alkylsalicylic acid. For a series of sulphoxides containing similar numbers of carbon atoms, the extent of the shift increases with the introduction of alicyclic rings, but decreases when aromatic rings are introduced, for example, in the order of R: cyclohexyl > n-hexyl > phenyl, although the effect is not very marked. For a given extractant mixture, the pH{sub 50} values decrease from lanthanum to samarium and then increase from samarium to lutetium. The separation between the pH{sub 50} values for lanthanum and lutetium increases with increasing steric bulk of both the alkylsalicylic acid (HA) and the sulphoxide (L), but the separations between adjacent lanthanides are in all cases too small to be of any practical use. Slope-analysis treatment of metal-distribution data, and measurements of the solubility of the neodymium-alkylsalicylic acid complex in xylene solutions of the sulphoxides are consistent with the extraction of a mixed-ligand complex of the type NdA{sub 3}L{sub 2}. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Excipients and an Albendazole Salt on Albendazole Concentrations in Upper Small Intestine Using an In Vitro Biorelevant Gastrointestinal Transfer (BioGIT) System.

    PubMed

    Kourentas, Alexandros; Vertzoni, Maria; Khadra, Ibrahim; Symillides, Mira; Clark, Hugh; Halbert, Gavin; Butler, James; Reppas, Christos

    2016-09-01

    An in vitro biorelevant gastrointestinal transfer (BioGIT) system was assessed for its ability to mimic recently reported albendazole concentrations in human upper small intestine after administration of free base suspensions to fasted adults in absence and in presence of supersaturation promoting excipients (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and lipid self-emulsifying vehicles). The in vitro method was also used to evaluate the likely impact of using the sulfate salt on albendazole concentrations in upper small intestine. In addition, BioGIT data were compared with equilibrium solubility data of the salt and the free base in human aspirates and biorelevant media. The BioGIT system adequately simulated the average albendazole gastrointestinal transfer process and concentrations in upper small intestine after administration of the free base suspensions to fasted adults. However, the degree of supersaturation observed in the duodenal compartment was greater than in vivo. Albendazole sulfate resulted in minimal increase of albendazole concentrations in the duodenal compartment of the BioGIT, despite improved equilibrium solubility observed in human aspirates and biorelevant media, indicating that the use of a salt is unlikely to lead to any significant oral absorption advantage for albendazole. PMID:27372549

  5. Rat peptide methionine sulphoxide reductase: cloning of the cDNA, and down-regulation of gene expression and enzyme activity during aging.

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, I; Mary, J; Perichon, M; Friguet, B

    2001-01-01

    Peptide methionine sulphoxide reductase (PMSR, EC 1.8.4.6), the msrA or pmsR gene product, is a ubiquitous enzyme catalysing the reduction of methionine sulphoxide to methionine in proteins. Decreased expression and/or activity of the PMSR with age could explain, at least in part, the accumulation of oxidized protein observed upon aging. To test this hypothesis, the rat pmsR cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The recombinant protein was expressed, its catalytic activity checked with a synthetic substrate and polyclonal antibodies were raised against recombinant PMSR. The expression of the pmsR gene and protein as well as its catalytic activity were then analysed as a function of age in the rat brain and in two organs that express the most PMSR, liver and kidney. It appears that pmsR gene expression decreases with age in liver and kidney as early as 18 months, whereas protein level and protein activity are reduced in the three organs at the very end of the life of the rat (26 months). These results suggest that the down-regulation of PMSR can contribute to the accumulation of oxidized protein that has been associated with the aging process. PMID:11311146

  6. Rationale for the Coadministration of Albendazole and Ivermectin to Humans for Malaria Parasite Transmission Control

    PubMed Central

    Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Alout, Haoues; Foy, Brian D.; Clements, Archie; Adisakwattana, Poom; Swierczewski, Brett E.; Richardson, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently there have been calls for the eradication of malaria and the elimination of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Malaria and STHs overlap in distribution, and STH infections are associated with increased risk for malaria. Indeed, there is evidence that suggests that STH infection may facilitate malaria transmission. Malaria and STH coinfection may exacerbate anemia, especially in pregnant women, leading to worsened child development and more adverse pregnancy outcomes than these diseases would cause on their own. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans for malaria parasite transmission suppression is being investigated as a potential malaria elimination tool. Adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs would maximize effects against STHs. A proactive, integrated control platform that targets malaria and STHs would be extremely cost-effective and simultaneously reduce human suffering caused by multiple diseases. This paper outlines the benefits of adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs for malaria parasite transmission suppression. PMID:25070998

  7. In-vitro susceptibility of Giardia lamblia to albendazole, mebendazole and other chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Cedillo-Rivera, R; Muñoz, O

    1992-09-01

    The susceptibility of a strain of Giardia lamblia to benzimidazole carbamates, 5-nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans and other drugs was studied in vitro. Albendazole was the most active compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.01 mg/L and a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of less than 0.04 mg/L; the IC50 of mebendazole was 0.06 mg/L and the MLC less than 0.5 mg/L. Among the 5-nitroimidazoles tested, ornidazole was the most effective (IC50 0.12 mg/L); tinidazole, metronidazole, secnidazole and hemezole were less active. Nifuroxazide, etofamide and nalidixic acid exhibited modest anti-giardial activity; quinfamide did not inhibit the growth of the parasite at a concentration of 200 mg/L. Albendazole and mebendazole are promising candidates for clinical use and should be further evaluated. PMID:1518040

  8. Rationale for the coadministration of albendazole and ivermectin to humans for malaria parasite transmission control.

    PubMed

    Kobylinski, Kevin C; Alout, Haoues; Foy, Brian D; Clements, Archie; Adisakwattana, Poom; Swierczewski, Brett E; Richardson, Jason H

    2014-10-01

    Recently there have been calls for the eradication of malaria and the elimination of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Malaria and STHs overlap in distribution, and STH infections are associated with increased risk for malaria. Indeed, there is evidence that suggests that STH infection may facilitate malaria transmission. Malaria and STH coinfection may exacerbate anemia, especially in pregnant women, leading to worsened child development and more adverse pregnancy outcomes than these diseases would cause on their own. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans for malaria parasite transmission suppression is being investigated as a potential malaria elimination tool. Adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs would maximize effects against STHs. A proactive, integrated control platform that targets malaria and STHs would be extremely cost-effective and simultaneously reduce human suffering caused by multiple diseases. This paper outlines the benefits of adding albendazole to ivermectin MDAs for malaria parasite transmission suppression. PMID:25070998

  9. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. PMID:27060508

  10. Efficacy of clorsulon and albendazole against Fascioloides magna in naturally infected white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Drawe, D L

    1985-12-01

    The efficacy of clorsulon and of albendazole against Fascioloides magna were evaluated in 36 naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern Texas. A single oral dose of clorsulon suspension (12 to 30 mg/kg of body weight; mean = 24 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 153 (92%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (80%) of 5 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. A single oral dose of albendazole paste (17 to 46 mg/kg; mean = 26 mg/kg) was given to each deer and killed 148 (89%) of 167 mature flukes and 4 (67%) of 6 immature flukes recovered at necropsy. In 82 nontreated control deer, 271 live flukes were recovered; dead flukes were not recovered. PMID:4077630

  11. Equine verminous arteritis; efficiency and speed of larvicidal acitivty as influenced by dosage of albendazole.

    PubMed

    Georgi, J R; Rendano, V T; King, J M; Bianchi, D G; Theodorides, V J

    1980-04-01

    Albendazole was effective in destroying Strongylus vulgaris larvae in verminous lesions of the cranial mesenteric artery when administered as a 20% suspension by stomach tube to ponies. Fifty mg/kg body weight administered twice a day for 2 days caused death and gradual disintegration of larvae over a period of 3 to 6 weeks with mild toxic signs appearing in 3 of 11 ponies. Higher total doses of albendazole (50 mg/kg twice a day for 4 days and 25 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days) lead to more rapid disintegration of the larvae but fatal toxicity was observed in 3 of 6 ponies so treated. In all cases, resolution of verminous arterial lesions was delayed until larva remains had disappeared from the lesions. A non-parametric analysis was applied to combined radiographic, pathologic and parasitologic observations and data for testing their statistical significance PMID:7408495

  12. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + diethylcarbamazine. The Kato-Katz method was used for qualitative and quantitative parasitological diagnosis. The chi2 test was used to determine the significance of cure rates, repeated measures analysis of variance for the comparison of mean log egg counts, the Newman-Keuls procedure for multiple comparison tests, and logistic regression for the comparison of infection rates at days 180 and 360 after treatment. FINDINGS: Albendazole, ivermectin and the drug combinations gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates for ascariasis than diethylcarbamazine. For trichuriasis, albendazole + ivermectin gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates than the other treatments: the infection rates were lower 180 and 360 days after treatment. CONCLUSION: Because of the superiority of albendazole + ivermectin against both lymphatic filariasis and trichuriasis, this combination appears to be a suitable tool for the integrated or combined control of both public health problems. PMID:12640474

  13. [Clinical study of the efficacy of albendazole treatment in human hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Rădulescu, S; Angelescu, N; Horvat, T; Lazăr, L; Creţu, C; Popa, L; Filiu, P; Ene, V; Burcoş, T; Ifrim, S; Popa, G

    1997-01-01

    A follow-up study of Albendazol effectiveness therapy in human hydatid diseases was carry out using WHO methodology. Albendazole was given at a dose of 10 mg/Kg body/day in cycles of 28 days separated by 14 days without treatment. The efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated by clinical improvement and changes in the cyst's morphology (detachment and collapse of the cyst membrane and increased density of the cyst fluid). We performed this study in 134 patients with hydatidosis: 17 patients with pre and post surgery treatment, 50 patients with post surgery treatment and 67 patients with chemotherapy only. Albendazole was effective in the hydatid disease; the patients with complex chemotherapy treatment did not report any secondary hydatidosis during the follow-up period (max. 2 years); the patients with exclusive chemotherapy reported 79% successful response, only 21% of them remained with unchanged cyst's size, but with modified internal structure. The therapeutic response depends of the cyst's size and its visceral site. PMID:9462951

  14. Efficacy of closantel plus albendazole liquid suspension against natural infection of gastrointestinal parasites in camels.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, K M; Sharif, L A; Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K

    1999-03-31

    Oral administration of closantel in a dose of 10 mg/kg plus albendazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg liquid suspension was studied in 75 camels naturally infected with various types of gastrointestinal parasites. The camels involved were 15 pregnant she-camels, 20 non-pregnant she-camels and 40 male camels of various ages. Each camel received a single oral dose of closantel (10 mg/kg) plus albendazole (5 mg/kg) orally. Two weeks later, 20 camels of this group were re-dosed again with the same dose of the anthelmintic. Fecal samples were collected per rectum from all camels at the time of treatment and again 14 and 42 days post treatment. Fecal egg counts and generic determination of third stage larvae was performed. Results indicated that six different species of gastrointestinal tract parasites were identified in camels. Single treatment of closantel plus albendazole mixture reduced egg counts in camels by 100%, 100%, 98% and 77% for Haemonchus longistipes, Ascaris spp., Monezia expansa and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. However, administration of the drug twice on the base of 2 weeks apart significantly raised the efficacy of the drug for clearance of the parasites from 92.5% to 100% in camels infected with various parasites. Camels were not adversely affected by treatment. PMID:10321589

  15. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. Methods We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg–400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Results Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Conclusions Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects. PMID:23289920

  16. Low Efficacy of Single-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Hookworm and Effect on Concomitant Helminth Infection in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong Ayé; Sayasone, Somphou; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hatz, Christoph; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Keiser, Jennifer; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg) and mebendazole (500 mg) for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. Methodology We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples) were randomly assigned to albendazole (n = 100) and mebendazole (n = 100). Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment), and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline) at 21–23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. Principal Findings Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2–0.8; P = 0.01), and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively) and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001 PMID:22235353

  17. Contribution of the stereospecific methionine sulphoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Kelly, David J

    2008-08-01

    The microaerophilic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to highly variable oxygen concentrations during its life cycle and employs a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. However, not all of the enzymes that mediate such protection have yet been identified. Two genes in strain NCTC 11168, Cj0637c and Cj1112c, are predicted to encode unrelated methionine sulphoxide reductases, which may repair oxidized methionine residues in proteins and thus contribute to oxidative stress defence. Cj0637 and Cj1112 were overexpressed, purified and shown by a coupled thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase-NADPH assay to catalyse the stereospecific reduction of the S and R diastereoisomers, respectively, of the model compound methyl p-tolyl sulphoxide. Cj0637 is thus identified as MsrA and Cj1112 as MsrB. The contribution of these enzymes to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in C. jejuni was assessed by phenotypic analysis of a set of isogenic msrA, msrB and msrA/B insertion mutants. As RT-PCR data suggested a polar effect on Cj1111c in the msrB mutant, an msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid complementation strain was also constructed. The msrA/B strain was severely growth inhibited under standard microaerobic conditions, whereas the msrA and msrB strains grew normally. Agar plate disc diffusion assays showed that all mutants displayed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxide, superoxide, and nitrosative and disulphide stress, but quantitative cell viability assays showed that the msrA/B double mutant was markedly more sensitive to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. All of the stress-sensitivity phenotypes observed for the msrB mutant were restored to wild-type in the msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid. It is concluded that MsrA and MsrB make a significant contribution to the protection of C. jejuni against oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:18667555

  18. Enhanced efficacy of sequential administration of Albendazole for the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Double blind RCT.

    PubMed

    De Britto, R L; Vanamail, P; Sankari, T; Vijayalakshmi, G; Das, L K; Pani, S P

    2015-06-01

    Till today, there is no effective treatment protocol for the complete clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) infection that causes secondary lymphoedema. In a double blind randomized control trial (RCT), 146 asymptomatic W. b infected individuals were randomly assigned to one of the four regimens for 12 days, DEC 300 mg + Doxycycline 100 mg coadministration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg co-administration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg sequential administration or control regimen DEC 300 mg and were followed up at 13, 26 and 52 weeks post-treatment for the clearance of infection. At intake, there was no significant variation in mf counts (F(3,137)=0.044; P=0.988) and antigen levels (F(3,137)=1.433; P=0.236) between the regimens. Primary outcome analysis showed that DEC + Albendazole sequential administration has an enhanced efficacy over DEC + Albendazole co-administration (80.6 Vs 64.7%), and this regimen is significantly different when compared to DEC + doxycycline co-administration and control (P<0.05), in clearing microfilaria in 13 weeks. Secondary outcome analysis showed that, all the trial regimens were comparable to control regimen in clearing antigen (F(3, 109)=0.405; P=0.750). Therefore, DEC + Albendazole sequential administration appears to be a better option for rapid clearance of W. b microfilariae in 13 weeks time. (Clinical trials.gov identifier - NCT02005653). PMID:26691247

  19. Albendazole inhibits endothelial cell migration, tube formation, vasopermeability, VEGF receptor-2 expression and suppresses retinal neovascularization in ROP model of angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pourgholami, Mohammad H.; Khachigian, Levon M.; Fahmy, Roger G.; Badar, Samina; Wang, Lisa; Chu, Stephanie Wai Ling; Morris, David Lawson

    2010-07-09

    The angiogenic process begins with the cell proliferation and migration into the primary vascular network, and leads to vascularization of previously avascular tissues and organs as well to growth and remodeling of the initially homogeneous capillary plexus to form a new microcirculation. Additionally, an increase in microvascular permeability is a crucial step in angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis. We have previously reported that albendazole suppresses VEGF levels and inhibits malignant ascites formation, suggesting a possible effect on angiogenesis. This study was therefore designed to investigate the antiangiogenic effect of albendazole in non-cancerous models of angiogenesis. In vitro, treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with albendazole led to inhibition of tube formation, migration, permeability and down-regulation of the VEGF type 2 receptor (VEGFR-2). In vivo albendazole profoundly inhibited hyperoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis in mice. These results provide new insights into the antiangiogenic effects of albendazole.

  20. Albendazole and Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma: A Network Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Huang, Tong-Yi; Sun, Kai-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Ke-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is the commonest form of neurocysticercosis in the Indian subcontinent and in travelers. Several different treatment options exist for SCG. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to identify the best treatment option to prevent seizure recurrence and promote lesion resolution for patients with SCG. Methods and Principal Findings PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases (up to June 1, 2015) were searched for RCTs that compared any anthelmintics or corticosteroids, alone or in combination, with placebo or head to head and reported on seizure recurrence and lesion resolution in patients with SCG. A total of 14 RCTs (1277 patients) were included in the quantitative analysis focusing on four different treatment options. A Bayesian network model computing odds ratios (OR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) and probability of being best (Pbest) was used to compare all interventions simultaneously. Albendazole and corticosteroids combination therapy was the only regimen that significantly decreased the risk of seizure recurrence compared with conservative treatment (OR 0.32, 95% CrI 0.10–0.93, Pbest 73.3%). Albendazole and corticosteroids alone or in combination were all efficacious in hastening granuloma resolution, but the combined therapy remained the best option based on probability analysis (OR 3.05, 95% CrI 1.24–7.95, Pbest 53.9%). The superiority of the combination therapy changed little in RCTs with different follow-up durations and in sensitivity analyses. The limitations of this study include high risk of bias and short follow-up duration in most studies. Conclusions Dual therapy of albendazole and corticosteroids was the most efficacious regimen that could prevent seizure recurrence and promote lesion resolution in a follow-up period of around one year. It should be recommended for the management of SCG until more high-quality evidence is available. PMID

  1. Effects of albendazole, fumagillin, and TNP-470 on microsporidial replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Didier, E S

    1997-01-01

    Presently, the two most commonly used drugs for treating microsporidiosis in persons with AIDS are albendazole and fumagillin. Albendazole is effective for treating disseminated infections due to Encephalitozoon spp. but is variably effective against Enterocytozoon bieneusi infections. Fumagillin is highly effective when used topically to treat ocular infections with Encephalitozoon hellem or Encephalitozoon intestinalis but is too toxic for systemic use. In this study, the fumagillin analog TNP-470 was assayed for antimicrosporidial activity in vitro. The MICs of TNP-470 at which 50% of isolates were killed (MIC50s) were 0.35 +/- 0.21 and 0.38 +/- 0.11 ng/ml for E. intestinalis and Vittaforma corneae, respectively, and were similar to the MIC50s of fumagillin for these organisms, which were 0.515 +/- 0.002 and 0.81 +/- 0.014 ng/ml, respectively. The MIC50 of albendazole for E. intestinalis was 8.0 +/- 4.23 ng/ml, significantly less (P < 0.01) than its MIC50 for V. corneae, which was 55.0 +/- 7.07 ng/ml. TNP-470 inhibited replication of E. intestinalis in RK-13 cells if it was given at the same time as infection or if treatment was initiated 7 days later. In addition, treatment of the infected cultures with TNP-470 at a dose of 10 ng/ml for 2 weeks, followed by discontinuation of the drug treatment, resulted in no significant increase in E. intestinalis shedding during the following 3 weeks in culture. Because TNP-470 acts against both E. intestinalis and V. corneae, and because TNP-470 was found by others to be less toxic in vivo, TNP-470 may be a promising new drug for the treatment of microsporidiosis. PMID:9210681

  2. Treatment of Bifocal Cyst Hydatid Involvement in Right Femur with Teicoplanin Added Bone Cement and Albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Pazarci, Ozhan; Oztemur, Zekeriya; Bulut, Okay

    2015-01-01

    Although bone involvement associated with cyst hydatid is rarely seen, it can cause unintended results such as high recurrence rate, infection, sepsis, or amputation of relevant extremity. Because of this reason, its treatment is difficult and disputed. In the case of bifocal bone cyst hydatid in right femur, along with albendazole treatment, result of resecting cyst surgically and its treatment with teicoplanin with added bone cement is given. In conclusion, since the offered treatment method both supports bone in terms of mechanical aspect and also can prevent secondary infection, the method is thought to be a good and safe treatment approach. PMID:26236523

  3. Efficacy of two formulations of albendazole against liver flukes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Craig, T M; Qureshi, T; Miller, D K; Wade, C G; Rogers, J A

    1992-07-01

    Albendazole (10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered as a drench suspension or as a feed additive to 24 cattle with naturally acquired infections of Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna. Cattle were euthanatized 16 to 30 days after treatment, and the number of viable flukes was counted. Viable F hepatica and F magna were decreased by 91.4% and 70.6% for drench administration and by 82.9% and 71.9% for the feed additive treatment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 formulations in decreasing viable fluke numbers, compared with untreated controls. PMID:1497187

  4. In vitro Effects of Albendazole on Raillietina echinobothrida, the Cestode of Chicken, Gallus domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Lalchhandama, K

    2010-01-01

    Albendazole, a member of benzimidazole group of compounds, has been shown to have a broad spectrum activity against all classes of helminth parasites. Although it has also been experimentally proven to be effective against cestode infection of poultry, the actual effects of the drug are not yet described. The present in vitro study demonstrated that the commercial prescription drug Zentel® was significantly effective against adult Raillietina echinobothrida Mégnin, the major cestode parasite of domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus Linnaeus. It clearly exhibited dose-dependent lethal activity at the different concentrations that were tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the drug caused extensive structural alterations on the body surface of the cestode. Severe contraction and shrinkage were evident throughout the entire length of the body. The suckers on the scolex became invaginated due to shrinkage. The distinct body segments, the proglottides, were completely distorted. The fine hairy microtriches on the tegument were obliterated and in its place were formed abnormal clumps of tissues. The results of this investigation are in favor of the use of albendazole as a drug of choice in the management of poultry helminthiasis. PMID:21264097

  5. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole against gastrointestinal roundworms, tapeworms, lungworms and liverflukes in sheep.

    PubMed

    van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Récio, M; Erasmus, F P

    1979-03-01

    Anthelmintic trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole against helmi of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg administered orally, resulted in a 98,8 to 100% reduction of adult parasites of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Gaigeria, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia, Marshallagia and Cooperia. Against the immature stages of these genera, except for Marshallagia and Cooperia, which were not tested, a dose level of 2,5 to 3,8 mg/kg was 83,9-100% effective. Albendazole at 2,5 mg/kg was 99,0% effective against adult stages of Dictyocaulus; its activity at a dose of 3,8 mg/kg against the immature stages of D. filaria was 89,3%. In sheep naturally infested with Moniezia, 100% elimination was obtained at a dose level of 2,5 mg/kg. Dose levels of 3,8 mg/kg and higher were more than 76% effective against adult Fasciola hepatica, while a dose of 4,8 mg/kg was 63% effective against adult Fasciola gigantica. PMID:551183

  6. Echinococcus granulosus: membrane permeability of secondary hydatid cysts to albendazole sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    García-Llamazares, J L; Alvarez-de-Felipe, A I; Redondo-Cardeña, P A; Prieto-Fernández, J G

    1998-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were, first, to establish a methodology for evaluation of the permeability in vitro of hydatid cysts to different drugs and, second, to compare the permeability to albendazole sulfoxide of cysts from untreated animals, cysts from animals treated with 50 mg/kg netobimin for 5 days, and cysts from animals treated with 50 mg/kg netobimin plus 1.1 mg/kg fenbendazole for 5 days. The drug flow follows the Fick law, i.e., the uptake occurs by simple diffusion. We calculated the permeability constant of the cyst membrane by taking into account the disappearance velocity constant, the cyst area, and the incubation solution volume. The permeability value obtained for albendazole sulfoxide was 8.06+/-2.30 x 10(-6) cm s(-1) in cysts from untreated animals, 5.56+/-2.53 x l0(-6) cm s(-1) in cysts from animals treated with netobimin, and 7.05+/-3.04 x 10(-6) cm s(-1) in cysts from animals treated with netobimin +/- fenbendazole. These permeability values show significant differences (P < 0.05). PMID:9610641

  7. [Comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions in albino mice with experimental larval alveococcosis].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkoliar, N A; Legon'kov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions (AOS and MOS) was studied in an experimental model of experimental larval alveococcosis in albino mice. The animals were intragastrically injected with the agents once daily for 40 days on day 35 after intraperitoneal inoculation with E. multilocularis acephalocysts. They were dissected 29 days after treatment termination (103 days following inoculation) and the rate of infestation and viability and the degree of maturity of developed alveococcosis larvocysts (AL) were determined. The AOS and MOS efficiency estimated by the mean mass of AL per animal was 83.3 and 98.1%, respectively; whereas the similar indicator calculated by one largest AL weight per animal found among all the animals in the compared groups was equal to 57.7 and 96.9%, respectively. Under the equal conditions of solubilization in vegetable oil, the biological activity and bioavailability of mebendazole were shown to increase to a much greater extent than those of albendazole. The findings suggest that the use of mebendazole is promising for designing new vegetable oil-based formulations of the agent. PMID:24003516

  8. Novel albendazole-chitosan nanoparticles for intestinal absorption enhancement and hepatic targeting improvement in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-qing; Ren, Wei-xin; Chen, Yuan-lan; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jian-kang; Bawudong, Dilimulati; Gu, Jun-peng; Xu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Xue-nong

    2013-08-01

    To improve the treatment of helminthiasis, filariasis, and colorectal cancer, albendazole-associated chitosan nanoparticles (ABZ-CS-NPs) were prepared using the emulsion crosslinking volatile technique with contained sodium tripolyphosphate as the crosslinking agent and Poloxamer 188 as the auxiliary solvent. The structural characteristics of the NPs were determined using X-ray diffraction to analyze the interaction between CS and the drug. The NPs were then evaluated in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, drug release behavior, in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters, and biodistribution in animal studies. ABZ-loaded NPs with a uniformly spherical particle sizes (157.8 ± 2.82 nm) showed efficient drug loading, encapsulated efficiency, and high physical stability. The drug release from ABZ-CS-NPs was extended over several periods. Kinetic models were then fitted to determine the release mechanisms. ABZ and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX) were analyzed in rats with mebendazole as the internal standard using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the ABZ suspension groups, the relative bioavailability values of ABZ and ABZSX were 146.05 and 222.15%, respectively. In addition, the plasma concentration versus time curve is consistent with that of the two compartment models in the plasma concentration versus time curve. The results indicate that the ABZ-loaded NPs are promising novel ABZ candidates for passive diffusion in the treatment of hydatid cysts in the liver via oral administration. PMID:23529958

  9. Analysis of the Beta-Tubulin Gene and morphological changes of the Microsporidium Anncaliia algerae both Suggest Albendazole Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Santiana, Marianita; Pau, Cyrilla; Takvorian, Peter M.; Cali, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Microsporidium, Anncaliia algerae, an obligate intracellular parasite, has been identified as an opportunistic human pathogen but treatment has not been evaluated for infections with this organism. Albendazole, an anti-tubulin polymerization drug used against parasitic worm infections, has been the medication of choice used to treat some microsporidial infections affecting humans, with varying results ranging from clearing infection (Encephalitozoon) to resistance (Enterocytozoon). This study illustrates the effect of albendazole treatment on A. algerae infection in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells and Human Fetal Lung (HFL-1) fibroblasts. Albendazole appears to have an attenuating effect on A. algerae infection and albendazole’s IC50 in RK13 cells is 0.1μg/ml. Long-term treatment inhibits up to 98% of spore production, but interrupting treatment re-establishes the infection without new exposure to the parasite as supported by microscopic observations. The parasite’s Beta-Tubulin gene was purified, cloned, and sequenced. Five of the six specific amino acids, associated with benzimidazole sensitivity, are conserved in A. algerae. These findings suggest that A. algerae is sensitive to albendazole; however, the organism is not completely cleared from cultures. PMID:25105446

  10. Effects observed on gestational day 13 in rat embryos exposed to albendazole.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, A; Ricciardi, C; Stazi, A V; Macrì, C

    1995-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) was utilized as a model to investigate the pathogenesis of benzimidazole-induced abnormalities. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated po with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg on gestational days (GD) 10 to 12. The embryos were examined on GD 13, as a window for observing the origin of alterations detected at term. Embryolethality and growth reduction showed dose-related increases at the three dose levels. At 10 mg/kg, an increased developmental delay of limb buds and a less than 5% incidence of embryos with abnormal head or shape were detected. At 20 and 30 mg/kg, > 20% of embryos showed morphologic alterations involving mainly shape abnormalities and the development of forelimb buds, branchial bars, eye, and telencephalon; closure of neuropores was unaffected. Dose-response relationships for morphologic alterations showed steeper slopes than for growth reduction and embryolethality. PMID:7579911

  11. Recurrent Hemorrhagic Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade due to Filariasis Successfully Treated with Ivermectin and Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Sachan, Mohit; Saraf, Sameer; Verma, Chandra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis presenting with pericardial effusion with tamponade is rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who was admitted with severe dyspnea and chest pain since 2 days. Echocardiogram showed massive pericardial effusion with tamponade. Pericardial fluid aspiration drained 1.2 L of hemorrhagic fluid. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. She was treated with diethyl carbamazine and discharged. Six weeks later, she presented again with massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of W. bancrofti. This time she was treated with ivermectin and albendazole and cured. Hemorrhagic effusion resolved completely. Though relatively uncommon, tropical diseases must always be considered in the etiological diagnosis of recurrent pericardial effusion. PMID:26240733

  12. EFficacy of albendazole for treatment of naturally acquired fasciola hepatica in calves.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Smith, P H; Loyacano, A F; Hembry, F G; Brock, L T

    1982-05-01

    In calves given various doses of albendazole as a 4.55% (w/v) drench suspension, removal efficacies against mature Fasciola hepatica were 77.5% with the dose of 7.5 mg/kg; 92.3%, with 10 mg/kg; and 85.9%, with 15 mg/kg. Against immature F hepatica, drug efficacies with these doses were 32.7%, 20.0%, and 36.7%, respectively. Reductions in length and width measurements of mature and immature flukes recovered from the bile ducts correlated with the larger doses reflected a greater efficacy against mature flukes or a possible inhibiting effect of the drug on fluke size or growth. Numbers of eggs recovered in bile at necropsy were reduced by 87.8% with the dose of 7.5 mg/kg; 91.8%, with 10 mg/kg; and 95.6%, with 15 mg/kg. PMID:7091853

  13. Formulation development of an albendazole self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with enhanced systemic exposure.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ashok K; Sharma, Kuldeep; Kandaswamy, Murugesh; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a self--emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) formulation to improve solubility and dissolution and to enhance systemic exposure of a BCS class II anthelmetic drug, albendazole (ABZ). In the present study, solubility of ABZ was determined in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants to identify the microemulsion components. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the microemulsification existence area. SEDDS formulation of ABZ was prepared using oil (Labrafac Lipopfile WL1349) and a surfactant/co-surfactant (Tween 80/PEG 400) mixture and was characterized by appropriate studies, viz., microemulsifying properties, droplet size measurement, in vitro dissolution, etc. Finally, PK of the ABZ SEDDS formulation was performed on rats in parallel with suspension formulation. It was concluded that the SEDDS formulation approach can be used to improve the dissolution and systemic exposure of poorly water-soluble drugs such as ABZ. PMID:24000442

  14. A randomised multicentre study to compare the safety and efficacy of albendazole and metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A K; Phadke, M A; Bagade, A C; Joshi, V; Gazder, A; Biswas, T K; Gill, H H; Jagota, S C

    1994-01-01

    A randomised control multicentre study to compare the safety and efficacy of albendazole and metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in children is reported. One hundred and fifty children of either sex (age range: 2-10 years) were randomised to receive either a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole suspension, or 22.5 mg/kg/day of metronidazole in 3 divided doses for 5 consecutive days. At the end of therapy, majority of children in both treatment groups were symptom free. Two days after completion of therapy, 97% of children in both treatment groups were giardia free in the stools. Side effects were noted in 3 children in the albendazole group, and in 20 children in the metronidazole group. We conclude that albendazole suspension is as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardial infection in children. It is safe and has fewer side effects as compared to metronidazole. PMID:7721374

  15. Efficacy of Albendazole-Chitosan Microsphere-based Treatment for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abulaihaiti, Maitiseyiti; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Qiao, Lei; Lv, Hai-Long; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Aduwayi, Nasrul; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology and anti-parasitic efficacy of albendazole–chitosan microspheres (ABZ-CS-MPs) for established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in an experimental murine model. Male outbred Kunming mice infected with E. multilocularis Metacestodes were administered with three ABZ formulations, namely, ABZ-CS-MPs, Liposome–Albendazole (L-ABZ), and albendazole tablet (ABZ-T). Each of the ABZ formulations was given orally at three different doses of 37.5, 75, and 150mg/kg, three times a week for 12 weeks postinfection. After administering the drugs, we monitored the pharmacological performance and anti-parasitic efficacy of ABZ-CS-MPs compared with L-ABZ, and ABZ-T treated mice. ABZ-CS-MPs reduced the weight of tissues containing E. multilocularis metacestodes most effectively compared with the ABZ-T group and untreated controls. Metacestode grown was Highly suppressed during treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs. Significantly higher plasma levels of ABZ metabolites were measured in mice treated with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ compared with ABZ-T. In particular, enhanced ABZ-sulfoxide concentration profiles were observed in the mice given 150mg/kg of ABZ-CS-MPs, but not in the mice treated with L-ABZ. Histological examination showed that damages caused disorganization of both the germinal and laminated layers of liver hyatid cysts, demolishing their characteristic structures after treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ. Over time, ABZ-CS-MPs treatment induced a shift from Th2-dominant to Th1-dominant immune response. CS-MPs As a new carrier exhibited improved absorption and increased bioavailability of ABZ in the treatment of E. multilocularis infections in mice. PMID:26352932

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  17. Human loiasis in a Cameroonian village: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial of a three-day albendazole regimen.

    PubMed

    Tabi, Tabe-Ebob; Befidi-Mengue, Rosa; Nutman, Thomas B; Horton, John; Folefack, Alain; Pensia, Edith; Fualem, Rellinds; Fogako, Josephine; Gwanmesia, Philomene; Quakyi, Isabella; Leke, Rose

    2004-08-01

    Because of the life-threatening, post-treatment reactions that have occurred in patients with loiasis treated with ivermectin, evaluation of a short-course albendazole regimen was undertaken in a Loa-endemic region of Cameroon. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study, 99 subjects with microfilaremia (100-3,3837/mL) were assigned to receive albendazole (400 mg; n = 48) or placebo (n = 51) for three days and were followed for 180 days; at day 180, the groups were crossed over and followed for an additional six months. In those initially receiving albendazole (ALB/PLAC), microfilarial levels decreased significantly by day 90 (P < 0.043), but returned to baseline by day 180. In those receiving albendazole at day 180 (PLAC/ALB), microfilarial levels also decreased following albendazole (P = 0.005). Blood eosinophil and antifilarial IgG levels did not change significantly for either group, although antifilarial IgG4 levels did in the ALB/PLAC group at day 180. Most subjects continued to have elevations in microfilaremia, suggesting that more intensive regimens of albendazole will be necessary to reduce Loa microfilaremia to levels safe enough to allow for ivermectin use. PMID:15306713

  18. In vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and -pyrimidines, individually and in combination with albendazole.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Olvera, Stephanía; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor; Jiménez-Cardoso, Enedina; Campos-Aldrete, Maria-Elena; Pérez-González, Cuauhtémoc; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a major diarrheal disease found throughout the world, the causative agent being the flagellate protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Infection is more common in children than in adults. The appearance of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of several parasitic diseases, including giardiasis. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to make an in vitro evaluation of the antigiardia response of synthetic derivatives 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines 1 and -pyrimidines 2 against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia WB, in comparison with the reference drug, albendazole. Additionally, the synergistic action of albendazole in combination with each of the most active 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines was also assessed. Based on the IC50 values obtained, the best anti-Giardia activity was provided by the 3-hydroxymethyl-4-fluorophenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivative 2c and the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine with the p-tolyl substituent 2d, followed by 2a and 2b. These four compounds showed effectiveness at a concentration similar to that of albendazole. Regarding synergism, the IC50 of the combination of albendazole with 2a, 2b or 2c gave the best anti-Giardia action, showing greater efficacy than albendazole alone. Hence, G. lamblia WB showed high susceptibility to some 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a] pyrimidines, which acted synergistically when used in combination with albendazole. PMID:26657313

  19. Photoabsorption and photodissociation studies of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the 35,000-80,000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Anuvab; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Sunanda, K.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2015-05-01

    Photoabsorption and photodissociation studies of dimethyl sulphoxide and its deuterated isotopologue (DMSO-h6 and DMSO-d6) are performed using synchrotron radiation in the 35,000-80,000 cm-1 region. In the photoabsorption spectrum, Rydberg series converging to the first three ionization potentials of DMSO at 9.1, 10.1 and 12.3 eV corresponding to removal of an electron from the highest three occupied molecular orbitals (14a‧, 7a″ and 13a‧) are observed. Based on a quantum defect analysis, Rydberg series assignments are extended to higher members as compared to earlier works and a few ambiguities in earlier assignments are clarified. Analysis is aided by quantum chemical calculations using the DFT and TDDFT methodologies. Vibronic structures observed in the spectrum of DMSO-h6 in the regions 7.7-8.1 eV and 8.1-8.8 eV are attributed to the transitions 7a″→4p at 7.862 eV and 14a‧→6s/4d at 8.182 eV, respectively. Photoabsorption spectra of DMSO-h6 and -d6 recorded using a broad band incident radiation show prominent peaks, which are identified and assigned to electronic and vibronic transitions of the SO radical. This provides a direct confirmation of the fact that DMSO preferentially dissociates into CH3 and SO upon UV-VUV excitation, as proposed in earlier photodissociation studies. An extended vibronic band system associated with the e1Π-X3Σ- transition of the SO radical is identified and assigned. The complete VUV photoabsorption spectrum of DMSO-d6 is also reported here for the first time.

  20. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths after mass albendazole administration in an indigenous community of the Manu jungle in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cabada, Miguel M; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; Clinton White, A

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available on the epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon. While albendazole is being increasingly used in deworming campaigns, few data exist on the impact of mass drug administration in isolated populations. We studied the prevalence of STHs, anemia, and malnutrition in a Matsigenka ethnic group from the Peruvian Amazon. Participants had received two doses of albendazole on consecutive days, 3 months before and again 2 weeks before data collection. Overall, 290 subjects were included. Most were female (53.7%) and 63.9% were ≤19 years old. Half of the participants had helminth infections. Trichiuris (30.2%), hookworm (19.1%), Ascaris (17.7%), and Strongyloides (5.6%) were the most common helminths. Other helminth ova included Capillaria hepatica and Fasciola-like eggs. Subjects of 5–19 years (51.8 %) and 20–35 years (68.6 %) old had helminths more often than those under 5 years (38%) and older than 35 years (41.5%) (P  =  0.02). Anemia was detected in 41% of children and this was more common in children under 5 years that in those of 5–19 years [odd ratio (OR)  =  5.68; 95% CI: 2.71–11.88]. Overall, 72.1% of children were malnourished. Stunting was common in children (70.7%), but wasting was not (2.9%). Despite repeated albendazole administration, this population continued to have a high prevalence of STHs, anemia, and malnutrition. In addition, we detected unusual organisms and organisms that do not respond to albendazole. Further studies are needed to assess the rationale and efficacy of mass chemotherapy for STHs in the Amazon. PMID:24934795

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among students of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Different brands Albendazole are commercially available and the efficacious brand/s is/are required for effective control of STHs infection. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among school children of Jimma town. Methods A cross sectional survey for prevalence of geohelminths and a randomized trial for efficacy study of different brands of albendazole was conducted among students Mendera Elementary School from March 29 to April 29, 2010. Positive subjects were randomized into three treatment arms using lottery method. The collected stool samples were examined by the McMaster method. CRs were calculated using SPSS windows version 16 and ERRs were calculated using appropriate formula. Results Of the 715 school children who had their stools examined, 326 were positive for STHs with a prevalence rate of 45.6%. The cure rates (CR) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and Hookworm were 99.4, 59.9 and 93.7%, respectively. Similarly, the egg reduction rates (ERR) were 97, 99.9 and 99.9% respectively. A statistical significant mean STH egg count difference were observed between pre and post-intervention study (p <0.001). But no statistical significant curing effect difference were observed among the three brands used against the three STHs (p >0.05). Conclusion All the three brands of Albendazole tested regardless of the brand type were therapeutically efficacious for Ascariasis, Trichuriasis and Hookworm infections irrespective of the infection status whether it was single or multiple. PMID:26958115

  2. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  3. Modified β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex to Improve the Physicochemical Properties of Albendazole. Complete In Vitro Evaluation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Salazar, Mario Oscar; Lamas, María Celina

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms. PMID:24551084

  4. Hookworm infection among school age children in Kintampo north municipality, Ghana: nutritional risk factors and response to albendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Children (n = 812) 6-11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  5. Modified β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to improve the physicochemical properties of albendazole. complete in vitro evaluation and characterization.

    PubMed

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Salazar, Mario Oscar; Lamas, María Celina

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of natural cyclodextrins and their synthetic derivatives have been studied extensively in pharmaceutical research and development to modify certain properties of hydrophobic drugs. The ability of these host molecules of including guest molecules within their cavities improves notably the physicochemical properties of poorly soluble drugs, such as albendazole, the first chosen drug to treat gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Thus, the aim of this work was to synthesize a beta cyclodextrin citrate derivative, to analyze its ability to form complexes with albendazole and to evaluate its solubility and dissolution rate. The synthesis progress of the cyclodextrin derivative was followed by electrospray mass spectrometry and the acid-base titration of the product. The derivative exhibited an important drug affinity. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments demonstrated that the tail and the aromatic ring of the drug were inside the cavity of the cyclodextrin derivative. The inclusion complex was prepared by spray drying and full characterized. The drug dissolution rate displayed exceptional results, achieving 100% drug release after 20 minutes. The studies indicated that the inclusion complex with the cyclodextrin derivative improved remarkably the physicochemical properties of albendazole, being a suitable excipient to design oral dosage forms. PMID:24551084

  6. Efficacy of albendazole in combination with thymol against Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    PubMed

    María, Albani Clara; Celina, Elissondo María

    2014-12-01

    The larval (metacestode) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a mainly hepatic disease characterized by continuous asexual proliferation of metacestodes by exogenous budding, resulting in the tumor-like, infiltrative growth of the parasite lesion. Current chemotherapeutical treatment of AE relies on the use of benzimidazoles, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole, but these drugs act parasitostatic rather than parasitocidal, and due to their low success rate they imply a lifelong application causing severe side effects. Thymol is one of the major components of the essential oils of Thymus and is a widely known anti-microbial agent. The aim of the present work was to compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) and thymol separately or combined on E. multilocularis protoscoleces and metacestodes. For this purpose, microscopical examinations at different time points were carried out. Moreover the tegumentary enzyme gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured to quantify the damage in metacestodes. Even though treatments of in vitro cultured E. multilocularis protoscoleces or metacestodes with ABZ or/and thymol showed that the drugs have an adverse effect on parasite viability, the combination of the two compounds at the concentration of 10μg/ml showed the maximum anti-parasitic effect. Three days postincubation the first effects of the treatment were detected on protoscoleces and a marked reduction in viability (33%) was registered at day 18. Incubation of E. multilocularis metacestodes in the presence of ABZ 10μg/ml+thymol 10μg/ml during 10 days resulted in dramatic alterations such as strongly irregular and fissured surface and markedly disrupted vesicles. Scanning electron microscopy showed that protoscoleces as well as the germinal layer of E. multilocularis metacestodes were dramatically damaged following ABZ or/and thymol treatment. Also an important increase of tegumentary enzyme GGT was registered after 72h

  7. Inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to ivermectin and albendazole during mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Gyapong, John O; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Gyapong, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    The current strategy for the interruption of transmission of lymphatic filariasis in areas where the disease is co-endemic with onchocerciasis is repeated annual mass treatment of endemic communities with ivermectin and albendazole. These drugs are not recommended for use in pregnancy. Pregnant women are excluded on the basis of their last menses. This exclusion criterion based on recall carries some inherent errors, leading sometimes to inadvertent exposure of foetuses to these drugs. This study set out to document the extent of inadvertent exposure of pregnant women to albendazole and ivermectin and assess the relative risk of congenital malformations because of inadvertent treatment with these drugs in early pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Local pregnancy revelation norms were studied, followed by a household survey of women aged 15-45 years to assess drug administration coverage. All infants born within 42 weeks of the mass drug treatment were examined to document any congenital malformations. Mothers who had lost any such infants responded to a verbal autopsy to ascertain the probable cause of death. Health facilities and local Traditional Birth Attendants were also visited to review maternity records. Of 2985 women of childbearing age (15-49 years) who were interviewed, 343 were pregnant during the mass drug administration. The sensitivity of the last menstrual period in detecting pregnancy and thus being excluded from treatment was 0.854 (293 of 343). Some pregnant women 50 of 343 (14.6%) had thus been inadvertently treated. This represents 1.7% of women in fertile age group (15-49 years). Of the six children found with some congenital malformations in these communities, one had been exposed to the drugs in-utero. The relative risk for congenital malformation after exposure was 1.05 (P=1.0). Two of nine reported spontaneous abortions had been exposed to the drugs (P=0.62). We conclude that the local mode of excluding

  8. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  9. Drug efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in school children in Mwea Division, Central Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Muhoho, N; Njomo, D; Mwobobia, I K; Josyline, K; Mitsui, Y; Awazawa, T; Amano, T; Mwandawiro, C

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this research was to assess drug efficacy in school children after mass chemotherapy with praziquantel and albendazole conducted in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga District, Central Kenya in 2004. In total 2300 children aged between 4 and 18 years in five primary schools were selected for the study. Before mass chemotherapy, prevalence of infection was 47.4% for Schistosoma mansoni, 16.7% for Necator americanus, 1.6% for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 0.8% for Trichuris trichiura. Post-treatment stool examination was carried out 8 weeks later, and a total of 1942 stool samples were collected. Prevalence decreased to 8.6% for S. mansoni, 0.2% for N. americunus, 0 for A. lumbricoides, and 0.6% for T. trichiura. Efficacy was good for S. mansoni and N. americanus (92.6% and 95.0%, respectively). Results of the first round of treatment of school-age children in Mwea indicate a good reduction in parasite burden. PMID:17572368

  10. Evidence of Fasciola spp. resistance to albendazole, triclabendazole and bromofenofos in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Venturina, Virginia M; Alejandro, Ma Antonette F; Baltazar, Cyril P; Abes, Nancy S; Mingala, Claro N

    2015-01-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola spp. is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries. Anthelmintic resistance has become a global concern. This study compared the efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics, determined the toxicity level and any indication of resistance. Thirty two water buffaloes naturally-infected with Fasciola spp. were used to determine the efficacy of triclabendazole (TBZ), albendazole (ABZ), and bromofenofos (BRO) using Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). To test the toxicity of the drugs given, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) was evaluated before and within one week after treatment. One dose administration of ABZ registered an efficacy of 79.17%, 73.33% for TBZ and 70.83% for BRO. Efficacy in two dose- treatment group was 83.33% for both BRO and ABZ, and 90.00% for TBZ. Two dose-treatment was effective for TBZ (90%), ineffective for BRO and ABZ. SGPT levels were not significantly different between pre-treatment and post- treatment across all treatments. Giving one or two doses of anthelmintics, at one month interval, does not increase the efficacy of the three drugs tested. The study also implies that anthelmintic resistance may have developed in the animals. PMID:26878627

  11. Ultrastructural effects of albendazole on the body wall of Gnathostoma spinigerum third stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Arunyanart, Channarong; Kanla, Pipatphong; Chaichun, Amnart; Intapan, Pewpan M; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of albendazole (ABZ) on the ultrastructure of Gnathostoma spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae. Two groups of experimentally infected mice received 60 or 90 mg/kg ABZ orally once a day for 21 consecutive days. Both groups had damage to the body walls of the worms, especially to the non-contractile part of the muscular layer. The severity of the damage was dose related, the higher the dose, the greater the damage. The body wall of the ABZ treated larvae demonstrated a decrease in the number of mitochondria in the non-contractile muscular part, especially in the internal surface of the sarcolemma. Some mitochondria developed large vacuoles, and became distorted and degenerated. The nuclei degenerated and had irregular shapes and the number of glycogen granules decreased. The present study demonstrates the structural damage induced by the toxic effects of ABZ and increases our knowledge of the mechanism of action of ABZ against G. spinigerum. PMID:20578453

  12. Efficacy of an anthelmintic combination in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica resistant to albendazole and clorsulon.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Cordero-Pérez, C; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we identified five sheep flocks with fasciolosis in the province of León (northwestern Spain) in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance status to three commonly used anthelmintics, namely albendazole (ABZ), triclabendazole (TCBZ) and clorsulon (CLOR). The identification of one flock resistant to ABZ and CLOR was shown after the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The reductions in eggs per gram values were -17.6% and -68% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after ABZ treatment; 85.15% and 44.91% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after CLOR treatment; and 97.06% against both stages, after the administration of TCBZ. As an alternative to control the infection, two combinations of ABZ and CLOR were tested. In the first, both drugs were administered at the recommended dose of each; in this case, the efficiency reached values above 95% against both immature and adult flukes. However, when the combined drugs were administered at half the recommended dose of each, the efficiency of the combination was very low, i.e. 16.67% and -11.11% against mature and immature flukes, respectively. In conclusion, this preliminary report suggests a possible interaction between ABZ and CLOR after their joint administration. However, these results should be confirmed in other flocks. PMID:24211419

  13. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-01-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from −1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, −167% to 100%, −467% to 89%, and −200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  14. Intestinal microsporidiosis with Septata intestinalis in a patient with AIDS--response to albendazole.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C; Müller, A; Schwenk, A; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V; Schrappe, M

    1995-11-01

    Microsporidiosis is a common finding in HIV-infected patients who have diarrhoea. The species most commonly causing gastrointestinal disease is Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Recently Septata intestinalis has been described as a cause of diarrhoea and disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. A 44-year-old homosexual man with severe immunodeficiency (CD4 cell count 40/microliters) had a history of watery diarrhoea for 2 weeks. Microsporidian spores measuring 1.2 to 1.5 x 2.5 to 3.0 microns were found in stool samples. Electron microscopy of duodenal biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis and showed parasitophorous vacuoles with the typical ultrastructure of S. intestinalis. The patient was treated with albendazole (400 mg twice daily) and became asymptomatic within 4 days. No spores could be detected in stool samples after a treatment period of 14 days. About 25 infections with S. intestinalis have been reported to date, and the case presented here is the first in a German patient. PMID:8586846

  15. A novel hot-melt extrusion formulation of albendazole for increasing dissolution properties.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; McBurney, Roy T; Halbert, Gavin W

    2016-02-29

    The main aim of the research focused on the production of hot-melt extrusion (HME) formulations with increased dissolution properties of albendazole (ABZ). Therefore, HME was applied as a continuous manufacturing technique to produce amorphous solid dispersions of the poorly water soluble drug ABZ combined with the polymer matrix polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP K12. HME formulations of ABZ-PVP K12 comprised a drug content of 1%, 5% and 10% w/w. The main analytical characterisation techniques used were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution profile studies. The application of SEM, XRPD and DSC evidenced drug physical transformation from crystalline to amorphous state and therefore, the achievement of an amorphous solid dispersion. The introduction of a novel technique, μ-CT, to characterise the internal structure of these materials revealed key information regarding materials distribution and void content. Dissolution profile studies evidenced a high increase in drug release profile compared to pure ABZ. These promising results can lead to a great enhancement of the oral bioavailability of ABZ dosage forms. Therefore, HME is a potential continuous manufacturing technique to overcome ABZ poor solubility properties and lead to a significant increase in the therapeutic effect. PMID:26768722

  16. Critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with four benzimidazoles: mebendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole.

    PubMed

    Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D; Kates, K C

    1977-08-01

    The comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. Mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S. endentatus, S. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Limited data indicated that all benzimidazoles were completely effective against adult Oxyuris equi and 95 to 100% effective against the 4th stage larvae. There was activity also against the large roundworm, Parascaris equorum, although the low levels of infection and skew distribution among the test animals did not permit a definitive determination of efficacy. Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, and Trichostrongylus axei were found in digests of the stomach but none were recovered in the feces after treatment; percent efficacy for these species was not calculated. None of the benzimidazoles showed activity against stomach bots, Gasterophilus spp., and tapeworms, Anoplocephala spp. nor against immature large and small strongylids outside the lumen of the digestive tract. PMID:886410

  17. Spectroscopic and spectrofluorimetric studies on the interaction of albendazole and trimethoprim with iodine.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, K; Elango, K P

    2012-07-01

    Raman, UV-vis, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of albendazole (ALB) and trimethoprim (TMP) drugs with iodine. Interactions of ALB and TMP with iodine yields triiodide ion and its formation was confirmed by electronic and Raman spectra. The peaks appeared in Raman spectra of the isolated products are at around 145, 113 and 82 cm(-1) are assigned to ν(as)(I-I), ν(s)(I-I) and δ(I(3)(-)) respectively, confirmed the presence of I(3)(-) ion. Formation constant (K), molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and thermodynamic properties ΔH(#), ΔS(#) and ΔG(#) were determined and discussed. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that the interaction between the ALB, TMP with iodine are spontaneous and the TMP-iodine interaction is found to be stronger than that the other system. Solvent variation studies indicated that the binding constant increased with an increase in polarity of the medium. PMID:22481175

  18. Self-dispersible nanocrystals of albendazole produced by high pressure homogenization and spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alejandro Javier; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Allemandi, Daniel; Palma, Santiago Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of human or animal infections. Although ABZ has shown a high efficacy for repeated doses in monogastric mammals, its low aqueous solubility leads to erratic bioavailability. The aim of this work was to optimize a procedure in order to obtain ABZ self-dispersible nanocrystals (SDNC) by combining high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray-drying (SD). The material thus obtained was characterized and the variables affecting both the HPH and SD processes were studied. As expected, the homogenizing pressure and number of cycles influenced the final particle size, while the stabilizer concentration had a strong impact on SD output and redispersion of powders upon contact with water. ABZ SDNC were successfully obtained with high process yield and redispersibility. The characteristic peaks of ABZ were clearly identified in the X-ray patterns of the processed samples. A noticeable increase in the dissolution rate was observed in the aqueous environment. PMID:26856301

  19. Enhancement of bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole by solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, R; Mohanta, G P; Madhusudan, S; Manna, P K; Manavalan, R

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) employing solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques. Solid dispersion (dispersion) was prepared using ABZ and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer (1:1 weight ratio). Ternary inclusion complex (ternary complex) was prepared using ABZ, hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and L-tartaric acid (1:1:1 molar ratio). In rabbits with high gastric acidity (gastric pH approximately 1), ternary complex and solid dispersion showed a bioavailability enhancement of 3.2 and 2.4 fold respectively, compared to a commercial suspension (p < 0.05). The rise in gastric pH (pH > 5) caused a 62% reduction in AUC (area under the plasma level curve) for the commercial suspension, whereas the reduction in case of PVP dispersion and ternary complex was only 43% and 37% respectively. The rapid absorption of the drug from solid dispersion and ternary complex was reflected in improved anthelmintic efficacy against the systemic phases of Trichinella spiralis. The ternary complex was significantly more efficient than solid dispersion and exhibited the highest larvicidal activity (90%) at a dose of 50 mg x kg(-1) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the ternary complex might be high even if there is a great variation in the gastric pH. PMID:17867556

  20. Enhanced dissolution and systemic availability of albendazole formulated as solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Castro, Silvina G; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio F; Urbizu, Lucía P; Confalonieri, Alejandra; Ceballos, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos E; Allemandi, Daniel A; Palma, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    Solid dispersions (SDs) containing the anthelmintic compound albendazole (ABZ) and either Pluronic 188 (P 188) or polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) as hydrophilic carriers were formulated. Drug-polymers interactions in solid state were investigated using different techniques. Only a 4% of total ABZ was dissolved at 5 min post-incubation, reaching dissolution rates of 32.8% (PEG 6000) and 69.4% (P 188) in SDs. In this way, P 188 was substantially more efficient as ABZ dissolution promoter in comparison to PEG 6000, especially at the initial stages of the dissolution processes (<30 min). An increased systemic availability (p < 0.001) was obtained when ABZ was administered as ABZ-P 188 SDs, with a 50% enhancement in systemic exposure (AUC values) compared to treatment with an ABZ suspension. Consistently, the Cmax increased 130% (p < 0.001) following treatment with P 188 based SD ABZ formulation. For the ABZ-PEG 6000 SD formulation, the favorable effect on ABZ systemic availability did not reached statistical significance compared to the control group. The study reported here showed the utility of pharmacokinetic assays performed on mice as a model for preliminary drug formulation screening studies. PMID:22670782

  1. Application of ultra-performance columns in high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of albendazole and its metabolites in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan; Swierczewska, Anna; Sawicka, Renata; Maślanka, Tomasz; Markiewicz, Włodzimierz; Ziółkowski, Hubert

    2011-10-01

    Methods for determination of albendazole (ALB), albendazole sulfoxide (SOX) and albendazole sulfone (SON) in turkey blood plasma, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, were developed. Moreover, comparison of HPLC columns with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) columns was performed. Albendazol was administered orally in 5-week-old birds (n = 18) at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. Accuracy and precision of the developed method were satisfactory and stability studies showed acceptable variation (below 15%) in ALB, SOX and SON concentrations when the samples were stored at -75°C for 15 days. UPLC(®) columns gave higher peaks from typical HPLC columns retaining high quality of analysis. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated quick elimination of ALB from turkey blood plasma. The mean residence time of SON was at least two times longer than that of SOX and four times longer than that of ALB. The elimination half-lives for ALB, SOX and SON were 0.7 ± 0.27, 5.37 ± 6.03, 9.17 ± 5.12 h, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the described method allows for precise determination of albendazole and its metabolites in turkey plasma. Moreover, using UPLC columns in HPLC apparatus results in higher sensitivity as compared with the classical HPLC columns. PMID:21294142

  2. Simultaneous extraction and quantification of albendazole and triclabendazole using vortex-assisted hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Mohammad; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh

    2016-06-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid vortex-assisted hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of albendazole and triclabendazole from various matrices before their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Several factors influencing the microextraction efficiency including sample pH, nature and volume of extraction solvent, ionic strength, vortex time, and sample volume were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 0.08 and 0.12 μg/L for albendazole and triclabendazole, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges of 0.3-50.0 and 0.4-50.0 μg/L with the coefficients of determination of 0.9999 and 0.9995 for albendazole and triclabendazole, respectively. The interday and intraday relative standard deviations for albendazole and triclabendazole at three concentration levels (1.0, 10.0, and 30.0 μg/L) were in the range of 6.0-11.0 and 5.0-7.9%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine albendazole and triclabendazole in water, milk, honey, and urine samples. PMID:27079953

  3. Albendazole treatment of HIV-1 and helminth co-infection: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Richardson, Barbra A.; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Macharia, Steve Wanyee; Overbaugh, Julie; Berkley, James; Sanders, Eduard J.; Chung, Michael; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Several co-infections have been shown to impact the progression of HIV-1 infection. We sought to determine if treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected adults impacted markers of HIV-1 disease progression. DESIGN To date there have been no randomized trials to examine the effects of soil-transmitted helminth eradication on markers of HIV-1 progression. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg daily for three days) in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected adults (CD4 >200 cells/mm3) with soil-transmitted helminth infection was conducted at ten sites in Kenya (Clinical Trials.gov NCT00130910). CD4 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 12 weeks following randomization were compared in the trial arms using linear regression, adjusting for baseline values. RESULTS Of 1,551 HIV-1 infected individuals screened for helminth-infection, 299 were helminth-infected. 234 adults were enrolled and underwent randomization and 208 individuals were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Mean CD4 count was 557 cells/mm3 and mean plasma viral load was 4.75 log10 copies/mL at enrolment. Albendazole therapy resulted in significantly higher CD4 counts among individuals with Ascaris lumbricoides infection after 12 weeks of follow up (+109 cells/mm3; 95% CI +38.9 to +179.0, p=0.003) and a trend for 0.54 log10 lower HIV-1 RNA levels (p=0.09). These effects were not seen with treatment of other species of soil-transmitted helminths. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of A. lumbricoides with albendazole in HIV-1 co-infected adults resulted in significantly increased CD4 counts during 3-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection worldwide, deworming may be an important potential strategy to delay HIV-1 progression. PMID:18670219

  4. Combined subacute toxicity of copper and antiparasitic albendazole to the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhong; Li, Hongshuang; Li, Xuemei; Sun, Zhenjun

    2016-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the most common metal contaminants, and albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficacy against helminthes. It is believed that the two may co-exist in soil. In this study, the combined subacute toxicity of Cu exposure (0, 80, 120, 160 mg kg(-1)) and ABZ exposure (0, 3, 9 mg kg(-1)) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were observed using three approaches, namely chronic growth and reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity, and earthworm Cu residue. The results have shown that the toxicity of Cu on cocoon hatching success and biomass was alleviated by presence of low concentrations of ABZ (3 mg kg(-1)) during a 56-day exposure period. However, the sensitivity of the earthworms' reproduction to Cu increased with the presence of high concentrations of ABZ (9 mg kg(-1)), indicating a reduction beginning at a Cu concentration of 80 mg kg(-1), in the cocoon number, hatching success, and biomass. In addition, the three enzyme activities exhibited different responsive patterns, indicating inducement in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and inhibition in the superoxide dismutase, which were dependent on the exposure times and concentrations. In regard to the earthworm Cu residue, when increasing Cu exposure concentrations, the internal Cu concentrations tended to level off, exhibited a linear pattern at the Cu concentration range of 40 to 120 mg kg(-1), and showed a stable trend above 120 mg kg(-1). The results of the present study can potentially provide important information regarding the combined toxicity of the veterinary drugs and the heavy metals in soil. PMID:26780053

  5. Lyophilized mucoadhesive-dendrimer enclosed matrix tablet for extended oral delivery of albendazole.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, Shakir; Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Dendrimers are multifunctional carriers widely employed for delivering drugs in a variety of disease conditions including HIV/AIDS and cancer. Albendazole (ABZ) is a commonly used anthelmintic drug in human as well as veterinary medicine. In this investigation, ABZ was formulated as a "muco-dendrimer" based sustained released tablet. The mucoadhesive complex was synthesized by anchoring chitosan to fifth generation PPI dendrimer (Muco-PPI) and characterized by UV, FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. ABZ was entrapped inside Muco-PPI followed by lyophilization and tableting as matrix tablet. A half-life (t1/2) of 8.06±0.15, 8.17±0.47, 11.04±0.73, 11.49±0.92, 12.52±1.04 and 16.9±1.18h was noted for ABZ (free drug), conventional ABZ tablet (F1), conventional ABZ matrix tablet (F2), PPI-ABZ complex, PPI-ABZ matrix tablet (F3) and Muco-PPI-ABZ matrix tablet (F4), respectively. Thus the novel mucoadhesive-PPI based formulation of ABZ (F4) increased the t1/2 of ABZ significantly by almost twofold as compared to the administration of free drug. The in vivo drug release data showed that the Muco-PPI based formulations have a significantly higher Cmax (2.40±0.02μg/mL) compared with orally administered free ABZ (0.19±0.07μg/mL) as well as conventional tablet (0.20±0.05μg/mL). In addition, the Muco-PPI-ABZ matrix tablet displayed increased mean residence time (MRT) and is therefore a potential candidate to appreciably improve the pharmacokinetic profile of ABZ. PMID:26563727

  6. Albendazole induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Argüello-García, Raúl; Saavedra, Emma; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The control of Giardia duodenalis infections is carried out mainly by drugs, among these albendazole (ABZ) is commonly used. Although the cytotoxic effect of ABZ usually involves binding to β-tubulin, it has been suggested that oxidative stress may also play a role in its parasiticidal mechanism. In this work the effect of ABZ in Giardia clones that are susceptible or resistant to different concentrations (1.35, 8, and 250 μM) of this drug was analyzed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced by ABZ in susceptible clones and this was associated with a decrease in growth that was alleviated by cysteine supplementation. Remarkably, ABZ-resistant clones exhibited partial cross-resistance to H2O2, whereas a Giardia H2O2-resistant strain can grow in the presence of ABZ. Lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in ABZ-treated parasites did not show significant differences as compared to untreated parasites; however, ABZ induced the formation of 8OHdG adducts and DNA degradation, indicating nucleic acid oxidative damage. This was supported by observations of histone H2AX phosphorylation in ABZ-susceptible trophozoites treated with 250 μM ABZ. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ABZ partially arrested cell cycle in drug-susceptible clones at G2/M phase at the expense of cells in G1 phase. Also, ABZ treatment resulted in phosphatidylserine exposure on the parasite surface, an event related to apoptosis. All together these data suggest that ROS induced by ABZ affect Giardia genetic material through oxidative stress mechanisms and subsequent induction of apoptotic-like events. PMID:26300866

  7. A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pamba, H O; Bwibo, N O; Chunge, C N; Estambale, B B

    1989-03-01

    One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index. PMID:2591328

  8. [Experimental therapy in Chinese hamsters and rats infected with larval Echinococcus multilocularis by using mebendazole, albendazole and ivermectin with brief review of chemotherapy of human multilocular echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Inaoka, T; Nakao, M; Ohnishi, K; Kutsumi, H

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the mebendazole, albendazole and ivermectin on secondary multilocular echinococcosis in Chinese hamsters infected with intraperitoneal inoculation of protoscolices and in rats infected with transportal inoculation of protoscolices were investigated. A reduction in weight of the hydatids greater than 95% was recorded in Chinese hamsters intraperitoneally injected with mebendazole suspension. Oral administration of mebendazole moderately inhibited the development of the hydatids. Albendazole was less effective than mebendazole. Ivermectin was ineffective. The treatment with mebendazole of larval E. multilocularis inhibited the growth of the hydatids but it could not completely kill the parasite tissues. The present status of chemotherapy of the human multilocular echinococcosis was briefly discussed. PMID:3546045

  9. A simple assay for the simultaneous determination of human plasma albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide levels by high performance liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Cabaleiro-Ocampo, Teresa; Román-Martínez, Manuel; Ochoa-Mazarro, Dolores; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2013-11-15

    A simple, reproducible and fast (4 min chromatogram) method of liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed to determine simultaneously the plasma levels of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) for pharmacokinetic and clinical analysis. Each plasma sample was extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) using phenacetin as internal standard (IS). The extracted sample was eluted with a Zorbax XDB-CN column using an isocratic method. The mobile phase consisting of water with 1% acetic acid (40%, A) and MeOH (60%, B), was used at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. ABZ and ABZOX were detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 5-1000 ng/mL for ABZ and 10-1500 ng/mL (full validation) or 10-5000 ng/mL (partial validation) for ABZOX, with 5 and 10 ng/mL lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for ABZ and ABZOX, respectively. The tests of accuracy and precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery and stability of the samples for both ABZ and ABZOX did not deviate more than 20% for the LLOQ and no more than 15% for other quality controls (QCs), according to regulatory agencies. PMID:24008168

  10. The field evaluation of albendazole and triclabendazole efficacy against Fasciola hepatica by coproantigen ELISA in naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Novobilský, Adam; Averpil, Helen Björk; Höglund, Johan

    2012-11-23

    Albendazole (ABZ) has been used for control of ovine fasciolosis in Sweden for several decades. However, increasing prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in Sweden requires attention to diagnostic tools and current control strategies. The coproantigen reduction test (CRT) using commercial Bio-X K201 Fasciola coproantigen ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Jemelle, Belgium) was recently suggested as a novel method for diagnosis of patent F. hepatica infection. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of albendazole and triclabendazole (TCBZ) treatment against F. hepatica in naturally infected sheep in south-western Sweden by CRT, and also to evaluate the usefulness of this test as a diagnostic marker for anthelmintic efficacy following treatment with ABZ. Three weeks after housing, 24 serologically positive ewes on a commercial farm in Sweden were randomly allocated into three groups, which were either dewormed with 5mg/kg ABZ, 10mg/ml TCBZ or left untreated. Twenty-six days after initial administration of these anthelmintics, all of the sheep in the ABZ group and untreated control groups were treated with 10mg/kg TCBZ. While TCBZ caused elimination of coproantigen and eggs in faeces 7 days after application, ABZ treatment failed completely. Neither anthelmintic resistance, underdosing, nor lack of efficacy due to the presence of immature flukes can be out ruled as possible causes. Despite some deviations in conformity between coproantigen levels and presence of fluke eggs, the CRT was a useful tool for measuring treatment efficacies. PMID:22818198

  11. Chitosan microparticles: influence of the gelation process on the release profile and oral bioavailability of albendazole, a class II compound.

    PubMed

    Piccirilli, Gisela N; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Mamprin, María E; Bolmaro, Raúl E; Salomón, Claudio J; Lamas, María C

    2014-11-01

    Encapsulation of albendazole, a class II compound, into polymeric microparticles based on chitosan-sodium lauryl sulfate was investigated as a strategy to improve drug dissolution and oral bioavailability. The microparticles were prepared by spray drying technique and further characterized by means of X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of a novel polymeric structure between chitosan and sodium lauryl sulfate, after the internal or external gelation process, was observed by infrared spectroscopy. The efficiency of encapsulation was found to be between 60 and 85% depending on the internal or external gelation process. Almost spherically spray dried microparticles were observed using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution results indicated that the microparticles prepared by internal gelation released 8% of the drug within 30 min, while the microparticles prepared by external gelation released 67% within 30 min. It was observed that the AUC and Cmax values of ABZ from microparticles were greatly improved, in comparison with the non-encapsulated drug. In conclusion, the release properties and oral bioavailability of albendazole were greatly improved by using spraydried chitosan-sodium lauryl sulphate microparticles. PMID:23971494

  12. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    PubMed

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  13. In vivo activity of albendazole in combination with thymol against Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Albani, Clara María; Pensel, Patricia Eugenia; Elissondo, Natalia; Gambino, Guillermo; Elissondo, María Celina

    2015-09-15

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is usually lethal if left untreated. The current strategy for treating human AE is surgical resection of the parasite mass complemented by chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. However, reliable chemotherapeutic alternatives have not yet been developed stimulating the research of new treatment strategies such as the use of medicinal plants. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of the combination albendazole (ABZ)+thymol on mice infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For this purpose, mice infected with parasite material were treated daily for 20 days with ABZ (5 mg/kg), thymol (40 mg/kg) or ABZ (5 mg/kg)+thymol (40 mg/kg) or left untreated as controls. After mice were euthanized, cysts were removed from the peritoneal cavity and the treatment efficacy was evaluated by the mean cysts weight, viability of protoscoleces and ultrastructural changes of cysts and protoscoleces. The application of thymol or the combination of ABZ+thymol resulted in a significant reduction of the cysts weight compared to untreated mice. We also found that although ABZ and thymol had a scolicidal effect, the combination of the two compounds had a considerably stronger effect showing a reduction in the protoscoleces viability of 62%. These results were also corroborated by optical microscopy, SEM and TEM. Protoscoleces recovered from ABZ or thymol treated mice showed alterations as contraction of the soma region, rostellar disorganization and presence of blebs in the tegument. However both drugs when combined lead to a total loss of the typical morphology of protoscoleces. All cysts removed from control mice appeared intact and no change in ultrastructure was detected. In contrast, cysts developed in mice treated with ABZ revealed changes in the germinal layer as reduction in cell number, while the treatment with thymol or the ABZ+thymol combination

  14. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

    PubMed

    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  15. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum Show Different Sensitivity and Accumulation of Fenbendazole, Albendazole and Levamisole In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tina V. A.; Nejsum, Peter; Friis, Christian; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    Background The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. Methodology We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro. The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax) of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. Principal findings The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) when incubated for 72 hours in fenbendazole and albendazole respectively. The total drug concentrations (pmol/mg dry worm tissue) were significantly lower within T. suis than O. dentatum whether killed or alive when incubated in all tested drugs (except in living worms exposed to fenbendazole). Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6–17.2%) as compared to O. dentatum (0.8–0.9%). Conclusion/Significance The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore, the relatively high occurrence of fenbendazole sulphone suggests a higher detoxifying capacity of T. suis as compared to O. dentatum. PMID:24699263

  16. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone. PMID:25205435

  17. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Increased Dose and Frequency of Albendazole with Standard Dose DEC for Treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilaremics in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Kerketa, Anna Salomi; Maharana, Antaryami; Panda, Sudanshu S; Mohanty, Prafulla Chandra; Horton, John; Ramachandran, Cherubala P

    2015-01-01

    Although current programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis have made significant progress it may be necessary to use different approaches to achieve the global goal, especially where compliance has been poor and ‘hot spots’ of continued infection exist. In the absence of alternative drugs, the use of higher or more frequent dosing with the existing drugs needs to be explored. We examined the effect of higher and/or more frequent dosing with albendazole with a fixed 300mg dose of diethylcarbamazine in a Wuchereria bancrofti endemic area in Odisha, India. Following screening, 104 consenting adults were randomly assigned to treatment with the standard regimen annually for 24 months (S1), or annually with increased dose (800mg albendazole)(H1) or with increased frequency (6 monthly) with either standard (S2) or increased (H2) dose. Pre-treatment microfilaria counts (GM) ranged from 348 to 459 mf/ml. Subjects were followed using microfilaria counts, OG4C3 antigen levels and ultrasound scanning for adult worm nests. Microfilarial counts tended to decrease more rapidly with higher or more frequent dosing at all time points. At 12 months, Mf clearance was marginally greater with the high dose regimens, while by 24 months, there was a trend to higher Mf clearance in the arm with increased frequency and 800mg of albendazole (76.9%) compared to other arms, (S1:64%, S2:69.2% & H1:73.1%). Although higher and/or more frequent dosing showed a trend towards a greater decline in antigenemia and clearance of “nests”, all regimens demonstrated the potential macrofilaricidal effect of the combination. The higher doses of albendazole did not result in a greater number or more severe side effects. The alternative regimens could be useful in the later stages of existing elimination programmes or achieving elimination more rapidly in areas where programmes have yet to start. PMID:25781977

  19. A randomized controlled trial of increased dose and frequency of albendazole with standard dose DEC for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremics in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kerketa, Anna Salomi; Maharana, Antaryami; Panda, Sudanshu S; Mohanty, Prafulla Chandra; Horton, John; Ramachandran, Cherubala P

    2015-03-01

    Although current programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis have made significant progress it may be necessary to use different approaches to achieve the global goal, especially where compliance has been poor and 'hot spots' of continued infection exist. In the absence of alternative drugs, the use of higher or more frequent dosing with the existing drugs needs to be explored. We examined the effect of higher and/or more frequent dosing with albendazole with a fixed 300 mg dose of diethylcarbamazine in a Wuchereria bancrofti endemic area in Odisha, India. Following screening, 104 consenting adults were randomly assigned to treatment with the standard regimen annually for 24 months (S1), or annually with increased dose (800 mg albendazole)(H1) or with increased frequency (6 monthly) with either standard (S2) or increased (H2) dose. Pre-treatment microfilaria counts (GM) ranged from 348 to 459 mf/ml. Subjects were followed using microfilaria counts, OG4C3 antigen levels and ultrasound scanning for adult worm nests. Microfilarial counts tended to decrease more rapidly with higher or more frequent dosing at all time points. At 12 months, Mf clearance was marginally greater with the high dose regimens, while by 24 months, there was a trend to higher Mf clearance in the arm with increased frequency and 800 mg of albendazole (76.9%) compared to other arms, (S1:64%, S2:69.2% & H1:73.1%). Although higher and/or more frequent dosing showed a trend towards a greater decline in antigenemia and clearance of "nests", all regimens demonstrated the potential macrofilaricidal effect of the combination. The higher doses of albendazole did not result in a greater number or more severe side effects. The alternative regimens could be useful in the later stages of existing elimination programmes or achieving elimination more rapidly in areas where programmes have yet to start. PMID:25781977

  20. Characterization of Albendazole-Randomly Methylated-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and In Vivo Evaluation of Its Antihelmitic Activity in a Murine Model of Trichinellosis

    PubMed Central

    García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Vasconi, María D.; Hinrichsen, Lucila I.; Lamas, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Albendazole is a benzimidazole carbamate extensively used in oral chemotherapy against intestinal parasites, due to its broad spectrum activity, good tolerance and low cost. However, the drug has the disadvantage of poor bioavailability due to its very low solubility in water; as a consequence, a very active area of research focuses on the development of new pharmaceutical formulations to increase its solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability. The primary objective of this study was to prepare randomly methylated β-cyclodextrins inclusion complexes to increase albendazole dissolution rate, in order to enhance its antiparasitic activity. This formulation therapeutic efficacy was contrasted with that of the pure drug by treating Trichinella spiralis infected mice during the intestinal phase of the parasite cycle, on days five and six post-infection. This protocol significantly decreased muscle larval burden measured in the parenteral stage on day 30 post-infection, when compared with the untreated control. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the inclusion complexes improve the in vivo therapeutic activity of albendazole. PMID:25406084

  1. Evaluation of Oxfendazole, Praziquantel and Albendazole against Cystic Echinococcosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Naturally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Barron, Eduardo A.; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Llamosas, Monica; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Robinson, Colin; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cystic Echinococosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by larval stage Echinococcus granulosus. We determined the effects of high dose of Oxfendazole (OXF), combination Oxfendazole/Praziquantel (PZQ), and combination Albendazole (ABZ)/Praziquantel against CE in sheep. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 118 randomly selected ewes. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) placebo; 2) OXF 60 mg/Kg of body weight (BW) weekly for four weeks; 3) ABZ 30 mg/Kg BW + PZQ 40 mg/Kg BW weekly for 6 weeks, and 4) OXF 30 mg/Kg BW+ PZQ 40 mg/Kg BW biweekly for 3 administrations (6 weeks). Percent protoscolex (PSC) viability was evaluated using a 0.1% aqueous eosin vital stain for each cyst. “Noninfective” sheep were those that had no viable PSCs; “low-medium infective” were those that had 1% to 60% PSC viability; and “high infective” were those with more than 60% PSC viability. We evaluated 92 of the 118 sheep. ABZ/PZQ led the lowest PSC viability for lung cysts (12.7%), while OXF/PZQ did so for liver cysts (13.5%). The percentage of either “noninfective” or “low-medium infective” sheep was 90%, 93.8% and 88.9% for OXF, ABZ/PZQ and OXF/PZQ group as compared to 50% “noninfective” or “low-medium infective” for placebo. After performing all necropsies, CE prevalence in the flock of sheep was 95.7% (88/92) with a total number of 1094 cysts (12.4 cysts/animal). On average, the two-drug-combination groups resulted pulmonary cysts that were 6 mm smaller and hepatic cysts that were 4.2 mm smaller than placebo (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that Oxfendazole at 60 mg, combination Oxfendazole/Praziquantel and combination Albendazole/Praziquantel are successful schemas that can be added to control measures in animals and merits further study for the treatment of animal CE. Further investigations on different schedules of monotherapy or combined chemotherapy are

  2. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  3. Efficacy of Single-Dose and Triple-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Taenia spp.: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ≥5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are

  4. A mathematical model for long-term effect of diethylcarbamazine-albendazole mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasman, H.; Supali, T.; Supriatna, A. K.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis disease. The human population is divided into susceptible, latent, acute and chronic subpopulations. Treatment is carried out within the scheme of mass drug administration (MDA) by giving the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) to all individuals. In the model, we assume that the treatments have direct killing effect to microfilariae, increase of immune-mediated effect. The treated individuals are assumed to remain susceptible to the disease. This is due to the fact that the treatment is only partially effective against macrofilaria. Simulations of the model reveals that DEC-ALB treatment does give significant reduction of acute and chronic compartments at the end of the treatment period and slow down the growth after the treatment before eventually tend to the endemic state. It showed that repeated treatment during MDA is effective to decrease the transmission. This suggests that terminating MDA program after a long period of its application may still effective in controlling the disease.

  5. Augmented bioavailability and cysticidal activity of albendazole reformulated in soybean emulsion in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Xiao; Jiqing, You; Mingjie, Wang; Pieying, Jiao; Fanghua, Gao; Junjie, Chai; Wei, Jiao; Hotez, Peter

    2002-04-01

    The anthelminthic drug, albendazole (Abz), was reformulated in a soybean oil emulsion and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in mice. Abz emulsified with 30% soybean oil (AbzE-30) resulted in higher circulating plasma concentrations of the major bioactive Abz metabolite, Abz sulfoxide (AbzSOX), after oral administration, compared with an Abz suspension. The soybean oil-emulsified Abz compound was also noted to penetrate into the hydatid cyst wall and produced higher hydatid cyst concentrations of AbzSOX. The emulsion was superior to Abz suspension in reducing the size of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus protoscolices collected from naturally infected sheep in Urumchi, Xinjiang Uygar Autonomous Region. In contrast, the reformulated compound's ability to reduce E. multilocularis cyst masses was only marginally superior to Abz suspension. AbzE-30 exhibited increased bioavailability and bioactivity in the treatment of murine Echinococcus hydatid cyst infections. The compound has the potential for improving therapeutic outcomes for human echinococcosis. PMID:11904106

  6. Patterns of geohelminth infection, impact of albendazole treatment and re-infection after treatment in schoolchildren from rural KwaZulu-Natal/South-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Elmar; Olsen, Annette; Kvalsvig, Jane D; Appleton, Chris C

    2004-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) established in 1998 a programme for helminth control that aimed at regularly treating primary school children for schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths. This article describes the baseline situation and the effect of treatment on geohelminth infection in a rural part of the province. Methods Grade 3 schoolchildren from Maputaland in northern KZN were examined for infections with hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, treated twice with 400 mg albendazole and re-examined several times over one year after the first treatment in order to assess the impact of treatment and patterns of infection and re-infection. Results The hookworm prevalence in the study population (83.2%) was considerably higher than in other parts of the province whereas T. trichiura and especially A. lumbricoides prevalences (57.2 and 19.4%, respectively) were much lower than elsewhere on the KZN coastal plain. Single dose treatment with albendazole was very effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides with cure rates (CR) of 78.8 and 96.4% and egg reduction rates (ERR) of 93.2 and 97.7%, respectively. It was exceptionally ineffective against T. trichiura (CR = 12.7%, ERR = 24.8%). Re-infection with hookworm and A. lumbricoides over 29 weeks after treatment was considerable but still well below pre-treatment levels. Conclusion High geohelminth prevalences and re-infection rates in the study population confirm the need for regular treatment of primary school children in the area. The low effectiveness of single course albendazole treatment against T. trichiura infection however demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches. PMID:15310401

  7. Efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gastro-intestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute, Serere, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, C; Okwee-Acai, J

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted between April and July, 2011 to determine and compare the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), levamisole (LVM) and ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Mubende and Boer crossbred goats at the National Semi-arid Resources Research Institute in Serere, Uganda. Forty Mubende goats and 31 Boer crosses were each blocked by age and sex and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group of each breed served as the untreated control, the second was treated with albendazole (5mg/kg BW), the third with levamisole hydrochloride and oxyclozanide (7.5 and 15 mg/kg BW) and the fourth with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg BW). Each group included 7-11 animals. Treatments were administered with doses of goats in albendazole and ivermectin, and doses of sheep in levamisole, as recommended by the manufacturers. In the treated groups, goats received anthelmintics basing on individual weights. Fecal egg counts, expressed as eggs per gram and larval cultures were done on day zero before treatment and on day 13 after anthelmintic treatment. Efficacy for each anthelmintic was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). In Mubende goats, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 28.5%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. In Boer crosses, ABZ, LVM, and IVM reduced FEC by 11%, 84.88% and 78.47%, respectively. At a 95% CI, only IVM was more effective in Mubende goats than Boer crosses (t=2.564, p<0.05). This may indicate occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in the goat farming sector in Uganda. Further studies need to be done to clarify the state of efficacy of the commonly used anthelmintics covering different agro ecological zones and species of animals in Uganda. PMID:23394798

  8. Effect of Two or Six Doses 800 mg of Albendazole Every Two Months on Loa loa Microfilaraemia: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kamgno, Joseph; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Gounoue, Raceline; Téjiokem, Mathurin; Kuesel, Annette C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Loiasis is a parasitic infection endemic in the African rain forest caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa. Loiasis can be co-endemic with onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. Ivermectin, the drug used in the control of these diseases, can induce serious adverse reactions in patients with high L loa microfilaraemia (LLM). A drug is needed which can lower LLM below the level that represents a risk so that ivermectin mass treatment to support onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination can be implemented safely. Methodology Sixty men and women from a loiasis endemic area in Cameroon were randomized after stratification by screening LLM (≤30000, 30001–50000, >50000) to three treatment arms: two doses albendazole followed by 4 doses matching placebo (n = 20), six doses albendazole (n = 20) albendazole or 6 doses matching placebo (n = 20) administered every two months. LLM was measured before each treatment and 14, 18, 21 and 24 months after the first treatment. Monitoring for adverse events occurred three and seven days as well as 2 months after each treatment. Principal Findings None of the adverse events recorded were considered treatment related. The percentages of participants with ≥ 50% decrease in LLM from pre-treatment for ≥ 4 months were 53%, 17% and 11% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. The difference between the 6-dose and the placebo arm was significant (p = 0.01). The percentages of participants with LLM < 8100 mf/ml for ≥4 months were 21%, 11% and 0% in the 6-dose, 2-dose and placebo treatment arms, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance The 6-dose regimen reduced LLM significantly, but the reduction was insufficient to eliminate the risk of severe and/or serious adverse reactions during ivermectin mass drug administration in loiasis co-endemic areas. PMID:26967331

  9. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of albendazole compared with tinidazole as treatments for Giardia infections in children.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Angel A; Ballesteros, Javier; González-Fraile, Eduardo; Almirall, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Metronidazole is frequently used against Giardia infection; however, it has been associated with significant failure rates in clearing parasites from the gut; additionally, as it should be taken for 5 to 10 days, it is associated with poor compliance, probably due to side effects. Other drugs, including tinidazole (TNZ) and albendazole (ABZ) have been included in the antigiardial armamentarium. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of ABZ compared with TNZ in Giardia infections in children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were carried out. PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS were searched electronically until February 2015. Also relevant journals and references of studies included therein were hand-searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The meta-analysis was limited to RCTs evaluating the use of ABZ compared with TNZ in children with Giardia infection. The assessed outcome was parasitological efficacy. Prediction intervals (PI) were computed to better express uncertainties in the effect estimates. Five RCTs including 403 children were included. Overall, TNZ significantly outperformed ABZ without differences between subgroups defined by ABZ dosages [relative risk, (RR) 1.61 (95% CI): (1.40-1.85); P<0.0001]. The 95% prediction interval range is 1.28-2.02. There was no significant heterogeneity (I(2)=0%; Q-test of heterogeneity P=0.4507. The number-needed-to-treat, the average number of patients who need to be treated with TNZ to gain one additional good outcome as compared with ABZ was 4, 95% CI: 3-5. Our results show that TNZ outperforms ABZ in the treatment of Giardia infections in children from developing countries. PMID:26476393

  10. Copper(II) oxide nanoparticles augment antifilarial activity of Albendazole: In vitro synergistic apoptotic impact against filarial parasite Setaria cervi.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-03-30

    Mass treatment of lymphatic filariasis with Albendazole (ABZ), a therapeutic benzimidazole, is fraught with serious limitations such as possible drug resistance and poor macrofilaricidal activity. Therefore, we need to develop new ABZ-based formulations to improve its antifilarial effectiveness. CuO nanoparticles were used as an adjuvant with ABZ to form ABZ-CuO nanocomposite, which was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, AFM and SEM. Antifilarial activity of nanocomposite was evaluated using relative motility assay and dye exclusion test in dark and under UV light. ROS generation, antioxidant levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in nanocomposite treated parasites were estimated. Biophysical techniques were employed to ascertain the mode of binding of nanocomposite to parasitic DNA. Nanocomposite increases parasite mortality as compared to ABZ in dark, and its antifilarial effect was increased further under UV light. Elevated ROS production and decline of parasitic-GST and GSH levels were observed in nanocomposite treated worms in dark, and these effects were pronounced further under UV light. Nanocomposite leads to higher DNA fragmentation as compared to ABZ alone. Further, we found that nanocomposite binds parasitic DNA in an intercalative manner where it generates ROS to induce DNA damage. Thus, oxidative stress production due to ROS generation and consequent DNA fragmentation leads to apoptosis in worms. This is the first report supporting CuO nanoparticles as a potential adjuvant with ABZ against filariasis along with enhanced antifilarial activity of nanocomposite under UV light. These findings, thus, indicate that development of ABZ-loaded nanoparticle compounds may serve as promising leads for filariasis treatment. PMID:26827921

  11. Assessment of the Anthelmintic Efficacy of Albendazole in School Children in Seven Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Vercruysse, Jozef; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Albonico, Marco; Ame, Shaali Makame; Angebault, Cécile; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Engels, Dirk; Guillard, Bertrand; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Viet; Kang, Gagandeep; Kattula, Deepthi; Kotze, Andrew C.; McCarthy, James S.; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Montresor, Antonio; Periago, Maria Victoria; Sumo, Laurentine; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Thach, Dang Thi Cam; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Levecke, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Background The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2%) followed by hookworms (87.8%) and T. trichiura (46.6%). There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country), by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment). The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5%) and hookworms (94.8%) but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%), and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country), but not by sex or age. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means) of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for this

  12. Determination of the main solid-state form of albendazole in bulk drug, employing Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Natalia L; Arias, Juan M; Altabef, Aída Ben; Maggio, Rubén M; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2016-09-10

    Albendazole (ALB) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, which exhibits two solid-state forms (Forms I and II). The Form I is the metastable crystal at room temperature, while Form II is the stable one. Because the drug has poor aqueous solubility and Form II is less soluble than Form I, it is desirable to have a method to assess the solid-state form of the drug employed for manufacturing purposes. Therefore, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was developed for the determination of Form I of ALB in its mixtures with Form II. For model development, both solid-state forms of ALB were prepared and characterized by microscopic (optical and with normal and polarized light), thermal (DSC) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR, Raman) techniques. Mixtures of solids in different ratios were prepared by weighing and mechanical mixing of the components. Their Raman spectra were acquired, and subjected to peak smoothing, normalization, standard normal variate correction and de-trending, before performing the PLS calculations. The optimal spectral region (1396-1280cm(-1)) and number of latent variables (LV=3) were obtained employing a moving window of variable size strategy. The method was internally validated by means of the leave one out procedure, providing satisfactory statistics (r(2)=0.9729 and RMSD=5.6%) and figures of merit (LOD=9.4% and MDDC=1.4). Furthermore, the method's performance was also evaluated by analysis of two validation sets. Validation set I was used for assessment of linearity and range and Validation set II, to demonstrate accuracy and precision (Recovery=101.4% and RSD=2.8%). Additionally, a third set of spiked commercial samples was evaluated, exhibiting excellent recoveries (94.2±6.4%). The results suggest that the combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis could be applied to the assessment of the main crystal form and its quantitation in samples of ALB bulk drug, in the routine quality control laboratory. PMID:27429368

  13. Simultaneous extraction and determination of albendazole and triclabendazole by a novel syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad

    2016-08-17

    A syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop was introduced and used for the simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of albendazole and triclabendazole from different matrices. The extracted analytes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography along with fluorescence detection. The analytical parameters affecting the microextraction efficiency including the nature and volume of the extraction solvent, sample volume, sample pH, ionic strength and the cycles of extraction were optimized. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-30.0 μg L(-1) and 0.2-30.0 μg L(-1) with determination coefficients of 0.9999 and 0.9998 for albendazole and triclabendazole respectively. The detection limits defined as three folds of the signal to noise ratio were found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) for albendazole and 0.06 μg L(-1) for triclabendazole. The inter-day and intra-day precision (RSD%) for both analytes at three concentration levels (0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 μg L(-1)) were in the range of 6.3-10.1% and 5.0-7.5% respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine albendazole and triclabendazole in water, cow milk, honey, and urine samples. PMID:27286766

  14. The effectiveness of 4 monthly albendazole treatment in the reduction of soil-transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Casey, Gerard J; Montresor, Antonio; Phuc, Tran Q; Thach, Dang Thi Cam; Tien, Nong T; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2009-07-15

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in northern Viet Nam where the climate and agricultural practices, such as the use of human excreta as fertiliser and the use of wastewater for irrigation, favour transmission. An intervention was conducted in Yen Bai Province, north-west Viet Nam, to measure the effectiveness of single dose albendazole (400mg) administered every 4 months for reducing the prevalence of STH infections in women of reproductive age. Stool samples were collected from women before the intervention and 3 and 12 months post-intervention. Information on a range of demographic and socio-economic variables was also collected to measure the major risk factors for high STH burden in this area. The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection in the baseline sample of 366 women were 76.2%, 19.2% and 29.1%, respectively. In the women who were surveyed at baseline and again at 3 and 12 months after the intervention (n=118) cure rates were 71.3% for hookworm, 87.0% for A. lumbricoides and 81.4% for T. trichiura by the end of the 12 month study period (i.e. after three doses of albendazole). The main risk factor for hookworm infection was if women worked outside (odds ratio (OR)=3.2 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-6.2), P=0.001) and the major risk factor for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection was a lack of education. Low educational attainment was also the strongest risk factor for co-infection with all three species of STH (OR=7.5 (95% CI 3.4-16.4), P<0.001). The high rates of hookworm infection in this area of Viet Nam and the high cure rates for all three species of STH with 4 monthly albendazole treatment suggest that this programme should be expanded to all endemic areas in Viet Nam. The study also highlights the important contribution of education to women's health. PMID:19324046

  15. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs. PMID:26756920

  16. Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis and Treatment Effectiveness of Albendazole/ Ivermectin in Individuals with HIV Co-infection in Southwest-Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maganga, Lucas; Clowes, Petra; Maboko, Leonard; Hoerauf, Achim; Makunde, Williams H.; Haule, Antelmo; Mviombo, Prisca; Pitter, Bettina; Mgeni, Neema; Mabuye, Joseph; Kowuor, Dickens; Mwingira, Upendo; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Annual mass treatment with ivermectin and albendazole is used to treat lymphatic filariasis in many African countries, including Tanzania. In areas where both diseases occur, it is unclear whether HIV co-infection reduces treatment success. Methodology In a general population study in Southwest Tanzania, individuals were tested for HIV and circulating filarial antigen, an indicator of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm burden, before the first and after 2 consecutive rounds of anti-filarial mass drug administration. Principle Findings Testing of 2104 individuals aged 0–94 years before anti-filarial treatment revealed a prevalence of 24.8% for lymphatic filariasis and an HIV-prevalence of 8.9%. Lymphatic filariasis was rare in children, but prevalence increased in individuals above 10 years, whereas a strong increase in HIV was only seen above 18 years of age. The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in adults above 18 years was 42.6% and 41.7% (p = 0.834) in HIV-negatives and–positives, respectively. Similarly, the HIV prevalence in the lymphatic filariasis infected (16.6%) and uninfected adult population (17.1%) was nearly the same. Of the above 2104 individuals 798 were re-tested after 2 rounds of antifilarial treatment. A significant reduction in the prevalence of circulating filarial antigen from 21.6% to 19.7% was found after treatment (relative drop of 8.8%, McNemar´s exact p = 0.036). Furthermore, the post-treatment reduction of CFA positivity was (non-significantly) larger in HIV-positives than in HIV-negatives (univariable linear regression p = 0.154). Conclusion/Significance In an area with a high prevalence for both diseases, no difference was found between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals regarding the initial prevalence of lymphatic filariasis. A moderate but significant reduction in lymphatic filariasis prevalence and worm burden was demonstrated after two rounds of treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. Treatment effects were

  17. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Sultan; Mohammed, Tesfaye; Deti, Habetewold; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Vercruysse, Jozef; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis) available on the local market in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR), of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%), but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%). For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p < 0.05) more efficacious compared to Bendex (98.1% vs. 88.7%). Assessment of the physicochemical quality of the drugs revealed a significant difference in dissolution profile, with Bendex having a slower dissolution than Ovis. Conclusion/Significance The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ) tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the

  18. Study on the interaction between albendazole and eosin Y by fluorescence, resonance Rayleigh scattering and frequency doubling scattering spectra and their analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fengling; Huang, Wei; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin

    In pH 3.25-3.35 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, albendazole (ABZ) could react with eosin Y (EY) to form a 1:1 ion-association complex, which not only results in the quenching of fluorescence, but also resulted in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). Furthermore, a new RRS spectrum will appear, and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 356 nm. The detection limit for ABZ were 21.51 ng mL-1 for the fluorophotometry, 6.93 ng mL-1 for the RRS method and 12.89 ng mL-1 for the FDS method. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity. The experimental conditions were optimized and effects of coexisting substances were evaluated. Meanwhile, the influences of coexisting substances were tested. The methods have been successfully applied to the determination of ABZ in capsules and human urine samples. The composition and structure of the ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed.

  19. The Impact of Two Semiannual Treatments with Albendazole Alone on Lymphatic Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Community-Based Study in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Chesnais, Cédric B.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U.; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  20. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  1. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  2. Study on the interaction between albendazole and eosin Y by fluorescence, resonance Rayleigh scattering and frequency doubling scattering spectra and their analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengling; Huang, Wei; Yang, Jidong; Li, Qin

    2014-05-21

    In pH 3.25-3.35 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, albendazole (ABZ) could react with eosin Y (EY) to form a 1:1 ion-association complex, which not only results in the quenching of fluorescence, but also resulted in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). Furthermore, a new RRS spectrum will appear, and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 356nm. The detection limit for ABZ were 21.51ng mL(-)(1) for the fluorophotometry, 6.93ng mL(-)(1) for the RRS method and 12.89ng mL(-)(1) for the FDS method. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity. The experimental conditions were optimized and effects of coexisting substances were evaluated. Meanwhile, the influences of coexisting substances were tested. The methods have been successfully applied to the determination of ABZ in capsules and human urine samples. The composition and structure of the ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed. PMID:24594885

  3. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection and impact of four-monthly albendazole treatments in preschool children from semi-urban communities in Nigeria: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and vitamin A), and motor and language development in preschool children and justifies the inclusion of this age group in deworming programmes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and intensity of STH infection and to investigate the effectiveness of repeated four-monthly albendazole treatments on STH infection in children aged one to four years. Methods The study was carried out in four semi-urban villages situated near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Children aged one to four years were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results The results presented here revealed that 50% of the preschool children in these semi-urban communities were infected by one or more helminths, the most prevalent STH being Ascaris lumbricoides (47.6%). Our study demonstrated that repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments with albendazole were successful in reducing prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. At the end of the follow-up period, 12% and 43% of the children were infected with A. lumbricoides and mean epg was 117 (S.E. 50) and 1740 (S.E. 291) in the treatment and placebo groups respectively compared to 45% and 45% of the children being infected with Ascaris and mean epg being 1095 (S.E. 237) and 1126 (S.E. 182) in the treatment and placebo group respectively at baseline. Conclusion Results from this study show that the moderate prevalence and low intensity of STH infection in these preschool children necessitates systematic treatment of the children in child health programmes. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995. PMID:19228385

  4. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. Methods and analysis WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded

  5. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive chemotherapies received treatment. Methods. Coverage of community-directed treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole (ALB) was analyzed in 17 villages of Mayuge District, Uganda. National drug registers, household questionnaires, and parasitological surveys were collected to track 935 individuals before and after MDA. Multilevel logistic regressions, including household and village effects, were specified with a comprehensive set of socioeconomic and parasitological variables. The factors predicting who did not receive PZQ and ALB from community medicine distributors were identified. Results. Drug receipt was correlated among members within a household, and nonrecipients of PZQ or ALB were profiled by household-level socioeconomic factors. Individuals were less likely to receive either PZQ or ALB if they had a Muslim household head or low home quality, belonged to the minority tribe, or had settled for more years in their village. Untreated individuals were also more likely to belong to households that did not purify drinking water, had no home latrine, and had no members who were part of the village government. Conclusions. The findings demonstrate how to locate and target individuals who are not treated in MDA. Infection risk factors were not informative. In particular, age, gender, and occupation were unable to identify non-recipients, although World Health Organization guidelines rely on these factors. Individuals of low socioeconomic status, minority religions, and minority tribes can be targeted to expand MDA coverage. PMID:26409064

  6. A Comparison between the Effects of Albendazole and Mebendazole on the Enzymatic Activity of Excretory / Secretory Products of Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    ADNANI SADATI, Seyed Jafar; FARAHNAK, Ali; MOLAEI RAD, Mohammad Bagher; GOLESTANI, Abolfazl; ESHRAGHIYAN, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydatid cysts are formed in human body can be treated clinically by surgery or drugs such as albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ). The purpose of this study was comparing the effects of ABZ and MBZ on glutathione-S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase and protease enzymes activities in protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Methods: The culture supernatants containing the parasite Excretory / Secretory (E/S) products were collected every 12 h for 72 h. The E/S products of treated samples with 1μg/ml ABZ and MBZ and the control one were collected and after centrifugation then protein concentrations were measured according to Bradford method. GST, ALP and protease activities of E/S products were assessed photometrically. Results: The mean of GST specific activity level in treated protoscoleces with ABZ and MBZ and in control group were obtained 69.44, 132.83 and 225.47U/mg/protein/ml respectively. The mean ALP activity level in treated protoscoleces with ABZ and MBZ and in control group were detected 19.22, 22.27 and 27.85 U/mg/protein/ml respectively. The protease activity level in treated protoscoleces with ABZ and MBZ were not detected. While the mean of protease activity level in control group was 7.61U/mg/proteins. Statistical analysis showed the significant difference between protein concentrations, the specific activities of GST, ALP and protease enzymes in treated protoscoleces in comparison with control group (P<0.05). Also, the significant difference were seen between specific activities of GST and ALP enzymes in treated protoscoleces with ABZ in comparison with treated group with MBZ (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABZ is more effective on the enzymes activities (GST and ALP) as compared with MBZ. PMID:27114987

  7. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Sunish, I. P.; Rajendran, R.; Munirathinam, A.; Kalimuthu, M.; Kumar, V. Ashok; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: One third of the world's population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu State Health Department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns. PMID:25963494

  8. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania: effect of six rounds of mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole on infection and transmission

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA with this drug combination as implemented by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP) in a highly endemic rural area of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods The effect of treatment on transmission and human infection was monitored in a community- and a school-based study during an 8-year period (one pre-intervention and 7 post-intervention years) from 2003 to 2011. Results Before intervention, 24.5% of the community population had microfilariae (mf) in the blood, 53.3% had circulating filarial antigens (CFA) and 78.9% had specific antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. One year after the sixth MDA, these values had decreased considerably to 2.7%, 19.6% and 27.5%, respectively. During the same period, the CFA prevalence among new intakes of Standard 1 pupils in 10 primary schools decreased from 25.2% to 5.6%. In line with this, transmission by the three vectors (Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus) as determined by dissection declined sharply (overall vector infectivity rate by 99.3% and mean monthly transmission potential by 99.2% between pre-intervention and fifth post-intervention period). A major shift in vector species composition, from predominantly anopheline to almost exclusively culicine was observed over the years. This may be largely unrelated to the MDAs but may have important implications for the epidemiology of LF in the area. Conclusions Six MDAs caused considerable decrease in all the measured indices for transmission and human infection. In spite of this, indices were still relatively high in the late period of the study, and it may take a long time to reach the recommended cut-off levels for

  9. Intranasal microemulsion for targeted nose to brain delivery in neurocysticercosis: Role of docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Rajshree L; Bharkad, Gopal P; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-10-01

    Intranasal Microemulsions (MEs) for nose to brain delivery of a novel combination of Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO) and Curcumin (CUR) for Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a brain infection are reported. MEs prepared by simple solution exhibited a globule size <20nm, negative zeta potential and good stability. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ME revealed high and rapid ex vivo permeation of drugs through sheep nasal mucosa. Intranasal DHA ME resulted in high brain concentrations and 10.76 (ABZ-SO) and 3.24 (CUR) fold enhancement in brain area-under-the-curve (AUC) compared to intravenous DHA MEs at the same dose. Direct nose to brain transport (DTP) of >95% was seen for both drugs. High drug targeting efficiency (DTE) to the brain compared to Capmul ME and drug solution (P<0.05) suggested the role of DHA in aiding nose to brain delivery. Histopathology study confirmed no significant changes. High efficacy of ABZ-SO: CUR (100:10ng/mL) DHA ME in vitro on Taenia solium cysts was confirmed by complete ALP inhibition and disintegration of cysts at 96h. Considering that the brain concentration at 24h was 1400±160.1ng/g (ABZ-SO) and 120±35.2ng/g (CUR), the in vitro efficacy seen at a 10 fold lower concentration of the drugs strongly supports the assumption of clinical efficacy. The intranasal DHA ME is a promising delivery system for targeted nose to brain delivery. PMID:26318978

  10. Comparative efficacy of ivermectin pour-on, albendazole, oxfendazole and fenbendazole against Ostertagia ostertagi inhibited larvae, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C; DeRosa, A; Nakamura, Y; Loyacano, A F

    1997-12-15

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), oxfendazole (OXF) and fenbendazole (FBZ) compared with ivermectin pour-on (IVM-PO) against inhibited early fourth-stage larvae (IEL4) of Ostertagia ostertagi, other gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle during spring in Louisiana. Twenty-five crossbred beef heifer calves of 235 kg average weight and 10-12 months of age were acquired in late winter and grazed for 9 weeks on pasture contaminated with O. ostertagi and other nematodes until May 15. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into 5 groups of 5 calves on May 16 (day 0) and treatments were as follows: group 1, nontreated controls (CONT); group 2, IVM-PO on mid-backline at 500 micrograms/kg; group 3, ABZ suspension (oral) at 10 mg/kg; group 4, OXF suspension (oral) at 4.5 mg/kg; group 5, FBZ suspension (oral) at 5 mg/kg. After treatment and confinement in separate pens for each group, approximately equal numbers of cattle from each group were necropsied daily between days 29-31. Mean numbers of O. ostertagi developmental stages present in CONT were: adult, 5234; developing (DL4), 3130; IEL4, 44,077. The mean percentage of IEL4 was 84.1. Cooperia spp. were the second most prevalent in CONT (20,307) and smaller numbers of abomasal and intestinal species and Dictyocaulus viviparus were present in nearly all CONT. Percent reductions for the four compounds against O. ostertagi adult, DL4 and IEL4, respectively, were IVM-PO: 99.7, 98.3, 98.1; ABZ: 74.1, 76.5, 75.3; OXF: 78.5, 42.1, 32.0; FBZ: 63.6, 17.7, 39.7. Efficacy of IVM-PO was greater (P < 0.05) against all O. ostertagi stages than the benzimidazole (BZ) drugs, except for ABZ (DL4). There were no significant differences in group means (except for C. punctata adult males, P < 0.05 lower for IVM-PO) or wide variation in reduction percentages for other abomasal and intestinal species and D. viviparus between IVM-PO and BZ drugs. The low efficacy of all three BZ

  11. Efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole alone and in combination for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths in pregnancy and adverse events: a randomized open label controlled intervention trial in Masindi district, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kabatereine, Narcis; Olsen, Annette; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-12-01

    A randomized open-label trial, including 834 pregnant women, examined efficacy and recorded adverse events of ivermectin (ivc) and albendazole (alb) alone and combined (comb) on soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) in the second trimester of pregnancy. One abortion occurred in the alb group and 10 stillbirths (1, 5, 3, and 1) in the ivc, alb, comb, and the reference group (ref) with no STHs, respectively. Two babies were born with congenital abnormalities (1 [ivc] and 1 [ref]). The prevalence of anemia at first antenatal care (ANC) visit was 20.6% (23.7% [ivc], 21.1% [alb], 22.2% [comb], and 16.1% [ref]). Anemia was reduced to 8.5% at 36 weeks of gestation with 10.9% (ivc), 11.5% (alb), 7.7% (comb), and 6.9% (ref). Hookworm cure rates were 29.4% (ivc), 95.5% (alb), and 92.6% (comb). No severe adverse events were reported by the women after the administration of ivc, alb, or comb during the second trimester of pregnancy, but long-term pharmacovigillance is needed to assess safety of ivc, alb, or comb in pregnancy. PMID:19052293

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole in calves.

    PubMed

    Formentini, E A; Mestorino, O N; Mariño, E L; Errecalde, J O

    2001-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) and its major metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were studied in six calves, after administration of RBZ (7.5 mg/kg), using a 10% experimental solution by the intravenous (i.v.) route, a 10% commercial solution by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, and a 10% experimental suspension by the intraruminal (i.r.) route. Blood samples were drawn during a 60-h period. Plasma drug and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic evaluation in each case was prepared by weighted least-squares nonlinear regression analysis. Ricobendazole i.v. data were best fitted by a two-compartment model. The best pharmacokinetic exponents and coefficients were estimated, and the pharmacokinetic variables for RBZ and ABZSO2 were calculated from them. Similar patterns of plasma disposition were found for RBZ after i.r. and s.c. administration, suggesting delayed release from the s.c. site resembling the slow release of the drug from the rumen. PMID:11442798

  13. Pharmacokinetics of ricobendazole after its intravenous, intraruminal and subcutaneous administration in sheep.

    PubMed

    Formentini, E A; Mestorino, N; Errecalde, J O

    2005-10-01

    Ricobendazole (RBZ) was administered in sheep at the dose rate of 5 mg/kg by intravenous (i.v.) route as a 10% experimental solution, by the intraruminal (i.r.) route as a 10% experimental suspension, and by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route as a 10% commercial formulation available in Argentina. Blood samples were drawn during a 60 h period. Plasma concentrations of RBZ and its inactive metabolite albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental analysis. The fitting of the data was done by weighted least-squares non-linear regression analysis. The pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for every animal by simultaneous fitting of the plasma concentrations profiles of RBZ obtained after its administration by the three routes. The kinetic analysis of ABZSO2 was performed by a statistical moment approach. Ricobendazole bioavailability was poor after i.r. administration, whereas high and sustained plasma concentrations and higher bioavailability were obtained after s.c. administration. A simple two-compartment open model explains in a mechanical sense the pharmacokinetic behaviour of RBZ in sheep and allows us to estimate the real first-order constant rate of absorption and the loss of drug from the absorption site after its administration by s.c. and i.r. routes. PMID:16142607

  14. S-adenosyl-L-methionine is able to reverse micronucleus formation induced by sodium arsenite and other cytoskeleton disrupting agents in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Tzutzuy; García-Montalvo, Verónica; Wise, Carolyn; Cea-Olivares, Raymundo; Poirier, Lionel A; Herrera, Luis A

    2003-07-25

    Deficiencies of folic acid and methionine, two of the major components of the methyl metabolism, correlate with an increment of chromosome breaks and micronuclei. It has been proposed that these effects may arise from a decrease of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the universal methyl donor. Some xenobiotics, such as arsenic, originate a reduction of SAM levels, and this is believed to alter some methylation processes (e.g. DNA methylation). The aim of the present work was to analyze the effects of exogenous SAM on the micronucleus (MN) frequency induced by sodium arsenite in human lymphocytes treated in vitro and to investigate whether these effects are related to DNA methylation. Results showed a reduction in the MN frequency in cultures treated with sodium arsenite and SAM compared to those treated with arsenite alone. To understand the mechanism by which SAM reduced the number of micronucleated cells, its effect on MN induced by other xenobiotics was also analyzed. Results showed that SAM did not have any effect on the increase in MN frequency caused by alkylating (mitomycin C or cisplatin) or demethylating agents (5-azacytidine, hydralazine, ethionine and procainamide), but it reduced the number of micronucleated cells in those treated with agents that inhibit microtubule polymerization (albendazole sulphoxide and colcemid). Since albendazole sulphoxide and colcemid inhibit microtubule polymerization, we decided to evaluate the effect of SAM on microtubule integrity. Data obtained from these evaluations showed that sodium arsenite, albendazole sulphoxide, and colcemid affect the integrity and organization of microtubules and that these effects are significantly reduced when cultures were treated at the same time with SAM. The data taken all together point out that the positive effects of SAM could be due to its ability to protect microtubules through an unknown mechanism. PMID:12873724

  15. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach worms including 4th stage inhibited larvae (Ostertagia ostertagi); barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus, H. placei); small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei)); adult and 4th stages larvae of intestinal worms (thread-necked intestinal worm (Nematodirus spathiger, N....

  16. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach worms including 4th stage inhibited larvae (Ostertagia ostertagi); barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus, H. placei); small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei)); adult and 4th stages larvae of intestinal worms (thread-necked intestinal worm (Nematodirus spathiger, N....

  17. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach worms including 4th stage inhibited larvae (Ostertagia ostertagi), barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei), small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei)); adult and 4th stage larvae of...

  18. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach worms including 4th stage inhibited larvae (Ostertagia ostertagi); barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus, H. placei); small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei)); adult and 4th stages larvae of intestinal worms (thread-necked intestinal worm (Nematodirus spathiger, N....

  19. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa); adult and 4th stage larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach worms including 4th stage inhibited larvae (Ostertagia ostertagi), barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei), small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei)); adult and 4th stage larvae of...

  20. 21 CFR 520.45b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... larvae of stomach worms (brown stomach worms including 4th stage inhibited larvae (Ostertagia ostertagi); barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus, H. placei); small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei)); adult and 4th stages larvae of intestinal worms (thread-necked intestinal worm (Nematodirus spathiger, N....

  1. 21 CFR 520.38a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) body weight (10 mg/kilogram (kg)) as a single oral dose using dosing gun or dosing syringe. (ii... worms (thread-necked intestinal worm (Nematodirus spathiger and N. helvetianus), small intestinal worm....45 or 11.36 percent suspension: (i) Amount. 3.4 mg/lb body weight (7.5 mg/kg) as a single oral...

  2. 21 CFR 520.38b - Albendazole paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Equivalent to 4.54 milligrams per 1 pound of body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram). (2) Indications for... stages larvae of intestinal worms (thread-necked intestinal worm (Nematodirus spathiger, N....

  3. Treatment of echinococcosis: albendazole and mebendazole – what else?

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Andrew; Stadelmann, Britta; Rufener, Reto; Spiliotis, Markus; Boubaker, Ghalia; Müller, Joachim; Müller, Norbert; Gorgas, Daniela; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The search for novel therapeutic options to cure alveolar echinococcosis (AE), due to the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis, is ongoing, and these developments could also have a profound impact on the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the closely related Echinococcus granulosus s.l. Several options are being explored. A viable strategy for the identification of novel chemotherapeutically valuable compounds includes whole-organism drug screening, employing large-scale in vitro metacestode cultures and, upon identification of promising compounds, verification of drug efficacy in small laboratory animals. Clearly, the current focus is targeted towards broad-spectrum anti-parasitic or anti-cancer drugs and compound classes that are already marketed, or that are in development for other applications. The availability of comprehensive Echinococcus genome information and gene expression data, as well as significant progress on the molecular level, has now opened the door for a more targeted drug discovery approach, which allows exploitation of defined pathways and enzymes that are essential for the parasite. In addition, current in vitro and in vivo models that are used to assess drug efficacy should be optimized and complemented by methods that give more detailed information on the host-parasite interactions that occur during drug treatments. The key to success is to identify, target and exploit those parasite molecules that orchestrate activities essential to parasite survival. PMID:25526545

  4. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... using dosing gun or dosing syringe. (ii) Indications for use. For removal and control of adult liver...) body weight (10 mg/kilogram (kg)) as a single oral dose using dosing gun or dosing syringe. (ii) Indications for use. For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica); heads and segments...

  5. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... using dosing gun or dosing syringe. (ii) Indications for use. For removal and control of adult liver...) body weight (10 mg/kilogram (kg)) as a single oral dose using dosing gun or dosing syringe. (ii) Indications for use. For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica); heads and segments...

  6. Fluorescence enhancement of rare earth Tb(III) by Tm(III) in benzyl benzoylmethyl sulphoxide complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xian; Chai, Wen-Juan; Liu, Yu; Li, Ying-Jie; Ren, Tie; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Bo-Yang

    2012-01-01

    A series of rare earth complexes [(Tb(x) Tm(y))L5 (ClO4)2](ClO4)·3H(2) O (x:y = 1.000:0.000, 0.999:0.001, 0.995:0.005, 0.990:0.010, 0.950:0.050, 0.900:0.100, 0.800:0.200, 0.700:0.300; L = C(6) H5 CH2 SOCH2 COC6 H5) (Tb(III) luminescence ion; Tm(III) doped inert ion) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra (IR) and (1) H-NMR. The photophysical properties of these complexes were studied in detail using ultraviolet absorption spectra, fluorescent spectra and lifetimes. The fluorescence spectra of complexes indicated that the fluorescence emission intensity was significantly enhanced by Tm(III). The complexes showed the best luminescence properties when the mole ratio Tb(III):Tm(III) was 0.990:0.010. The fluorescence intensity could be increased to 390%. Additionally, phosphorescence spectra and the luminescence mechanisms are discussed. PMID:22114050

  7. The effects of aspirin and dimethyl sulphoxide on the latency of lysosomes in a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, J; Rogers, S H

    1984-05-14

    Lysosomal preparations were exposed to various concentrations of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and aspirin singularly and in combination. Acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase activities were measured and utilized as an indication of lysosomal membrane stability under experimental conditions in the presence and absence of these drugs. Extremely low concentrations of each drug were employed in an attempt to mimic the levels which might be feasible in vivo. There was a significant decrease of enzyme activity (increased structure-linked latency) in the presence of DMSO. Aspirin had no significant effect on the latency of the lysosomes. There was no indication of synergism between DMSO and aspirin. It was concluded that some of the therapeutic advantages attributed to DMSO in the treatment of arthritis and other musculoskeletal diseases may come from the stabilization of lysosomes in cells that contribute to the pathological condition. Aspirin did not seem to exert a therapeutic effect through this mechanism. PMID:6727549

  8. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    PubMed

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

  9. Metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics in giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna).

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Vokřál, Ivan; Kašný, Martin; Rejšková, Lenka; Zajíčková, Markéta; Lamka, Jiří; Skálová, Lenka; Lecová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    1. Giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna is a dangerous parasite, which infects herbivores. It was imported to Europe from North America and started to spread. Benzimidazoles like albendazole, mebendazole, triclabendazole and salicylanilides closantel and rafoxanide are the most used anthelmintics to control fascioloidosis. However their effect might be altered via drug-metabolizing enzymes of this parasite. 2. The aim of our study was to determine the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes in F. magna and the metabolism of above mentioned anthelmintics. 3. Activities of several oxidative, reductive and conjugative enzymes towards various model xenobiotic substrates were found in F. magna subcellular fractions. 4. Subcellular fractions from F. magna oxidized albendazole to its sulphoxide metabolite and reduced mebendazole to hydroxyl-mebendazole. Under ex vivo conditions, only very-low concentrations of these compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. 5. The results indicate that the giant liver fluke possesses the active xenobiotic-metabolizing system. The overexpression of this system may play an important role in parasite resistance against these anthelmintics. PMID:26153440

  10. Ultrasonic Velocity, Viscosity and Refractive Index Investigation on Interacting Blend Solutions of PAA (Poly Acrylic Acid) and PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) in Solvent DMSO (Di methyl Sulphoxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamani, Chakrala

    2010-11-01

    The present study provides a great insight into the major new research areas like Plasma research (which is yielding a greater understanding of the universe) and Nano Technology Research (which provides many practical uses like Drug Delivery System). The Ultrasonic Velocities, Viscosities and Refractive indices of Poly (Acrylic Acid) and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) blends in DMSO solutions have been measured over a wide range of composition, concentration and at different temperatures. The variation of Ultrasonic Velocity, derived acoustical parameters, adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, Rao number, molar compressibility and relaxation strength with composition of blend solution was found not linear. This non-linearity has been attributed to incompatibility in conformity with the earlier findings. This behavior was confirmed by Viscometric and interaction parameters studies, as well as by investigation of Refractive index studies. These investigations offer an entirely new and simple approach to the study of the compatibility of polymer blends which is in general obtained by sophisticated techniques of thermal dynamic mechanical and electron microscopic analysis.

  11. Zinc or albendazole attenuates the progression of environmental enteropathy a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical condition among children in the developing world, characterized by T-cell infiltration of the small-bowel mucosa and diffuse villous atrophy. EE leads to macronutrient and micronutrient malabsorption and stunting, with a resultant increased risk for in...

  12. Fasciola hepatica: motility response to fasciolicides in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fairweather, I; Holmes, S D; Threadgold, L T

    1984-06-01

    The effects of a wide range of fasciolicides on the in vitro motility of Fasciola hepatica have been determined by means of an isometric transducer system. Carbon tetrachloride and diamphenethide do not affect movement at concentrations up to 500 and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively; at 1000 micrograms/ml, however, carbon tetrachloride induces a rapid tonic paralysis. Brotianide and the deacetylated metabolite of diamphenethide cause a rapid flaccid paralysis of the fluke at concentrations of 1.0 micrograms/ml and above. In contrast, the effect of MK-401 is a long-term one, a flaccid paralysis occurring after 20 hr only at 200 micrograms/ml. Praziquantel also produces a flaccid paralysis of the fluke, but this follows an initial increase, then decrease in muscle tone. The effect is rapid at 500 micrograms/ml, but long-term at 100 and 200 micrograms/ml; at these lower concentrations there is also a stimulation of activity. Oxyclozanide , rafoxanide, niclofolan , bithionol, and hexacholorophene induce a rapid spastic paralysis of the fluke at concentrations of 1.0 micrograms/ml and above. Both phasic and tonic components are evident in the response at concentrations of 1.0 micrograms/ml and below; the phasic component disappears at higher concentrations. Nitroxynil produces a similar effect, evident at higher concentrations. Among the benzimidazoles, mebendazole, oxfendazole, and albendazole sulphoxide cause a suppression of motility, whilst thiabendazole and albendazole produce a stimulation of movement. The effects are not rapid, however, for only mebendazole at 500 micrograms/ml causes total inactivity of the fluke within a 12-hr period. Possible explanations for these effects on fluke motility are discussed. PMID:6723893

  13. In Vitro Anti-Echinococcal and Metabolic Effects of Metformin Involve Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Larval Stages of Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Julia A.; Cumino, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    -AMPKɑ was observed in the developmental structures during the de-differentiation process from protoscoleces to microcysts. Therefore, the Eg-AMPK expression during the asexual development of E. granulosus, as well as the in vitro synergic therapeutic effects observed in presence of Met plus albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), suggest the importance of carrying out chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy studies combining Met with conventional anti-echinococcal agents to test the potential use of this drug in hydatidosis therapy. PMID:25965910

  14. Ricobendazole kinetics and availability following subcutaneous administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, C E; Virkel, G L; Sanchez, S F; Alvarez, L I; Lifschitz, A L; Imperiale, F; Monfrinotti, A

    1998-01-01

    The plasma and abomasal fluid disposition kinetics of ricobendazole (RBZ) after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a novel injectable formulation to calves, and the comparative plasma availability after s.c. injection of RBZ and that obtained after oral treatment with albendazole (ABZ), were characterised. Six parasite-free Holstein calves received RBZ (solution 150 mg ml(-1)) by s.c. injection at 3.75 mg kg(-1) (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 was conducted in two experimental phases; in phase I, five calves (Group A) received RBZ by s.c. injection and five animals (Group B) were orally treated with ABZ (suspension 100 mg ml(-1)), at 5 mg kg(-1). Drug treatments were reversed for each group in phase II and given at 7.5 mg kg(-1). Samples of abomasal fluid (via cannula) and jugular blood were collected over 72 hours post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. RBZ and its sulphone metabolite were detected in plasma following its s.c. administration. RBZ was rapidly absorbed, reaching the plasma Cmax at 4.5 hours post-dosing. The sulphone metabolite followed a similar kinetic pattern. Both molecules were rapidly and extensively distributed into the abomasum, being detected in abomasal fluid between 30 minutes and 36 hours post-administration. An extensive plasma/abomasum exchange process, with ionic-trapping in the abomasum, accounted for the higher AUC value (>200 per cent) obtained for RBZ in abomasum compared with plasma. The s.c. treatment with RBZ formulated as a solution resulted in a significantly greater plasma availability (measured as ABZ sulphoxide) than the oral treatment with ABZ (suspension) given at the same dose rates. PMID:9769065

  15. [Lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey in schools three years after stopping mass drug treatment with albendazole and ivermectin in the 7 endemic districts in Togo].

    PubMed

    Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo 3 years after stopping the MDA. A new TAS will be carried out in 2015, after which, if the results are still good, the country will submit a dossier to WHO for verification of the elimination of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:25476256

  16. AIDSinfo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acyclovir Albendazole Amphotericin B Azithromycin Butoconazole Nitrate Capreomycin Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin Clindamycin Daclatasvir Elbasvir / Grazoprevir Ethambutol Hydrochloride Famciclovir ...

  17. Echinococcosis of the liver during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, W; Scheele, F; Sibinga-Mulder, L; Dekker, G A

    1995-06-01

    A 20-year-old Turkish woman with three huge echinococcus cysts of the liver was admitted in the third trimester of pregnancy. During pregnancy she received albendazole and during vaginal delivery she received both albendazole and medication aimed at preventing anaphylactic reaction. We believe that the presence of large hydatid cysts during pregnancy should be managed conservatively with courses of albendazole after the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:9764873

  18. Residues of aldicarb in oranges: a unit-to-unit variability study.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C H; Tsioumplekou, M

    2001-10-01

    Residues of aldicarb and its sulphoxide and sulphone oxidative metabolites in individual Navelino orange trees were determined at several time intervals after soil application of TEMIK 10G at 200 g formulated material per tree. Analysis was by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization giving average recoveries of 98% for aldicarb (RSD 6%), 34% for aldicarb sulphoxide (RSD 5%) and 77% for aldicarb sulphone (RSD 5%). Lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) were 0.02 mg/kg for aldicarb and aldicarb sulphone and 0.04 mg/kg for aldicarb sulphoxide. At the recommended preharvest interval (PHI) of 120 days no detectable residues of any compound, including the parent compound, were found in and of the samples analysed. In mature fruits (PHI of 88 days) detectable residues at the LCL for aldicarb sulphoxide and 0.03 or 0.04 mg/kg for aldicarb sulphone were found in only three of the 18 samples analYsed. In immature fruits detectable residues of aldicarb sulphoxide at concentrations ranging between 0.04 (LCL) and 0.51 mg/kg were detected in 70 out of 88 samples analysed, while residues of aldicarb sulphone at concentrations 0.02 (LCL) to 0.8 mg/kg were detected in 73 out of 88 samples. Indicative variability factors for sulphoxide and sulphone were estimated for immature fruits. PMID:11569769

  19. A method for determination of unoxidized and total methionine in protein concentrates, with special reference to fish meals.

    PubMed

    Njaa, L R

    1980-03-01

    1. An automated colorimetric method for determination of methionine using an iodoplatinate reagent is described. Methionine sulphoxide does not react under the chosen conditions. 2. The method may be used to distinguish between unoxidized and total methionine by doing one determination without and one determination with previous reduction of a portion of the sample with titanium trichloride. Methionine sulphoxide is then obtained by difference. 3. The method has been used with protein concentrates, mainly fish meals, after hydrolysis with barium hydroxide. Interference from cysteine-cystine is eliminated by adding a small amount of cadmium acetate to the sample before hydrolysis. 4. Results obtained for total methionine and for methionine sulphoxide by independent methods show good agreement with results obtained with the iodoplatinate method. PMID:7378341

  20. Immune response to Taenia solium cysticerci after anti-parasitic therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aloukick K; Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Amrita; Gupta, Kamlesh K; Khatoon, Jahanarah; Prasad, Amit; Rai, Ravi P; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Mukesh; Husain, Nuzhat; Prasad, Kashi N

    2015-10-01

    Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Swine were divided into two groups; swine in group 1 were treated with albendazole and those in group 2 were treated with albendazole plus steroid (prednisolone). All the animals underwent follow-up MRIs at 6 and 12 weeks after start of therapy and were then sacrificed. Tissues surrounding the cysticerci were collected and studied for the expression of different cytokines by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. Albendazole therapy was found to be more effective in parasite killing than albendazole plus steroid (94.11% versus 70.96%, P=0.011). Albendazole therapy provoked a pro-inflammatory, Th1 (IFN-γ) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokine response around the dead cysticerci. Despite a heavy parasite burden in the brain, all the pigs treated with albendazole plus steroid survived. In this group of animals, a mixed pro-inflammatory Th1, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory cytokine (IL-10) response was associated with responder cysticerci. Further, Th2 and regulatory cytokine responses were associated with non-responder cysticerci. PMID:26336013

  1. [Larva migrans cutanea].

    PubMed

    Nevoralová, Z

    2006-01-01

    A case of rare skin disease in Czech Republic caused by nematode larva is presented. The disease is most frequently caused by Ankylostoma brasiliensis and was imported from Brazil. It was successfully treated by peroral therapy with albendazol. PMID:16639935

  2. New policies for using anthelmintics in high risk groups.

    PubMed

    Allen, Henrietta E; Crompton, David W T; de Silva, Nilanthi; LoVerde, Philip T; Olds, G Richard

    2002-09-01

    The 'Informal Consultation on the Use of Praziquantel during Pregnancy/Lactation, and Albendazole/Mebendazole in Children under 24 Months' was held 8-9 April 2002, in Geneva, Switzerland. PMID:12377247

  3. Cystic echinococcosis of lung and heart coupled with repeated echinococcosis of brain--a case report.

    PubMed

    Busić, Zeljko; Bradarić, Nikola; Ledenko, Vlatko; Pavlek, Goran

    2011-12-01

    Echinococcosis is rarely encountered as a cystic brain disease. In this article we are presenting a case of a young woman repeatedly operated due to echinococcosis of lung, heart and brain. Recurrent brain ecchinococcosis developed despite preoperative and postoperative albendazol therapy after first and combined therapy with albendazol and praziquantel after the second brain surgery. The mechanism of recurrence remains unclear (primary infestation, dissemination after spontaneous or intraoperative cyst rupture or new infestation). PMID:22397279

  4. Effect of selected anthelmintics on three common helminths in the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Grimes, J; Suto, B; Greve, J H; Albers, H F

    1989-01-01

    The effect of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, fenbendazole, piperazine dihydrochloride and clorsulon) against three major helminths (Contracaecum multipapillatum, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, and Phagicola longus) were studied in 29 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis). Albendazole and fenbendazole were highly effective against all three parasites. Clorsulon had moderate effect against M. appendiculatoides and poor effect against C. multipapillatum and P. longus. Piperazine dihydrochloride had no effect against these helminths. PMID:2915399

  5. [Effect of sulfur nutrition for sulfoxide accumulation in garlic bulbs].

    PubMed

    Kosian, A M

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the sulphur nutrition conduction upon sulphoxides accumulation in the garlic bulbs was studied. It was found that application of sulphur as ammonium sulphate in quantity up to 75-100 kg S/ha induced proportional increase of sulphoxides in bulbs from 3.03 up to 4.57 mg/g. Subsequent increasing of the sulphur doses applied did not induce any trustworthy changes. When potassium sulphate was used for feeding similar results were obtained. The potassium and nitrogen increase equivalent to the amounts of them applied together with sulphur did not induce any trustworthy changes too. Also it was registered the garlic variety sulphur nutrition specificity, that was closely connected with degree of the floral spear development. So, in the bulbs of non-spear-forming variety (Ukrainian white) the maximal increasing of the sulphoxide content was 78.6% against control whereas for Boguslavsky 10, the variety with most advanced floral spear (with height up to 125 cm), the increasing of sulphoxides was only 43.6%. PMID:9848149

  6. Development of a rapid method to isolate polyhydroxyalkanoates from bacteria for screening studies.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino-Caston, Isaac; Kelly, Catherine A; Fitzgerald, Annabel V L; Leeke, Gary A; Jenkins, Mike; Overton, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel method of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for use in screening studies. Compared to conventional chloroform extraction, the DMSO method was shown to release comparable quantities of PHA from Cupriavidus necator cells, with comparable properties as determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:26143034

  7. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI)=0.16), mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17) and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23). For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81) and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93) in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin) were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies. PMID:23231753

  8. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of thioridazine during co-administration of tricyclic antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Syrek, Maciej; Haduch, Anna; Wójcikowski, Jacek

    2000-01-01

    Because of serious side-effects of thioridazine and tricyclic antidepressants (cardiotoxicity), a possible influence of imipramine and amitriptyline on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of thioridazine was investigated in a steady state (2-week treatment) in rats. Imipramine and amitriptyline (5 and 10 mg kg−1 i.p., respectively) elevated 30 and 20 fold, respectively, the concentration of thioridazine (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) and its metabolites (N-desmethylthioridazine, 2-sulphoxide, 2-sulphone, 5-sulphoxide) in blood plasma. Similar, yet weaker increases in the thioridazine concentration were found in the brain. Moreover, an elevation of thioridazine/metabolite ratios was observed. Imipramine and amitriptyline added to control liver microsomes in vitro inhibited the metabolism of thioridazine via N-demethylation (an increase in Km), mono-2-sulphoxidation (an increase in Km and a decrease in Vmax) and 5-sulphoxidation (mainly a decrease in Vmax). Amitriptyline was a more potent inhibitor than imipramine of the thioridazine metabolism. The varying concentration ratios of antidepressant/thioridazine in vivo appear to be more important to the final result of the pharmacokinetic interactions than are relative direct inhibitory effects of the antidepressants on thioridazine metabolism observed in vitro. Besides direct inhibition of the thioridazine metabolism, the decreased activity of cytochrome P-450 towards 5-sulphoxidation, produced by chronic joint administration of thioridazine and the antidepressants, seems to be relevant to the observed in vivo interaction. The obtained results may also point to inhibition of another, not yet investigated, metabolic pathway of thioridazine, which may be inferred from the simultaneous elevation of concentrations of both thioridazine and the measured metabolites. PMID:10991922

  9. Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Patrice A.; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Kihembo, Macklyn; Lule, Swaib A.; Rutebarika, Diana; Apule, Barbara; Akello, Florence; Akurut, Hellen; Oduru, Gloria; Naniima, Peter; Kizito, Dennison; Kizza, Moses; Kizindo, Robert; Tweyongere, Robert; Alcock, Katherine J.; Muwanga, Moses; Elliott, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Helminth infections may modulate immune responses to unrelated pathogens and allergens; these effects may commence prenatally. We addressed the hypothesis that anthelminthic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood would improve responses to immunisation and modulate disease incidence in early childhood with both beneficial and detrimental effects. Methods and Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Entebbe, Uganda [ISRCTN32849447]. In three independent randomisations, 2507 pregnant women were allocated to receive single-dose albendazole or placebo, and praziquantel or placebo; 2016 of their offspring were randomised to receive quarterly single-dose albendazole or placebo from age 15 months to 5 years. Primary outcomes were post-immunisation recall responses to BCG and tetanus antigens, and incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia; incidence of eczema was an important secondary outcome. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Of 2345 live births, 1622 (69%) children remained in follow-up at age 5 years. 68% of mothers at enrolment, and 11% of five-year-olds, had helminth infections. Maternal hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were effectively treated by albendazole and praziquantel, respectively; and childhood hookworm and Ascaris by quarterly albendazole. Incidence rates of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and eczema were 34, 65, 10 and 5 per 100 py, respectively. Albendazole during pregnancy caused an increased rate of eczema in the children (HR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15–2.17), p = 0.005). Quarterly albendazole during childhood was associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria (HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.73–0.98), p = 0.03). There were no consistent effects of the interventions on any other outcome. Conclusions Routine use of albendazole in pregnancy may not always be beneficial, even in tropical developing countries. By contrast, regular albendazole treatment in preschool children may have an additional

  10. The determination of methionine in proteins by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, G M; Duncan, A

    1976-01-01

    Intact methionine residues in proteins were rapidly and precisely determined by measuring methyl thiocyanate released during the reaction with CNBr and separated by g.l.c. Conditions for the reaction and for chromatography on columns of Porapak P-S are described. The recovery of methyl thiocyanate from several methionine derivatives and analogues were examined. Carbamoylmethionine was adopted as a stable primary standard and ethyl thiocyanate as internal standard. The measured methionine content of several isolated proteins was close to the theoretical value indicated by previous work and the results for these and a range of food proteins agreed well with results obtained by ion-exchange chromatography after performic acid oxidation. Since CNBr does not react with methionine sulphoxide and a preliminary hydrolysis is not required, the method discriminates between methionine and any methionine sulphoxide that may be present. It could be useful in studies on the nutritional availability of methionine in processed foods. PMID:949322

  11. Product formation from thiophene by a mixed bacterial culture. Influence of benzene as growth substrate.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Isabelle M; Mosbaek, Hans; Arvin, Erik

    2003-07-01

    The influence of benzene as a growth substrate on the cometabolic conversion of thiophene was investigated in batch systems with microorganisms originating from an creosote contaminated site. Benzene was shown to stimulate the conversion of thiophene with a first-order rate, during the initial phase of transformation. The microorganisms were able to transform thiophene in the absence of benzene at a zero-order rate. Thiophene was converted to five oxidation products, regardless of the presence of benzene. Benzene had no influence on the distribution of these oxidation products. The main oxidation product, a thiophene sulphoxide dimer, represented 78+/-12% of the transformed thiophene, while the second most important product, also a thiophene sulphoxide dimer, represented 20+/-2% of the converted thiophene. PMID:12767308

  12. Role of chemotherapeutic agents in the management of cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Nazligul, Yasar; Kucukazman, Metin; Akbulut, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by infection with the metacestode stage of Echinococcus tapeworms of the family Taeniidae. The primary carriers are dogs and wolves, and humans are accidental hosts that do not contribute to the normal life cycle of this organism. The liver is the most commonly involved organ in the body by cystic echinococcosis (CE) secondary to infection with Echinococcus granulosus . Management options for CE should depend on the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic classification. Small (<5 cm) WHO stage CE1 and CE3a cysts may be primarily treated with benzimidazoles; the first-choice drug is albendazole. In some situations the combination of albendazole and praziquantel may be preferred. Chemotherapy with a benzimidazole or albendazole plus praziquantel is also used as adjunctive treatment to surgery and percutaneous treatment. Drug treatments have been the indispensable therapeutic modalities for cystic echinococcosis. PMID:25594649

  13. Antenatal anthelmintic treatment, birthweight, and infant survival in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Khatry, Subarna K; West, Keith P

    Anthelmintic treatment, which is recommended during pregnancy in areas where there is a high rate of anaemia, needs further investigation. We examined prospectively the association between anthelmintic treatment and maternal anaemia, birthweight, and infant mortality in a study of prenatal supplements, in which women received albendazole twice during pregnancy. Women given albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy had a lower rate of severe anaemia during the third trimester. Birthweight of infants of women who had received two doses of albendazole rose by 59 g (95% CI 19-98), and infant mortality at 6 months fell by 41% (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.43-0.82). Antenatal anthelmintics could be effective in reducing maternal anaemia and improving birthweight and infant survival in hookworm-endemic regions. PMID:15364190

  14. Cholestasis and liver failure with lambda-AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Konikoff, F; Mor, C; Stern, S; Shaklai, M; Halevy, J; Theodor, E

    1987-01-01

    Clinically significant liver involvement in systemic amyloidosis, especially with cholestasis, is rare. We report a case of primary amyloidosis with severe intrahepatic cholestasis leading to terminal liver failure. The present case is the first of its kind reported involving Lambda light chains only as the associated paraprotein. Conventional treatment and a therapeutic trial with dimethyl sulphoxide were unsuccessful. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3115870

  15. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable. PMID:24490343

  16. Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S; Khan, B M; Babar, M; Andleeb, S; Hafeez, M; Ali, S; Khan, M F

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out as a prerequisite to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Camellia varieties. The crude extracts of six different plants of green tea Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis were tested against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using agar disk diffusion method at 50 mg/ml concentration. 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium free radical scavenging methods were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Phytochemical constituents and trace metals were detected through thin layer chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, respectively. The maximum inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was recorded by dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of green tea varieties. The measured zone of inhibition of dimethyl sulphoxide extracts by Qimen was (10.00±0.0 mm), Japanese (10.00±0.0 mm), Turkish (10.00±0.0 mm), Indonesian (8.33±1.0 mm), P3 clone (10.00±0.0 mm) and Sri Lankan (10.00±0.0 mm). Maximum scavenging potential activity was found with ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts. Spot screening of TLC-developed plates indicated that the presence of active biological compounds such as flavonoids, proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides also exhibited strong activity against tested bacterial strains. This study reveals the potential biological activities of Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis having massive phytochemical constituents and trace elements. PMID:25284935

  17. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate increases cholesterol dissolving capacity and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J J; Groen, A K; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    There is a discrepancy between in vitro cholesterol dissolving efficacy of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl propionate and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vivo. This study investigated whether the presence of bile changes the cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate. The addition of dimethylsulphoxide to MTBE or ethyl propionate was also studied to discover if it improves the dissolving capacity for cholesterol gall stones. The presence of bile caused a 25% decrease in cholesterol dissolving capacity of both MTBE and ethyl propionate (p < 0.0001). This inhibitory effect of bile could be overcome by the addition of dimethyl-sulphoxide: dimethylsulphoxide caused an increase in cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate, the increase depending on the dimethyl-sulphoxide/bile ratio in the mixture. Mean dissolution time of weight, size, and patient matched cholesterol gall stones was 220 minutes in MTBE and 130 minutes in MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide (p < 0.0001). No stones dissolved completely in ethyl propionate or ethyl propionate/dimethyl-sulphoxide within 300 minutes. In conclusion, MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide is a more potent dissolving agent for cholesterol gall stones than MTBE, giving a 40% reduction in dissolution time. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to ethyl propionate does not result in faster stone dissolution. MTBE and MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide are far superior to ethyl propionate as solvents for cholesterol gall stones. PMID:7828992

  18. The efficacy of anthelmintics against Thysaniezia giardi in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Davies, P V; Récio, M

    1981-09-01

    Two field cases of apparent inefficacy of albendazole against cestodes in lambs were investigated. In both farms Thysaniezia giardi was identified and 2 critical controlled trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of 5 anthelmintics against T. giardi. Albendazole dosed at 3,8 mg/kg or 7,6 mg/kg live mass, mebendazole at 15 mg/kg were totally ineffective against T. giardi. Treatment with resorantel at 65 mg/kg or niclosamide at 50 mg/kg however, caused expulsion of the strobilae within 16--24 hours after treatment and at autopsy, lambs were free of scoleces of T. giardi. PMID:7310792

  19. Effect of myrrh and thyme on Trichinella spiralis enteral and parenteral phases with inducible nitric oxide expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Attia, Rasha A H; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Farrag, Haiam Mohammed Mahmoud; Makboul, Rania; Mohamed, Mona Embarek; Ibraheim, Zedan

    2015-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against enteral and encysted (parenteral) phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%), while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%), respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%). Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis. PMID:26676322

  20. Encephalitozoon cuniculi Genotype I as a Causative Agent of Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Patient▿

    PubMed Central

    Ditrich, Oleg; Chrdle, Aleš; Sak, Bohumil; Chmelík, Václav; Kubále, Jiří; Dyková, Iva; Kváč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A brain abscess caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I together with Streptococcus intermedius occurred in a patient without major immunocompromise and with diabetes. The distinguishing clinical signs were hemiparesis and epilepsy. The microsporidium was observed in the abscess aspirate, and its specific DNA was also detected in stool and urine. The patient was successfully treated with albendazole and mebendazole. PMID:21593268

  1. Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

  2. Effect of Three Drugs against Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in Immunosuppressed Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Lidiana F. Vidoto; de Castro, João Manoel

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia comprise a large group of obligate intracellular parasites. The microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients with HIV, cancer, or transplants and in the elderly. In vivo and in vitro studies on the effectiveness of drugs are controversial. Currently, there is no effective treatment. We tested albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, metronidazole, and cyclosporine in mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 107 E. cuniculi spores. One week after experimental inoculation, the mice were treated with albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, metronidazole, and cyclosporine. Histological and morphometric analyses were performed to compare the treated groups. The state of immunosuppression was evaluated by phenotyping CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry. Nontreated mice showed acute disseminated and fatal encephalitozoonosis. The treatment with benzimidazoles significantly reduced infection until 30 days posttreatment (p.t.), but at 60 days p.t., the infection had recurred. Metronidazole decreased infection by a short time, and cyclosporine was not effective. All animals were immunosuppressed by all the experiments, as demonstrated by the low number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We conclude that no drug was effective against E. cuniculi, but the benzimidazoles controlled the infection transiently. PMID:23612191

  3. The Effect of Antihelminthic Treatment on Subjects with Asthma from an Endemic Area of Schistosomiasis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Lima, Givaneide S.; Cardoso, Luciana S.; de Souza, Robson P.; Campos, Régis A.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Figueiredo, Joanemile P.; Oliveira, Ricardo R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma

    2012-01-01

    This is a prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of antihelminthic treatments on asthma severity in individuals living in an endemic area of schistosomiasis. Patients from group 1 received placebo of Albendazole or of Praziquantel and from group 2 received Albendazole and Praziquantel. Asthma severity was assessed by clinical scores and by pulmonary function test. There was no significant difference in the asthma scores from D0 to D1–D7 after Albendazole or Praziquantel and from D0 to D30–90 after Albendazole or Praziquantel in both, group 1 and 2. It was observed, however, a clinical worsening of the overall studied population after 6 months and 12 months of antihelminthic treatments. Additionally, we observed increased frequency of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <80% on 12 and 18 months after treatment. The worsening of asthma severity after repeated antihelminthic treatments is consistent with the hypothesis of the protective role conferred by helminths in atopic diseases. PMID:22934153

  4. [The treatment of patients with imported helminthiases].

    PubMed

    Tokmalaev, A K; Bezborodov, N G; Polovinkina, N A; Makarova, I A; Golub, V P; Efimov, L L

    1994-01-01

    The authors treated helminth infestation in 856 patients who have arrived to Russia from tropical countries. Early diagnosis and treatment of helminthiasis in such patients reduce their susceptibility to other diseases in the course of relevant adaptation to new climatic conditions. The authors point to high efficacy of the drugs mebendazol, albendazol, medaminol (against ancylostomiasis, ascariasis, trichocephaliasis), praziquantel (against schistosomiasis and hymenolepiasis). PMID:7900008

  5. Anguillulose maligne d’évolution fatale au cours d'un pemphigus végétant

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Inssaf; Amarouch, Hajar; Mael-Ainin, Maha; Aitourhroui, Mohammed; Senouci, Karima; Hassam, Badredine

    2015-01-01

    L'anguillulose intestinale est rare. Les formes malignes surviennent généralement au cours d'une immunodépression. Notre observation souligne la gravité de l'anguillulose en cas de maladie auto-immune notamment le pemphigus et l'inefficacité de l'Albendazole dans ces situations à risque. PMID:26161186

  6. Clinical characteristics and progression of liver abscess caused by toxocara

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyung Ho; Song, Jung Eun; Kim, Byung Seok; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and progression of liver abscess caused by toxocara. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with serum IgG antibody to Toxocara canis and liver abscess diagnosed using abdominal computed tomography between February 2010 and February 2015. Among 84 patients exhibiting serum IgG antibody to Toxocara canis, 34 patients were diagnosed with liver asbscess and treated with albendazole. A follow-up period of 1 year was conducted. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 53 (34-79) years, with 26 (76.5%) patients being male. Twenty-one (61.7%) patients were moderate or heavy drinkers, 23 (67.6%) patients had a history of eating raw meat or liver and 6 (17.6%) patients owned pet dogs or cats. Main patient symptoms consisted of right upper quadrant pain, fever, and fatigue; 18 (52.9%) patients, however, presented with no symptoms. Lung involvement was detected in 444 (11.7%) patients. The eosinophil count increased in 29 (85.3%) patients at initial diagnosis, and decreased in most patients after albendazole treatment. The initial serum IgE level increased in 25 (73.5%) patients, but exhibited various response levels after albendazole treatment. Liver abscess formation improved in all patients. CONCLUSION: The liver abscess was improved with albendazole treatment. PMID:27366302

  7. Effect of myrrh and thyme on Trichinella spiralis enteral and parenteral phases with inducible nitric oxide expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Rasha AH; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Farrag, Haiam Mohammed Mahmoud; Makboul, Rania; Mohamed, Mona Embarek; Ibraheim, Zedan

    2015-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against enteral and encysted (parenteral) phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%), while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%), respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%). Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis. PMID:26676322

  8. Worms Expelled With the Urine From a Bosniak Cyst III of the Left Kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Pu; Su, Chuan; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Gu, Min

    2016-07-01

    An old fishman presented with left lumbago and finding worms in his urine. Type-B ultrasonic inspection and computed tomography scan found a Bosniak cyst III, containing several wire-like elements, in the middle of the left kidney. Expelled worms were confirmed to be Dioctophyma renale. After two courses of albendazole, the man was cured. PMID:27015940

  9. Baylisascaris procyonis–Associated Meningoencephalitis in a Previously Healthy Adult, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Michael J.; Halabi, Cathra; Wietek, Natalie; LaRiviere, Alejandro; Shah, Maulik; Wilson, Michael R.; Chin-Hong, Peter; Douglas, Vanja; Kazacos, Kevin R.; Babik, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    After severe neurocognitive decline developed in an otherwise healthy 63-year-old man, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and enhancing lesions. The patient tested positive for antibodies to Baylisascaris spp. roundworms, was treated with albendazole and dexamethasone, and showed improvement after 3 months. Baylisascariasis should be considered for all patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:27434260

  10. Baylisascaris procyonis-Associated Meningoencephalitis in a Previously Healthy Adult, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Charles; Reid, Michael J; Halabi, Cathra; Wietek, Natalie; LaRiviere, Alejandro; Shah, Maulik; Wilson, Michael R; Chin-Hong, Peter; Douglas, Vanja; Kazacos, Kevin R; Babik, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    After severe neurocognitive decline developed in an otherwise healthy 63-year-old man, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and enhancing lesions. The patient tested positive for antibodies to Baylisascaris spp. roundworms, was treated with albendazole and dexamethasone, and showed improvement after 3 months. Baylisascariasis should be considered for all patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:27434260

  11. Study on the hydatid cyst membrane: permeation of model molecules and interactions with drug-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Truong Cong, Tri; Faivre, Vincent; Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Heras, Hernan; Pirot, Fabrice; Walchshofer, Nadia; Sarciron, Marie-Elisabeth; Falson, Françoise

    2008-04-01

    The success of the chemotherapeutic treatment of hydatid disease is based upon the drug ability to operate on the germinal layer and on the protoscolices of the hydatid cyst interior at adequate concentrations for sufficient periods. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of the drug diffusion through the cyst membrane from sheep hydatid cysts and the increase of drug concentration in the cyst environment. In the first part of this work, the permeation behaviour through the hydatid cyst membrane was studied with five model molecules, having different molecular descriptors (logP, molecular weight, polar surface area ...) onto static Franz glass diffusion cells. A good correlation has been observed between the permeation coefficient and the partition coefficient, log P (r=0.951). In the second part, albendazole-loaded nanoparticles (about 300 nm) prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation method have shown a sufficient entrapment efficiency (36.4 +/- 6.4%) to raise the apparent solubility of albendazole. The diffusion of drug from the nanoparticles across the hydatid cyst membrane was also improved compare to albendazole suspension. These results have shown the interest of the albendazole-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of hydatid cysts in the future. PMID:18201847

  12. Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S.; Khan, B. M.; Babar, M.; Andleeb, S.; Hafeez, M.; Ali, S.; Khan, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out as a prerequisite to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Camellia varieties. The crude extracts of six different plants of green tea Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis were tested against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using agar disk diffusion method at 50 mg/ml concentration. 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium free radical scavenging methods were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Phytochemical constituents and trace metals were detected through thin layer chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, respectively. The maximum inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was recorded by dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of green tea varieties. The measured zone of inhibition of dimethyl sulphoxide extracts by Qimen was (10.00±0.0 mm), Japanese (10.00±0.0 mm), Turkish (10.00±0.0 mm), Indonesian (8.33±1.0 mm), P3 clone (10.00±0.0 mm) and Sri Lankan (10.00±0.0 mm). Maximum scavenging potential activity was found with ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts. Spot screening of TLC-developed plates indicated that the presence of active biological compounds such as flavonoids, proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides also exhibited strong activity against tested bacterial strains. This study reveals the potential biological activities of Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis having massive phytochemical constituents and trace elements. PMID:25284935

  13. Electron scattering studies of DMS, DMDS and DMSO homologous series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2015-12-01

    The present paper reports ionisation, elastic and total cross section for the first three members of dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide family of molecules. The multi-scattering centre spherical complex optical potential formalism is applied for integral elastic and inelastic cross section calculations. From the inelastic part, ionisation cross section is derived using complex scattering potential-ionisation contribution method. The total cross section is then obtained from the sum of elastic and inelastic contributions. A reasonably good agreement is obtained for elastic cross section, wherever comparison is available. The ionisation and total cross section calculation for the complete set of molecules has been performed for the first time.

  14. Studies of the antifungal compounds produced by Erwinia herbicola.

    PubMed

    Adetuyi, F C

    1990-01-01

    The organic phase of a wide spectrum, antimycotic and diffusable toxin from Erwinia herbicola showed a highly significant inhibitory activity against Pyricularia oryzae spores in spore well bioassay. Germ tube lengths were inhibited more in wells containing 5 microliters equivalent of bacterial toxin than 1 microliter. No significant difference between the germ tube in an equal mixture of Dimethyl sulphoxide: ethanol and controls. Thin layer chromatography using the chloroform extraction of the organic phase showed a significant antagonism on Cladosporium cucumerinum. The retardation factor values for inhibitory zones in solvent 1 were 0.07 for lower spot and 0.26 for upper spot. PMID:2394476

  15. Synthesis and preliminary characterisation of new esters of the bacterial polysaccharide gellan.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, V; Dentini, M; Segatori, M; Tiblandi, C; Callegaro, L; Benedetti, L

    1992-07-01

    Under the appropriate experimental conditions, ethyl, propyl, and methylprednisolon-21-yl esters of gellan can be obtained without significant degradation. At low degrees of esterification (de), depending on the ester moiety, the products are water-soluble, which allows the influence of hydrophilicity and charge density on their ability to assume an ordered conformation in dilute aqueous solution to be studied. With high de, the products were soluble only in organic solvents (e.g., methyl sulphoxide) with good film-forming capacity. The methylprednisolon-21-yl esters have been characterised in a preliminary manner in terms of drug-release kinetics. PMID:1394330

  16. A Cluster Randomized Study of The Safety of Integrated Treatment of Trachoma and Lymphatic Filariasis in Children and Adults in Sikasso, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Yaya Ibrahim; Dicko, Ilo; Keita, Modibo; Keita, Mahamadou Minamba; Doumbia, Moussa; Daou, Adama; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Sankare, Moussa Hama; Horton, John; Whately-Smith, Caroline; Sow, Samba Ousmane

    2013-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases are co-endemic in many areas of the world, including sub Saharan Africa. Currently lymphatic filariasis (albendazole/ivermectin) and trachoma (azithromycin) are treated separately. Consequently, financial and logistical benefit can be gained from integration of preventive chemotherapy programs in such areas. Methodology/Findings 4 villages in two co-endemic districts (Kolondièba and Bougouni) of Sikasso, Mali, were randomly assigned to coadministered treatment (ivermectin/albendazole/azithromycin) or standard therapy (ivermectin/albendazole with azithromycin 1 week later). These villages had previously undergone 4 annual MDA campaigns with ivermectin/albendazole and 2 with azithromycin. One village was randomly assigned to each treatment arm in each district. There were 7515 eligible individuals in the 4 villages, 3011(40.1%) of whom participated in the study. No serious adverse events occurred, and the majority of adverse events were mild in intensity (mainly headache, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and “other signs/symptoms”). The median time to the onset of the first event, of any type, was later (8 days) in the two standard treatment villages than in the co-administration villages. Overall the number of subjects reporting any event was similar in the co-administration group compared to the standard treatment group [18.7% (281/1501) vs. 15.8% (239/1510)]. However, the event frequency was higher in the coadministration group (30.4%) than in the standard treatment group (11.0%) in Kolondièba, while the opposite was observed in Bougouni (7.1% and 20.9% respectively). Additionally, the overall frequency of adverse events in the co-administration group (18.7%) was comparable to or lower than published frequencies for ivermectin+albendazole alone. Conclusions These data suggest that co-administration of ivermectin+albendazole and azithromycin is safe; however the small number of villages studied and the large differences between

  17. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  18. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given. PMID:23901382

  19. Clinical Aspects of Eosinophilic Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given. PMID:23901382

  20. [Musculoskeletal hydatidosis: an unusual location].

    PubMed

    Pleguezuelo Navarro, M; Iglesias Flores, E M; Domínguez Jiménez, J L; González Galilea, A; Abad Lara, J A; Jiménez Sánchez, C; De Dios Vega, J F

    2006-05-01

    Hydatidosis is a zoonosis with a continuing high prevalence in our environment. The most commonly affected organs are the lungs and the liver, with the musculoskeletal location being considered an unusual one. We comment the case of a patient who presented a series of lesions in his left iliac crest and middle left buttock with spontaneous fistulization to the skin surface. In this case a combined treatment was given; prior to the surgical operation we administered a cycle of albendazol. Following removal of the lesion, the patient was given two further cycles of albendazol in order to minimize the risk of a recurrence of the illness. This patient is currently free of any symptoms relating to this illness. PMID:16817701

  1. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Caumes, E

    2000-05-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans caused by the larvae of animal hookworms is the most frequent skin disease among travelers returning from tropical countries. Complications (impetigo and allergic reactions), together with the intense pruritus and the significant duration of the disease, make treatment mandatory. Freezing the leading edge of the skin track rarely works. Topical treatment of the affected area with 10%-15% thiabendazole solution or ointment has limited value for multiple lesions and hookworm folliculitis, and requires applications 3 times a day for at least 15 days. Oral thiabendazole is poorly effective when given as a single dose (cure rate, 68%-84%) and is less well tolerated than either albendazole or ivermectin. Treatment with a single 400-mg oral dose of albendazole gives cure rates of 46%-100%; a single 12-mg oral dose of ivermectin gives cure rates of 81%-100%. PMID:10816151

  2. Persistence of intestinal parasitic infections during the national de-worming campaign in schoolchildren of northwestern Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitism remains a public health challenge in northwestern Mexico even when a twice yearly single dose of albendazole (400 mg) is administered to schoolchildren. We aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren of northwestern Mexico. Methods The Faust and Kato Katz techniques were used to detect and identify the intestinal parasite species. One thousand two hundred and seventy eight children from 12 public schools were invited to participate in this study; 312 children participated in September 2003. Results Sixty eight percent of the subjects had intestinal parasites, 63% had protozoan infections, and 29%, 16% and 10% were infected with Giardia duodenalis, Hymenolepsis nana, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii respectively. Fifty children excreted eggs of Hymenolepsis nana. Conclusion Educational strategies should be considered to support the national de-worming campaign, because albendazole alone will not sufficiently improve the health conditions of vulnerable populations. PMID:24714136

  3. Multiple resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to nine different drugs in a sheep flock in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Toscan, Gustavo; Camillo, Giovana; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Ribas, Henrique Olmedo; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres

    2010-10-11

    Based on clinical observation of a flock of approximately 5000 sheep (breed Merino) from southern Brazil, the failure of anthelmintic treatments was suspected. The sensitivity of the gastrointestinal nematodes that infected these sheep to nine drugs (Levamisole, Moxidectin, Albendazole, Ivermectin, Nitroxynil, Disophenol, Trichlorphon, Closantel, and a combination of Ivermectin, Levamisole and Albendazole) was evaluated. None of the drugs reduced the count of nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG) in the sheep to an adequate extent (defined as a 95% reduction in EPG). Therefore, we found multiple parasite resistance to all classes of anthelmintic drugs available for small ruminants in the Brazilian market. The genera Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Ostertagia spp. had various degrees of resistance (or natural tolerance) to each of the drug treatments. PMID:20619543

  4. Clinical fascioliasis in domestic goats in Montana.

    PubMed

    Leathers, C W; Foreyt, W J; Fetcher, A; Foreyt, K M

    1982-06-15

    Fascioliasis (Fasciola hepatica infection) was diagnosed in a herd of domestic goats in Montana. Twenty-eight goats died after a month-long clinical course of anorexia, weight loss, depression, lethargy, and decreased milk production. Clinical laboratory findings included anemia, low hemoglobin content, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilia, and high hepatic enzyme activity. The livers of affected goats had extensive parenchymal necrosis, fibrosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Albendazole oral suspension (20 mg/kg) was used to treat 45 of the remaining goats twice, 30 days apart; 15 goats were untreated controls. Egg counts for the untreated group averaged 171 fluke eggs per gram of feces, which compared with less than 1 epg per gram for the treated group. Fifteen percent of the treated goats died, whereas 73% of the untreated goats died. On the basis of necropsy findings, albendazole treatment was regarded as greater than 99% effective against adult F hepatica. PMID:7096186

  5. Neurocysticercosis presenting as a vertical one-and-a-half syndrome with associated contralesional horizontal gaze paresis.

    PubMed

    Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Deleu, Dirk; D'souza, Atlantic; Imam, Yahia Zakaria Bashier; Melikyan, Gayane

    2012-12-15

    We describe a patient presenting with vertical one-and-a-half syndrome and concomitant contralesional horizontal gaze paresis as the result of a solitary neurocysticercosis (NCC) lesion in the right midbrain extending into the thalamomesencephalic junction. The patient received an albendazole-dexamethasone course which resulted in resolution of his symptoms. The neuro-ophthalmological complications of NCC are reviewed and the clinical topography of the neuro-ophthalmological findings of this unusual observation are discussed. PMID:22982000

  6. Cutaneous Larva Migrans Masquerading as Tinea Corporis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dhanaraj, Manoharan; Ramalingam, Manoharan

    2013-01-01

    A 25–year–old male was seen with complaints of itchy skin lesions over left thigh. On examination multiple annular scaly plaques with wavy borders, peripheral papules and central clearing was seen. Closer examination revealed multiple forked tracts with excoriated papules. A diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was made and the patient treated using T.Albendazole 400 mg twice daily for 7 days which resulted in complete clinical cure. PMID:24298515

  7. Intraocular gnathostomiasis: A rare case report from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Preeti; Gautam, Manushree; Jain, Nikhila C; Jain, Rajdeep

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of intraocular gnathostomiasis from Central India. A 29-year-old male from Indore, Madhya Pradesh, presented with pain and redness of the right eye since 1 month. Slit lamp examination revealed anterior uveitis, multiple iris atrophic patches, and a live worm hooked on iris. The worm was removed through a small sclerocorneal tunnel. Microscopy confirmed Gnathostoma spinigerum. The patient was treated with oral albendazole and steroids. The case is reported because of its rarity. PMID:27146938

  8. Activity of Oxantel Pamoate Monotherapy and Combination Chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and Hookworms: Revival of an Old Drug

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Jennifer; Tritten, Lucienne; Silbereisen, Angelika; Speich, Benjamin; Adelfio, Roberto; Vargas, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. Methodology We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. Principal Findings We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI) = 2.53). Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively). A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15) was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg) lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. Conclusion/Significance Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be launched. PMID:23556013

  9. Impact of hookworm infection and deworming on anaemia in non-pregnant populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer L; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To summarise age- and intensity-stratified associations between human hookworm infection and anaemia and to quantify the impact of treatment with the benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, on haemoglobin and anaemia in non-pregnant populations. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant studies published between 1980 and 2009, regardless of language, and researchers contacted about potential data. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was compared between uninfected individuals and individuals harbouring hookworm infections of different intensities, expressed as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigated the impact of treatment on Hb and anaemia. Results Twenty-three cross-sectional studies, six pre- and post-intervention studies and 14 trials were included. Among cross-sectional studies, moderate- and heavy-intensity hookworm infections were associated with lower Hb in school-aged children, while all levels of infection intensity were associated with lower Hb in adults. Among RCTs using albendazole, impact of treatment corresponded to a 1.89 g/l increase (95%CI: 0.13–3.63) in mean Hb while mebendazole had no impact. There was a positive impact of 2.37 g/l (95%CI: 1.33–3.50) on mean Hb when albendazole was co-administered with praziquantel, but no apparent additional benefit of treatment with benzimidazoles combined with iron supplementation. The mean impact of treatment with benzimidazoles alone on moderate anaemia was small (relative risk (RR) 0.87) with a larger effect when combined with praziquantel (RR 0.61). Conclusions Anaemia is most strongly associated with moderate and heavy hookworm infection. The impact of anthelmintic treatment is greatest when albendazole is co-administered with praziquantel. PMID:20500563

  10. [A case report of human lagochilascariasis coming from Pará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, M A; de Oliveira, J A; Ferreira, L S; de Oliveira, V; Barbosa, C A

    2000-01-01

    A new case of lagochilascariasis is reported in a child from Xinguara, PA, Brazil. The patient had an abscess in the right cervical region, which was drained at the Clinical Hospital of UFG. Eggs and adult stages of Lagochilascaris minor were found in the secretion of the abscess. Treatment with albendazol, at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 30 days, associated with antibiotics promoted regression of the lesion. PMID:10881125

  11. Macroscopic Hydatiduria: An Uncommon Pathognomonic Presentation of Renal Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDI MADANI, Ali; ENSHAEI, Ahmad; POURREZA, Farshid; ESMAEILI, Samaneh; HAMIDI MADANI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Isolated renal hydatid disease is a rare endemic infestation caused by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatiduria is an uncommon presentation of renal hydatid disease. In 2012 a 34-year-old female referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran with complaints of right flank pain and grape-like material in urine. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and CT scan. The patient was treated surgically with nephrectomy in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol. PMID:26587504

  12. [Treatment methods in multiple hepatic, pulmonary and pleural hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Galie, N; Stoica, R; Cadar, G; Posea, R; Brânzea, R

    2001-01-01

    The modern treatment of hepato-pleural-pulmonary hydatidosis is based on surgical excision and medical treatment with drugs like: Mebendazol, Albendazol or Praziquantel. There are presented 23 patients with multiple hepato-pleuro-pulmonary hydatidosis, operated in the last 4 years. Surgical excision in pleuro-pulmonary hydatidosis is adapted to cysts topography, aiming to eliminate the intact cysts and to close the remaining cavities. PMID:11374380

  13. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  14. [Echinococcus granulosus infection (hydatid cyst): a case report].

    PubMed

    Núñez, I G; Jidy, M D; Núñez, F A; Díaz, O M

    2001-01-01

    Larval Echinococcus granulosus infection (hydatid cyst) was reported in a 10 years-old Ukranian girl. The clinical manifestations were slight since she only complained of frequent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound and immunoenzymatic detection of antibodies to Echinococcus (ELISA). Antibody titers were 1/800. She was repeatedly treated with albendazol, and she managed to recover while the size of her cyst was reduced. PMID:15846927

  15. Anaphylactic shock in a female patient due to a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Horzic, M; Bunoza, D; Maric, K

    1996-01-01

    A 27-year-old female patient, a refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina, was admitted to our hospital in a state of shock. She developed an anaphylactic reaction. The US and CT of abdomen revealed a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst. An emergency operative procedure was performed and in the postoperative period she was treated conservatively with albendazol during the next two months. There was no recurrence of the disease. PMID:8975972

  16. Macroscopic Hydatiduria: An Uncommon Pathognomonic Presentation of Renal Hydatid Disease.

    PubMed

    Hamidi Madani, Ali; Enshaei, Ahmad; Pourreza, Farshid; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Hamidi Madani, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Isolated renal hydatid disease is a rare endemic infestation caused by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatiduria is an uncommon presentation of renal hydatid disease. In 2012 a 34-year-old female referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran with complaints of right flank pain and grape-like material in urine. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and CT scan. The patient was treated surgically with nephrectomy in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol. PMID:26587504

  17. Ultrasonographic diagnosis and medical treatment of human cystic echinococcosis in asymptomatic school age carriers: 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Edmundo; Del Carpio, Mario; Salvitti, Juan C; Mercapide, Carlos; Sustersic, Jose; Panomarenko, Hector; Costa, María; Bigatti, Ricardo; Labanchi, Jose; Herrero, Eduardo; Cantoni, Gustavo; Perez, Alicia; Odriozola, Martín

    2004-06-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in the Province of Río Negro, Argentina. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the results of a program carried out in endemic areas of the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, in the years 1997-2002. Abdominal ultrasonography was used, classifying the cases detected according to WHO guidelines. A treatment algorithm was defined which included observation, albendazol therapy, PAIR or surgery, according to cyst type and size. A total of 5745 schoolchildren were evaluated, detecting hydatid cyst carriers in 70 (1.2%). Of these; 40 (57.1%) were included in follow-up protocol, 25 (35.7%) in treatment protocol with albendazol, 2 (2.9%) with PAIR and 3 (4.3%) with conventional surgery. After a mean of 44 months, among 25 cases treated with albendazol, in 2 (8%) cysts underwent total involution, in 17 (68%) they presented positive changes, in one (4%) they remained unchanged and in 4 (16%) they progressed to type II, while 1 (4%) displayed negative evolutionary changes. Out of 39 cases under observation alone protocol, in 8 cases (21%) cysts underwent total involution, in 7 (18%) they presented positive changes, in 11 (28%) they remained unchanged, in 2 (5%) they progressed to Type II and in 11 (28%) they presented negative evolutionary changes and had to be included in the other protocol types. In this study, conventional surgery, was applied to 10% of detected cases. The combination of ultrasonographic screening and albendazol treatment showed promising results. PMID:15158684

  18. [False hydatic aneurysm of the thoraco-abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    El Mesnaoui, A; Bensaïd, Y; Ammar, A; El Yagoubi, M; Benabderrazik, T; Benjelloun, A; Benyahia, B

    1996-07-01

    Arterial complications of hydatic disease are rarely encountered. We report a false hydatic aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta revealed by ischemic embolism of the lower limbs. Surgical treatment included aorto-aortic prosthesis and albendazol for 6 months. Results at 18 months are excellent with negative hydatic serology. In endemic areas, hydatic disease is a possible cause of false aneurysms. Long-term surveillance is required after curative surgery and medical treatment. PMID:8999043

  19. [Plantar pruritus after trip to Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, O; Fehr, J; Nuesch, R

    2007-10-01

    A 33 year old man is evaluated for a pruriginous plantar eruption on the right foot. Three weeks ago he walked across a river barefoot in the south of Vietnam. In the clinical examination of the foot a red, serpiginuous dermatitis was seen. Patient history and clinical picture were typical for a larva migrans. After starting a treatment with albendazol the patient felt well and the lesions disappeared. PMID:17966826

  20. Pregnancy complicated by abdominopelvic hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Shakun; Singh, Chanchal; Tripathi, Reva; Mala, Yedla

    2012-01-01

    A 22-year-old second gravida presented with asymptomatic abdominal and pelvic hydatid disease at 16 weeks gestation. She opted for conservative management and was treated with oral Albendazole. She underwent elective caesarean along with cyst excision at term as the large pelvic cyst precluded vaginal delivery. A healthy baby girl weighing 2600 g with Apgar of 9, 9 at 1 and 5 min was delivered. PMID:23230263

  1. A case of cutaneous larva migrans presenting in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Kudrewicz, Kasie; Crittenden, Kylee N; Himes, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a pruritic dermatitis caused by migration of the animal hookworm larvae into the epidermis. We present a case of CLM in a 31-year-old pregnant woman. The treatment of CLM relies on antihelminthic agents, such as thiabendazole, albendazole, and ivermectin. This case was interesting in that the standard treatment options previously mentioned were contraindicated owing to the patient's pregnancy. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen resulted in complete resolution of her lesion and symptoms. PMID:25526012

  2. A case of cutaneous larva migrans presenting in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Kudrewicz, Kasie; Crittenden, Kylee N; Himes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a pruritic dermatitis caused by migration of animal hookworm larvae into the skin. We present a case of CLM in a 31-year-old pregnant woman. The treatment of CLM relies on antihelminthic agents, such as thiabendazole, albendazole, and ivermectin. This case was interesting in that the standard treatment options previously mentioned were contraindicated owing to the patient's pregnancy. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen resulted in complete resolution of her lesion and symptoms. PMID:25612130

  3. [Parasitic infections in pregnancy and congenital parasitoses. II. Helminth infections].

    PubMed

    Bialek, R; Knobloch, J

    1999-01-01

    The main sequela of helminthic infections is anemia, causing increased perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. During pregnancy symptomatic treatment is usually sufficient to control the disease. The specific and very effective treatment with albendazole, mebendazole, ivermectin and praziquantel has embryo-, fetotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential. Therefore, it should be delayed until after delivery. In some cases immediate specific therapy might be mandatory. Congenital helminthic infection in humans is a rarely described event. PMID:10448707

  4. [Ivermectin use in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, J; Yera, H; Tourte-Schaefer, C

    2003-12-01

    Ivermectin is a major breakthrough for the treatment of onchocerciasis, strongyloidosis, scabies and cutaneous larva migrans. Combined with albendazole, ivermectin is highly efficient for treating lymphatic filariasis and intestinal worms. Ivermectin shows very few side-effects but its use in children below 5 and during pregnancy is discussed. Ivermectin tolerance could be related to mdr1 gene expression. Additional studies are needed to assess its efficiency for pediculosis. PMID:15022779

  5. Impact of Six Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Brugian Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Eastern Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Supali, Taniawati; Djuardi, Yenny; Bradley, Mark; Noordin, Rahmah; Rückert, Paul; Fischer, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    Background The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effect of MDA using DEC and albendazole on B. timori and soil transmitted helminths (STH) in a cross-sectional study of a sentinel village on Alor Island annually over a period of 10 years. Pre-MDA the microfilaria (MF) prevalence was 26% and 80% of the residents had filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies. In 2010, 34 months after the 6th round of MDA, MF and antibody rates were only 0.17% and 6.4%, respectively. The MDA campaign had also a beneficial effect on STH. Baseline prevalence rates for Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were 34%, 28%, and 11%, respectively; these rates were reduced to 27%, 4%, and 2% one year after the 5th round of MDA. Unfortunately, STH rates rebounded 34 months after cessation of MDA and approached pre-MDA rates. However, the intensity of STH infection in 2009 was still reduced, and no heavy infections were detected. Conclusions/Significance MDA with DEC/albendazole has had a major impact on B. timori MF and IgG4 antibody rates, providing a proof of principle that elimination is feasible. We also documented the value of annual DEC/albendazole as a mass de-worming intervention and the importance of continuing some form of STH control after cessation of MDA for filariasis. PMID:24349595

  6. Comparison of pharmacokinetic variables for two injectable formulations of netobimin administered to calves.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, C E; Ranjan, S; Prichard, R K

    1990-09-01

    In a 4 x 4 crossover-design study, pharmacokinetic variables of 2 injectable formulations of netobimin (trisamine salt solution and zwitterion suspension) were compared after SC administration in calves at dosage of 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Netobimin parent drug was rapidly absorbed, being detected between 0.25 and 12 hours after treatment, with maximal plasma drug concentration (Cmax) values of 2.20 +/- 1.03 micrograms/ml achieved at 0.75 +/- 0.19 hour (trisamine) and 1.37 +/- 0.59 micrograms/ml at 0.81 +/- 0.18 hour (zwitterion). Netobimin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was 7.59 +/- 3.11 micrograms.h/ml (trisamine) and 6.98 +/- 1.60 micrograms.h/ml (zwitterion). Elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) was 2.59 +/- 0.63 hours (trisamine) and 3.57 +/- 1.45 hours (zwitterion). Albendazole was not detected at any time. Albendazole sulfoxide was detected from 4 hours up to 20 hours (trisamine) and from 6 hours up to 24 hours (zwitterion) after administration of the drug. The Cmax values were 0.48 +/- 0.16 micrograms/ml and 0.46 +/- 0.26 micrograms/ml for trisamine and zwitterion formulations, respectively, achieved at time to peak drug concentration (Tmax) values of 9.50 +/- 1.41 hours (trisamine) and 11.30 +/- 1.04 hours (zwitterion). Albendazole sulfoxide AUC was 3.86 +/- 1.04 micrograms.h/ml (trisamine) and 4.40 +/- 3.24 micrograms.h/ml (zwitterion); t1/2 beta was 3.05 +/- 0.75 hours (trisamine) and 3.90 +/- 1.44 hours (zwitterion). Albendazole sulfone was detected from 4 (trisamine) or 6 hours (zwitterion) to 24 hours after treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2396793

  7. Preparation and properties of crystalline biliverdin IX alpha. Simple methods for preparing isomerically homogeneous biliverdin and [14C[biliverdin by using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone.

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, A F; Palma, L A

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous isomerically pure biliverdin IX alpha is readily prepared in more than 70% yield by dehydrogenation of bilirubin with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in dimethyl sulphoxide under carefully controlled conditions. Crystalline biliverdin IX alpha and amorphous [14C]biliverdin can be obtained similarly in more than 40+ yield. The pure crystalline pigment was characterized by elemental analysis, methylation, chemical and enzymic reduction to bilirubin, i.r.- and u.v.-visible-absorption spectroscopy, n.m.r. spectroscopy and field-desorption mass spectrometry, and its solubility was determined. Under certain conditions, dehydrogenation, gave biliverdin contaminated with III alpha and XIII alpha isomers as a result of disproporationation of bilirubin. Formation of non-IX alpha isomers depends on the concentrations of the reagents and the order in which they are mixed, and occurs under neutral anaerobic conditions. Free-radical reactions probably are responsible, suggesting that the first step in the deydrogenation of bilirubin with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in dimethyl sulphoxide is formation of a bilirubin cation radical, rather than hydride ion abstraction. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7458909

  8. The metabolism of urethane and related compounds

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Nery, R.

    1965-01-01

    1. Urethane is metabolized in the rat, rabbit and man by a process of N-hydroxylation. This occurs to a smaller extent when methyl, n-propyl and n-butyl carbamates are administered to the rat and rabbit. 2. Other metabolites which have been detected in urine of animals dosed with urethane and N-hydroxyurethane are ethylmercapturic acid, ethylmercapturic acid sulphoxide and N-acetyl-S-carbethoxycysteine. 3. Substances which appear to be S-ethylglutathione and S-ethylglutathione sulphoxide have been detected in the bile of rats dosed with urethane or N-hydroxyurethane. 4. Methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl N-hydroxycarbamates are excreted unchanged in the urine of rats dosed with these compounds to extents depending on the dose administered. 5. Animals dosed with methyl, ethyl, n-propyl or n-butyl carbamate or the corresponding N-hydroxycarbamate excrete the corresponding carbamate and N-hydroxycarbamate in the urine. 6. Methyl, n-propyl and n-butyl carbamates and N-hydroxycarbamates are excreted more slowly than are urethane and N-hydroxyurethane. 7. The probable role of N-hydroxyurethane and the processes of alkylation and carbethoxylation, and of hydroxylamine, nitroxyl and hyponitrous acid in carcinogenesis and chemotherapy with urethane, have been discussed. PMID:14342230

  9. Rotational diffusion of coumarins in aqueous DMSO.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, S R; Gayathri, B R; Mannekutla, J R

    2009-07-01

    The rotational dynamics of four structurally similar polar molecules viz., coumarin 440, coumarin 450, coumarin 466 and coumarin 151 has been studied in binary mixtures comprising of dimethyl sulphoxide and water at room temperature using the steady state fluorescence depolarization method and time correlated single photon counting technique. The binary mixtures are characterized by the fact that at a particular composition the viscosity (eta) of the solution reaches a maximum value that is higher than the viscosities of either of the two co-solvents. The dielectric properties of the solution change across the composition range and the qualitative features of the solvent relaxation dynamics in complex systems are known to differ from those in simple solutions. A hook type profile of rotational reorientation time (tau(r)) vs viscosity (eta) is obtained for all the solutes in dipolar aprotic mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide-water, with the rotational reorientation times being longer in organic solvent-rich zone, compared to the corresponding isoviscous point in water-rich zone due to strong hydrogen bonding. Fluorescence lifetimes as well as rotational reorientation times are sensitive to the composition of the binary solvent system under study than to the viscosity suggesting the importance of local structure. The results are discussed in the light of hydrodynamic and dielectric friction models. PMID:19184379

  10. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Oueghlani, Evelyne; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Pavesio, Carlos E

    2010-10-01

    We describe the first two cases of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) in the UK successfully treated with albendazole. Two patients are described who presented with unilateral reduction in vision, with clusters of yellow-white retinal lesions fading and reappearing in new locations of the fundus over a period of weeks. Based on the clinical picture, the diagnosis of DUSN was made, even though no subretinal worm could be found. Both patients were treated with albendazole 400 mg daily for 30 days. After 4 weeks the vision in the affected eye improved to 6/9 in each patient and the retinal lesions resolved completely. Over a follow-up period of 28 months and 13 months respectively, there was no recurrence of any lesion and the vision was maintained. DUSN is a sight-threatening disease and the preservation of vision relies on early diagnosis and treatment. Laser photocoagulation of the worm is the treatment of choice, but this was not possible in either case, as no worm could be found; however, oral albendazole proved to be a safe and effective alternative treatment. PMID:20336350

  11. Microbial Flavoprotein Monooxygenases as Mimics of Mammalian Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases for the Enantioselective Preparation of Drug Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gul, Turan; Krzek, Marzena; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Fraaije, Marco W; Bischoff, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases, which are difficult to obtain and study, play a major role in detoxifying various xenobiotics. To provide alternative biocatalytic tools to generate flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO)-derived drug metabolites, a collection of microbial flavoprotein monooxygenases, sequence-related to human FMOs, was tested for their ability to oxidize a set of xenobiotic compounds. For all tested xenobiotics [nicotine, lidocaine, 3-(methylthio)aniline, albendazole, and fenbendazole], one or more monooxygenases were identified capable of converting the target compound. Chiral liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the conversions of 3-(methylthio)aniline, albendazole, and fenbendazole revealed that the respective sulfoxides are formed in good to excellent enantiomeric excess (e.e.) by several of the tested monooxygenases. Intriguingly, depending on the chosen microbial monooxygenase, either the (R)- or (S)-sulfoxide was formed. For example, when using a monooxygenase from Rhodococcus jostii the (S)-sulfoxide of albendazole (ricobendazole) was obtained with a 95% e.e. whereas a fungal monooxygenase yielded the respective (R)-sulfoxide in 57% e.e. For nicotine and lidocaine, monooxygenases could be identified that convert the amines into their respective N-oxides. This study shows that recombinantly expressed microbial monooxygenases represent a valuable toolbox of mammalian FMO mimics that can be exploited for the production of FMO-associated xenobiotic metabolites. PMID:26984198

  12. Opinion on the diagnosis and treatment of human trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Kociecka, Wanda; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Bolas-Fernandez, Francisco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2002-08-01

    The clinical diagnosis of trichinellosis is difficult because there are no pathogenic signs or symptoms and in diagnosing the infection epidemiological data are of great importance. Trichinellosis usually begins with a sensation of general discomfort and headache, increasing fever, chills and sometimes diarrhoea and/or abdominal pain. Pyrexia, eyelid or facial oedema and myalgia represent the principal syndrome of the acute stage, which can be complicated by myocarditis, thromboembolic disease and encephalitis. High eosinophilia and increased creatine phosphokinase activity are the most frequently observed laboratory features and the parasitological examination of a muscle biopsy and the detection of specific circulating antibodies will confirm the diagnosis. The medical treatment includes anthelmintics (mebendazole or albendazole) and glucocorticosteroids. Mebendazole is usually administered at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg but higher doses (up to 20 - 25 mg/kg/day) are recommended in some countries. Albendazole is used at 800 mg/day (15 mg/kg/day) administered in two doses. These drugs should be taken for 10 - 15 days. The use of mebendazole or albendazole is contraindicated during pregnancy and not recommended in children aged < 2 years. The most commonly used steroid is prednisolone, which may alleviate the general symptoms of the disease. It is administered at a dose of 30 - 60 mg/day for 10 - 15 days. PMID:12150691

  13. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    PubMed Central

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  14. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  15. [Two cases of Ostertagia spp. in sheep showing resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics].

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Rezin, V S

    1983-06-01

    Two field isolates of Ostertagia spp. of sheep from the Swellendam and Malmesbury districts in the south-western Cape were shown to be resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. At therapeutic dosage rates albendazole was 32,5%, thiabendazole 0%, oxfendazole 14,9% and morantel 91,4% effective against the adult stage of Ostertagia spp. in naturally infested lambs at Swellendam. Efficacy against the adult stage of the same isolate of Ostertagia spp. in artificially infested sheep in the laboratory was tested at dosage rates of albendazole 3,8% mg/kg or 7,6 mg/kg, mebendazole 15 mg/kg, levamisole 7,5 mg/kg and morantel 14,5 mg/kg and varied from 0%, 0%, 1,9% 53,9% and 87,0% respectively. Albendazole, the only anthelmintic tested against the Malmesbury strain of Ostertagia spp. was 9,8% effective against the adult stage in naturally infested lambs. Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. simultaneously present in these animals were fully susceptible to all the anthelmintics tested. PMID:6631911

  16. Factors influencing the response to chemotherapy in human cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, T.; Mechkov, G.; Vutova, K.; Georgiev, P.; Lazarova, I.; Tonchev, Z.; Nedelkov, G.

    1992-01-01

    As the effectiveness of mebendazole and albendazole in patients with echinococcosis has been found to vary, we investigated some of the factors likely to be responsible. A total of 79 patients who were treated with mebendazole (44 patients) or albendazole (35 patients) were included in the study. Evaluation of the treatment results was based on the changes in cyst morphology, as evidenced by the results of X-ray radiography, sonography, and computed tomography, and on analysis of the findings in relation to parasitic and drug factors. The response of cysts according to their site did not vary much, with the exception of the poor response of bone cysts. A more important factor seems to be cyst size, since the treatment was more efficacious against smaller and younger cysts. The presence of daughter cysts should be regarded as an unfavourable factor for treatment response. Cyst multiplicity did not present insurmountable difficulties, provided the cysts were small and a prolonged course of therapy was undergone. The choice of drug used for the therapy was important, with the results supporting the advantage of albendazole. In planning the chemotherapy of hydatid disease, factors such as cyst condition and drug used should therefore be taken into consideration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1638663

  17. Intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation of Fasciola hepatica eggs from sheep with different level of anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, María; Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco A

    2014-07-01

    In the current study, Fasciola hepatica strains of sheep with different degrees of resistance to anthelmintics were analyzed by sequencing the cytochrome C oxidase (COX1) and the NADH dehydrogenase (NAD1) subunits. The strains were as follows: LS, susceptible to all drugs tested; CS, resistant to albendazole and triclabendazole; and SV, resistant to albendazole and clorsulon. The molecular characterization was done in eggs recovered from sheep infected by LS and CS. In relation to SV, eggs were recovered before (SV0) and after a treatment with albendazole (SVA) and clorsulon (SVC). Nested PCRs were carried out to amplify a fragment of 798 bp of the COX1 subunit and 870 bp of the NAD1 subunit. The pairwise sequence identity between eggs was analyzed for each strain. Population diversity indices, neutrality indices, and the degree of gene flow among the strains were evaluated. As a result, we have shown that there was homogeneity in the demographic expansion of the studied strains, and, according to the pairwise fixation index, these were not genetically differentiated. Although we found that the resistant strains had lower pairwise percentage similarities, higher haplotype diversity, and higher frequencies of specific SNPs, especially in the COX1 subunit, these differences were not very significant. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of adult flukes resistant to anthelmintics does not result in significant higher genetic diversity in the mtDNA of their eggs. PMID:24832814

  18. First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gárcia, Carlos M B; Sprenger, Lew K; Ortiz, Efraín B; Molento, Marcelo B

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to report the presence of parasites resistant to the most used anthelmintic drugs in sheep in Colombia. Four farms (denominated farm 1, 2, 3 and 4) were selected where the animals were not treated with anthelmintics for two months before the trial. Animals with faecal egg count (FEC) above 150 and of different ages were allocated into six groups, each consisting of at least 5 animals. The drugs and dosages used were: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg), albendazole 25% (5 mg/kg), fenbendazole 10% (5 mg/kg), levamisole 10% (5 mg/kg), and moxidectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg). Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by the FEC reduction test (FECRT) with a second sampling 14 days post-treatment. The efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole at farm 1 was above 95%, which was different from the others farms. The FECRT indicated the presence of multidrug resistance in the other farms where no tested drugs showed activity higher than 79% (albendazole: 0 to 55%, fenbendazole: 51.4 to 76.6%, ivermectin: 67.3 to 93.1%, levamisole: 0 to 78.1%, and moxidectin: 49.2 to 64.1%).Haemonchus contortus was the predominant (96%) species, followed by a small presence of Trichostrongylus sp. (3%) andCooperia sp. (1%). Therefore, we report for the first time the existence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Colombia. PMID:26871489

  19. [Intraperitoneal perforation of hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    El Malki, Hadj Omar; El Mejdoubi, Yasser; Mohsine, Raouf; Ifrine, Lahcen; Belkouchi, Abdelkader

    2006-10-01

    The incidence of the rupture of hydatid cyst of the liver is about 15 to 40% of the cases. In 2 to 7% of the cases the cyst can perforate into the peritoneum. The occurrence of a sclerosing peritonitis secondary to the rupture of the hydatid cyst of the liver was described, to our knowledge, only once. We report the observation of a 43 year-old woman in whom the diagnostis of peritoneal rupture of a liver hydatid cyst was made after 3 months. The patient was treated by albendazole (10 mg/kg/d). Two months after the beginning of this treatment, the patient was operated. A sclerosing peritonitis was discovered. The parasitologic studies of the different specimens were negative. The surgical treatment consisted of a good washing with H2O2 of the fibrous hull of the sclerosing peritonitis and drainage without any dissection. The evolution was satisfactory with albendazole treatment for 14 months. Currently, she is in good health without recurrence and without any abnormalities with a 2 years follow-up. We think that albendazole in the treatment of the hydatid disease is very effective in condition to give a continuous treatment for a long time. The occurrence of a sclerosing peritonitis is fortunately an exceptional situation whose surgical management is very delicate. PMID:17075481

  20. The efficacy of triclabendazole and other anthelmintics against Fasciola hepatica in controlled studies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Richards, R J; Bowen, F L; Essenwein, F; Steiger, R F; Büscher, G

    1990-03-01

    In eight controlled tests 274 cattle were used to assess the efficacies of triclabendazole, albendazole, clorsulon, nitroxynil, oxyclozanide and rafoxanide against Fasciola hepatica. Against one-, two- and four-week-old early immature fluke the mean efficacies of triclabendazole given orally at 12 mg/kg were 88.1, 95.3 and 90.7 per cent, respectively. Clorsulon, nitroxynil and rafoxanide administered at recommended dose rates showed negligible activity against these stages of the parasite. Against six- and eight-week-old infections the mean efficacies of triclabendazole at 12 mg/kg were 87.5 per cent and 95.7 per cent, respectively. Against F hepatica aged six weeks, albendazole and oxyclozanide showed no activity and clorsulon, nitroxynil and rafoxanide had only slight to moderate activity. The efficacies of triclabendazole, clorsulon, nitroxynil and rafoxanide against 10- or 12-week-old parasites were 100, 99.0, 99.1 and 90.1 per cent, respectively. Albendazole and oxyclozanide showed poor efficacy against 12-week-old infections. PMID:2316160

  1. Open Conservative Surgical Management of Cystic Echinococcosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Batajoo, Hemant; Ghimire, Samikshya; Sathian, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease caused by E. granulosus in Nepal is amenable to surgical treatment. Aim: Aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of CE, by open partial pericystectomy with albendazole as adjuvant. Materials and Methods: Material of this prospective study were the consecutive series of 33 patients operated for CE, over a period of 8 years, at a single centre. Clinical examination, ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) were used for establishing diagnosis. Patients were prescribed perioperative albendazole. Povidone iodine 10% (betadine)was used as contact scolicidal agent during operation. Cysts were evacuated from livers, lungs, retroperitoneum by partial pericystectomy. CE of mesentery was completely excised. Descriptive statistics was obtained using EPI- info windows version soft ware. Results: A total of 33 patients were operated for CE; 24 were females and 9 males. Age ranged from 4 years to 80 years. Organs/ site involved were: liver – 24, lungs – 4, combined liver and lungs – 2, retroperitoneum - 2 and mesentery – 1. Complication – bile leak for 2 weeks in an operated CE of liver. There was no mortality. Hospital stay (in days) was – mean 14 (range 7to21). Follow up for 3 years (average 2years) showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Evacuation of CE by partial pericystectomy is an effective, safe and simple procedure, and gives excellent cure rate with perioperative albendazole therapy. PMID:26393161

  2. Filamentation temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) of Wolbachia, endosymbiont of Wuchereria bancrofti: a potential target for anti-filarial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Hoti, S L; Vasuki, V; Sankari, T; Meena, R L; Das, P K

    2013-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a leading cause of morbidity in the tropical world. It is caused by the filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori and transmitted by vector mosquitoes. Currently a programme for the elimination of LF, Global programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), is underway with the strategy of mass administration of single dose of diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin, in combination with an anthelmintic drug, albendazole. However, antifilarial drugs used in the programme are only microfilaricidal but not or only partially macrofilaricidal. Hence, there is a need to identify new targets for developing antifilarial drugs. Filarial parasites harbor rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia sp., which play an important role in their biology and hence are considered as potential targets for antifilarial chemotherapy development. In this study, one of the cell division proteins of Wolbachia of the major lymphatic filarial parasite, W. bancrofti, viz., filamentation temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), was explored as a drug target. The gene coding for FtsZ protein was amplified from the genomic DNA of W. bancrofti, cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence of the gene revealed that FtsZ protein is 396 amino acids long and contained the tubulin motif (GGGTGTG) involved in GTP binding and the GTP hydrolyzing motif (NLDFAD). The FtsZ gene of endosymbiont showed limited sequence homology, but exhibited functional homology with β-tubulin of its host, W. bancrofti, as it had both the functional motifs and conserved amino acids that are critical for enzymatic activity. β-tubulin is the target for the anti-helminthic activity of albendazole and since FtsZ shares functional homology with, β-tubulin it may also be sensitive to albendazole. Therefore, the effect of albendazole was tested against Wolbachia occurring in mosquitoes instead of filarial parasites as the drug has lethal effect on the latter. Third

  3. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity in human leucocytes after freezing.

    PubMed

    Hill, R S; Kennedy, M; Mackinder, C

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood leucocytes (neutrophil-rich) were collected either with heparin or acid citrate dextrose, frozen with dimethyl sulphoxide at a controlled rate, stored in liquid nitrogen at--196 degrees C and reconstituted with a solution containing dextran. After reconstitution, 20.2% of cells (in absolute numbers 1 in 5 fresh cells) showed a strongly positive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reaction. The quantitative NBT test confirmed the synthesis of formazan/10(6) reconstituted neutrophilsa s15% of the fresh capacity. A slow titration reconstitution method for cells did not improve the functional capacity of thawed leucocytes as judged by the NBT test. When comparing anticoagulants, heparin increased the post-reconstitution cell yields after freezing and increased the absolute number of reconstituted cells capable of developing a positive NBT reaction. PMID:643322

  4. Effect of organic solvents on the conformation and interaction of catalase and anticatalase antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Mohd; Younus, Hina

    2006-05-30

    Effect of six organic solvents-methanol, ethanol, propanol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), and glycerol on the conformation and interaction of catalase and anticatalase antibodies were studied with the aim of identifying the solvents in which antigen-antibody interactions are strong. The antigen binding activity of the antibodies in the various organic solvents increased in the following order: ethanol

  5. Underwater contact adhesion and microarchitecture in polyelectrolyte complexes actuated by solvent exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Lee, Dong Woog; Ahn, B. Kollbe; Seo, Sungbaek; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2016-04-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexation is critical to the formation and properties of many biological and polymeric materials, and is typically initiated by aqueous mixing followed by fluid-fluid phase separation, such as coacervation. Yet little to nothing is known about how coacervates evolve into intricate solid microarchitectures. Inspired by the chemical features of the cement proteins of the sandcastle worm, here we report a versatile and strong wet-contact microporous adhesive resulting from polyelectrolyte complexation triggered by solvent exchange. After premixing a catechol-functionalized weak polyanion with a polycation in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), the solution was applied underwater to various substrates whereupon electrostatic complexation, phase inversion, and rapid setting were simultaneously actuated by water-DMSO solvent exchange. Spatial and temporal coordination of complexation, inversion and setting fostered rapid (~25 s) and robust underwater contact adhesion (Wad >= 2 J m-2) of complexed catecholic polyelectrolytes to all tested surfaces including plastics, glasses, metals and biological materials.

  6. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. PMID:27134021

  7. Direct synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide by hydrogenation in acidic media

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Séverine; Dyson, Paul J.; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to rise as a consequence of human activities. In this article we describe the direct hydrogenation of CO2 into formic acid using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, in aqueous solution and in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), without any additives. In water, at 40 °C, 0.2 M formic acid can be obtained under 200 bar, however, in DMSO the same catalyst affords 1.9 M formic acid. In both solvents the catalysts can be reused multiple times without a decrease in activity. Worldwide demand for formic acid continues to grow, especially in the context of a renewable energy hydrogen carrier, and its production from CO2 without base, via the direct catalytic carbon dioxide hydrogenation, is considerably more sustainable than the existing routes. PMID:24886955

  8. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, Ahmad Mohamed; Shalaby, Hatem Abdel Mawgoud; El Khateeb, Rabab Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mona Said; Kutkat, Mohamed Abdel Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. Methods The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid®), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. Results The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid® oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil. PMID:23730566

  9. Solubility of (1 leads to 3)-beta-D/(1 leads to 6)-beta-D-glucan in fungal walls: importance of presumed linkage between glucan and chitin.

    PubMed

    Sietsma, J H; Wessels, J G

    1981-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans and Coprinus cinereus most of the alkali-insoluble (1 leads to 3)-beta-D/(1 leads to 6)-beta-D-glucan of the wall can be extracted with dimethyl sulphoxide. The same fraction, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae a small additional fraction, can be extracted by a destructive procedure involving 40% NaOH at 100 degrees C. The small fraction of the glucan which resists this treatment becomes soluble after a subsequent treatment with HNO2 indicating that it is covalently linked to chitin in the wall. In contrast, in Schizophyllum commune and Agaricus bisporus, nearly all the (1 leads to 3)-beta-D/(1 leads to 6)-beta-D-glucan appears to be held insoluble by linkage to chitin. PMID:6460846

  10. IR spectra and structure of benzylidenemalononitrile and its cyanide, methoxide and heptylamine adducts: experimental and ab initio studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binev, Ivan G.; Binev, Yuri I.; Stamboliyska, Bistra A.; Juchnovski, Ivan N.

    1997-12-01

    The potassium cyanide, alkali-metal methoxide and heptylamine adducts of benzylidenemalononitrile were prepared as dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and DMSO- d6 solutions; their structures were studied by IR spectroscopy and ab initio force field calculations. The cyanide and methoxide adducts have a carbanionic structure, whereas heptylamine forms a zwitterion. The IR spectra of the adducts studied are characterized by very intense, low-frequency νCN bands with a strong νCNs- νCNas splitting. The changes in the structure and force field of benzylidenemalononitrile accompanying its conversion into the adducts studied are essential and are spread over the whole molecule. The anionic charge is localized mainly within the dicyanomethide groups of the adducts.

  11. Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Choi, Duk-Yong; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin; Yang, Zhiyong; Debbarma, Sukanta; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry

    2013-12-01

    We report the characteristics of low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for sensing in the mid-infrared (MIR). The waveguides consisted of a Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄Se₆₄.₅ rib waveguide core with a 10nm fluoropolymer coating on a Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄S₆₄.₅ bottom cladding and were fabricated by thermal evaporation, photolithography and ICP plasma etching. Over most of the functional group band from 1500 to 4000 cm⁻¹ the losses were < 1 dB/cm with a minimum of 0.3 dB/cm at 2000 cm⁻¹. The basic capabilities of these waveguides for spectroscopy were demonstrated by measuring the absorption spectrum of soluble Prussian blue in Dimethyl Sulphoxide. PMID:24514544

  12. Induction of the 47 kDa platelet substrate of protein kinase C during differentiation of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tyers, M; Rachubinski, R A; Sartori, C S; Harley, C B; Haslam, R J

    1987-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis showed that the 47 kDa platelet substrate of protein kinase C (P47) was expressed at low levels in undifferentiated HL-60 leukaemia cells. Treatment of these cells with dimethyl sulphoxide, 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or retinoic acid caused progressive increases in P47 content. Retinoic acid (1 microM) elicited the largest response, a 4-fold increase in P47 protein after 7 days that was accompanied by an increase in translatable P47 mRNA. The induction of P47 by retinoic acid preceded cessation of cell proliferation and development of the capacity to reduce Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, indicating that its expression is an early event in the myeloid differentiation of HL-60 cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:3606573

  13. Chemical heterogeneity as a result of hydroxylamine cleavage of a fusion protein of human insulin-like growth factor I.

    PubMed Central

    Canova-Davis, E; Eng, M; Mukku, V; Reifsnyder, D H; Olson, C V; Ling, V T

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques were used to biosynthesize human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) as a fusion protein wherein the fusion polypeptide is an IgG-binding moiety derived from staphylococcal protein A. This fusion protein is produced in Escherichia coli and secreted into the fermentation broth. In order to release mature recombinant-derived hIGF-I (rhIGF-I), the fusion protein is treated with hydroxylamine, which cleaves a susceptible Asn-Gly bond that has been engineered into the fusion protein gene. Reversed-phase h.p.l.c. was used to estimate the purity of the rhIGF-I preparations, especially for the quantification of the methionine sulphoxide-containing variant. It was determined that hydroxylamine cleavage of the fusion protein produced, as a side reaction, hydroxamates of the asparagine and glutamine residues in rhIGF-I. Although isoelectric focusing was effective in detecting, and reversed-phase h.p.l.c. for producing enriched fractions of the hydroxamate variants, ion-exchange chromatography was a more definitive procedure, as it allowed quantification and facile removal of these variants. The identity of the variants as hydroxamates was established by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase digestion, followed by m.s., as the modification was transparent to amino acid and N-terminal sequence analyses. The biological activity of rhIGF-I was established by its ability to incorporate [3H]thymidine into the DNA of BALB/c373 cells and by a radioreceptor assay utilizing human placental membranes. Both assays demonstrate that the native, recombinant and methionine sulphoxide and hydroxamate IGF-I variants are essentially equipotent. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1637301

  14. Determination of 20 coccidiostats in milk, duck muscle and non-avian muscle tissue using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Clarke, L; Moloney, M; O'Mahony, J; O'Kennedy, R; Danaher, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, methods were developed to measure coccidiostats in bovine milk, duck muscle and non-avian species. The methods were validated to the maximum levels and MRLs laid down in European Union legislation. A simple sample preparation procedure was developed for the isolation of coccidiostat residues from bovine, ovine, equine, porcine and duck muscle tissue, based on solvent extraction with acetonitrile and concentration. An alternative method had to be developed for milk samples based on the QuEChERS sample preparation approach because of the high water content in this matrix. Milk samples were adjusted to basic pH with sodium hydroxide and extracted by using a slurry of acetonitrile, MgSO4 and NaCl. Purified sample extracts were subsequently analysed by using UHPLC-MS/MS in a 13.2-min chromatographic run. It was found that the use of rapid polarity switching enabled both negatively and positively charged ions to be analysed from a single injection. By using this approach, solvent usage was reduced significantly and sample throughput improved. The method was validated for the analysis of 20 coccidiostats (arprinocid, clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril, diaveridine, ethopabate, halofuginone, laidlomycin, lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, nequinate, nicarbazin, robenidine, salinomycin, semduramicin, toltrazuril, toltrazuril sulphoxide and toltrazuril sulphone) in muscle and milk. The method is quantitative for toltrazurils, but it cannot be used for confirmation because only the precursor ion is monitored. Accuracy values for muscle ranged from 80% to 125%, while CCα ranged from 2.2 µg kg(-1) for clopidol to 122 µg kg(-1) for toltrazuril sulphoxide. Bovine milk accuracy ranged from 84% to 120% for all analytes except maduramicin, semduramicin and salinomycin, for which the values were higher. CCα values achieved ranged from 1.1 µg kg(-1) for arprinocid, nequinate and lasalocid to 27 µg kg(-1) for toltrazuril. PMID:23731083

  15. Key words: Sound Diffraction; Lined Duct; Integral Transform; Wiener-Hopf Technique; Expansion Coefficients; Pole Removal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglar, Bulent; Afsin, Beytullah; Eren, Erdal; Tabak, Ahmet; Cirak, Cagri; Cubuk, Osman

    2010-11-01

    The intercalation of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), pyridine (Py), ethanolamine (Ea), and Nmethyl formamide (NMF) molecules into the kaolinite interlayers led to an appreciable decrease of 3697 cm-1 of the hydroxyl band. The appearance of the peaks at 3662, 3541, and 3504 cm-1 proved that the DMSO species are intercalated between the kaolinite layers through forming H-bonds with internal-surface hydroxyl groups. The intensities of the 942 and 796 cm-1 bending peaks arising from inner-surface hydroxyls decreased and new vibrational features appeared due to the intercalation of the guest species. The d001 value of pure kaolinite was found at 7.18 A° , and the d001 values were seen at 11.26, 11.62, 10.77, and 10.67 °A for kaolinite-dimethyl sulphoxide (K-DMSO), kaolinite-pyridine (K-Py), kaolinite-ethanolamine (K-EA), and kaolinite-N-methyl formamide (K-NMF) composites, respectively. The endothermic differential thermal analysis (DTA) peaks at a temperature of 108 - 334 ◦C reflected the changes in the physicochemical properties of the intercalated species. The thermal stability increase followed the order of K-Py

  16. Role of methionine in the active site of alpha-galactosidase from Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed Central

    Kachurin, A M; Golubev, A M; Geisow, M M; Veselkina, O S; Isaeva-Ivanova, L S; Neustroev, K N

    1995-01-01

    alpha-Galactosidase from Trichoderma reesei when treated with H2O2 shows a 12-fold increase in activity towards p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside. A similar effect is produced by the treatment of alpha-galactosidase with other non-specific oxidants: NaIO4, KMnO4 and K4S4O8. In addition to the increase in activity, the Michaelis constant rises from 0.2 to 1.4 mM, the temperature coefficient decreases by a factor of 1.5 and the pH-activity curve falls off sharply with increasing pH. Galactose (a competitive inhibitor of alpha-galactosidase; Ki 0.09 mM for the native enzyme at pH 4.4) effectively inhibits oxidative activation of the enzyme, because the observed activity changes are related to oxidation of the catalytically important methionine in the active site. NMR measurements and amino acid analysis show that oxidation to methionine sulphoxide of one of five methionines is sufficient to activate alpha-galactosidase. Binding of galactose prevents this. Oxidative activation does not lead to conversion of other H2O2-sensitive amino acid residues, such as histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan and cysteine. The catalytically important cysteine thiol group is quantitatively titrated after protein oxidative activation. Further oxidation of methionines (up to four of five residues) can be achieved by increasing the oxidation time and/or by prior denaturation of the protein. Obviously, a methionine located in the active site of alpha-galactosidase is more accessible. The oxidative-activation phenomenon can be explained by a conformational change in the active site as a result of conversion of non-polar methionine into polar methionine sulphoxide. Images Figure 10 PMID:8948456

  17. Development and validation of a stability indicating method for S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation products in oral syrup formulation.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; De Filippis, Piero; Curcuruto, Ornella; Repeto, Paolo; Roveda, Davide; Hartenstein, Matthew; Adams, Erwin; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2015-11-10

    A stability-indicating method for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation impurities in Exputex® 250mg/5mL syrup was developed in anion-exchange liquid chromatography mode. A forced degradation study supported the method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Aqueous solutions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and syrup samples at different pH-values were stress-tested in different thermal, light exposure and headspace conditions. One degradation product was detected in thermal stress studies at 60°C and 80°C in the pH range 5.0-7.0 and was identified by mass spectrometry as 5-oxo-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (lactam of carbocysteine). A second degradation product was only generated in moderately strong oxidizing conditions (0.5% H2O2 aqueous solution) and was identified as S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine-(R/S)-sulphoxide (carbocysteine sulphoxide). The method was developed on a Zorbax SAX column, in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of 200mM phosphate solution at pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) and UV detection was performed at a wavelength of 205nm. The method was linear for carbocysteine (R>0.9982) over a concentration range of 2.5-50μg/mL and 0.4-0.6mg/mL. Linearity for the impurities was shown from the LOQ to 50μg/mL. Specificity was verified and accuracy demonstrated for the active ingredient and its degradation products in syrup samples at 3 levels around their respective specification limits. Repeatability, intermediate precision and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on three commercial batches, analyzed in triplicate by two operators at both the transferring and the receiving site and demonstrated a successful method transfer to the manufacturing quality control laboratory. PMID:26159351

  18. [Residues of thiamethoxam, aldicarb and its metabolites in coffee leaves and effect on the control of Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)].

    PubMed

    Diez-Rodrĩguez, Gabriela I; de Baptista, Gilberto C; Trevizani, Luiz R P; Haddad, Marinéia L; Nava, Dori E

    2006-01-01

    The coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville), one of the major pests of coffee crops in Brazil, is mainly controlled with insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residues and the translocation of the insecticide thiamethoxam in coffee leaves, as well as to study its effect on the coffee leaf miner control, comparing it with aldicarb, used as standard. One experiment was set up in the county of Garça, SP from December/2001 to August/2002. The treatments used were: aldicarb 150 G at the rates of 2.25 and 4.50 g a.i./pit, thiamethoxam 10 GR, at the rates of 0.15 and 0.30 g a.i./pit and check. Twig samples were collected prior to and 30 , 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days after the application, at three coffee plant heights (lower, middle and upper third), and the percentage of mined leaves was evaluated. The determination of aldicarb residues, including their sulphoxide and sulfone metabolites and of thiamethoxam were performed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus and mass spectrometer detectors, respectively. The results indicated a uniform translocation of both insecticides in all three thirds of the coffee plants when applied to the soil. A higher persistence of thiamethoxam was verified with its residues being found for as far long as eight months following the application, while aldicarb residues, including the sulphoxide and sulfone metabolites, were found only until four to six months after the application. Control of the coffee leaf miner was observed with both insecticides. PMID:17348139

  19. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V; Kyvsgaard, Niels C

    2005-07-12

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics (Trifen avicola - a combined formulation of piperazine, phenothiazine and dichlorophen - or albendazole) to express the growth potential of non-infected birds, whereas the other half served as non-treated controls. In 1999, treated chickens had a 39% higher weight gain compared to the control group 6 weeks after the first treatment on 15 farms. In 2000 and 2001, treated chickens had similar weight gain as the control group 10 weeks after the first treatment on 7 farms and 12 farms, respectively. The main reason for the very-different weight gain figures seems to be the weather conditions. In 1999, the study site experienced a rainy season with precipitation far above average, whereas in 2000 and 2001 the rainy seasons had precipitations far below average. Based on these findings, routine use of anthelmintics in the study area would only be recommended in wet years when production losses due to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy of 100%). Efficacies against other helminths were difficult to assess due to low worm burdens. Chickens treated with albendazole had lower Ascaridia and Heterakis faecal egg

  20. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development. PMID:22051373

  1. Integration of mass drug administration programmes in Nigeria: The challenge of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel S.; Jinadu, M. Y.; Hopkins, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with safe oral anthelminthic drugs (praziquantel, ivermectin and albendazole) is the strategy for control of onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and schistosomiasis. District health officers seek to integrate treatment activities in areas of overlapping disease endemicity, but they are faced with having to merge different programmatic guidelines. APPROACH: We proceeded through the three stages of integrated MDA implementation: mapping the distribution of the three diseases at district level; tailoring district training and logistics based on the results of the mapping exercises; and implementing community-based annual health education and mass treatment where appropriate. During the process we identified the "know-do" gaps in the MDA guidelines for each disease that prevented successful integration of these programmes. LOCAL SETTING: An integrated programme launched in 1999 in Plateau and Nasarawa States in central Nigeria, where all three diseases were known to occur. RELEVANT CHANGES: Current guidelines allowed onchocerciasis and LF activities to be integrated, resulting in rapid mapping throughout the two states, and states-wide provision of over 9.3 million combined ivermectin-albendazole treatments for the two diseases between 2000 and 2004. In contrast, schistosomiasis activities could not be effectively integrated because of the more restrictive guidelines, resulting in less than half of the two states being mapped, and delivery of only 701,419 praziquantel treatments for schistosomiasis since 1999. LESSONS LEARNED: Integration of schistosomiasis into other MDA programmes would be helped by amended guidelines leading to simpler mapping, more liberal use of praziquantel and the ability to administer praziquantel simultaneously with ivermectin and albendazole. PMID:16917658

  2. Triclabendazole Sulfoxide Causes Stage-Dependent Embryolethality in Zebrafish and Mouse In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Boix, Nuria; Teixido, Elisabet; Vila-Cejudo, Marta; Ortiz, Pedro; Ibáñez, Elena; Llobet, Juan M.; Barenys, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis and paragonimiasis are widespread foodborne trematode diseases, affecting millions of people in more than 75 countries. The treatment of choice for these parasitic diseases is based on triclabendazole, a benzimidazole derivative which has been suggested as a promising drug to treat pregnant women and children. However, at the moment, this drug is not approved for human use in most countries. Its potential adverse effects on embryonic development have been scarcely studied, and it has not been assigned a pregnancy category by the FDA. Thus, to help in the process of risk-benefit decision making upon triclabendazole treatment during pregnancy, a better characterization of its risks during gestation is needed. Methodology The zebrafish embryo test, a preimplantation and a postimplantation rodent whole embryo culture were used to investigate the potential embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of triclabendazole and its first metabolite triclabendazole sulfoxide. Albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide were included as positive controls. Principal Findings Triclabendazole was between 10 and 250 times less potent than albendazole in inducing dysmorphogenic effects in zebrafish or postimplantation rodent embryos, respectively. However, during the preimplantation period, both compounds, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulfoxide, induced a dose-dependent embryolethal effect after only 24 h of exposure in rodent embryos and zebrafish (lowest observed adverse effect concentrations = 10 μM). Conclusions/Significance In humans, after ingestion of the recommended doses of triclabendazole to treat fascioliasis and paragonimiasis (10 mg/kg), the main compound found in plasma is triclabendazole sulfoxide (maximum concentration 38.6 μM), while triclabendazole concentrations are approximately 30 times lower (1.16 μM). From our results it can be concluded that triclabendazole, at concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the clinically relevant ones, does

  3. Quantitative Serial T2 Relaxometry: A Prospective Evaluation in Solitary Cerebral Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; de Souza, Aaron; Saini, Jitender; Thennarasu, Kandavel

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the evolution of quantitative T2 relaxometry values on serial MRI in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercal lesion (SCCL), and determine whether albendazole therapy affects T2 relaxation (T2R) values. Patients with new-onset seizures and MRI-confirmed SCCL were randomized to treatment with albendazole and antiepileptics (“treatment group”) or antiepileptics only (“controls”). Serial MRI including T2 relaxometry was performed at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months. Of 123 patients recruited, 81 had more than three MRI scans (treatment group: 37; controls: 44; 58 patients had five scans). The lesion wall at baseline showed a mean T2R value of 152.3 ms, centre 474.9 and perilesional parenchyma 338.5 ms. These were significantly higher than those from normal parenchyma (114 ms). Over time, most sharply in the initial three months, T2R values fell but even at 24 months, they remained above those from normal parenchyma. A slight increase in T2R values from the lesion centre at six months was thought to represent the initiation of gliosis. In the treatment group, T2R values approached normal at 24 months, while controls had persistently higher T2R values. The decline in T2R values at six months was more prominent in the treatment group. T2R values at baseline and at three months differed significantly depending on the stage of the lesion, being higher in stage 2 SCCL. T2R values from SCCL declined over 24 months, being significantly higher in earlier stages of degeneration. A mild increase after six months may be due to the initiation of gliosis. T2R values appear to decline faster in patients who receive albendazole. PMID:24976202

  4. Quantitative serial T2 relaxometry: a prospective evaluation in solitary cerebral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; de Souza, Aaron; Saini, Jitender; Thennarasu, Kandavel

    2014-06-01

    We describe the evolution of quantitative T2 relaxometry values on serial MRI in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercal lesion (SCCL), and determine whether albendazole therapy affects T2 relaxation (T2R) values. Patients with new-onset seizures and MRI-confirmed SCCL were randomized to treatment with albendazole and antiepileptics ("treatment group") or antiepileptics only ("controls"). Serial MRI including T2 relaxometry was performed at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months. Of 123 patients recruited, 81 had more than three MRI scans (treatment group: 37; controls: 44; 58 patients had five scans). The lesion wall at baseline showed a mean T2R value of 152.3 ms, centre 474.9 and perilesional parenchyma 338.5 ms. These were significantly higher than those from normal parenchyma (114 ms). Over time, most sharply in the initial three months, T2R values fell but even at 24 months, they remained above those from normal parenchyma. A slight increase in T2R values from the lesion centre at six months was thought to represent the initiation of gliosis. In the treatment group, T2R values approached normal at 24 months, while controls had persistently higher T2R values. The decline in T2R values at six months was more prominent in the treatment group. T2R values at baseline and at three months differed significantly depending on the stage of the lesion, being higher in stage 2 SCCL. T2R values from SCCL declined over 24 months, being significantly higher in earlier stages of degeneration. A mild increase after six months may be due to the initiation of gliosis. T2R values appear to decline faster in patients who receive albendazole. PMID:24976202

  5. Anthelmintic utilisation practices and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep kept in the urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Jallale; Terefe, Getachew; Bekele, Jemere

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the anthelmintic (AH) utilisation practices and estimation of the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep were carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 in urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town, central Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was employed to assess the AH utilisation practices in sheep of 310 owners/households, while floatation and sedimentation techniques were used to study the prevalence of helminth infections. Faecal examinations revealed that 53.9 % of sheep harboured gastrointestinal helminth infections with a high frequency due to strongyles (77.3 %). The questionnaire survey revealed that sources of AH for sheep were government and private veterinary clinics for 98.5 % of urban and 65.4 % peri-urban respondents. In peri-urban areas, AH were also purchased from open markets and illegal dealers. Albendazole was the most common (75.5 %) drug used in sheep followed by ivermectin (18.7 %) and tetramisole (5.8 %). The criteria for selecting AH were: prescription by veterinarians (51.6 %), efficacy (31.9 %), price (12.3 %) and arbitrary reasons (4.2 %). Treatment frequency was minimal with 51.3, 32.3 and 15.8 % of the owners treating their sheep once, twice and less than once per year, respectively. Treatments mainly depended on manifestations of general (45.8 %) and digestive (23.3 %) symptoms. Irrespective of the body weight of the sheep, albendazole was the only drug reported to be given at half bolus/sheep (14.1 %). Owing to this practice, albendazole faces the risk of reduced efficacy or AH resistance due to its wide spread utilisation, handling by untrained personnel and suspected underdosage, which altogether support the perception of sheep owners on its lower effect on the performance of treated sheep. PMID:23015354

  6. Overwintering strategies of a population of anthelmintic-resistant Haemonchus contortus within a sheep flock from the United States Northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Grosz, D D; Eljaki, A A; Holler, L D; Petersen, D J; Holler, S W; Hildreth, M B

    2013-09-01

    Haemonchus contortus infections have been increasingly reported in ungulates from cold climates even though past studies have shown that the free-living juveniles from this species survive poorly under freezing conditions. Overwintering strategies of H. contortus have not been documented in the Unites States Northern Great Plains. A PCR survey identified H. contortus as vastly predominant trichostrongyle species present (in addition to occasional detections of Teladorsagia sp.) in a closed farm flock of sheep from Brookings County, SD. Benzimidazole (BZ) and avermectin (AV) anthelmintics had been used intensely for many years on this flock. During the autumn season, three fecal egg count reduction tests (doramectin, albendazole, and moxidectin) were performed over a 4 year span to assess drug effectiveness within the flock. Significant drug resistance was found in Haemonchus adults with doramectin (69% efficacy), marginal resistance was found with albendazole (90% efficacy) and no resistance was found in moxidectin (100% efficacy). The following spring, pre-lambing and post-lambing fecals were obtained from albendazole and moxidectin treatment years to assess the resistance of the tissue-dwelling fourth-stage juveniles (J4s) at those times. Albendazole treated pre-lambing fecals averaged only 4 EPG and treated post-lambing fecals increased to 454 EPG, indicating that many of the J4s were not killed during the autumn treatment. Moxidectin pre-lambing fecals averaged only 1 EPG, and post-lambing fecals only increased to 6 EPG in the treated moxidectin population and 1422 EPG in the untreated moxidectin population. In addition to evaluating the ability of H. contortus to overwinter as drug resistant tissue-dwelling J4s, this study also evaluated the overwintering ability of pasture-dwelling, free-living third-stage juveniles at this farm. In the summers of 2010 and 2011, naïve tracer lambs were placed on a H. contortus contaminated pasture for 3 weeks to assess J3

  7. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. I: Hexamita salmonis.

    PubMed

    Tojo, J L; Santamarina, M T

    1998-05-14

    Various drugs were evaluated as regards efficacy for the treatment of Hexamita salmonis infection in rainbow trout. The results confirm the efficacy of nitroimidazoles: infection was completely eradicated not only by metronidazole (which has been recommended previously for the treatment of hexamitosis), but also by benznidazole, ronidazole and secnidazole, which have not been assayed previously. The non-nitroimidazoles albendazole, aminosidine, diethylcarbamazine and nitroscanate also completely eliminated infection. The remaining non-nitroimidazoles tested (amprolium, bithionol, febantel, flubendazole, levamisole, netobimin, niclosamide, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquentel, tetramisole, thiophanate, toltrazuril, trichlorfon and triclabendazole) were not effective. PMID:9653458

  8. Large Cardiac Hydatidosis Bulging As a Mass to Pericardium-Case Report

    PubMed Central

    SABZI, Freidoun; MADANI, Hamid; KHOSRAVI, Donya; HOSSEINI, Maryam Sadat; FARAJI, Reza

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented as a dyspnea and fatigue. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) performed to assess valvar heart disease and left ventricular (LV) function showed a large hydatid cysts in the inter ventricular septum bulging to posterior of heart and compressing its overlying muscle as whitish round mass. The patient underwent elective surgery by evacuation of septal hydatid cysts from posterior inter ventricular aspect of septum and capitonnage of cavity. His postoperative course was uneventful. Post-operative albendazole for prophylaxis of procedures were recommended. The patient was scheduled for regular follow-up, to check for any recurrences or late complications. PMID:25904956

  9. Loiasis in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mawatari, Momoko; Itoh, Makoto; Akao, Nobuaki; Yotsu, Rie R.; Sugihara, Jun; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a probable case of loiasis in a returned traveler from Central Africa. A 52-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of discomfort in her eyes and skin. She reported having frequently visited Central Africa over many years and having been extensively exposed to the rainforest climate and ecosystem. Although no microfilariae were found in her blood, there was an elevated level of IgG antibodies against the crude antigens of Brugia pahangi, which have cross-reactivity with Loa loa. She was treated with albendazole for 21 days, after which the antigen-specific IgG level decreased and no relapse occurred. PMID:26161033

  10. Loiasis in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mawatari, Momoko; Itoh, Makoto; Akao, Nobuaki; Yotsu, Rie R; Sugihara, Jun; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-06-01

    We encountered a probable case of loiasis in a returned traveler from Central Africa. A 52-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of discomfort in her eyes and skin. She reported having frequently visited Central Africa over many years and having been extensively exposed to the rainforest climate and ecosystem. Although no microfilariae were found in her blood, there was an elevated level of IgG antibodies against the crude antigens of Brugia pahangi, which have cross-reactivity with Loa loa. She was treated with albendazole for 21 days, after which the antigen-specific IgG level decreased and no relapse occurred. PMID:26161033

  11. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Are Synergistic with Mass Drug Administration for Interruption of Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Sallau, Adamu; Umaru, John; Mafuyai, Hayward; Chuwang, Yohanna S.; Danjuma, Goshit; Danboyi, Jacob; Adelamo, Solomon E.; Mancha, Bulus S.; Okoeguale, Bridget; Patterson, Amy E.; Rakers, Lindsay; Richards, Frank O.

    2013-01-01

    In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission. PMID:24205421

  12. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  13. Lagochilascariasis leading to severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Renata T R; Magliari, Maria E R; Vital Filho, José; Silva, Maria A L G; Lima, Carlos A da Conceição; Rocha, Antonio J; Silva, Carlos J; Rewin, Jonathan A; Nahas, Tatiana R; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2008-01-01

    A case report of a 31 year-old woman from Paraíba State (North-Eastern Brazil) that presented severe involvement of ocular globes, ears and meninges. Diagnosis was established after enucleation of her left eye, when adult worms were seen in the midst of a granulomatous inflammatory process. Her response to the initial treatment with levamisole and cambendazole was good, but there was a relapse after the fifth month of treatment even with maintenance doses of both medications. She later received ivermectin and albendazol and responded well. PMID:19082379

  14. [Atypic toxocariasis: a case report from the Peruvian north coast].

    PubMed

    Terrones-Campos, Cynthia; Andrade, Teresa; Lachira, Arnaldo; Valladolid, Omar; Lanata, Claudio F

    2010-03-01

    We present the case of a 4.5 years old boy with atypic toxocariasis, from La Matanza, Morropon, Piura. The patient had non-specific symptoms during 9 days. Suspicion of Toxocariasis was supported by marked eosinophilia in the cell blood count (15% or 1470 cells/μL). Diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory with ELISA serology demonstrating the presence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxocara antibodies. Symptoms receded before the patient received a five-day treatment with albendazol 15mg/kg/day. PMID:21072459

  15. [Eosinophilia in a family from Bosnia].

    PubMed

    Lupinc, L; Markwalder, K; Nigg, C

    2003-12-17

    We describe reference to a family from Bosnia that the diagnosis of Trichinellosis can be difficult despite notice of travel-history and eosinophilia but lack of further epidemiological datas and due to the rarity of this zoonosis. Clinical pattern of trichinellosis are fever, headache, myalgia, periorbital oedema, less frequently diarrhea and abdominal pain. Dreaded complications are myocarditis and encephalitis. High eosinophilia and increased creatine phosphocinase activity are the most frequently observed laboratory features. The detection of specific circulating antibodies or the parasitological examination of a muscle biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. The medical treatment includes albendazol and steroid. PMID:14727477

  16. [Stereotactic aspiration of Spirometra mansonides larvae].

    PubMed

    Caballero, Joel; Morales, Losmill; García, Diana; Alarcón, Idelmys; Torres, Anay; Sáez, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Brain sparganosis is a non-common parasite infection by Diphyllobothrium or Spirometra mansonoides larvae. This last one is responsible for most of the infestations in humans. We report a 19 years male patient bearer of a brain sparganosis. The patient presented with headache and left hemiparesis. CT diagnosis of right thalamic lesions was made and aspiration biopsy was performed using stereotactic system, obtaining a whole and death larvae. Histopathology confirms a CNS parasitism and it was treated initially with albendazol. ELISA test confirmed Spirometra spp. infestation. The patient developed asymptomatic with total remission of the lesions. It constitutes the second report in Cuba of brain sparganosis. PMID:26436792

  17. [Cerebral cysticerc is a rare cause of hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Itani, Mustapha Mehieddin; Jørgensen, Gitte Maria

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 39-year-old woman from Thailand. She presented with dizziness and signs of raised intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance scanning revealed multiple cysticercs in cerebrum and cerebellum, and one of the cysticercs compressed the cerebral aqueduct resulting in hydrocephalus. The patient was transferred to an infectious disease department, where appropriate treatment with albendazol was initiated. Surprisingly she was found HIV-positive with a CD4 count of approx. 10 m/l. The patient deteriorated over the following week and died due to raised intracranial pressure. PMID:23731995

  18. Calcification of the breasts due to loiasis.

    PubMed

    Lemmenmeier, Eva; Keller, Nicole; Chuck, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old HIV-positive female from Cameroon was diagnosed with loiasis in 2013 due to symptoms of polyarthritis and laboratory confirmed eosinophilia. Because of high microfilaremia primary treatment was given with two courses of albendazol and ivermectin and completed with a course of diethylcarbamazine. Therapy was successful as symptoms, eosinophilia and microfilaremia disappeared. In 2015, she had a gynecology check-up where a screening mammography showed several round and linear, meandering calcifications in both breasts, the latter are typically seen in filariasis. PMID:27051574

  19. Cardiac hydatid cyst: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ustünsoy, Haşim; Akdemir, Ilyas; Sivrikoz, M Cumhur; Tahtaci, Nursan; Aksoy, Mehmet; Tunçözgür, Bülent

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac hydatid cyst is life threatening but rare. It is usually asymptomatic and has potentially lethal complications, so early diagnosis with definitive treatment is life-saving. In the present article, we report two cases. The first is a 30-year-old woman with a primary large multivesicular hydatid cyst in the left ventricle. The second is a 17-year-old woman who had multivisceral involvement with a cardiac hydatid cyst, a congenital cardiac anomaly that was an atrial septal defect complicated by pulmonary hypertension. 2-D echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical treatment was performed using extracorporeal circulation and adjunctive albendazol therapy. PMID:16352080

  20. [Echinococcal cysts in the liver and lungs].

    PubMed

    Páral, J; Plodr, M; Ferko, A; Zvák, I

    2003-07-01

    The authors present the case of a patient with relapsing parasitic cyst of the liver and a parasitic cyst of the lungs. The patient was treated by surgery. The cystectomy of the echinococcus cyst in the liver was made in the first stage and subsequently a resection of the lung tissue containing another echinococcus cyst was made. Pharmacological therapy by the anti-helmintic drug albendazol was a part of the treatment. There were no complications during both surgical interventions and the subsequent treatment. In the scolocidal liquid of the liver cyst, echinococcus organisms were diagnosed by microscopy and documented by photography. PMID:14502882

  1. A large hydatid cyst of the liver in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, T; Susani, M; Golaszewski, S; Sliutz, G; Bischof, G; Auer, H

    1995-01-01

    We report on a primigravida, who was admitted in the 14th week of pregnancy because of recurrent vomiting and upper abdominal pain. The diagnosis of a large 20 cm echinococcal cyst of the liver was confirmed by ultrasound and an indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). In the 19th week of pregnancy a subtotal cystectomy was performed under perioperative treatment with the anthelmintic drug Albendazole. The patient delivered a 1420 g, 41 cm premature boy in breech position at 33 weeks. The significance of echinococcal cysts in pregnancy is discussed. PMID:7726655

  2. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Mohammed H; Al-Ansari, Mariam A

    2007-04-01

    A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas. PMID:19727350

  3. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Mohammed H.; Al-Ansari, Mariam A.

    2007-01-01

    A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas. PMID:19727350

  4. [Skin eruption and itching after travel to Asia--a case report].

    PubMed

    Ólafsson, Guðmundur Dagur; Sigurðsson, Emil L; Sigurðardóttir, Bryndís

    2015-09-01

    One of the more common reasons patients seek medical advice after traveling in tropical countries are skin eruptions. Here we describe two cases of individuals who, after traveling to south east Asia, developed a skin eruption later diagnosed as cutaneous larva migrans. This particular skin condition is common among travelers to countries where the hookworm responsible is endemic. The diagnosis is based on travel history and clinical examination. The patients were treated with albendazole with good results and complete resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26374821

  5. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  6. Neural larva migrans caused by the raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Patrick J; Kazacos, Kevin R; Tan, Tina Q; Brinkman, William B; Byrd, Sharon E; Davis, A Todd; Mets, Marilyn B; Shulman, Stanford T

    2002-10-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is a rare cause of devastating or fatal neural larva migrans in infants and young children. We describe the clinical features of two children from suburban Chicago who developed severe, nonfatal B. procyonis neural larva migrans. Despite treatment with albendazole and high dose corticosteroids, both patients are neurologically devastated. In many regions of North America, large populations of raccoons with high rates of endemic B. procyonis infection live in proximity to humans, which suggests that the risk of human infection is probably substantial. In the absence of effective treatment, prevention of infection remains the most important public health strategy. PMID:12394823

  7. Toxocariasis: A Rare Cause of Multiple Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Hee

    2015-06-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, mostly due to accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs. Clinical manifestations vary and are classified as visceral larva migrans or ocular larva migrans according to the organs affected. Central nervous system involvement is an unusual complication. Here, we report a case of multiple cerebral infarction and concurrent multi-organ involvement due to T. canis infestation of a previous healthy 39-year-old male who was admitted for right leg weakness. After treatment with albendazole, the patient's clinical and laboratory results improved markedly. PMID:26157596

  8. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon

    2016-01-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  9. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  10. Intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--report of three more German cases.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G; Salzberger, B; Müller, A; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V; Schrappe, M

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal microsporidiosis with Enterocytozoon bieneusi was diagnosed in three of 18 HIV-infected patients with chronic diarrhoea. In two cases all known stages of the life cycle of E. bieneusi (merogonial plasmodia, sporogonial plasmodia, sporoblasts, spores) were found in duodenal biopsies by electron microscopical examination, whereas in the third case only merogonial and sporogonial stages were seen. Spores were also visible by light microscopy in semithin sections. Two patients were treated with albendazole (2 x 400 mg/day for 4 weeks) but showed no response. These findings underline the concept of the worldwide distribution of this parasite and verify that it is also frequent in Germany. PMID:7698840

  11. Enterobius vermicularis: an unusual cause of recurrent urinary tract infestation in a 7-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna

    2015-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin. PMID:25586573

  12. Anisakidosis: a fortuitous mimicker of gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Qasim; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Her sister was recently diagnosed with duodenal adenocarcinoma, manifesting similar symptoms. Imaging revealed thickened gastric antrum with enlarged local lymph nodes. Endoscopy illustrated 3 worms embedded in the antral wall, identified as Anisakis simplex larvae. Larvae removal and a 2-week albendazole regimen treated the symptoms. With globalisation of cultural culinary practices, physicians must be vigilant of anisakidosis. Its ability to mimic peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis and malignancy necessitates broader differential diagnoses and lower thresholds for endoscopy. PMID:27600057

  13. Ruptured intracardiac hydatid cyst presenting as acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pranav; Lakhia, Ketav; Malhotra, Amber; Garg, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus, which is still endemic in many developing countries. Cardiac involvement is rare but potentially very serious on account of various clinical presentations and nonspecific symptoms that occasionally mimic acute coronary syndrome. We describe a case of ruptured left ventricular hydatid cyst presenting as acute inferolateral myocardial infarction with electrocardiographic changes. Because coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries, the final diagnosis was made on the basis of echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. On-pump surgical resection followed by albendazole therapy yielded an excellent outcome. PMID:26045489

  14. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H K Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M B V

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  15. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, H. K. Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M. B. V.

    2010-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  16. Human intestinal capillariasis: a rare case report from non-endemic area (Andhra Pradesh, India).

    PubMed

    Vasantha, P L; Girish, N; Leela, K Sai

    2012-01-01

    Human intestinal capillariasis is caused by Capillaria philippinensis. This disease is endemic in Philippines and Thailand. To the best of our knowledge, we report the third case of human intestinal capillariasis from India and the first case from Andhra Pradesh, which is a non-endemic area. A 40-year-old female presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, decreased urinary output, ascitis, pedal oedema, hypoalbuminemia, and electrolyte imbalance. Microscopic examination of stool sample revealed the presence of ova, larvae, and adult worms of C. philippinensis. Patient recovered from the disease after taking albendazole 400 mg daily for 1 month along with supportive treatment. PMID:22664447

  17. The first human infection with Bertiella studeri in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Le Thi; Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Tuan, Phan Anh; Tu, Le Xuan; Hien, Tran Vinh

    2003-06-01

    This is the first case report of Bertiella studeri infection in Vietnam. The patient was a 4 year old boy in Cai Lay district of Tien Giang Province, noting some proglottids in his feces. The time and mode of infection were unknown, but anorexia, weight loss, and intermittent diarrhea were noted. Niclosamide (Yomesan) 1 gram was prescribed, and then albendazole (Zentel) 400mg daily for 3 days. Proglottids were found in the feces three months after the first treatment, and 1 month after the second course. PMID:12971553

  18. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts. Report of a case with 24 pieces.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Alaattin; Avci, Meltem; Selçuki, Mehmet; Ozer, Füsun; Camlar, Mahmut; Uçar, Kubilay; Taşli, Funda; Altinörs, Nur

    2007-11-01

    A case of 19 years old female patient with 24 large primary cerebral hydatid cysts, in different localisations is presented. Cysts were removed unruptured by five separate operations in 6 months. The patient was observed to be in good health 1 year after the last operation. This case is the first case presented that contains such high number of cysts to our knowledge. The importance of MRI examination in localizing the cysts and designing the operative plan is emphasized. Interestingly, albendazole, which is an antiparasitic drug, was reported to be ineffective by infectious disease department of our hospital, because of large diameter of the cysts, in this case. PMID:17765392

  19. Unusual localization of an hydatid cyst: first reported case in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm larva of Echinococcus spp. Its relevance lies in its wide distribution, great number of clinical cases and outstanding morbility. Hydatid infection of the orbit comprises far less than 1% of the total incidence. This is a case of a patient from Argentina complaining of a two-week evolution proptosis of the right eye. A microscopic examination revealed the presence of protoscolices of Echinococcus spp. in the fluid obtained during the surgical proceedings. The patient was treated with oral albendazole. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ocular hydatidosis diagnosed in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:21412595

  20. A rare case of renal hydatidosis in a child with congenital solitary kidney.

    PubMed

    Tirnea, Livius; Minciu, Radu; Olariu, Tudor Rares; Dumitrascu, Victor; Neghina, Adriana Maria; Neghina, Raul

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid cyst of a solitary congenital kidney is a rare entity because of the small percentage of cases with renal hydatidosis and the reduced number of cases with this renal anomaly. We report a case presenting this extremely rare combination and having a favorable outcome. The diagnosis was confirmed based on an association of imagistic techniques and positive serology. The case was managed using a minimal invasive surgical technique (PAIR) that reduced the operative risks. Additionally, an antihelminthic agent (albendazole) was administered. To our knowledge, this is the first case with such comorbidity and treated through percutaneous approach. PMID:25149385

  1. Large Cardiac Hydatid Cyst in the Interventricular Septum

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Gokhan; Omeroglu, Suat Nail; Goksedef, Deniz; Balkanay, Ozan Onur; Kanbur, Elmas; Engin, Ersoy; Baskurt, Murat; Kucukoglu, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease results from infection with the larval or adult form of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. Cardiac involvement is seen in 0.5% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease, and involvement of the interventricular septum is even rarer. Herein, we report our surgical treatment of a large cardiac hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum. A 39-year-old woman presented with dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large cyst in the apical part of the interventricular septum. Thoracic computed tomography showed a cystic lesion in that site, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a 50 × 55-mm mass. The patient was placed on cardiopulmonary bypass. Hypertonic saline solution-soaked sponges were distributed within the pericardial cavity to prevent local invasion of the parasite intraoperatively. Through an incision parallel to the left anterior descending coronary artery, and without opening adjacent cardiac chambers, we aspirated the entire contents of the cyst, removed its germinative membrane, and washed the cavity with 20% hypertonic saline solution. The patient recovered uneventfully. She had begun taking albendazole 5 days preoperatively, and this therapy was continued for 12 weeks postoperatively. In cases of an interventricular cardiac hydatid cyst, the combination of surgical resection, washout of the remaining cavity with hypertonic saline solution, and albendazole therapy typically yields excellent results. PMID:22199447

  2. A combination turbidity and supernatant microplate assay to rank-order the supersaturation limits of early drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John S; Nophsker, Michelle J; Haskell, Roy J

    2014-10-01

    A unique opportunity exists at the drug discovery stage to overcome inherently poor solubility by selecting drug candidates with superior supersaturation propensity. Existing supersaturation assays compare either precipitation-resistant or precipitation-inhibiting excipients, or higher-energy polymorphic forms, but not multiple compounds or multiple concentrations. Furthermore, these assays lack sufficient throughput and compound conservation necessary for implementation in the discovery environment. A microplate-based combination turbidity and supernatant concentration assay was therefore developed to determine the extent to which different compounds remain in solution as a function of applied concentration in biorelevant media over a specific period of time. Dimethyl sulfoxide stock solutions at multiple concentrations of four poorly soluble, weak base compounds (Dipyridamole, Ketoconazole, Albendazole, and Cinnarizine) were diluted with pH 6.5 buffer as well as FaSSIF. All samples were monitored for precipitation by turbidity at 600 nm over 1 h and the final supernatant concentrations were measured. The maximum supersaturation ratio was calculated from the supersaturation limit and the equilibrium solubility in each media. Compounds were rank-ordered by supersaturation ratio: Ketoconazole > Dipyridamole > Cinnarizine ∼ Albendazole. These in vitro results correlated well with oral AUC ratios from published in vivo pH effect studies, thereby confirming the validity of this approach. PMID:25070886

  3. Recurrence of strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient with Hansen's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Joelma Nascimento; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino; Soares, Neci Matos

    2014-03-01

    In patients with immunosuppressive disorders, S. stercoralis infection may develop into a hyperinfection syndrome which, on rare occasions, may be a life-threatening condition. Therapy of S. stercoralis infection with thiabendazole has been limited, due to its numerous side effects, and has been replaced by albendazole and ivermectin. The present case report describes a case of Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome (SHS) in a patient with Hansen's disease and lack of response to first-line anthelmintic treatment. A 38 year-old man was diagnosed as having borderline lepromatous leprosy. He developed Erythema Nodosum Leprosum and was treated with thalidomide and prednisone. In May 2010 he was diagnosed with S. stercoralis infection and was treated with albendazole. One year later, the stool examination showed continued presence of S. stercoralis larvae. He was treated with ivermectin (6 mg) in a double dose (given 1 month apart) which resulted in larvae excretion clearance. The absence of infection was confirmed three times during a 1 year followup period by stool examination and non-detection of anti-S. stercoralis IgG levels. PMID:24974444

  4. In vitro model to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed Central

    Beauvais, B; Sarfati, C; Challier, S; Derouin, F

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a new micromethod to study the effect of drugs on microsporidia, using MRC5 fibroblasts infected by 10(5) spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. After 3 days of incubation with various concentrations of drugs, parasitic foci were counted in stained cultures. The inhibition of microsporidial growth exceeding 90% with albendazole (0.005 microgram/ml), fumagillin (0.001 microgram/ml), 5-fluorouracil (3 micrograms/ml), and sparfloxacin (30 micrograms/ml) was observed. Chloroquine, pefloxacin, azithromycin, and rifabutin were partially effective, at high concentrations. Arprinocid, metronidazole, minocycline, doxycycline, itraconazole, and difluoromethylornithine were not evaluable, since concentrations that inhibited microsporidia were also toxic for fibroblasts. Pyrimethamine, piritrexim, sulfonamides, paromomycin, roxithromycin, atovaquone, and flucytosine were ineffective. Our results confirm that albendazole and fumagillin have marked activity against E. cuniculi and show the antimicrosporidial activity of 5-fluorouracil and sparfloxacin. These data may form the basis for treatment of Encephalitozoon hellem and Septata intestinalis infections and represent an attempt to identify drugs effective against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Images PMID:7840584

  5. Development of a novel in vitro method for drug development for fish; application to test efficacy of antimicrosporidian compounds.

    PubMed

    Saleh, M; Kumar, G; Abdel-Baki, A-A; Dkhil, M; El-Matbouli, M; Al-Quraishy, S

    2014-12-01

    Few drugs are approved for treating diseases caused by parasites in minor species such as fish. This is due, in part, to the expense of drug development and to the comparatively small market. In vivo effectiveness trials for antiparasitic drugs are costly, time consuming and require ethics approval, therefore an in vitro screening approach is a cost-effective alternative to finding promising drug candidates. We developed an in vitro testing system to test antimicrosporidial compounds against a microsporidian pathogen Heterosporis saurida. Five antiparasitic compounds, albendazole, fumagillin, TNP-70, nitazoxanide and lufenuron, were assayed for antimicrosporidial activity. All compounds reduced the number of H saurida spores in infected cells when applied at a concentration that did not appear to be toxic to the host cells. Albendazole inhibited replication of H saurida by >60 per cent, fumagillin and its analogue TNP-470 inhibited H saurida >80 per cent, nitazoxanide and lufenuron inhibited growth >70 per cent. The data suggest that both fumagillin and its analogous TNP-70 hold the best promise as therapeutic agents against H saurida. The ability to use fish cell cultures to assess drugs against H saurida demonstrates an approach that may be helpful to evaluate other drugs on different microsporidia and host cells. PMID:25200429

  6. Baylisascaris larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Kazacos, Kevin R; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2013-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.). PMID:23829916

  7. Filariasis in Africa--treatment challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Hoerauf, A; Pfarr, K; Mand, S; Debrah, A Y; Specht, S

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are parasitic nematode infections that are responsible for a major disease burden in the African continent. Disease symptoms are induced by the immune reactions of the host, with lymphoedema and hydrocoele in LF, and dermatitis and ocular inflammation in onchocerciasis. Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus, the species causing LF and onchocerciasis in Africa, live in mutual symbiosis with Wolbachia endobacteria, which cause a major part of the inflammation leading to symptoms and are antibiotic targets for treatment. The standard microfilaricidal drugs ivermectin and albendazole are used in mass drug administration programmes, with the aim of interrupting transmission, with a consequent reduction in the burden of infection and, in some situations, leading to regional elimination of LF and onchocerciasis. Co-endemicity of Loa loa with W. bancrofti or O. volvulus is an impediment to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole, owing to the risk of encephalopathy being encountered upon administration of ivermectin. Research into new treatment options is exploring several improved delivery strategies for the classic drugs or new antibiotic treatment regimens for anti-wolbachial chemotherapy. PMID:21722251

  8. Post-Mass Drug Administration Transmission Assessment Survey for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in La Ciénaga, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Blount, Stephen; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The Dominican Republic is one of four remaining countries in the Americas with lymphatic filariasis (LF). Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine was conducted in La Ciénaga, an impoverished urban barrio in Santo Domingo, from 2004 to 2006. Eight years after the last MDA, a transmission assessment survey (TAS) was conducted in November-December 2014 to determine if LF transmission remains absent. Of 815 first and second grade primary school students (mean age: 6.51 years; range 5-9) tested by immunochromatographic test (ICT), zero (0.0%) were positive. This is below the TAS critical cutoff of nine, indicating that the area "passed" TAS and that transmission remains interrupted in La Ciénaga. Importantly, this also provides evidence that three rounds of effective (> 65% coverage) MDA, likely aided by environmental improvements and periodic school-based albendazole monotherapy MDA, achieved interruption of LF transmission from a relatively low-transmission setting. PMID:26503279

  9. Neurocysticercose révélée par une épilepsie réfractaire: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation de neurocysticercose parenchymateuse chez un homme de 38 ans, consommant régulièrement la viande de porc, qui a présenté une épilepsie réfractaire. Le diagnostic de NCC était basé sur la présence de lésions kystiques montrant le scolex sur les images du scanner cérébrale, la présence de signes cliniques évocateurs de NCC (épilepsie faite des crises convulsives focales évoluant vers des crises bilatérales), la réponse clinique au traitement à l'albendazole et le fait que notre patient vit dans une zone reconnue endémique à la cysticercose. Après un traitement fait d'albendazole et de prednisolone, l’évolution est marquée par la disparition complète des crises épileptiques. PMID:26090052

  10. In vitro model to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, B; Sarfati, C; Challier, S; Derouin, F

    1994-10-01

    We have developed a new micromethod to study the effect of drugs on microsporidia, using MRC5 fibroblasts infected by 10(5) spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. After 3 days of incubation with various concentrations of drugs, parasitic foci were counted in stained cultures. The inhibition of microsporidial growth exceeding 90% with albendazole (0.005 microgram/ml), fumagillin (0.001 microgram/ml), 5-fluorouracil (3 micrograms/ml), and sparfloxacin (30 micrograms/ml) was observed. Chloroquine, pefloxacin, azithromycin, and rifabutin were partially effective, at high concentrations. Arprinocid, metronidazole, minocycline, doxycycline, itraconazole, and difluoromethylornithine were not evaluable, since concentrations that inhibited microsporidia were also toxic for fibroblasts. Pyrimethamine, piritrexim, sulfonamides, paromomycin, roxithromycin, atovaquone, and flucytosine were ineffective. Our results confirm that albendazole and fumagillin have marked activity against E. cuniculi and show the antimicrosporidial activity of 5-fluorouracil and sparfloxacin. These data may form the basis for treatment of Encephalitozoon hellem and Septata intestinalis infections and represent an attempt to identify drugs effective against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. PMID:7840584

  11. [A case of pulmonary toxocariasis successfully treated with ivermectin].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Mataki, Hiroko; Koreeda, Yoshifusa; Kawabata, Toshifumi; Hamada, Minako; Nakashioya, Jirou; Tomiyama, Yumiko; Kawabata, Masaharu

    2011-05-01

    A 36-year-old man who often ate raw chicken meat had abnormal chest radiograph findings on a health check-up in July 2009, and visited our department. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed 6 nodular shadows in both lungs, and a hematologic examination revealed eosinophilia and elevation of IgE. Because of his history of eating raw chicken meat, antiparasite antibody testing was performed which revealed antibodies to Toxocara canis, leading to the diagnosis of pulmonary toxocariasis due to Toxocara canis. Although treatment with albendazole was performed, it was discontinued because of hepatic impairment. However, hematological examination showed that his eosinophil count and IgE increased again, and chest image findings were exacerbated. Therefore, ivermectin, reported as effective in cases outside Japan, was administered, resulting in decreased peripheral eosinophils, normalized IgE level, and disappearance of the shadows on chest images. In Japan, no cases of pulmonary toxocariasis responding well to ivermectin have previously been reported. Administration of ivermectin should be considered when albendazol cannot be used due to hepatic impairment or related problems. PMID:21688651

  12. [Strongyloides stercoralis in a patient complaining of chronic diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Culha, Gülnaz; Savaş, Lütfü; Onlen, Yusuf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a case of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a 38-year-old patient with complaints of chronic diarrhea and stomach ache is presented. His history showed that the patient who has been a mechanic for 25 years is a farmer as well. S. stercoralis larvae were found during the parasitological examination of the patient's stool samples taken 3 times. The patient was given Albendazol (400 mg a day) for fifteen days. After the patient started to take Albendazol, there was a reduction in the number of parasites in the stool examined on the fifth day. In the stool examinations made on the tenth day, fifteenth day and after the treatment ended, no parasites were seen. When the treatment was completed, all the complaints of the patient disappeared. It was found that no investigation of parasitic infection had been made previously and he had been given different treatments. For this reason, it is important to investigate the possibility of parasitic infection in patients with chronic diarrhea. PMID:17309031

  13. [Evaluation of the efficacy of antihelmintics compounds on parasitics gastrointestinal nematodes (Strongyloidea) of goats].

    PubMed

    Silva, André Ricardo E; De Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio R; De Oliveira, Aécio Carlos; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araújo, Juliana M; Castejon, Fernanda V

    2008-09-01

    The present study was performed in order to evaluate the action of anthelmintics compounds on gastrointestinal parasite nematodes of 27 Alpine and Saanen adult goats. The animals were divided into three groups. The animals of groups 1 and 2 had been dealt with two different associations of antihelminthics in day zero. The goats in group 1 were treated with closantel (75 mg/mL), albendazol (38 mg/mL) and ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/ 10 Kg body weight); animals in group 2 were treated with closantel (100 mg/mL), albendazol (50 mg/mL), levamisol (64 mg/mL), ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL), selenium (1 mg/mL) and cobalt (4.4 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/10 Kg of body weight) and the animals in the group 3 (control) received distilled water. Eggs per gram counts on faeces (EPG) and coprocultures of all animals were made at intervals of days 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The haematocrit, global counting and differential white blood cells, total protein and the Famacha test were determined at intervals of days 0, 14 and 28. Six animals of each group had suffered euthanasia and slaughters on the 28th day. The results showed that only the combination used in the animals of group 2 was effective. PMID:20059830

  14. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs. PMID:26537031

  15. Epidemiology and the effect of treatment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pregnant women in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Chaikongkeit, Pravit; Korviwattanagarn, Suwannee; Petrueng, Chulaphorn; Chaiya, Surangkana; Hanvattanakul, Chintana; Kongkitkul, Pisun; Sinthuuthai, Chamaiporn; Kalong, Noree; Ongsawang, Darunee; Ungsathapornpon, Sirinart; Ameeroh, Apiradee; Bavonnarongdet, Pornwilai; Buadung, Arom

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the current situation of STH in pregnant women, explore factors associated with STH and evaluate the effects of its treatment. A cohort study was conducted in four southernmost provinces. All pregnant women who presented at their first prenatal care visit at participating hospitals were interviewed by trained health care providers and their stool specimens were examined for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm eggs. Women with STH were treated with 400 mg of albendazole after 14 weeks of gestation and treatment outcomes were evaluated three weeks after treatment. Of 1,063 pregnant women, STH were detected in 190 patients (17.9%) without seasonal variation for a combined infection of 21.6%. Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were detected in 10.3, 5.7 and 6.3%, respectively. The cure rate with a single dose was 92% but was 100% when repeated treatment was given as a three-day course. The risk of infection was higher in Muslim women, those with a family income < or = USD300/month, those bathing outside the house and those with no knowledge of STH. These results showed that southern Thailand is still an endemic area for STH and there appears to be no seasonal variation in incidence. Although the cure rate for treatment with albendazole was good, the low cure rate and egg reduction rate for trichuriasis needs to be considered. PMID:19323004

  16. [Neurocysticercosis: an neglected disease in Chile].

    PubMed

    Fica C, Alberto; Castro S, Marcelo; Soto S, Andrés; Flores M, Carlos; Oelker B, Carolina; Weitzel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is not a notifiable disease in Chile and has received little attention on the national medical literature. In order to evaluate the relevance and clinical features of the disease, we performed a retrospective analysis in a general hospital of five cases of NCC during a 11 years period. Age ranged from 3 to 63 years and all had history of living or visiting southern Chile. Three patients had a solitary parenchymal cyst in vesicular or granulomatous stages and presented with generalized seizures. Their outcome was favorable after anticonvulsant and albendazole therapy and cysts reduced in size and calcified during follow-up. The other 2 patients had extra-parenchymal or mixed forms, including a pregnant woman with intraventricular cysts who developed endocraneal hypertension and recurrent dysfunction of her ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This patient died after discharge despite an initial favorable evolution with steroids and high-dose albendazole. This case series showed that NCC is still an epidemiological and clinical problem in Chile, affects patients within a wide range of age including children, requires multidisciplinary therapeutic interventions, and has two clinical presentations with different prognosis including one malignant form. To control this infection, a surveillance or reporting system should be initiated. PMID:22552515

  17. Treatment with anthelminthics during pregnancy: what gains and what risks for the mother and child?

    PubMed

    Elliott, Alison M; Ndibazza, Juliet; Mpairwe, Harriet; Muhangi, Lawrence; Webb, Emily L; Kizito, Dennison; Mawa, Patrice; Tweyongyere, Robert; Muwanga, Moses

    2011-10-01

    In 1994 and 2002, respectively, the World Health Organisation proposed that treatment for hookworm and schistosomiasis could be provided during pregnancy. It was hoped that this might have benefits for maternal anaemia, fetal growth and perinatal mortality; a beneficial effect on the infant response to immunisation was also hypothesised. Three trials have now been conducted. Two have examined the effects of benzimidazoles; one (the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study) the effects of albendazole and praziquantel. All three were conducted in settings of high prevalence but low intensity helminth infection. Results suggest that, in such settings and given adequate provision of haematinics, the benefit of routine anthelminthics during pregnancy for maternal anaemia may be small; none of the other expected benefits has yet been demonstrated. The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study found a significant adverse effect of albendazole on the incidence of infantile eczema in the whole study population, and of praziquantel on the incidence of eczema among infants of mothers with Schistosoma mansoni. Further studies are required in settings that differ in helminth species and infection intensities. Further research is required to determine whether increased rates of infantile eczema translate to long-term susceptibility to allergy, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. The risks and benefits of routine anthelminthic treatment in antenatal clinics may need to be reconsidered. PMID:21810307

  18. Pharmacological basis for hepatic drug metabolism in sheep.

    PubMed

    Galtier, P; Alvinerie, M

    1996-01-01

    Age-related changes in hepatic drug metabolizing activities of Lacaune ewes were determined in foetal, neonatal, growing, pregnant and adult animals. The ontogenic evolution of cytochrome P450 was compared to those of microsomal monooxygenases and some microsomal and cytosolic transferases. The involvement of two purified izoenzymes P4502B and P4503A was determined in the N-demethylation of various substrates and the hydroxylations of progesterone. An experimental fascioliasis, provoked by the oral administration of 150 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica to sheep, was proposed as a pathological model. Its effect was measured on the pharmacokinetics of various hepatic tracers and veterinary drugs. The mean residence times of antipyrine, pentobarbital, albendazole and mebendazole were increased in infected lambs with consequences on the urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyantipyrine, prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, elimination of albendazole sulfone and reduced mebendazole. The characteristic decrease in liver cytochrome P450 could be responsible for most of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes observed in fluke-infected ruminants. PMID:8822607

  19. Anthelmintics. A comparative review of their clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    de Silva, N; Guyatt, H; Bundy, D

    1997-05-01

    Virtually all the important helminth infections in humans can be treated with one of 5 anthelmintics currently in use: albendazole, mebendazole, diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and praziquantel. These drugs are vital not only for the treatment of individual infections, but also useful in controlling transmission of the more common infections. This article reviews briefly the pharmacology of these 5 drugs, and then discusses current issues in the use of anthelmintics in the treatment and/or control of soil-transmitted nematode infections, filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis (and other trematode infections), neurocysticercosis and hydatidosis. Mebendazole and albendazole are most effective against intestinal nematodes, but are contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy. The efficacy of prolonged therapy with these 2 drugs for treatment of larval cestode infections has not yet been established. Diethylcarbamazine is widely used to treat and control lymphatic filariasis, but adverse effects related to death of microfilariae or damage to adult worms may be marked. While ivermectin has been used in the treatment of patients with onchocerciasis, it is also undergoing investigation against lymphatic filariae. Praziquantel, used to treat schistosome infections, is also effective in other trematode infections and adult cestode infections. PMID:9129865

  20. The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

    2013-10-18

    The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. PMID:23830480

  1. Racemose neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Kristin; Krupa, Kelly; Pisculli, Mary L.; Athas, Deena M.; Farrell, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an invasive parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The clinical manifestations of NCC depend on the parasitic load and location of infection, as well as the developmental stage of the cysticerci and host immune response, with symptoms ranging from subclinical headaches to seizures, cerebrovascular events, and life-threatening hydrocephalus. Racemose NCC represents a particularly severe variant of extraparenchymal NCC characterized by the presence of multiple confluent cysts within the subarachnoid space and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as a decreased response to treatment. Albendazole is the preferred drug for the treatment of racemose NCC due to its superior cerebrospinal fluid penetration compared to praziquantel and the ability to be used concomitantly with steroids. Case Description: In this report, we describe a 39-year-old man recently emigrated from Mexico with racemose NCC and hydrocephalus successfully treated with prolonged albendazole treatment, high-dose dexamethasone, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for the relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. Conclusions: Treatment of racemose NCC represents a significant clinical challenge requiring multimodal intervention to minimize infectious- and treatment-related morbidity. We review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features relevant to the management of this aggressive form of NCC. PMID:26958418

  2. In vitro ovicidal assessment of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Annona squamosa and Chenopodium album against caprine gastrointestinal nematodiosis.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Arti; Shanker, Daya; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was in vitro evaluation of the ovicidal efficacy of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Annona squamosa (seeds) and Chenopodium album (whole plant) in comparison to albendazole against the GI nematodes of goats using egg hatch test. Eggs of GI nematodes were incubated at 27 °C in different extracts at concentration of 100-6.25 mg/ml for 2 days. Distilled water and albendazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Percentage efficacy and ED50 and ED90 values were separately evaluated with upper and lower confidence limit by log probit analysis using SAS 9.2. The ED50 and ED90 values of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. squamosa was calculated as 1.52 and 4.56; 2.48 and 10.73; 3.02 and 12.44 mg/ml, respectively against GI nematodes if goats. Similarly, the ED50 and ED90 values of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of C. album was calculated as 3.86 and 7.14; 2.73 and 8.31; 4.41 and 20.11 mg/ml, respectively This study shows that C. album and A. squamosa possess in vitro anthelmintic activities. The study also suggests further large scale pharmacological and toxicological studies for their safer use in veterinary medicine. PMID:25698862

  3. Integrated programme for control of geohelminths: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, S; Das, P K

    2001-01-01

    Infestation by geohelminths is an important public health problem in developing countries like India. It is a major cause of morbidity in school-age children who have the highest burden of worm infestation. Some of the morbid conditions attributed to intestinal helminthiasis are malnutrition, growth retardation, anaemia, vitamin A deficiency and impaired intellectual performance. Chemotherapy targeted at school-age children has been recommended as a cost-effective and feasible control programme for the control of geohelminths. To optimize resources a geohelminth control programme can be integrated with other existing national health programmes. The availability of drugs such as diethyl carbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, which have anthelminthic and antifilarial properties, opens the possibility of integrating a geohelminth control programme with a filaria control programme. However, co-administration of DEC and albendazole raises several issues of frequency of administration, efficacy, compliance and cost-effectiveness. Thus, integrating a geohelminth control programme with the existing mid-day meal or anaemia prophylaxis programme would be a more appropriate and cost-effective strategy to control geohelminths, alleviate the morbidity caused by them and improve the overall health of the community. PMID:11467143

  4. Good outcome with early empiric treatment of neural larva migrans due to Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jurriaan M; Madhavan, Vandana L; Kazacos, Kevin R; Husson, Robert N; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Soul, Janet S

    2012-03-01

    We report a remarkably good outcome in a 14-month-old boy with early clinical diagnosis and aggressive empirical treatment of neural larva migrans caused by the raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis. He presented with fever, meningismus, lethargy, irritability and asymmetric spastic extremity weakness. Early findings of marked blood and cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia and of diffuse white matter signal abnormality in the brain and spinal cord on MRI suggested a parasitic encephalomyelitis. Rapid presumptive treatment with albendazole and high-dose steroids halted progression of clinical signs. The diagnosis was confirmed by 2 sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies positive for B procyonis serum immunoglobulin G and by Western blot. Field examination with soil sampling yielded infective Baylisascaris eggs. Repeat MRI 3 months later showed atrophy and diffuse, chronic white matter abnormalities, discordant with the marked clinical improvement in this interval. At 10 months, residual neurologic deficits included subtle paraparesis and moderate language delay. This case is the first in which spinal involvement in human Baylisascaris infection was clinically suspected and confirmed by neuroimaging. Importantly, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of Baylisascaris meningo-encephalitis and myelitis with albendazole and high-dose steroids likely contributed to the good outcome in this patient, in contrast with previous reports. PMID:22311989

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

  6. Management of serology negative human hepatic hydatidosis (caused by Echinococcus granulosus) in a young woman from Bangladesh in a resource-rich setting: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Daniel O.; Donaghy, Henry J.; Edwards, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis) is a parasitic zoonosis with almost complete worldwide distribution. Echinococcus granulosus, the dog tapeworm, causes hydatidosis which accounts for 95% of human echinococcosis. Although this tapeworm is found in dogs as a definitive host and a number of intermediate hosts, humans are often infected from close contact with infected dogs. Humans are not part of the parasitic lifecycle and serve as accidental hosts. Hydatidosis is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatic cysts in individuals from endemic areas. Clinicians should be aware of the long incubation period, the high frequency of negative serological tests, and the possibility of intraoperative evaluations of the cyst aspirate being non-diagnostic. We describe a case of serology negative hydatidosis that came to medical attention as an incidental finding in a young woman from Bangladesh. The patient underwent imaging and was then started on albendazole. After several weeks of albendazole, the cyst was punctured, aspirated, injected with hypertonic saline, re-aspirated, and then fully excised. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic evaluation of the cyst aspirate. Serological tests for hydatidosis may be negative in patients with early disease and thus should not be used to rule out this disease. Consideration of this diagnosis allows clinicians to avoid the catastrophic spillage of cystic contents risking an anaphylactic reaction, which might prove fatal. Despite World Health Organization hydatidosis staging being based on ultrasound, radiologists in resource-rich setting may prefer MRI in the management and staging of cystic echinococcosis. PMID:26839770

  7. [Four Hydatid Cysts in One Family: Is Family Screening Necessary?].

    PubMed

    Karadağlı, Eda; Gürses, Dolunay; Akpınar, Funda; Herek, Özkan; Birsen, Onur; Aydın, Çağatay

    2015-12-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infection mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus. As transmission occurs from infected dogs, it is endemic in animal husbandry regions. Here four patients within the same family are presented. The first patient is a 10 year-old girl admitted with nausea, vomiting, and fever. On her physical examination, there were decreased respiratory sounds in the right lung, rales, and hepatomegaly. In the radiological examination, cysts were seen in both her lung and liver. After the confirmation of the diagnosis with a serological examination, surgical resection was performed, and albendazole treatment was given. On family screening, cysts were detected in the liver and spleen in her asymptomatic 6-year-old brother; in the lung, liver, spleen, and right kidney in her 33-year-old mother who had repeating abdominal pain; and in the liver and left kidney in her 33-year-old asymptomatic father. Hydatid cyst infection was serologically confirmed in all patients, and they were given albendazole and were surgically treated. In this case report, four patients in the same family and diagnosed as having hydatid cysts were presented. It was emphasized that once a hydatid cyst was diagnosed, family screening became important, in endemic regions in particular. PMID:26809922

  8. A case of cutaneous larva migrans acquired from soiled toilet floors in urban Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Robson, N Z; Othman, S

    2008-10-01

    Despite being a common skin dermatosis in the tropics, physicians in the tropics may miss the diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans for other pruritic skin manifestation. This is especially in those who live in urban housing with no history of travel. Cutaneous larva migrans, an intensely pruritic skin pathology is mainly contracted by people with history of beach holiday or contact with moist soft sand which had been contaminated with dog or cat faeces. This article reports a patient who presented with intensely itchy papular spots over the dorsum of his foot after walking barefooted in an urban toilet soiled with cat faeces. The patient had initially seen an urban general practitioner who diagnosed the papular skin lesion as an allergic reaction, and prescribed antihistamines. The patient subsequently developed creeping skin lesions and was seen by the author who prescribed albendazole 400 mg twice daily for three days. The patient reported reduction in itching after two days of albendazole treatment and a follow up at ten days revealed a healed infection. PMID:19385496

  9. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs. PMID:26537031

  10. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one. PMID:26827585

  11. Organic carbon and sulphur compounds in wetland soils: insights on structure and transformation processes using K-edge XANES and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokic, Aleksander; Cutler, Jeffrey N.; Ponomarenko, Elena; van der Kamp, Garth; Anderson, Darwin W.

    2003-07-01

    as surface adsorbed layers on the soil mineral particles. The soils contain three different classes of sulphur compounds: reduced organic sulphur such as sulphides, low valent oxidized sulphur such as sulphoxides, and high valent oxidized sulphur such as sulphonate and sulphate. Of these, reduced sulphur species constitute between one-third and two-thirds of the total. Sulphonate structures comprise between a fifth and a third of the total. Sulphates exhibit a wide variation in content, and sulphoxides are either not detected or are present to a lesser extent (<5%). Drying of the wetlands would cause oxidation of sulphides to sulphates.

  12. Cryopreservation of cat testicular tissues: effects of storage temperature, freezing protocols and cryoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, P; Chatdarong, K

    2012-10-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue has become a part of gamete preservation in wild animal post-mortem. Using domestic cats as a model for wild felids, this study aimed to (i) investigate the effect of temperature for testicular tissue storage on sperm quality; (ii) compare efficiency of freezing protocols; and (iii) evaluate properties of cryoprotective agents to protect testicular sperm quality. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) was cut into four pieces. Three randomly selected pieces were allocated to be (i) fresh controls; (ii) stored at 4 °C for 24 h; and (iii) stored at room temperature (28 °C) for 24 h. After storage, the testicular tissue from each group was cut into 10 small pieces. One piece was assigned to be a control while the others were assigned to three freezing protocols; -80 °C (n = 3), vitrification (n = 3) or two-step freezing (kept above liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min and submerged in liquid nitrogen) (n = 3). Each of three pieces was frozen using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) or DMSO combined with EG. Sperm membrane (SYBR-14/EthD-1) and DNA (acridine orange) integrity were evaluated before and after cryopreservation. The storage of testicular tissue at room temperature decreased the percentage of sperm with intact membrane in fresh tissue (59.5 ± 30.5 vs 87.9 ± 7.0%, p < 0.05). DNA integrity was decreased after 24-h storage either at 4 °C or room temperature (p < 0.05). The two-step freezing resulted in a higher percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than the other techniques. Dimethyl sulphoxide, EG and DMSO combined with EG provided similar protection for the sperm membrane and DNA from cryodamages. In conclusion, storage of testicular tissue at 4 °C is necessary to maintain sperm membrane integrity during transportation of tissue for cryopreservation in the freezing laboratory. The results provide information for male gamete rescue in felid particularly when they die unexpectedly in the field

  13. Permeation of human ovarian tissue with cryoprotective agents in preparation for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Newton, H; Fisher, J; Arnold, J R; Pegg, D E; Faddy, M J; Gosden, R G

    1998-02-01

    The recent improvements in the treatment of cancer by chemo- and radiotherapy have led to a significant increase in the survival rates of patients with malignant disease, but at the expense of distressing side effects. One major problem, especially for younger patients, is that aggressive therapy destroys a significant proportion of the follicular population, which can result in either temporary or permanent infertility. Freeze-banking pieces of ovarian cortex prior to treatment is one strategy for preserving fecundity. When the patient is in remission, fertility could, theoretically, be restored by autografting the thawed tissue at the orthotopic site or by growing isolated follicles to maturity in vitro. Recent studies have found good follicular survival in frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue but to optimize the process an effective cryopreservation method needs to be developed. An essential part of such a technique is to permeate the tissue with a cryoprotectant to minimize ice formation and the extent of this equilibration is an important determinant of post-thaw cellular survival. In the current study, we have investigated the diffusion of four cryoprotective agents into human tissue at both 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. We have also studied the effect of adding different concentrations of the non penetrating cryoprotective agent, sucrose, to the freezing media using the release of lactate dehydrogenase as a measure of its protective effect. At 4 degrees C propylene glycol and glycerol penetrated the tissue significantly slower than either ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulphoxide. At the higher temperature of 37 degrees C all four cryoprotectants penetrated at a faster rate, however concern about enhanced toxicity prevents the use of these conditions in practice. Thus, the results suggest that the best method of preparing tissue for freezing is exposure for 30 min to 1.5 M solutions of ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulphoxide at 4 degrees C; this achieved a mean

  14. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    PubMed

    Doak, S M; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-06-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undiluted (0.2 ml per application) to the shorn dorsal skin twice weekly for up to 78 weeks, with 48 mice in each treatment group and 96 in the untreated control group; two further groups, each of 48 mice, were similarly treated either with a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract (PCA content, 19.7% w/v) or with a low dose of benzo(a)pyrene (12.5 micrograms/ml acetone). The mice were housed individually in polypropylene cages in specified pathogen free conditions. The incidence of cutaneous and systemic tumours was determined from histological analysis of haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. The results were correlated with the PCA content of the extracts and compared with those from female mice exposed to a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract. Four of the hydrotreated extracts were carcinogenic for murine skin; the two products with the lower PCA contents were less carcinogenic than the products with the higher PCA contents and all were less carcinogenic than the commercial extract. One extract with the lowest PCA content was non-carcinogenic. Thus refining by severe hydrotreatment was an effective method of reducing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum aromatic extracts. Although other physicochemical properties may influence the biological activity of oil products, the PCA content determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction may be a useful indicator of the potential of oil products to induce cutaneous tumours in experimental animals. There was no

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  16. Best-bet integrated strategies for containing drug-resistant trypanosomes in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background African animal trypanosomosis is a major constraint to the rearing of productive livestock in the sub-humid Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa where cotton is grown. Trypanosomosis is mainly controlled using trypanocidal drugs, but the effective use of drugs is threatened by the development of widespread resistance. This study tested integrated best-bet strategies for containment and/ or reversal of trypanocide resistance in villages in south-east Mali where resistance has been reported. Methods Four sentinel villages each from an intervention area (along the road from Mali to Burkina Faso) and a control area (along the road from Mali to Côte d’Ivoire) were selected for the study. Tsetse control was based on deltamethrin-treated stationary attractive devices and targeted cattle spraying between March 2008 and November 2009. Trypanosome-positive cattle were selectively treated with 3.5 mg/kg diminazene aceturate. Strategic helminth control using 10 mg/kg albendazole was also undertaken. During the intervention, tsetse densities along drainage lines, trypanosome infections and faecal egg counts in risk cattle (3 to 12 months of age) were monitored. Results Catch reductions of 66.5 % in Glossina palpalis gambiensis and 90 % in G. tachinoides were observed in the intervention area. Trypanosome prevalence was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the intervention area (2.3 %; 1.3-3.6 %) compared to the control area (17.3 %; 14.8-20.1 %). Albendazole treatment resulted in a faecal egg count reduction of 55.6 % and reduced trypanosome infection risk (2.9 times lower than in the placebo group) although not significantly (p > 0.05). Further studies are required before confirming the existence of albendazole resistant strongyles in the study area. Conclusion Integration of best-bet strategies in areas of multiple drug-resistance is expected to reduce trypanosome infection risk thus contributing to containment of trypanocidal drug resistance

  17. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  18. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ≥2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (p<0.001). All three control approaches significantly reduced the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the highest reductions achieved when chemotherapy was combined with sanitation and health education. The prevalence of T. trichiura remained at 30% and above regardless of the intervention. Only bi-annual treatment combined with latrine construction and health education significantly impacted on the prevalence of Taenia spp., but none of the interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis. Our findings support the notion that in high-endemicity areas

  19. Innovative restriction site created PCR-RFLP for detection of benzimidazole resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Parviz; Eslami, Ali; Borji, Hassan

    2007-04-01

    Benzimidazole compounds, especially albendazole, are the most commonly used anthelmintics for deworming of small ruminants in Iran. It is believed that the therapeutic effects of the benzimidazoles (BZs) come through their binding capacity to the beta-tubulin isotype 1. Substitution of phenylalanine to tyrosine at position 200 of this polypeptide confers resistance to BZs. Several investigators developed different biological- and molecular-based techniques to demonstrate the occurrence of resistance in helminthes against BZs. To address the determination of resistance at position 200 of beta-tubulin isotype 1, we developed an innovative restriction site created polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, in which nucleotide A at the position of 637 upstream flanked by the first two coding sequences of the phenylalanine (TT) triplet was substituted through the nucleotide G. The introduced modification in forward primer (UTvet MF-primer) leads to the creation of restriction site (AACGTT) for PSP1. Therefore, in the case of normal allele only, PSP1 can cut the corresponding PCR product. In the first step, the genomic DNA was isolated from each single Teladorsagia circumcincta collected either from the abomasa of untreated (n = 35) or of 5 mg/kg BW 2.5% albendazole suspension-treated (n = 40) sheep. It was amplified with the primer pair, creating PCR product of 403 bp in length. In the second step, the PCR product was extracted from agarose gel and amplified with the modified forward primer (UTvet MF-primer) and the same reverse primer as in step 1, creating a PCR product of 222 bp. The PCR product was then cut with PSP1 to obtain in the case of normal allele two DNA products (183 and 39 bp). Eight of the 35 worms collected from the untreated sheep were BZ(SS) homozygotes, and the rest (27) were BZ(RS) heterozygotes. In our preliminary experiment, we could not find a BZ(RR) homozygote form within the examined samples. Five out of 40 worms

  20. A Rare Cause of Hypereosinophilia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Ogur, Emine; Çiçek Kolak, Çiğdem; Avcı Merdin, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Toxocara cati and T. canis, which live in the intestinal system of cats (T. cati) and dogs (T. canis). Infective eggs can enter the gastrointestinal system by the oral route via foods contaminated with feces of dogs or cats or via dirty contaminated hands. The larvae penetrate the small intestine and migrate to visceral organs by systemic circulation. Hypereosinophilia is a common finding in the tissue invasion of parasites. Serological methods are the principle diagnostic methods for toxocariasis. In this study, we reported a toxocariasis patient presented with hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, and intestinal involvement. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of the ileal bowel loop walls around the umbilicus. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an enlarged periduodenal lymph node. Symptoms improved with albendazole treatment with a subsequent flare. PMID:27594294

  1. Integrating Neglected Tropical Disease and Immunization Programs: The Experiences of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health

    PubMed Central

    Mwingira, Upendo John; Means, Arianna Rubin; Chikawe, Maria; Kilembe, Bernard; Lyimo, Dafrossa; Crowley, Kathryn; Rusibamayila, Neema; Nshala, Andreas; Mphuru, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Global health practitioners are increasingly advocating for the integration of community-based health-care platforms as a strategy for increasing the coverage of programs, encouraging program efficiency, and promoting universal health-care goals. To leverage the strengths of compatible programs and avoid geographic and temporal duplications in efforts, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare coordinated immunization and neglected tropical disease programs for the first time in 2014. Specifically, a measles and rubella supplementary vaccine campaign, mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin and albendazole, and Vitamin A were provisionally integrated into a shared community-based delivery platform. Over 21 million people were targeted by the integrated campaign, with the immunization program and MDA program reaching 97% and 93% of targeted individuals, respectively. The purpose of this short report is to share the Tanzanian experience of launching and managing this integrated campaign with key stakeholders. PMID:27246449

  2. An Outbreak of Trichinellosis by Consumption of Raw Soft-Shelled Turtle Meat in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Joon Taek; Seo, Min; Hong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Young Keun

    2015-01-01

    Trichinellosis transmission to humans via the consumption of reptile meat is rare worldwide. In Korea, however, 2 such outbreaks, possibly via consumption of soft-shelled turtle meat, have occurred in 2 successive years. In 17 August 2014, 6 patients were admitted to Wonju Severance Christian Hospital complaining of myalgia, fever, and headache. Eosinophilia was the indication of the initial laboratory results, and they were eventually diagnosed as trichinellosis by ELISA. All of the patients worked at the same company and had eaten raw soft-shelled turtle meat at a company dinner 10 days prior to their admission. They were treated with albendazole for 2 weeks, upon which all of their symptoms disappeared. This is the 8th report on human trichinellosis in Korea, and the second implicating raw soft-shelled turtle meat. PMID:25925182

  3. The First Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in an Animal Care Worker in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    CARHAN, Ahmet; OZKAN, Ozcan; OZKAYA, Ethem

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previous study. Methods: Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was applied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seropositive worker had a complete medical examination. Results: Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E. cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole. Conclusion: Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E. cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene. PMID:26246827

  4. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis. PMID:24192626

  5. Larvicidal activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger (Zingiber officinale), for the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study found that the above constituents killed A. cantonensis larvae or reduced their spontaneous movements in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement of [10]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and hexahydrocurcumin at various concentrations was reached from 24 to 72 h, respectively. Further investigation to determine minimal effective doses of [10]-gingerol and hexahydrocurcumin revealed [10]-gingerol to have a greater maximum larvicidal effect and loss of spontaneous movements than hexahydrocurcumin, mebendazole and albendazole. These constituents of ginger showed effects against DPPH and peroxyl radical under larvicidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as larvicidal agents against A. cantonensis. PMID:20045669

  6. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-08-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. PMID:25987633

  7. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. PMID:25987633

  8. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatographic diagnosis and extraction of massive biliary ascariasis presented with acute pancreatitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saowaros, V

    1999-05-01

    This paper reports the case of a young female Thai patient who presented with periodic severe abdominal pains which proved to be acute pancreatitis. Conventional investigations and treatments failed to prove and improve her condition. ERCP was done on the twelfth day after admission. 3 caudal ends of living round worms were noted protruding from the papillary orifice during endoscopy. Cholangiography revealed impacted multiple round worms in the common bile duct and both intrahepatic ducts. Endoscopic extraction of the worms was done by using dormia basket and removed with endoscope. Repeated procedure was done 21 times in two and a half hours, obtaining 26 live, mature Ascaris lumbricoides varying from 13 to 24 cm in length. Repeated cholangiogram confirmed complete removal of the worms. The patient was relieved from abdominal pain immediately after the procedure, and given oral albendazole 400 mg daily for 7 days. She was discharged asymptomatic 8 days after Ascaris removal. PMID:10443103

  9. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  10. Cystic hydatidosis: a rare case of spine localization.

    PubMed

    Scarlata, Francesco; Giordano, Salvatore; Saporito, Laura; Marasa, Lorenzo; Li Pani, Giuseppe; Odierna, Antonio; Scaglione, Vincenzo; Di Carlo, Paola; Romano, Amelia

    2011-03-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonosis endemic both to Sicily and other Mediterranean areas. Generally, Echinococcus granulosus tapeworms develop in the liver, lung and less frequently in the peritoneum, spleen or kidney. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid disease. The patient was a 38-year-old housewife with a vertebral echinococcosis revealed by acute paraplegia of the legs. Medical treatment with albendazole and surgical intervention improved the clinical symptoms. This case is emblematic both for the unusual localization and for the need of a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosing and monitoring suspected hydatid lesions. Patients with suspected abdominal or lung echinococcosis should also be investigated for other localizations such as the brain, spine and heart. Furthermore, in endemic areas hydatidosis must be suspected in the presence of lesions occupying space in these districts. PMID:21471745

  11. Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15 days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1 month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1 month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

  12. Uncertainties in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Zvi; Froom, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes expert opinion and evidence on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of trichinellosis. Laboratory test results are not sufficiently sensitive for the diagnosis of individual patients when outbreaks are suspected. A likely diagnosis depends on identifying a potential common source of exposure supported by detection of antibodies to Trichinella antigens in a higher than expected proportion of exposed patients. Expert opinion is discordant, but for patients with symptomatic disease, there are theoretical reasons to recommend treatment with albendazole (rather than mebendazole) taken with fatty meals and prednisone. Education of the public is probably not a reliable way to prevent trichinellosis and when feasible should be augmented with mandatory testing of all potentially infected meat. PMID:26243167

  13. [Geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites. PMID:26980233

  14. A Fatal Strongyloides Stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome in a Patient With Chronic kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ting-ting; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mei-hong; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare but fatal disease, which occurs commonly in immunocompromised patients. Strongyloidiasis among patients with chronic kidney disease is rarely reported. A 55-year-old Chinese male presented to hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. He developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage owing to disseminated strongyloidiasis immediately. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. This patient was diagnosed with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Although albendazole, mechanical ventilator support, fluid resuscitation, vasopressor support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocortisone, and broadspectrum antimicrobials were actively used, the patient eventually died. Similar cases in patients with chronic kidney disease in the literature are also reviewed. Through literature review, we recommend that strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27175679

  15. Refractory Cystobiliary Fistula Secondary to Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst: Treatment with N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat Gumus, Mehmet; Cay, Nurdan; Erol, Bekir; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan

    2011-02-15

    A 27-year-old female with a type 2 hydatid cystic lesion in the liver according to the Gharbi classification (CE 3A according to the WHO classification) was referred for percutaneous treatment after albendazole treatment for 1 year. A catheterization technique was performed but hypertonic saline and alcohol were not given into the cavity due to cystobiliary leakage. During the 4-month follow-up period, sequential cavitography revealed biliary fistula, and bile-stained drainage had not been ceased despite the sphincterotomy, nasobiliary drainage catheter, and plastic stent. Since the patient refused to surgery, we embolized the biliary fistula using N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate for the first time in the literature. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient's course was uneventful and ultrasound, multidetector-row CT, and MRI examinations revealed no collection in or adjacent to the cavity.

  16. Cystic echinococcosis with perforation into the biliary tract in an eight-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Warmann, S; Meier, P N; Kardorff, R; Fuchs, J

    2002-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection caused by echinococcus granulosus and is still frequent in endemic areas. CE is predominantly localised in the liver. The therapy of choice is the surgical sanitation of the lesions, increasingly through interventional procedures such as percutaneous punctation of the cysts, aspiration of the cystic fluid, instillation of a protoscolicidal solution and reaspiration of this solution (PAIR). However, in some cases, such as perforation into the biliary tract, PAIR is not feasible. We report on an eight-year-old girl who suffered from CE with perforation of one cyst into the biliary tract. The diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and cholangioscopy and a right hemihepatectomy was performed. The girl received adjuvant chemotherapy with albendazol perioperatively and is still asymptomatic with no indications of disease 10 months after the operation. PMID:12015661

  17. Spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst into the peritoneum causing only mild abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Kemal

    2007-02-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in certain areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. Spontaneous rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneum is a rare condition, which is accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality generally. We present herein a case with a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hidatid disease into the peritoneum without any serious symptoms. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room with a mild abdominal pain lasting for a day. Physical examination revealed only mild abdominal tenderness. There was no history of trauma or complaints related to hydatid diseases. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid and a cystic lesion with irregular borders in the liver. He was operated on. Postoperative albendazol therapy was given for 2 mo. No recurrence or secondary hydatidosis was seen on CT investigation in the 3rd, 6th and 12th mo following surgery. PMID:17278209

  18. [Inguinal tumor: a rare occurrence of hydatid disease. A case report].

    PubMed

    Calvo, A M; Cires, J M; Montón, S; Sarasibar, H; Lasanta, P; Artázcoz, F J

    2007-01-01

    Osseous hydatid disease is an infrequent entity that represents 0.5-2.5% of all hydatidoses. The vertebrae are the most commonly affected bones (50%), followed by the pelvis (25%) and the long bones (15-25%). The clinical manifestations appear when there is large scale osseous destruction or complications, which is why the diagnosis is generally made in late stages through imaging techniques and on occasion in an intra-operational form. Treatment in operable cases is by surgical extirpation, which can be associated with medical treatment with albendazol. We present the case of a patient with osseous hydatidosis, localised in the pelvis, with an absence of other affected organs. The only clinical manifestation presented by the patient was an inguinal tumour on the right side. The patient received a clinical intervention facing the suspicion of an inguinal hernia, complicated by the intra-operational discovery of pelvic hydatidosis. PMID:18227901

  19. [Clinical course of isolated larval infestation of orbit in children].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, L A; Tumol'skaia, N I; Sidorenko, N I; Kotiasheva, G I; Odoshashvili, E D; Gorbunov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Clinical course of an isolated infestation of orbital tissues by larvae of helminths parasitizing in dogs (Toxocara canis) has been followed up in 5 patients aged 6-13 years. The process ran a wave-like course for 3-8 months and was characterized by cyclic inflammatory changes in the orbit, presenting by toxic allergic tenonitis, regional lymphadenitis, optic nerve perineuritis with formation of parasitic granuloma detected by computer-aided rhoentgenotomography of the orbit. No clinical or laboratory signs of common inflammatory and allergic reaction in the presence of Toxocara antigen sensitization were observed in any case, which was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies (IgG and IgE). Specific therapy with anti-nematode drug albendazol was effective. PMID:10918851

  20. [Neurocysticercosis in a State of Piauí urban area: case report].

    PubMed

    e Silva do Rego Monteiro, Alexandre Vitor Tapety; da Silva Júnior, Antônio Norberto Campelo; Leite, Daniel Amorim; Mendes, Lucas Cronemberger Maia; de Assunção Cordeiro, Marcelo; Lima, Rafael Ferreira Correia; Lima, Fernando Correia; Batista, Marcus Sabry Azar

    2006-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a serious public health problem that predominantly affects places with poor sanitary and hygiene conditions. The Piaui State is out of the neurocysticercosis map in Brazil but, as this study illustrates, it is just by lack of epidemiologic data. We demonstrate the presence of this pathology in the State of Piaui based on a case report of a 39 years old man, followed for 17 months. The diagnosis was made by CT scan and the patient was treated with albendazol for 10 days. A new CT scan show absence of lesions. He needed to be treated again after a recurrence of clinical manifestations, 6 months after the first treatment, with the disappearance of the new lesions. PMID:16791380

  1. Pulmonary Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Canan; Gayaf, Mine; Ozsoz, Ayse; Sahin, Birsen; Aksel, Nimet; Karasu, Isil; Aydogdu, Zekiye; Turgay, Nevin

    2014-01-01

    The 17-year-old male patient presented with fever, weakness, dyspnea and weight loss. His chest radiography demonstrated diffuse reticulonodular density, and high-resolution lung tomography indicated diffuse micronodules and prevalent ground-glass pattern. The findings were consistent with miliary involvement. The patient underwent examinations for rheumatology, immunology, cytology and infectious conditions. His immune system was normal and had no comorbidities or any history of immunosuppressive treatment. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were noted upon direct inspection of the feces. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved with albendazole 400 mg/day. This case is being presented since miliary involvement in the lungs caused by S. stercoralis infection in an individual with intact immune system is rare and difficult to diagnosis. PMID:26029521

  2. Alveolar echinococcosis of liver presenting with neurological symptoms due to brain metastases with simultaneous lung metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydinli, Bülent; Aydin, Unal; Yazici, Pinar; Oztürk, Gürkan; Onbaş, Omer; Polat, K Yalçin

    2008-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic and serious, even lethal, parasitic infection caused by the helminth Echinococcus multilocularis (EM). AE is an endemic disease in Turkey and it is particularly common in people living in the eastern Anatolia Region. In addition to various clinical presentations, symptoms which lead to diagnosis, however, are usually associated with the metastatic lesions. We herein reported a 62-year-old man who had liver alveolar hydatid disease with simultaneous lung and brain metastasis. We think there was only one therapeutic option, namely medical treatment with albendazol, which is the usual treatment for patients living in eastern Anatolia and who are admitted late resulting in a subsequent inoperable situation. Thus, radiological screening studies for the public in this region may increase the possibility of surgical treatment for alveolar hydatid disease. PMID:19156614

  3. [Case report: strongyloidiosis with chronic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Dündar, Devrim

    2008-01-01

    The case was presented here in order to point out that an immunocompetent child might have Strongyloidiosis infection that might be misdiagnosed. A 9 year old male patient who had chronic abdominal pain with a feeling of weakness was treated several times for urinary tract infection. He had never been tested for the presence of parasites. After the patient's complaints occurred again, he presented at our hospital. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were observed in his feces by microscopy. Albendazol (400 mg/day for three days) was prescribed. After 10 days, the feces of the patient was reexamined and no Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected. For this reason, it is important to investigate the possibility of intestinal parasitic infections in children with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:18645954

  4. [Visceral larva migrans. A rare cause of eosinophilia in adults].

    PubMed

    Lund-Tønnesen, S

    1996-09-20

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan infection of dogs and cats with a roundworm resembling Ascaris. Man becomes infected by ingesting eggs from the environment. The infection occurs mainly in children. There are two distinct syndromes: visceral larva migrans and ocular toxocariasis. The author describes the case of a 70 year old Norwegian female with visceral larva migrans. One month after a visit to Spain she developed fever, hepatomegaly and marked eosinophilia. Liver biopsy revealed subacute hepatitis with eosinophilic leucocyte infiltration. Toxocara ELISA was strongly positive. Treatment with albendazol 400 mg b.i.d. and prednisone 10 mg daily for three weeks was successful. A clinical relapse after three months was treated in the same way for one month. Prolonged treatment is recommended. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of visceral larva migrans in an adult Norwegian. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. PMID:8928142

  5. Ultrasonographic appearance of colon taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fabijanić, D; Giunio, L; Ivani, N; Fabijanić, A; Mirić, D; Kardum, D

    2001-03-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, and frequent stools in whom the routine ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the initial segment of the ascending colon, which suggested colon taeniasis. Because the initial parasitologic analysis yielded negative results and application of albendazol did not have any therapeutic effect, the diagnosis was confirmed by barium enema and subsequently by parasitologic examination of proglottids passed in the stool after application of niclosamide. The double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the intestine seems to be specific to the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal taeniasis. Transcutaneous ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract, performed as a screening method before conventional radiologic or endoscopic examination, can point to the ultimate diagnosis of colon taeniasis. PMID:11270533

  6. [Hydatoid cysts of liver--diagnostic and therapeutic problem].

    PubMed

    Snarska, J; Puchalski, Z; Razak Hady, H; Kokoszko, M; Kondrusik, M

    2000-01-01

    In the Department of General Surgery of Medical University 11 patients with hydatid cysts of liver were operated. Ultrasonography and computer tomography allowed to define exact localization, size and contents of the cysts, what made possible planning of operating procedure. In 2 cases nonanatomic resection of liver parenchyma was performed, in 2 ones with coexisting stomach neoplasm just excision of the frontal wall of the cyst and emptying of the interior. In all the other cases the cysts were removed with surrounding liver tissue. Late results of surgical treatment with albendazol therapy are good. Diagnosis of echinococcic desease should be precised, considering with possibility of co-existing foci in other organs. PMID:16886361

  7. Spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatıd cyst into the peritoneum causing only mild abdominal pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in certain areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. Spontaneous rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneum is a rare condition, which is accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality generally. We present herein a case with a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hidatid disease into the peritoneum without any serious symptoms. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room with a mild abdominal pain lasting for a day. Physical examination revealed only mild abdominal tenderness. There was no history of trauma or complaints related to hydatid diseases. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid and a cystic lesion with irregular borders in the liver. He was operated on. Postoperative albendazol therapy was given for 2 mo. No recurrence or secondary hydatidosis was seen on CT investigation in the 3rd, 6th and 12th mo following surgery. PMID:17278209

  8. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

    2008-05-01

    We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

  9. [Generalized microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon sp. in a pediatric patient with Bruton's disease].

    PubMed

    Vásquez Tsuji, O; Rodríguez Herrera, R; Campos Rivera, T; Mora Tiscareño, M A; Aguirre Maldonado, E; Yamazaki Nakashimada, M A; Valencia Rojas, S; Martínez Barbosa, I

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a four-year-old boy with a history of repeated upper respiratory tract infections and pyoderma. He presented fever, seizures, inability to talk, loss of swallowing, fine tremor in the upper extremities; positive bilateral Babinski reflex and quadriparesis. The diagnosis of Bruton's disease and generalized microporidiosis was based on immunologic analysis, smear tests with chromotrope R2 stain and indirect immunofluorescense with monoclonal 3B6 antibody for Encephalitozoon species in samples of spinal fluid, bronchial and paranasal sinus aspirates and stool, which were all positive. The patient was treated with albendazol during 72 days; he left the hospital in a good condition, walking, talking and able to swallow. His laboratory test controls were negative; he is followed up in the outpatient department. PMID:12058667

  10. [Myocutaneous latissimus dorsi sliding flap in reconstruction of the lower thoracic wall in chronic fistula caused by cystic echinococcosis of the liver].

    PubMed

    Mouton, W; Schweizer, W; Zuber, J C; Tschopp, H; Blumgart, L H

    1991-07-01

    We report the successful treatment of a 47-year-old man who had a 22-year history of chronic discharge from a hepatic echinococcal cyst. Before treatment in our unit there had been 8 previous attempts to control the fistula. By means of a right thoracoabdominal incision (with resection of the 7th and 8th ribs) it was possible to perform a cystectomy with subsequent marsupialisation of the residual cyst wall to the skin. However, after 2 weeks subsequent treatment with maximal Albendazol therapy there was still a big persistent cavity which required further débridement. This resulted in resolution of the infection and allowed a definitive closure of the big cavity and the thoracoabdominal wall using a myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap. The patient's subsequent course has been uneventful with no recurrence of the fistula. PMID:1938443

  11. Treatment of Giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Petri, William A

    2005-02-01

    Tinidazole is the first-line drug treatment of giardiasis, as it requires only a single dose to cure infection in most individuals. The related drug metronidazole is as effective, but it requires 5 to 7 days of three times a day therapy. Nitazoxanide appears in limited studies to be as effective as tinidazole or metronidazole, and it does not have the bitter taste of nitroimidazoles. A good alternate for use during pregnancy is paromomycin. Cure of infection varies between 60% and 100% with one course of treatment. Less effective and/or less well-tolerated drugs for the treatment of giardiasis include albendazole, quinacrine, and furazolidone; the use of these agents should be reserved for giardiasis refractory to treatment with the first-line agents. PMID:15625030

  12. Primary hydatid cyst of the brain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Nebi; Kiymaz, Nejmi; Etlik, Omer; Yazici, Taner

    2006-08-01

    A 26-year-old woman in the 28th week of pregnancy presented with a primary cerebral hydatid cyst manifesting as deteriorating consciousness and weakness in the left arm and leg. Cranial computed tomography revealed an intracranial hydatid cyst. The cyst was surgically removed and albendazole was administered. The patient had a spontaneous vaginal term delivery and no problem was observed in the mother or child. No primary focus was found in the lungs, liver, and other organs. Hydatid cyst is still an important disease. Intracranial hydatid cyst without primary foci in organs such as the liver and lungs is very rare. Primary cerebral hydatid cyst during pregnancy can be successfully treated by surgical and medical intervention. PMID:16936466

  13. [High perinatal mortality associated with triple anthelmintic resistance in a German sheep flock].

    PubMed

    Voigt, K; Scheuerle, M; Hamel, D; Pfister, K

    2012-04-24

    High perinatal mortality, low milk yields and occasional ewe deaths were investigated in a Dorper sheep flock in Southern Germany. Parasitic gastroenteritis due to Trichostrongylus spp. associated with severe weight loss despite regular anthelmintic treatments of the flock was identified as the underlying cause. A faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test revealed zero reduction after treatment with ivermectin or albendazole, respectively, and a FECR of 57.9% following treatment with levamisole. These results indicate a lack of, or considerably reduced efficacy of substances from all three classical groups of anthelmintics and demonstrate that triple anthelmintic resistance is also present in Germany. The introduction of resistant worm populations with imported livestock, excessive use of anthelmintic drugs and under-dosing of goats have possibly led to the problem in the flock described. Veterinary advice on anthelmintic treatments and responsible parasite control programmes are therefore crucial in small ruminant flocks. PMID:22526724

  14. Cutaneous larva migrans, sacroileitis, and optic neuritis caused by an unidentified organism acquired in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Potasman, I; Feiner, M; Arad, E; Friedman, Z

    1998-12-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old pregnant woman with an unidentified intraocular parasite. The parasite, which had been acquired in Thailand, caused cutaneous larva migrans, sacroileitis, and 2 years later optic neuritis and panuveitis. The patient was successfully treated with ivermectin and albendazole. The diagnostic possibilities of this peculiar presentation are discussed. Parasitic infections are a leading cause of medical problems in travelers to tropical countries.1 While most parasites cause gastrointestinal problems, some may migrate throughout the body and lodge in critical organs. Ocular parasitic infections may occur by direct inoculation onto the eye,2 or incidentally during systemic migration. Subconjunctival parasites are easily diagnosed by removal and careful microscopic examination.3 Parasites, which lodge within the eye, are more difficult to diagnose, especially if not removed. In this report we describe a patient who presented with an intraocular parasite causing optic neuritis and panuveitis, 2 years after travel to Thailand. PMID:9876201

  15. An outbreak of trichinellosis due to consumption of bear meat infected with Trichinella nativa, in 2 northern Saskatchewan communities.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Roberta S; Tan, Ben J K; Irvine, James D; Stockdale, Donna R; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Serhir, Bouchra; Botha, Juri; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Woods, Shirley A; Blondeau, Joseph M; McNab, Tammy L

    2003-09-15

    In June 2000, bear meat infected with Trichinella nativa was consumed by 78 individuals in 2 northern Saskatchewan communities. Interviews and blood collections were performed on exposed individuals at the onset of the outbreak and 7 weeks later. All exposed individuals were treated with mebendazole or albendazole, and symptomatic patients received prednisone. Confirmed cases were more likely to have consumed dried meat, rather than boiled meat (P<.001). Seventy-four percent of patients completed the recommended therapy, and 87% of patients who were followed up in August 2000 reported complete resolution of symptoms. This outbreak of trichinellosis was caused by consumption of inadequately cooked bear meat contaminated with T. nativa. Apart from clinical symptomatology, blood counts, creatine kinase levels, serology test results, and analysis of the remaining bear meat helped establish the diagnosis. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs and prednisone was beneficial in limiting the severity and duration of the illness. PMID:12964114

  16. Anthelminthic treatment and haemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Torlesse, H; Hodges, M

    2000-09-23

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Sierra Leone to measure the impact of a single dose anthelminthic (400 mg albendazole) and daily iron-folate supplements (36 g iron and 5 mg folate) on haemoglobin (HG) concentration during pregnancy. After controlling for baseline Hb concentration and season, anthelmintic treatment reduced the decline in haemoglobin concentration between the first and third trimesters by 6.6 g/L (p=0.0034) relative to the control. The corresponding value for iron-folate supplements was 13.7 g/L(p<0.0001) [corrected]. These findings indicate that anthelminthic treatment should be included in strategies to control maternal anaemia in Sierra Leone. PMID:11009150

  17. Hydatid Cyst of Liver Presented as Obstructive Jaundice in Pregnancy; Managed by PAIR.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jayant K; Goyal, Sundeep K; Behera, Manas K; Dixit, Vinod K; Jain, Ashok K

    2014-12-01

    Incidence of Hydatid disease in pregnancy ranges from 1in 20,000 to 1 in 30,000. The most common site of hydatid cysts is the liver. The diagnosis of liver hydatid cysts is not difficult but the management during pregnancy is problematic. Both medical and surgical treatments are available but there is no consensus and each case has to be individualized. We present a case of liver hydatid cyst presented with obstructive jaundice during pregnancy which was managed by Puncture of the cyst under USG guidance; Aspiration of the cystic fluid, Injection of hypertonic saline, and Re-aspiration of solution without drainage (PAIR) and albendazole therapy. Very few cases of liver hydatosis were reported previously which had been managed by PAIR. PMID:25755583

  18. Developmental toxicity in rat fetuses exposed to the benzimidazole netobimin.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Canut, L; Carretero, A; Cristofol, C; Pérez-Aparicio, F J; Arboix, M; Ruberte, J

    1999-01-01

    Netobimin (NTB) is a prodrug of albendazole (ABZ) and is used as a broad-spectrum anthelmintic both in human and veterinary medicine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated po with 50, 59.5 and 70.7 mg/kg of NTB on Gestational Day (GD) 10. The results, observed on GD 20, demonstrated that NTB induced a significant increase of resorptions. Moreover, decreased fetal body weight and an increase in skeletal malformations were observed in treated groups. We report the first study in which vascular malformations are described in rats after the administration of a benzimidazole compound. An interesting relationship between intercostal vessel and rib malformations was found. PMID:10453914

  19. [Disseminated cysticercosis: report of three cases in Togo].

    PubMed

    Mouhari-Toure, A; N'Timon, B; Kumako, V; Darre, T; Saka, B; Tchaou, M; Amegbor, K; Kombate, K; Balogou, A A; Pitche, P

    2015-08-01

    We report 3 cases of disseminated cysticercosis (DC) in adult male subjects in Togo. All had consulted in dermatology for asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology of a resected nodule. Computed tomography allowed us to bring out the widespread dissemination of cysticerci. The skin, brain, muscle, eye, thyroid, and pleura were the affected organs. Treatment was based on albendazole and betamethasone, with adverse side effects in 2 of our 3 patients. Our 3 observations seem to be the first of their kind in Togo. The mechanism of contamination in these disseminated forms is not yet elucidated, however ingesting a gravid proglottis could be the basis of the widespread dissemination of cysticerci in the body. No consensus has yet been established in the treatment of DC and the management should follow the guideline for treatment of neurocysticercosis and ocular cysticercosis. PMID:25893814

  20. Integrating Neglected Tropical Disease and Immunization Programs: The Experiences of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health.

    PubMed

    Mwingira, Upendo John; Means, Arianna Rubin; Chikawe, Maria; Kilembe, Bernard; Lyimo, Dafrossa; Crowley, Kathryn; Rusibamayila, Neema; Nshala, Andreas; Mphuru, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Global health practitioners are increasingly advocating for the integration of community-based health-care platforms as a strategy for increasing the coverage of programs, encouraging program efficiency, and promoting universal health-care goals. To leverage the strengths of compatible programs and avoid geographic and temporal duplications in efforts, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare coordinated immunization and neglected tropical disease programs for the first time in 2014. Specifically, a measles and rubella supplementary vaccine campaign, mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin and albendazole, and Vitamin A were provisionally integrated into a shared community-based delivery platform. Over 21 million people were targeted by the integrated campaign, with the immunization program and MDA program reaching 97% and 93% of targeted individuals, respectively. The purpose of this short report is to share the Tanzanian experience of launching and managing this integrated campaign with key stakeholders. PMID:27246449

  1. Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

    1994-01-01

    Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

  2. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is known to occur in immunocompetent individuals while hyperinfection and dissemination occurs in selective immunosuppressed hosts particularly those on corticosteroid therapy. We report two cases of hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients and document endoscopic and pathological changes in the involved small bowel. One patient presented with features of dehydration and malnutrition while another developed ileal obstruction and strangulation, requiring bowel resection. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erythematous and thickened duodenal mucosal folds. Histopathological examination of duodenal biopsies revealed S. stercoralis worms, larvae and eggs embedded in mucosa and submucosa. Wet mount stool preparation showed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis in both cases. Patients were managed with anthelmintic therapy (ivermectin/albendazole) and concurrent reduction of immunosuppression. Both patients had uneventful recovery. Complicated strongyloidiasis should be suspected in immunocompromised hosts who present with abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:25150235

  3. Assessing the impact of a joint human-porcine intervention package for Taenia solium control: Results of a pilot study from northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian; Inthavong, Phouth; Ash, Amanda; Khamlome, Boualam; Keokamphet, Chattouphone; Newberry, Kim; Gauci, Charles G; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Thompson, Rc Andrew; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Allen, John

    2016-07-01

    Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later. Community and individual human taeniasis prevalences were estimated via copro-antigen ELISA of volunteered human faecal samples prior to October 2013, and again in January 2015, in order to examine the short term impact of the intervention. PMID:26992295

  4. An unusual cause of overt gastrointestinal bleeding in a malnourished child.

    PubMed

    Zanwar, Vinay G; Pawar, Sunil V; Jain, Samit S; Rathi, Surabhi P; Contractor, Qais Q; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-04-01

    Trichuris trichiura (T. Trichiura) is a known parasite infestation among tropical children. Humans acquire Trichuriasis infection after ingestion of embryonated eggs via contaminated food or water. Most of them are asymptomatic. A severe form of trichuris infestation is known as Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS). It manifests as mucous diarrhoea, bleeding, malnutrition and stunting, or even life-threatening anaemia. We are reporting an interesting case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with bloody diarrhoea for 2 years. Her growth was stunted as she was not gaining weight. Severe inflammatory bowel disease was suspected clinically. Physical examination revealed marked pallor, pedal oedema and koilonychia along with sparse and hypopigmented hair. On evaluationT. Trichiurahelminths were seen on stool examination and massive worm load was visualised directly on colonoscopy. A diagnosis of TDS was made. She was successfully treated with oral Albendazole (400 mg) and blood transfusion. PMID:26264463

  5. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, William J; Kazacos, Kevin R

    2004-11-15

    The raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, is increasingly recognized as a cause of zoonotic visceral, ocular, and neural larva migrans and, in particular, of devastating encephalitis in young children. Exposure occurs mainly at raccoon latrines, where large numbers of infective eggs may be accidentally ingested. Risk factors for infection include contact with raccoon latrines, pica/geophagia, age of <4 years, and male sex. The severity of central nervous system (CNS) disease depends on the number of eggs ingested, the extent and location of larval migration, and the severity of ensuing inflammation and necrosis. Diagnosis of Baylisascaris encephalitis is based on clinical CNS disease, peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia, deep white matter lesions visible by magnetic resonance imaging, and positive results of serologic tests. Treatment efficacy in clinical cases is poor, but albendazole prevents disease if given promptly after infection. Considering the seriousness of this disease and limitations of diagnosis and treatment, prevention of infection with eggs is of utmost importance. PMID:15546085

  6. A Fatal Strongyloides Stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome in a Patient With Chronic kidney Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mei-Hong; Wang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare but fatal disease, which occurs commonly in immunocompromised patients. Strongyloidiasis among patients with chronic kidney disease is rarely reported.A 55-year-old Chinese male presented to hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. He developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage owing to disseminated strongyloidiasis immediately. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.This patient was diagnosed with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Although albendazole, mechanical ventilator support, fluid resuscitation, vasopressor support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocortisone, and broadspectrum antimicrobials were actively used, the patient eventually died.Similar cases in patients with chronic kidney disease in the literature are also reviewed. Through literature review, we recommend that strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27175679

  7. Pleuropulmonary hydatid disease treated with thoracoscopic instillation of hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan P, Hari; Musthafa A, Monhammed; Suraj, Kp; Ravidran, C

    2008-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of the cestode, Echinococcus granulosus. Man is the intermediate host in its life cycle. The most common organ involved is liver followed by lung. Although surgery remains the definitive treatment for symptomatic lesions, it is associated with considerable morbidity. Other less invasive treatment strategies as an adjunct to medical treatment that have been tried in various case series include percutaneous aspiration, instillation and reaspiration of scolicidal agents (PAIR), and thoracoscopic removal of cysts located subpleurally. Here we report the case of a 58 year old gentleman with hepatic and pleuropulmonary hydatid disease who was subjected to medical thoracoscopy and instillation of hypertonic saline (3%), followed by medical management with albendazole with which complete resolution of the pulmonary cysts was achieved. PMID:20390071

  8. Pulmonary microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon hellem in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, M; Sacchi, L; Croppo, G P; da Silva, A; Gatti, S; Corona, S; Orani, A; Bernuzzi, A M; Pieniazek, N J; Slemenda, S B; Wallace, S; Visvesvara, G S

    1997-03-01

    The microsporidian Encephalitozoon hellem is being reported with increasing frequency in HIV-positive subjects, as an agent of disseminated microsporidiosis without involving the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of pulmonary microsporidiosis in a 27-year-old Italian man with AIDS who developed fever, cough, and dyspnea. A chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral pulmonary opacities and mediastinal lymph-node enlargement. Stained smears of bronchoalveolar lavage sediment showed oval structures consistent with microsporidian spores. Viral, bacterial and fungal cultures were repeatedly negative, whereas microsporidia were successfully cultured in human and bovine fibroblast cell lines. Analysis of electron micrographs indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Encephalitozoon. Based on further immunological, biochemical and molecular studies it was characterized as E. hellem. Even though a temporary improvement with albendazole therapy was noticed, the patient deteriorated clinically and died of severe respiratory distress. PMID:9138134

  9. The Fifth Outbreak of Trichinosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ji-Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-01-01

    Trichinosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode, Trichinella spp., and had been reported several times in Korea. Recently, there was an additional outbreak, involving 5 patients, the findings from which are reported herein. On 30 November 2010, 8 persons ate sashimi of the meat of a wild boar. Then, 2-3 weeks later, they complained of myalgia and fever. Unfortunately, muscle biopsy was not performed, but ELISA was performed using their sera. Two people among 8 were positive for Trichinella on the 34th day post-infection (PI), and 3 patients who initially revealed negative ELISA were additionally proved to be positive for trichinosis on the 42nd day PI. Hence, the confirmed patients of trichinosis were 5 in total in the present outbreak. They were treated with albendazole and discharged uneventfully. This was the fifth outbreak of trichinosis in Korea. PMID:22355208

  10. A rare case of pulmonary cysticercosis manifesting as lung cavity with pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neeraj; Meena, Manoj; Harish, Sabarigirivasan; Patil, Chetan B; Kewlani, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary cysticercosis is extremely rare manifestation of a rather common disease which is distributed worldwide. Most common sites which provide perfect nourishment for the growth of cysticercosis are muscle and brain followed by eye. Pulmonary involvement in cysticercosis is very rare and if at all present, then ill-defined nodular shadows distributed throughout the lung is the usual radiological presentation. No case of cysticercosis presenting as lung cavity with pleural effusion has been reported so far in literature. We came across a rarest presentation of cysticercosis as cavity in the lung with effusion. After nullifying all the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions, a diagnosis of pulmonary cysticercosis was made by histopathological examination of the lung cavity aspirate and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cysticercosis. Case was successfully treated with albendazole (15mg/kg) with steroid cover. PMID:26628774

  11. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

  12. Molecular and Biological Diagnostic Tests for Monitoring Benzimidazole Resistance in Human Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M.; Kaplan, Ray M.; Prichard, Roger K.

    2013-01-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates. PMID:23458960

  13. Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis From Raccoon Exposure Resistant to Laser Photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Christakis, Panos G; Lam, Wai-Ching; Muni, Rajeev H

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is an ocular disease caused by a subretinal nematode worm. The authors present a unique case of a 9-year-old girl with DUSN due to presumed Baylisascaris procyonis, given the size of the worm and previous raccoon exposure. The worm was located in the inner retina and treated with laser photocoagulation and albendazole. At the 1-week follow-up, the worm was still mobile despite being inactive immediately after the initial laser treatment and required a more prolonged laser session. This case serves to highlight the importance of close follow-up in patients with DUSN to ensure the worm is inactivated. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:686-690.]. PMID:27434904

  14. The case of a cyst hydatid localized within the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Ozalp; Onen, Ahmet; Yildiz, Fidan; Yilmaz, Erkan; Erdal, Cenk A; Sanli, Aydin; Kilci, Göksel; Algin, Ibrahim; Itil, Oya; Açikel, Unal

    2004-07-01

    The ratio of cardiac involvement of Echinoccocus granulosus is 0.02-2% and although seen rarely, involvement of the interatrial septum has also been reported in the published literature. The present case was a 19-year-old male university student admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and dizziness. Computerized tomography of the cranium revealed a cystic mass located at the frontal region and enucleation of the cyst was performed during surgery. A cystic lesion 5 x 4 cm in size was detected within the interatrial septum on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during the postoperative period and the patient was referred to our clinic. Open heart surgery was performed and a hydatid cyst that involved the interatrial septum was enucleated. The cyst wall was sutured to the interatrial septum. No complications developed during the postoperative period. The patient was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization and medical therapy was started with albendazole. PMID:15353883

  15. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  16. A Severe Case of Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis with Encephalitis and Neurologic Sequelae in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Edward; Ferguson, Tomas M; Park, Sarah Y; Manuzak, Augustina; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Morgan, Stephen; Ciminera, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis is caused by infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We report the case of an adult who ingested a raw, giant African snail (Achatina fulica) on the island of O‘ahu in Hawai‘i and developed an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with severe headache, confusion, sixth cranial nerve palsy, ataxia, limb weakness, and paresthesia. He was treated with lumbar punctures to relieve pressure, high dose corticosteroids, and 14 days of albendazole. He had a prolonged convalescence, requiring 3 months of prednisone, and still had evidence of motor nerve weakness 4 months after exposure. A field investigation at the site of exposure yielded 5 of 9 Achatina fulica snails with evidence of A. cantonensis DNA by PCR. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from the patient were negative acutely but positive on day 15 of symptoms, using an investigational, real-time PCR assay. We discuss clinical management of this case in light of the current medical literature. PMID:23901383

  17. Rare Case of Disseminated Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in a Japanese Traveler after Returning from India

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  18. Molecular and biological diagnostic tests for monitoring benzimidazole resistance in human soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M; Kaplan, Ray M; Prichard, Roger K

    2013-06-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates. PMID:23458960

  19. Mediastinal hydatid cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mediastinal localization of hydatidosis is very rare even in endemic areas. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical and radiological criteria. Case presentation We report a case of a mediastinal location of hydatidosis in a 60-year-old Arab man admitted for chest pain. The chest radiograph showed a rounded and homogeneous opacity. Computed tomography showed a right mediastinal cyst, without other thoracic or abdominal sites. Through a posterolateral thoracotomy, we found a cystic mass in the posterior mediastinum. The patient received a cystectomy with medical treatment based on albendazole. He improved a few weeks later. Conclusion Mediastinal cysts remain rare, even in endemic countries, which makes initial diagnosis difficult. Our observation shows the importance of keeping this diagnosis in mind when a patient presents with signs of mediastinal compression. PMID:24099329

  20. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baple, Katy; Clayton, James

    2015-01-01

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a skin disease caused by infection with the larvae of animal hookworms. With conditions for infection more favourable in tropical climates, HrCLM in the UK is classically diagnosed in the returning traveller. We present two cases of clinically diagnosed UK-acquired HrCLM from a district general hospital in the south of England. A 68-year-old woman presented with a pruritic serpiginous tract on the right hand. She was a keen gardener and had been handling compost. A 50-year-old man, a long distance runner, presented with a similar lesion on the dorsum of his foot. Both patients were treated with a single dose of albendazole. These cases may represent an emerging infection in the UK. In the absence of a suggestive travel history, early recognition followed by efficient access to therapy is vital for treating HrCLM transmitted in the UK. PMID:26567237

  1. Rare case of disseminated cysticercosis and taeniasis in a Japanese traveler after returning from India.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Nishiguchi, Takeshi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kokubo, Yasumasa; Ando, Katsuhiko; Katurahara, Masaki; Sako, Yasuhito; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    We report disseminated cysticercosis concurrent with taeniasis in a 31-year-old male Japanese, who had visited India three times and stayed for 1 month each time during the previous 1 year. The patient presented increasing numbers of subcutaneous nodules and expelled proglottids, although numerous cysts were also found in the brain in imaging findings, though no neurological symptoms were observed. Histopathological and serological findings strongly indicated cysticercosis. We found taeniid eggs in his stool by microscopic examination and revealed them as the Indian haplotype of Taenia solium by mitochondrial DNA analysis. We concluded that disseminated cysticercosis was caused by the secondary autoinfection with eggs released from the tapeworm carrier himself. After confirming the absence of adult worms in the intestine by copro-polymerase chain reaction, the patient was successfully treated with albendazole at a dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Subcutaneous and intracranial lesions had completely disappeared by the end of the treatment period. PMID:23629930

  2. Hepatogenous photosensitisation in Scottish sheep casued by Dicrocoelium dendriticum.

    PubMed

    Sargison, N D; Baird, G J; Sotiraki, S; Gilleard, J S; Busin, V

    2012-10-26

    Dicrocoeliosis was identified as the probable predisposing cause of weight loss and hepatogenous photosensitisation affecting half of a group of 14 month-old ewe lambs on a farm on the Inner Hebridean island of Coll. Oral dosing of the ewe lambs with 15 mg/kg albendazole only achieved a 79.2% reduction in Dicrocoelium dendriticum egg count, 21 day post treatment. Thus, this report of dicrocoeliosis differs from the disease that occurs elsewhere, both in the severity and nature of its clinical signs, and in the response of the parasite to anthelmintic drug treatment. These differences could indicate the existence of a genetically divergent D. dendriticum population, which may have evolved within the unique and isolated biotope afforded by the machair on the island of Coll. Better understanding of these factors is a prerequisite for effective and sustainable disease control. PMID:22564662

  3. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil

    PubMed Central

    Taur, D. J.; Kulkarni, V. B.; Patil, R. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. PMID:21808553

  4. Renal failure: unusual clinical presentation of an isolated intrarenal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Mehwash; Biyabani, Syed Raziuddin; Pervez, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis or hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by larval stage of cestode Echinococcus spp. Humans are an accidental intermediate host and present with the involvement of different organs, the liver being the most common while kidney is the rarest site. Here, authors are reporting a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with renal failure and was found to have a right-sided intrarenal hydatid cyst, diagnosed and treated with nephroscopy without sacrificing the kidney. She had an uneventful postoperative course and her renal function improved dramatically. She is now on oral albendazole therapy and doing well on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, renal failure has never been reported in the literature as clinical manifestation of intrarenal hydatid cyst in adult population. PMID:24243503

  5. Middle lobe syndrome: a singularly rare presentation of complicated pulmonary hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is crucial to the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease, as it is often the first modality that raises suspicion of the disease. Middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of this disease is a distinct rarity. A 45-year-old woman, a never-smoker, presented with cough and streaky haemoptysis. Imaging demonstrated a trapezoidal opacity with its base towards the hilum and contiguous with the right cardiac border. The reformatted sagittal view confirmed the diagnosis of MLS. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) revealed an avascular white membranous structure wholly occluding the medial segment of the middle lobe. This was completely removed through gentle suction. Bronchial aspirate revealed hooklets of hydatid and echinococcal serology was positive. Subsequently, three cycles of albendazole were administered with remarkable clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of MLS caused by pulmonary hydatidosis that was completely removed through FOB. PMID:27045051

  6. Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C

    1988-05-01

    Controlled trials were used to assess the efficacy of various anthelmintics against immature and adult paramphistomes in 75 experimentally or naturally infected sheep. Albendazole (20 mg/kg), praziquantel (10 mg/kg), nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) triclabendazole (10 and 100 mg/kg), profenophos (25 mg/kg) and netobimin (15 mg/kg) had little or no activity against adult or immature fluke. Niclosamide at 100 mg/kg had high efficacy (99%) against intestinal fluke but none against adult fluke. A 2- tertiary-butyl benzthiazole compound (CGA 72630) at 25 mg/kg and resorantel at 65 mg/kg had very high efficacy against both adult and immature fluke in the rumen and small intestine respectively. The efficacy of other anthelmintics which have been used against paramphistomes in sheep is reviewed. PMID:3401161

  7. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver with an unusual presentation: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Li; Zuppan, Craig W.; Raza, Anwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasm, relatively unique to the liver that occurs primarily in children and teenagers. Delay in diagnosis is not uncommon due to lack of a characteristic clinical presentation, serological markers and radiological changes. We report a case of UESL in a 9-year-old girl who presented with right upper quadrant pain and a palpable mass. Laboratory and imaging workup revealed a complex hepatic cyst, increased IgE, transient peripheral eosinophilia and a normal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Initial empirical treatment with albendazole was implemented for presumed hydatid cyst disease, but the child failed to improve. Subsequent surgical resection resulted in the correct diagnosis of UESL. She received 6 months of chemotherapy and remains well with no evidence of tumor about 12 months after resection. We herein review the typical clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of this rare tumor. PMID:27034807

  8. [Giant racemose subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis: A case report].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Larsen, Alvaro; Monteagudo, Maria; Lozano-Setien, Elena; Garcia-Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, which can affect different anatomical sites. In Spain there is an increasing prevalence mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. The extraparenchymal forms are less common, but more serious because they usually develop complications. Neuroimaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease, supported by serology and a compatible clinical and epidemiological context. First-line treatments are cysticidal drugs such as albendazole and praziquantel, usually coadministered with corticosteroids, and in some cases surgery is indicated. We here report a case of neurocysticercosis with simultaneous intraventricular and giant racemose subarachnoid involvement. PMID:26321177

  9. Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Varied clinical manifestations occur, due to deposition of larvae of the parasite Taenia solium in cerebral parenchyma, meninges, spinal cord, muscles, eyes and skin. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis can be made with a fairly high degree of accuracy with the help of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Serological tests and histopathological examination of subcutaneous nodules provide additional support in establishing the diagnosis. The anticysticercal drugs albendazole and praziquantel have been extensively used, and found to be effective for all types of neurocysticercosis. However, recently controversy has been raised about their safety, and long-term clinical usefulness. Preventive health measures, such as provision of safe drinking water and excretion disposal, still offer the best ways to manage this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799883

  10. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis with migrated lesions cured by multiple therapies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Qian, Jun; Yang, Dongliang; Zheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infectious disease caused by Trematodes of the genus Paragonimus that is endemic in Asia, Africa, and South America. Most patients with paragonimiasis are cured by standard praziquantel treatment. However, several cases have been reported to have unsatisfactory responses to the standard praziquantel treatment. To probe the clinical characteristics, possible cause, and management of the paragonimiasis individuals improved by multiple therapies, we present a 12-year-old Chinese boy, who was infected with Paragonimus accompanied by arachnoid cyst involvement, as not having typical clinical symptoms, but repeatedly presenting with migrated lesions between the lung and pleura. He responded to treatment with 3 cycles of praziquantel and 1 cycle of albendazole. PMID:26960636

  11. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is known to occur in immunocompetent individuals while hyperinfection and dissemination occurs in selective immunosuppressed hosts particularly those on corticosteroid therapy. We report two cases of hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients and document endoscopic and pathological changes in the involved small bowel. One patient presented with features of dehydration and malnutrition while another developed ileal obstruction and strangulation, requiring bowel resection. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erythematous and thickened duodenal mucosal folds. Histopathological examination of duodenal biopsies revealed S. stercoralis worms, larvae and eggs embedded in mucosa and submucosa. Wet mount stool preparation showed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis in both cases. Patients were managed with anthelmintic therapy (ivermectin/albendazole) and concurrent reduction of immunosuppression. Both patients had uneventful recovery. Complicated strongyloidiasis should be suspected in immunocompromised hosts who present with abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:25150235

  12. Effect of two formulations of benzimidazole carbamates on the viability of cysts of Echinococcus granulosus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Mwuambete, K; Ponce-Gordo, F; Torrado, J; Torrado, S; Cuesta-Bandera, C

    2003-12-01

    Two different preparations, solution and suspension, of three benzimidazole carbamate drugs, mebendazole, albendazole and ricobendazole, were compared by analyzing their in vivo activity against Echinococcus granulosus cysts in a mouse model. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used for the elaboration of drug solutions and these formulations manifested better results in terms of reduction of number of viable hydatid cysts in mice than the reference drug suspensions. The effect was more prominent on mebendazole-treated mice, at doses of 25-50 mg/kg. There was a correlation between ED50 and pharmacokinetical parameters of AUC0-infinity and Cmax, showing that a significant improvement on solubility affects the in vivo activity of these drugs. PMID:14710635

  13. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes. PMID:26827586

  14. HPLC method for identification and quantification of benzimidazole derivatives in antiparasitic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Anna; Białecka, Wanda; Podolska, Marzena; Kwiatkowska-Puchniarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study was to develop a versatile HPLC system for identification and determination of four benzimidazole derivatives in the antiparasitic drugs. The tests covered: Zentel, Panacur, Vermox tablets and Systamex suspension. A satisfactory separation was obtained using the Nucleosil C8 column in the gradient system composed of mobile phase A: 85% orthophosphoric acid / water / acetonitrile in 0.05:75:25, v/v/v ratio, and mobile phase B: 85% orthophosphoric acid / water / acetonitrile in 0.05:50:50, v/v/v ratio. Both phases were adjusted to pH = 4.5 with 15% sodium hydroxide solution. A detection at 288 nm for oxfendazole and 254 nm for albendazole, fenbendazole and mebendazole was applied. The correlation coefficients in the range 0,9997 - 0,9999 proved that the calibration curves were linear. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, accuracy and precision. PMID:22125945

  15. [Human helminthiasis transmitted by fishes].

    PubMed

    Chappuis, F; Loutan, L

    2006-05-10

    The consumption of dishes made from raw fresh- or see-water fishes exposes many individuals (residents, visitors or migrants) from tropical to arctic regions to the risk of helminthiasis. Anisakiasis, diphyllobothriasis, clonorchiasis, opistorchiasis and gnathostomiasis have distinct parasitic cycles and various clinical presentations, from sub-clinical infections to life-threatening hemorragic or tumoral complications. In-depth history, clinical presentation, stool examination for ova and parasites and serology usually allow for a specific diagnosis to be made. The common anti-parasitic drugs, such as albendazole, ivermectin and praziquantel, are efficacious against most of these helminthiasis. Sufficient cooking or freezing of fishes before consumption are very efficient preventive measures. PMID:16767879

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Stewart, Barclay T.; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole therapy. Results Of 1,541 HIV-1 seropositive individuals screened, 298 (19.3%) had detectable helminth infections. Among individuals with helminth infection, hookworm species were the most prevalent (56.3%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.1%), Trichuris trichiura (8.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (7.1%), and Stongyloides stercoralis (1.3%). Infection with multiple species occurred in 9.4% of infections. After CD4 count was controlled for, rural residence (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81), having no education (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.30), and higher CD4 count (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73) remained independently associated with risk of helminth infection. Twelve weeks following treatment with albendazole, 32% of helminth-infected individuals had detectable helminths on examination. Residence, education, and CD4 count were not associated with persistent helminth infection. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive adults with CD4 counts above 250 cells/mm3 in Kenya, traditional risk factors for helminth infection, including rural residence and lack of education, were associated with co-infection, while lower CD4 counts were not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00130910 PMID:20361031

  17. Anthelmintic effect of a methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves on Paramphistomum explanatum.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Emdad; Chandra, Goutam; Nandy, Anadi P; Mandal, Subhash C; Gupta, Jayanta Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Bombax malabaricum (family Bombacaceae) is used as anthelmintic in traditional system of medicine in Southern Punjab of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extract of B. malabaricum leaves (MEBM). Live parasites (trematode: Paramphistomum explanatum) were collected from buffalo in 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline. It was incubated in Petri dishes at 37 ± 1°C in media containing either no extract (control) or MEBM, the test drug at 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml dose level or albendazole, the standard drug at 10 mg/ml. The efficacy of the extract or albendazole was measured on the basis of the loss of spontaneous movement and/or death of the trematodes. Paralysis was considered when there is no movement unless shaken vigorously. Death was confirmed when the trematodes completely lost their motility, even when vigorously shaken or dipped in warm water (50°C), followed by fading away of their body color. The trematodes, both drug treated and others, were further processed for SEM study using the standard method. All trematodes died with all the above-mentioned doses of MEBM within a short period of time (less than 45 min) which was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). MEBM at 100 mg/ml showed maximum efficacy. It paralyzed and killed trematodes in 18.50 ± 0.62 and 22.17 ± 0.48 min, respectively. SEM study showed that MEBM-treated trematodes were stretched. The study established the anthelmintic activity of MEBM. PMID:21853226

  18. In vitro and in vivo screening of anthelmintic activity of ginger and curcumin on Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Bazh, Eman K A; El-Bahy, Nasr M

    2013-11-01

    Intestinal helmintic infection, continue to be a cause of major concern in several parts of the world, particularly in the developing nations. The use of plant extracts to control poultry helminths is increasing in different rearing systems. The anthelmintic activity of ginger and curcumin was studied on the nematode Ascaridia galli. In vitro and in vivo studies were allocated. Live parasites for in vitro studies were collected from the intestine of naturally infected chickens. Some living worms were incubated at 37 °C in media containing ginger at three concentration levels (25, 50, and 100 mg/ml), and others were incubated in media containing curcumin at the same concentration levels. Another living worm group was incubated in media containing albendazole at a dose of 7.5 mg/ml. The extracts' efficacy was exhibited in a concentration-time-dependent manner mainly at 100 mg/ml and after 48 h. The in vivo study takes place on experimentally infected chickens. Group of infected chickens was treated with ginger extract at dose of 100 mg, another group was treated with curcumin extract at dose of 100 mg, and a third group was treated with albendazole at dose of 7.5 mg. In vivo study of ginger and curcumin recorded lower mortality rates than the in vitro study. It is concluded that ginger and curcumin extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. Ginger in all concentrations used exhibited a higher death rate observed than curcumin. Their wormicidal effect is concentration-time dependent. PMID:24046262

  19. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  20. [Control of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in pasture-reared lambs].

    PubMed

    Chroust, K

    1997-03-01

    Two sheep herds kept in different geographic conditions with spring lambing by the end of March and April (herd No. 1: 400 ewes, 600 metres above sea level; herd No. 2: 450 ewes, 300 metres above sea level) were examined. The dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode and Moniezia spp. cestode egg counts in samples taken regularly every 4 to 5 weeks was studied during the year 1995 with the intention to verify the system of effective control of these helminth infections under pasture conditions of lamb rearing. In ewes a significant rise in gastrointestinal nematode egg counts was proved during the lambing season, "spring rise phenomenon", and during the summer pasture until autumn months with maximum EPG values reaching 150 (Figs. 1 and 2). In lambs that started grazing at 1 to 4 weeks of age, the excretion steeply rose to maximum EPG values 350 and 290, respectively, after 4 to 5 weeks of grazing (Figs. 1 and 2). In order to control these rising infections, ewes were treated with antihelmintic albendazol by the end of February (herd No. 1) and in March (herd No. 2) and lambs during the first or third decade of July. This anthelmintic treatment significantly lowered egg excretion to EPG values lower than 30 in ewes and 50 or 60, respectively, in lambs. Later, during the summer and autumn months, a mild rise of egg counts was found in lambs. These maxima were liquidated anthelmintis treatment in both herds in late autumn months and it also lowered helminth infections to minimum during winter months (EPG values lower than 50). The excretion of Moniezia spp. eggs had the same dynamics as that gastrointestinal nematodes. Values of lamb infection prevalence reached 21% in herd No. 1 and 29% in herd No. 2. Anthelmintic treatment during July controlled cestode findings in lambs. Albendazol (Vermitan susp. 2.5%), dosed 5 mg/kg of body weight, proved highly effective in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. cestodes. PMID:9182393