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Sample records for albers equal area

  1. Equal area rule methods for ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, G.S.; Hanif, N.S.M.; Alvarado, J.F.J.; Hall, K.R.; Eubank, P.T.

    1995-12-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior of fluid mixtures is an important design consideration for both chemical processes and oil production. Eubank and Hall have recently shown the equal area rule (EAR) applies to the composition derivative of the Gibbs energy of a binary system at fixed pressure and temperature regardless of derivative continuity. A sufficient condition for equilibria, EAR is faster and simpler than either the familiar tangent-line method or the area method of Eubank et al. Here, the authors show that EAR can be extended to ternary systems exhibiting one, two, or three phases at equilibrium. A single directional vector is searched in composition space; at equilibrium, this vector is the familiar tie line. A sensitive criterion for equilibrium under EAR is equality of orthogonal derivatives such as ({partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}x{sub 1}){sub x{sub 2}P,T} at the end points ({alpha} and {beta}), where g {equivalent_to} ({Delta}{sub m}G/RT). Repeated use of the binary algorithm published in the first reference allows rapid, simple solution of ternary problems, even with hand-held calculations for cases where the background model is simple (e.g., activity coefficient models) and the derivative continuous.

  2. Obituary: Henry Albers (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromey, Fred

    2011-12-01

    Henry Albers, professor of astronomy at Vassar College for over thirty years, died March 29, 2009, in Fairhope, Alabama. For his work at Vassar, where he held the Maria Mitchell Chair, Albers received the first Maria Mitchell Women in Science Award for his inspiration of women astronomers. He said "In the final analysis it is the students who bring the joy into teaching." As a professional astronomer, Albers did observational work on Galactic structure in the southern Milky Way, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. In retirement, Albers published Maria Mitchell - A Life in Journals and Letters, the firsthand account of America's first woman astronomer. Albers's research was on photographic near-infrared spectroscopy of red giant stars in the southern Milky Way, some proper motion studies, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. A series of seven NSF grants supported his six trips to Chile to make spectroscopic observations, as well as his sabbatical collaborations at Minnesota, Leiden, and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. Henry Albers arrived at Vassar in 1958, to find an astronomy program that had been recently absorbed by the physics department, and that was suffering neglect after the retirement of Maud Makemson. For the next 31 years, with incredible energy -- he sometimes taught seven courses a year -- he built the astronomy program into one double in size (from one to two tenure lines), whose th century facilities have been replaced with a st century observatory. For a remarkable stretch of 20-some-years, Albers and physicist Bob Stearns, with considerable grace, alternated chairmanship of the joint department of physics and astronomy. Henry Albers was a devoted citizen of Vassar College and an enthusiastic participant in the process of faculty governance at that institution. He would have been the first to concede that his enthusiasm was sometimes excessive, and that his contributions at faculty meetings occasionally failed to move the

  3. Derivative of Area Equals Perimeter--Coincidence or Rule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Sinitsky, Ilya; Leikin, Roza

    2013-01-01

    Why is the derivative of the area of a circle equal to its circumference? Why is the derivative of the volume of a sphere equal to its surface area? And why does a similar relationship not hold for a square or a cube? Or does it? In their work in teacher education, these authors have heard at times undesirable responses to these questions:…

  4. Maxwell’s equal area law for Lovelock thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    We present the construction of Maxwell’s equal area law for the Guass-Bonnet AdS black holes in d = 5, 6 and third-order Lovelock AdS black holes in d = 7, 8. The equal area law can be used to find the number and location of the points of intersection in the plots of Gibbs free energy, so that we can get the thermodynamically preferred solution which corresponds to the first-order phase transition. We obtain the radius of the small and large black holes in the phase transition which share the same Gibbs free energy. The case with two critical points is explored in much more details. The latent heat is also studied.

  5. Josef Alber's "Interaction of Color": From Print to Interactive Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Jerry; Roberts, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of interactive, multimedia courseware based on Josef Alber's book, "Interaction of Color." Alber's ideas and teachings on the perceptions of color are explained, and steps involving computer graphics, hardware, and software that resulted in the use of CD-ROM and videodisc with an Apple Macintosh II are detailed.…

  6. [Albers-Schönberg disease].

    PubMed

    Székely, G; Winkler, V; Tarkovács, G; Hosszúfalusi, N; Vértes, P

    1995-02-26

    The authors while describing their patients suffering from osteopetrosis disease, discuss its morphological aspects and possible patho-mechanism. The disease with osteosclerosis can be inherited recessively or dominantly. The recessively inherited type is less frequent and leads to early death due to secondary developing myelofibrosis. The dominantly inherited form is more benevolent, the patients are free of symptoms in half of cases. The patients described by the authors belong to the dominantly inherited type of the Albers-Schönberg disease. One of their patients suffers from rheumatoid arthritis and myelodisplastic syndrome apart from osteopetrosis. Having considered the publications authors have found data based on which the common source and connection of these three diseases can be rendered possible. Analyzing these data they draw attention to the possible pathogenic role of cytokines, first of all of the macrophag colony stimulating factor, moreover to the rheumatic manifestation of the paraneoplastic syndrome.

  7. The computation of 15 deg and 10 deg equal area block terrestrial free air gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Starting with the set of 23,355 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies used in Rapp (1972) to form a 5 deg equal area block terrestrial gravity field, the computation of 15 deg equal area block mean free air gravity anomalies is described along with estimates of their standard deviations. A new scheme of an integral division of a 15 deg block into 9 component 300 n. m. blocks, and each 300 n. m. block being subdivided into 25 60 n.mi. blocks, is used. This insures that there is no loss in accuracy, which would have resulted if proportional values according to area were taken of the 5 deg equal area anomalies to form the 15 deg block anomalies. A similar scheme is used for the computation of 10 deg equal area block mean free air gravity anomalies with estimates of their standard deviations. The scheme is general enough to be used for a 30 deg equal area block terrestrial gravity field.

  8. An equal area law for holographic entanglement entropy of the AdS-RN black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.

    2015-12-01

    The Anti-de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström (AdS-RN) black hole in the canonical ensemble undergoes a phase transition similar to the liquid-gas phase transition, i.e. the isocharges on the entropy-temperature plane develop an unstable branch when the charge is smaller than a critical value. It was later discovered that the isocharges on the entanglement entropy -temperature plane also exhibit the same van der Waals-like structure, for spherical entangling regions. In this paper, we present numerical results which sharpen this similarity between entanglement entropy and black hole entropy, by showing that both of these entropies obey Maxwell's equal area law to an accuracy of around 1%. Moreover, we checked this for a wide range of size of the spherical entangling region, and the equal area law holds independently of the size. We also checked the equal area law for AdS-RN in 4 and 5 dimensions, so the conclusion is not specific to a particular dimension. Finally, we repeated the same procedure for a similar, van der Waals-like transition of the dyonic black hole in AdS in a mixed ensemble (fixed electric potential and fixed magnetic charge), and showed that the equal area law is not valid in this case. Thus the equal area law for entanglement entropy seems to be specific to the AdS-RN background.

  9. Map Projections and the Visual Detective: How to Tell if a Map Is Equal-Area, Conformal, or Neither

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Judy M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to see whether a map is equal-area, conformal, or neither is useful for looking intelligently at large-area maps. For example, only if a map is equal-area can reliable judgments of relative size be made. If a map is equal-area, latitude-longitude cells are equal in size between a given pair of parallels, the cells between a given pair…

  10. An Alternative Way to Achieve Kepler's Laws of Equal Areas and Ellipses for the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of…

  11. Some Equal-area, Conformal and Conventional Map Projections: A Tutorial Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Map projections have been widely used in many areas such as geography, oceanography, meteorology, geology, geodesy, photogrammetry and global positioning systems. Understanding different types of map projections is very crucial in these areas. This paper presents a tutorial review of various types of current map projections such as equal-area, conformal and conventional. We present these map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for them in detail. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  12. Evaluation of global equal-area mass grid solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron

    2015-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) range-rate data was inverted into global equal-area mass grid solutions at the Center for Space Research (CSR) using Tikhonov Regularization to stabilize the ill-posed inversion problem. These solutions are intended to be used for applications in Hydrology, Oceanography, Cryosphere etc without any need for post-processing. This paper evaluates these solutions with emphasis on spatial and temporal characteristics of the signal content. These solutions will be validated against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  13. The formation and analysis of a 5 deg equal area block terrestrial gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A set of 23,355 1 degree x 1 degree mean free air anomalies were used to predict a set of 5 degree equal area anomalies and their standard errors. Using the 1 degree data incorporating geophysically predicted values of ACIC, 1283 5 degree blocks were computed. Excluding the geophysically predicted anomalies 1249 blocks were computed. The 1 degree data were also used to compute covariance functions and the equatorial gravity and flattening implied by this data. The predicted anomalies were supplemented by model anomalies to form a complete 1654 global anomaly field. These data were used in a weighted least squares to determine potential coefficients to degree 15, and in a summation type formulation to determine potential coefficients to degree 25. These potential coefficients sets are compared to recent satellite determinations.

  14. Are some areas more equal than others? Socioeconomic inequality in potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions within English local authority areas

    PubMed Central

    Asaria, Miqdad; Barratt, Helen; Raine, Rosalind; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reducing health inequalities is an explicit goal of England’s health system. Our aim was to compare the performance of English local administrative areas in reducing socioeconomic inequality in emergency hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions. Methods We used local authority area as a stable proxy for health and long-term care administrative geography between 2004/5 and 2011/12. We linked inpatient hospital activity, deprivation, primary care, and population data to small area neighbourhoods (typical population 1500) within administrative areas (typical population 250,000). We measured absolute inequality gradients nationally and within each administrative area using neighbourhood-level linear models of the relationship between national deprivation and age–sex-adjusted emergency admission rates. We assessed local equity performance by comparing local inequality against national inequality to identify areas significantly more or less equal than expected; evaluated stability over time; and identified where equity performance was steadily improving or worsening. We then examined associations between change in socioeconomic inequalities and change in within-area deprivation (gentrification). Finally, we used administrative area-level random and fixed effects models to examine the contribution of primary care to inequalities in admissions. Results Data on 316 administrative areas were included in the analysis. Local inequalities were fairly stable between consecutive years, but 32 areas (10%) showed steadily improving or worsening equity. In the 21 improving areas, the gap between most and least deprived fell by 3.9 admissions per 1000 (six times the fall nationally) between 2004/5 and 2011/12, while in the 11 areas worsening, the gap widened by 2.4. There was no indication that measured improvements in local equity were an artefact of gentrification or that changes in primary care supply or quality contributed to changes in

  15. Estimation of aquifer scale proportion using equal area grids: assessment of regional scale groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Landon, Matthew K.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of an aquifer with constituent concentrations above a specified threshold (high concentrations) is taken as a nondimensional measure of regional scale water quality. If computed on the basis of area, it can be referred to as the aquifer scale proportion. A spatially unbiased estimate of aquifer scale proportion and a confidence interval for that estimate are obtained through the use of equal area grids and the binomial distribution. Traditionally, the confidence interval for a binomial proportion is computed using either the standard interval or the exact interval. Research from the statistics literature has shown that the standard interval should not be used and that the exact interval is overly conservative. On the basis of coverage probability and interval width, the Jeffreys interval is preferred. If more than one sample per cell is available, cell declustering is used to estimate the aquifer scale proportion, and Kish's design effect may be useful for estimating an effective number of samples. The binomial distribution is also used to quantify the adequacy of a grid with a given number of cells for identifying a small target, defined as a constituent that is present at high concentrations in a small proportion of the aquifer. Case studies illustrate a consistency between approaches that use one well per grid cell and many wells per cell. The methods presented in this paper provide a quantitative basis for designing a sampling program and for utilizing existing data.

  16. Wald's entropy is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of the effective gravitational coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadad, Merav

    2009-02-15

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of black holes in Einstein's theory of gravity is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of Newton's constant. Wald has proposed that in general theories of gravity the entropy of stationary black holes with bifurcate Killing horizons is a Noether charge which is in general different from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We show that the Noether charge entropy is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of the effective gravitational coupling on the horizon defined by the coefficient of the kinetic term of a specific metric perturbation polarization on the horizon. We present several explicit examples of static spherically symmetric black holes.

  17. Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (Albers-Schönberg disease) to chromosome 1p21.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hul, W; Bollerslev, J; Gram, J; Van Hul, E; Wuyts, W; Benichou, O; Vanhoenacker, F; Willems, P J

    1997-01-01

    Albers-Schönberg disease, the classical form of osteopetrosis, is an autosomal dominant condition with generalized increased skeletal density due to reduced bone resorption. Characteristic radiological findings are generalized osteosclerosis, with, most typically, end-plate sandwichlike thickening of the vertebrae (Rugger-Jersey spine) and the bone-within-bone (endobones) phenomenon. We studied an extended kindred with Albers-Schönberg disease and found linkage with several markers from chromosome 1p21. The Albers-Schönberg gene is located in a candidate region of approximately 8.5 cM flanked by markers D1S486 and D1S2792. A maximum LOD score (Z(max)) of 4.09 was obtained in multipoint analysis at loci D1S239/D1S248. Possible linkage of osteopetrosis to this chromosomal region was analyzed because the CSF-1 gene, which is mutated in the op/op mouse model for osteopetrosis, is located in 1p21. However, SSCP and mutation analysis in patients did not reveal any abnormality, which excludes the CSF-1 gene as the disease-causing gene. This was confirmed by refined physical mapping of the CSF-1 gene outside the candidate region for the Albers-Schönberg gene. The identification of the molecular defect underlying Albers-Schönberg disease will therefore be dependent on the isolation of other genes from an 8.5-cM candidate region on chromosome 1p21. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9311741

  18. Multiple scattering and the Rehr-Albers-Fritzsche formula for the propagator matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. A.

    1998-11-01

    The propagator matrix is one ingredient in exact theories of multiple scattering. It occurs in the addition theorem (or translation formula) for expanding a spherical outgoing multipole, singular at one point, in terms of regular spherical solutions about another point. It also occurs in the two-centre expansion of the free-space Green's function (or free-particle propagator). Many methods have been devised for computing the propagator matrix, but one of the most efficient, numerically, is based on a formula obtained in 1990 by Rehr and Albers and by Fritzsche. A clear derivation of this formula is given. The formula is also simplified, leading to an expansion in inverse powers of kb, where k is the wavenumber and b is the spacing. This leads to consistent approximations, which are asymptotic as 0305-4470/31/44/016/img1.

  19. Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stephen McCarthy, co-partner and president of Equal Access ADA Consulting Architects of San Diego, California, about designing schools to naturally integrate compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (EV)

  20. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  1. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  2. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)—designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation—differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  3. Food Self-Provisioning in Czechia: Beyond Coping Strategy of the Poor--A Response to Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union" (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the…

  4. Illustrated type catalogue of Amphidromus Albers, 1850 in the Natural History Museum, London, and descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sutcharit, Chirasak; Ablett, Jonathan; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The collection of the Southeast Asian tree snail genus Amphidromus Albers, 1850 at the Natural History Museum, London includes more than 100 lots of type specimens representing 85 name-bearing types, 9 paratypes and 6 paralectotypes, and one nomen nudum. Lectotypes are here designated for Amphidromus cambojiensis, Amphidromus perakensis globosus, Amphidromus columellaris gloriosa, Amphidromus maculiferus inflata, Amphidromus lepidus, Amphidromus sinistralis lutea, Amphidromus moniliferus, Amphidromus maculiferus obscura, Amphidromus sinistralis rosea and Amphidromus sinensi vicaria. In addition, the missing types of A.A. Gould were discovered and their type status is discussed. A complete catalogue of these types, including colour photographs is provided for the first time. After examining these type specimens, two new Amphidromus species, Amphidromus (Syndromus) globonevilli Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. and Amphidromus (Syndromus) principalis Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. were recognized and are described herein. PMID:25878542

  5. Convergence and reliability of the Rehr-Albers formalism in multiple-scattering calculations of photoelectron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; García de Abajo, F. J.; Chassé, A.; Ynzunza, R. X.; Kaduwela, A. P.; van Hove, M. A.; Fadley, C. S.

    1998-11-01

    The Rehr-Albers (RA) separable Green's-function formalism, which is based on an expansion series, has been successful in speeding up multiple-scattering cluster calculations for photoelectron diffraction simulations, particularly in its second-order version. The performance of this formalism is explored here in terms of computational speed, convergence over orders of multiple scattering, over orders of approximation, and over cluster size, by comparison with exact cluster-based formalisms. It is found that the second-order RA approximation [characterized by (6×6) scattering matrices] is adequate for many situations, particularly if the initial state from which photoemission occurs is of s or p type. For the most general and quantitative applications, higher-order versions of RA may become necessary for d initial states [third-order, i.e., (10×10) matrices] and f initial states [fourth-order, i.e., (15×15) matrices]. However, the required RA order decreases as an electron wave proceeds along a multiple-scattering path, and this can be exploited, together with the selective and automated cutoff of weakly contributing matrix elements and paths, to yield computer time savings of at least an order of magnitude with no significant loss of accuracy. Cluster sizes of up to approximately 100 atoms should be sufficient for most problems that require about 5% accuracy in diffracted intensities. Excellent sensitivity to structure is seen in comparisons of second-order theory with variable geometry to exact theory as a fictitious ``experiment.'' Our implementation of the Rehr-Albers formalism thus represents a versatile, quantitative, and efficient method for the accurate simulation of photoelectron diffraction.

  6. Granting Each Equal Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings,…

  7. 50 CFR Table 43 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area 43... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 43 Table 43 to Part 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area Longitude Latitude 168 7... projected coordinate system is North American Datum 1983, Albers. * This boundary extends in a...

  8. 50 CFR Table 43 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area 43... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 43 Table 43 to Part 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area Longitude Latitude 168 7... projected coordinate system is North American Datum 1983, Albers. * This boundary extends in a...

  9. 50 CFR Table 43 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area 43... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 43 Table 43 to Part 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area Longitude Latitude 168 7... projected coordinate system is North American Datum 1983, Albers. * This boundary extends in a...

  10. 50 CFR Table 43 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area 43... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 43 Table 43 to Part 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area Longitude Latitude 168 7... projected coordinate system is North American Datum 1983, Albers. * This boundary extends in a...

  11. Forget about equality.

    PubMed

    Powers, Madison

    1996-06-01

    Justice is widely thought to consist in equality. For many theorists, the central question has been: Equality of what? The author argues that the ideal of equality distorts practical reasoning and has deeply counterintuitive implications. Moreover, an alternative view of distributive justice can give a better account of what egalitarians should care about than can any of the competing ideals of equality.

  12. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  13. Connecting the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to view the equals sign as an operator symbol bereft of the rich relational properties of equality statements. It has been argued by some that this restricted view of the equals sign is due to cultural or cognitive factors. We suggest a significant factor is that rich relational meanings lack relevance within the context of…

  14. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    PubMed

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality.

  15. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  16. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  17. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  18. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  19. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  20. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his…

  1. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  2. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  3. The Equal Pay Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard A.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of extending the Equal Pay Act to university faculty are examined in light of the complicated market forces and merit systems affecting faculty appointments and salaries. Solutions to the problem are suggested including guidelines for the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor to use in identifying sex discrimination. (JT)

  4. Motivation and Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Burton, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that if teachers maintain task involvement in all children, they will achieve justifiable form of educational equality. Discusses social and personal factors which influence task involvement, including value framework of school (i.e., purpose school is seen to serve), organizational strategies adopted to facilitate learning, and specific…

  5. Equality Versus Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)

  6. EQUALS Investigations: Remote Rulers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Karen; Whitlow, Robert

    EQUALS is a teacher education program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. It supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics which has students working in groups, uses active assessment methods, and incorporates a broad mathematics curriculum…

  7. EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLEMAN, JAMES S.; AND OTHERS

    THE PRODUCT OF AN EXTENSIVE SURVEY REQUESTED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE AVAILABILITY OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS FOR MINORITY GROUP NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, ORIENTAL-AMERICANS, AND AMERICAN INDIANS, AS COMPARED WITH OPPORTUNITIES FOR MAJORITY GROUP WHITES. COMPARATIVE…

  8. The Equal Access Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, J. Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Reviews past history of access of religious activities in public schools in relation to the establishment clause of the First Amendment and sets forth the prerequisites in the Equal Access Act of 1984 for creating a well-defined forum for student-initiated free speech including religious groups in public high schools. (MD)

  9. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…

  10. The Equal Rights Amendment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Eileen

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) including questions often asked of social studies teachers in the classroom. A map of the United States shows which states have passed the ERA to date. Also includes a bibliography of 43 resources about ERA. (BC)

  11. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  12. Fight For Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  13. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  14. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  15. Equality in Education: An Equality of Condition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Baker, John

    2005-01-01

    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of "equality of condition", we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition;…

  16. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  17. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, shortening osteotomy, angulatory correction osteotomy and lengthening. This report reviews the literature relative to upper extremity length inequality and equalization and presents an algorithm for evaluation and planning appropriate treatment for patients with this condition. This algorithm is illustrated by two clinical cases of posttraumatic shortness of the radius which were effectively treated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  18. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  19. Tests: The Foundation for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Kenneth L.

    1982-01-01

    Testing and tests are shown to have played a positive and dramatic role in increased opportunities through identification of educational talent. It is argued that tests, far from denying equality, are necessary conditions for equality and quality. (Author/CM)

  20. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  1. Equality, Adequacy, and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In this article I argue that the distinction between an adequate education and an equal education has been overdrawn. In my view, a certain type of equality--civic equality--is internal to the idea of educational adequacy. An education system that completely separates the children of the poor and minorities from those of the wealthy and middle…

  2. Equality. Losing their religion.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Louise

    2009-07-23

    Some occasions of health employees' religious beliefs influencing their actions in the workplace have raised controversy in recent years. Despite religion and belief guidance published in January many areas remain hazy. Dress code rules to help combat infection control are raising concerns among some healthcare staff.

  3. Managing for Equal Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in…

  4. Equal Pay for Equal Work; Women in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, New York, NY.

    The Special Libraries Association (SLA) provides information on achieving equal pay for equal work for women librarians in special libraries. A 1973 SLA study is cited to show pay differences between men and women. Then relevant legislation and executive orders are listed for the United States, along with similar legislation for Canada. Attention…

  5. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  6. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality.

  7. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  8. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Frank, Jane

    1980-01-01

    Argues that sex discrimination has depressed salaries for jobs filled primarily by women. Shows that under the Equal Pay Act and Title VII, workers in traditionally female occupations can establish equal pay claims. Suggests approaches for developing legal and enforcement standards to deal with discriminatory compensation in traditionally female…

  9. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  10. Equality and Education -- Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John

    1975-01-01

    Discusses equality in education within the framework of the ideas of John Rawls, asserting that even though in the real world it is not easy to implement his version of equality and justice without endangering his prior principle of liberty, he provides a philosophical foundation for the reconsideration of the meritocratic principle. (Author/JM)

  11. Democracy, Equal Citizenship, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Two appealing principles of educational distribution--equality and sufficiency--are comparatively assessed. The initial point of comparison is the distribution of civic educational goods. One reason to favor equality in educational distribution rather than sufficiency is the elimination of undeserved positional advantage in access to labor…

  12. Loudspeaker equalization for auditory research.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Tran, Phuong K

    2007-02-01

    The equalization of loudspeaker frequency response is necessary to conduct many types of well-controlled auditory experiments. This article introduces a program that includes functions to measure a loudspeaker's frequency response, design equalization filters, and apply the filters to a set of stimuli to be used in an auditory experiment. The filters can compensate for both magnitude and phase distortions introduced by the loudspeaker. A MATLAB script is included in the Appendix to illustrate the details of the equalization algorithm used in the program.

  13. Equalization of data transmission cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  14. Equal Education and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Hershel

    1970-01-01

    A number of court cases are cited which trace the development of various definitions and interpretations of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution as would be applicable to inadequate" schools. (DM)

  15. Electronegativity Equalization and Partial Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article elaborates the relationship between covalent radius, homonuclear bond energy, and electronegativity, and sets the background for bond energy calculation by discussing the nature of heteronuclear covalent bonding on the basis of electronegativity equalization and particle charge. (DT)

  16. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  17. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Nancy Lloyd; Rothman, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the legal battleground upon which one struggle for the equality of women is being fought. Updates a civil rights decision of crucial importance to nursing--Lemons v City and County of Denver. (JOW)

  18. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  19. Equal Employment + Equal Pay = Multiple Problems for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot; Reback, Joyce E.

    1974-01-01

    Issues involved in government regulation of university employment practices are discussed: confidentiality of records, pregnancy as a disability, alleged discrimination in benefits, tests and other employment criteria, seniority and layoff, reverse discrimination, use of statistics for determination of discrimination, and the Equal Pay Act. (JT)

  20. Equality and selection for existence.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, I

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that the policy of excluding from further life some human gametes and pre-embryos as "unfit" for existence is not at odds with a defensible idea of human equality. Such an idea must be compatible with the obvious fact that the "functional" value of humans differs, that their "use" to themselves and others differs. A defensible idea of human equality is instead grounded in the fact that as this functional difference is genetically determined, it is nothing which makes humans deserve or be worthy of being better or worse off. Rather, nobody is worth a better life than anyone else. This idea of equality is, however, not applicable to gametes and pre-embryos, since they are not human beings, but something out of which human beings develop. PMID:10226918

  1. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... excluded. In the case of independent telephone companies, intrastate toll service provided by the... July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2017, all study areas shall apportion Equal Access Equipment,...

  2. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... excluded. In the case of independent telephone companies, intrastate toll service provided by the... July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2014, all study areas shall apportion Equal Access Equipment,...

  3. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... excluded. In the case of independent telephone companies, intrastate toll service provided by the... July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2014, all study areas shall apportion Equal Access Equipment,...

  4. Equal Pay: The Emerging Terrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kent M.

    1985-01-01

    Colleges and universities can employ several statutory defenses to alleged pay disparities and demonstrate that there are legitimate reasons for pay differentials. Several preventive strategies in response to the emerging legal terrain of equal pay litigation are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  5. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  6. Extending Understanding of Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Elisabeth T.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four strategies for teaching secondary students about equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. To be taught by the classroom teacher or a visiting lawyer, these strategies use such methods as a panel discussion and examination of Fourteenth Amendment court cases to accomplish their goals. (GEA)

  7. Equal Opportunity Through Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrighi, Margarite A.

    1985-01-01

    The assumption is that sex-integrated classes are inherently equal by the very fact that boys and girls are in the same class. In fact, educational inequity has increased primarily because of instructional design which perpetuates differences among individuals. Good teaching must accommodate individual differences. (MT)

  8. Equal, but not the same.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Gabriel

    2006-10-19

    In April 2007, the gender equality duty will make it obligatory for all health providers to actively demonstrate equity in service provision. Good practice tends to exist in small projects with little evidence of national progress towards gender equity. The DoH says trusts should already be working towards

  9. Religious Freedom vs. Sex Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines Susan Moller Okin's writing on conflicts between religious freedom and sex equality, and her criticism of "political liberal" approaches to these conflicts, which I take to be a part of her lifelong critique of the public-private distinction. I argue that, while Okin ultimately accepted a version of the distinction, she was…

  10. EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY, RECONSIDERED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLEMAN, JAMES S.

    THIS STUDY POSES THE QUESTION OF HOW TO MEASURE THE DEGREE OF INEQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY FOR SUBGROUPS IN SOCIETY. IT EXAMINES AND REJECTS THE DOMINANT IDEA THAT EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IS PROVIDED BY A COMMUNITY THROUGH THE PROVISION OF FACILITIES WITH FREE AND OPEN ACCESS FOR ALL, SUBSTITUTING THE IDEA THAT IT IS THE INTENSITY…

  11. Promote Equality in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions to help physical educators treat all students equally and avoid unconsciously making inequitable gender-based statements and practicing other gender discrimination. Suggestions include encouraging girls to talk more, praising girls' performance and boys' appearance, using gender-neutral language, not stereotyping either sex,…

  12. Detecting entanglement with Jarzynski's equality

    SciTech Connect

    Hide, Jenny; Vedral, Vlatko

    2010-06-15

    We present a method for detecting the entanglement of a state using nonequilibrium processes. A comparison of relative entropies allows us to construct an entanglement witness. The relative entropy can further be related to the quantum Jarzynski equality, allowing nonequilibrium work to be used in entanglement detection. To exemplify our results, we consider two different spin chains.

  13. Equal opportunity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1992-04-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  14. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  15. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  16. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  17. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  18. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  19. Equal Pay for Work of Comparable Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutari, Ellen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses occupational segregation and other barriers to equal job opportunities for women and examines two approaches toward correcting pay inequities: equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of comparable value. Legal cases, job evaluation studies, and other steps toward comparable worth are described. A 64-item reference list is…

  20. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  1. Fast autodidactic adaptive equalization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilal, Katia

    Autodidactic equalization by adaptive filtering is addressed in a mobile radio communication context. A general method, using an adaptive stochastic gradient Bussgang type algorithm, to deduce two low cost computation algorithms is given: one equivalent to the initial algorithm and the other having improved convergence properties thanks to a block criteria minimization. Two start algorithms are reworked: the Godard algorithm and the decision controlled algorithm. Using a normalization procedure, and block normalization, the performances are improved, and their common points are evaluated. These common points are used to propose an algorithm retaining the advantages of the two initial algorithms. This thus inherits the robustness of the Godard algorithm and the precision and phase correction of the decision control algorithm. The work is completed by a study of the stable states of Bussgang type algorithms and of the stability of the Godard algorithms, initial and normalized. The simulation of these algorithms, carried out in a mobile radio communications context, and under severe conditions on the propagation channel, gave a 75% reduction in the number of samples required for the processing in relation with the initial algorithms. The improvement of the residual error was of a much lower return. These performances are close to making possible the use of autodidactic equalization in the mobile radio system.

  2. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  3. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R&D effort here at SLAC.

  4. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R D effort here at SLAC.

  5. Brightness-equalized quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M

    2015-10-05

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  6. Inquiry to Action: Diagnosing and Addressing Students' Relational Thinking About the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Kristin E.; Karp, Karen S.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    One area of algebraic thinking essential for students' success is a relational understanding of the equal sign. Research has indicated a positive correlation between students' relational understanding of the equal sign and their equation-solving performance, suggesting that students' early conception of the equal sign may affect their learning and…

  7. Equality and Empowerment for Decent Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepple, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Substantive equality encompasses equality of results, opportunity, and human dignity. To implement it requires an incremental approach ranging from voluntary participation to penalties for noncompliance, active participation of all stakeholders, and empowerment of disadvantaged groups. (SK)

  8. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality.

  9. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flew, Antony

    1983-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  10. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  11. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... August 29, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8848--Women's Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8848 of August 24, 2012 Women's Equality Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On Women's Equality...

  12. Putting Educational Equality in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Swift, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Educational equality is one important value of justice in education, but it is only one. This article makes a case for a meritocratic principle of educational equality and shows that certain arguments against that principle do not justify rejecting it. It would be wrong to, for the sake of educational equality, undermine the value of the family or…

  13. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  14. 76 FR 41590 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... CFR Part 202 RIN 7100-AD67 Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Section 701 of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA..., contact (202) 263- 4869. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Equal Credit Opportunity Act...

  15. Sex and Salary: Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; Archuleta, Alyce

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the concept of equal pay for comparable work, an unsolved issue for library workers, and examines the results of several studies on sex and salary discrimination in the San Francisco area and in California. There are a number of suggestions for library workers who want to get a better deal. (JPF)

  16. The Status of Equal Opportunity for Minorities in Moorhead, Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, St. Paul.

    This report contains information received at a public fact finding meeting held in Moorhead, Minnesota, in 1999. The meeting examined equal opportunity conditions for minority residents in Moorhead, noting possible disparities in four areas: income and employment, education, public safety, and housing and public accommodation. To buttress the data…

  17. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recruiting. (A) Posting notices in the licensee's offices informing applicants for employment of their equal... recruiting area. (D) Recruiting through schools and colleges with significant minority group enrollments. (E... hires. (ii) To assure nondiscrimination in selection and hiring. (A) Instructing employees of...

  18. The Equal Rights Amendment: Its Potential Impact on Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myricks, Noel

    1977-01-01

    The potential impact of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) can be measured in areas such as alimony, child support, child custody, property ownership, divorce and rights of consortium. Statutes which use sex as the sole criterion would be unconstitutional. (Author)

  19. The Equal Protection Clause, School Integration, and the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    The history of cases before the United States Supreme Court in which minorities have sought relief from discriminatory state laws under the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment (and the "due process clause" of the Fifth Amendment for federal action) suggests that court action in this area has changed over time. Not only has court…

  20. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-05-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation [Wos87] in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  1. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation (Wos87) in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  2. Combat Exclusion: An Equal Protection Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    uniforms, they served without the benefits of rank, officer status, equal pay , or veteran’s benefits. The Army also contracted women to serve in the Signal...accomplish the elimination of hearings on the merits, is to make the very kind of arbitrary legislative choice forbidden by the Equal Protection...wUGmm’" LOAN DOCUMENT * COMBAT EXCLUSION: AN EQUAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS A Thesis Presented to The Judge Advocate General’s School United States Army The

  3. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... of organizing, agitating, and demonstrating, our country achieved a major victory for women's rights... August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality...

  4. Equality in Higher Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in Northern Ireland has been fully involved in the public policies designed to enhance equality. Starting with measures designed to secure greater employment between Catholics and Protestants, known as fair employment, the policies are now designed to promote equality of opportunity across nine designated groups…

  5. School Law: A Question of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the Equal Access Act (EAA) as it pertains to high-school student clubs. It raises basics questions about EAA: What does "equal" mean? What level of access is required? Does the First Amendment's free-speech clause offer broader protection to student clubs than the EAA? (WFA)

  6. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  7. Equal Rights for Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geo-Karis, Adeline J.

    1975-01-01

    A member of the Illinois House of Representatives expresses her reasons for believing that most of the goals of Women's Rights advocates are not only reasonable and desirable, but necessary for the survival of the family, and that the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) means equal opportunity and recognition for all. (Author/AJ)

  8. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  9. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  10. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  11. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  12. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  13. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  14. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal... equality of job content in general. In determining whether employees are performing equal work within...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal... equality of job content in general. In determining whether employees are performing equal work within...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal... equality of job content in general. In determining whether employees are performing equal work within...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal... equality of job content in general. In determining whether employees are performing equal work within...

  18. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal... equality of job content in general. In determining whether employees are performing equal work within...

  19. Equality Assurance: Self-Assessment for Equal Opportunities in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella, Comp.

    This manual is intended as a tool kit for further education (FE) colleges to use to develop their own approaches to equal opportunities policy development and implementation. The following topics are discussed in the eight sections: the manual's development; the case for equality; things an equal opportunities policy should cover; strategic and…

  20. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.

  1. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  2. Kalman Filtering Approach to Blind Equalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Update weighing probabilities (3.11) vi. Compute one step predictions p(j..Nb I X’) S(tlp (D,.,,,IX,) B. ADMISSIBILITY OF THE BLIND EQUALIZATION BY...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California •GR AD13 DTIC 94-07381 AR 0C199 THESIS S 0 LECTE4u KALMAN FILTERING APPROACH TO BLIND EQUALIZATION by...FILTERING APPROACH 5. FUNDING NUMBERS TO BLIND EQUALIZATION S. AUTHOR(S) Mehmet Kutlu 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) S

  3. Jarzynski equality for quantum stochastic maps.

    PubMed

    Rastegin, Alexey E; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-01-01

    Jarzynski equality and related fluctuation theorems can be formulated for various setups. Such an equality was recently derived for nonunitary quantum evolutions described by unital quantum operations, i.e., for completely positive, trace-preserving maps, which preserve the maximally mixed state. We analyze here a more general case of arbitrary quantum operations on finite systems and derive the corresponding form of the Jarzynski equality. It contains a correction term due to nonunitality of the quantum map. Bounds for the relative size of this correction term are established and they are applied for exemplary systems subjected to quantum channels acting on a finite-dimensional Hilbert space.

  4. Field Test of the Unit Equal Opportunity Training Diagnosis and Assessment System (TDAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Reseiirch Note 80-38 In U FIELD TEST OF THE UNIT EQUAL OPPORTUNITY TRAINING DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (TDAS) 0 Dale K. Brown Human Sciences...likely to be a unit problem area to that least likely. Four attitude scales are also included, as is a measure of knowledge of Army equal opportunity...UNIT EQUAL OPPORTUNITY TRAINING DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Dale K. Brown Human Sciences Research, Inc. S James A. Thomas Team Chief ARI FIELD UNIT

  5. Comparison of Channel Equalization Filtering Techniques in Underwater Acoustic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Navigation Aid Demonstration Broad Area Anouncement (BAA) Informational Paper. The threshold bit error rate criteria is 10-2, and the objective bit error...Computational Ocean Acoustics. New York: American Institute of Physics Press , 1994. [7] L. Freitag, M. Johnson, and M. Stojanovic, "Efficient Equalizer Update...Halsted Press , 1989. [28] B. Sklar, Digital Communications, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall PTR, 2001. [29] H. L. Van

  6. Teaching the Economics of Equal Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ownby, Arnola C.; Rhea, Jeanine N.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on equal opportunities--for education, pay, and with gender bias for individuals and business organizations. Suggests that business educators can expand the implications to include ethnic-based inequalities as well. (JOW)

  7. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  8. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  9. Fast Equalization for Large Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    that in Figure 7. The cell charger , CH1, is simply a Cosel ZUS251205 DC - DC converter, which has an output rating of 5VDC/4ADC. Because each cell...Wiegman, D. Divan, and D. Novotny (1995), “ Design considerations for charge equalization of an electric vehicle battery system,” IEEE 1995 Applied...VA, June 2002. [8] Y. Lee and G. Cheng (2006) “Quasi-resonant zero-current switching bidirectional converter for battery equalization applications

  10. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  11. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  12. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  13. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  14. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  15. The Need for the Equal Rights Amendment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1974-01-01

    The Equal Rights Amendment would dedicate the nation to a new view of the rights and responsibilities of men and women. It rejects sharp legislative lines between the sexes as constitutionally tolerable. The need for the Amendment is discussed in this article. (Author/RM)

  16. 76 FR 53807 - Women's Equality Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... August 29, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8699--Women's Equality Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8699 of August 25, 2011 Women's... the United States Constitution tore down the last formal barrier to women's enfranchisement in...

  17. Equality by Default: Women in Dual Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ena

    1978-01-01

    The struggle for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the American Constitution is one of the most controversial issues of this era. Discusses the changing role of women amidst a fast-changing society, the styles of those opposing the women's revolution, the debate over women as persons, women in dual roles, and the implications of ERA for the world…

  18. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  19. Blind equalization with criterion with memory nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Nikias, Chrysostomos L.; Proakis, John G.

    1992-06-01

    Blind equalization methods usually combat the linear distortion caused by a nonideal channel via a transversal filter, without resorting to the a priori known training sequences. We introduce a new criterion with memory nonlinearity (CRIMNO) for the blind equalization problem. The basic idea of this criterion is to augment the Godard [or constant modulus algorithm (CMA)] cost function with additional terms that penalize the autocorrelations of the equalizer outputs. Several variations of the CRIMNO algorithms are derived, with the variations dependent on (1) whether the empirical averages or the single point estimates are used to approximate the expectations, (2) whether the recent or the delayed equalizer coefficients are used, and (3) whether the weights applied to the autocorrelation terms are fixed or are allowed to adapt. Simulation experiments show that the CRIMNO algorithm, and especially its adaptive weight version, exhibits faster convergence speed than the Godard (or CMA) algorithm. Extensions of the CRIMNO criterion to accommodate the case of correlated inputs to the channel are also presented.

  20. An American Perspective on Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles; Perkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court ushered in a new era in American history on May 17, 1954 in its monumental ruling in "Brown v Board of Education," Topeka, Kansas. "Brown" is not only the Court's most significant decision on race and equal educational opportunities, but also ranks among the most important cases it has ever decided. In "Brown" a…

  1. EQUALS Investigations: Telling Someone Where To Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Karen; Whitlow, Robert

    EQUALS is a teacher education program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. It supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics which has students working in groups, uses active assessment methods, and incorporates a broad mathematics curriculum…

  2. Three Utilities for the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2005-01-01

    We compare the activity of young children using a microworld and a JavaScript relational calculator with the literature on children using traditional calculators. We describe how the children constructed different meanings for the equal sign in each setting. It appears that the nature of the meaning constructed is highly dependent on specificities…

  3. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  4. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  5. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  6. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  7. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead Agency shall certify that the payment rates for the provision of child care services under this part...

  8. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of equality--that…

  9. Position Paper: NO equals x Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Thomas R.; Shy, Carl M.

    1972-01-01

    Doubts about the accuracy of measured concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in ambient air have led the Environmental Protection Agency to reassess both the analytical technique and the extent to which nitrogen oxides (NO equals x) control will need to satisfy federal laws. (BL)

  10. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  11. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that…

  12. Sex Equality in Physical Education and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lucille M.

    Title IX legislated, among other things, equal educational opportunities for boys and girls in physical education. Although there are many practices which discriminate against girls' sports, and it is important to correct these, Title IX really calls for a fundamental change in all physical education programs to give each individual child the best…

  13. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  14. Comparing Several Robust Tests of Stochastic Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargha, Andras; Delaney, Harold D.

    In this paper, six statistical tests of stochastic equality are compared with respect to Type I error and power through a Monte Carlo simulation. In the simulation, the skewness and kurtosis levels and the extent of variance heterogeneity of the two parent distributions were varied across a wide range. The sample sizes applied were either small or…

  15. The New Family Equality: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Joann

    The paper analyzes the work roles of husbands and wives in the 1970s and suggests policies to implement sex equality in the workplace and at home. Data reviewed in the paper support the structural-cultural view that work behavior both inside and outside the home is shaped by deeply embedded cultural and structural forces. In 1975, 41% of families…

  16. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  17. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  18. When Equal Masses Don't Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these…

  19. Equal Opportunity and Racial Differences in IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph F.; Holland, Cynthia R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered an intelligence test to blacks and whites in 2 studies involving 254 community college students and 2 more studies involving 115 community college students. Results show that differences in knowledge between blacks and whites for items on an intelligence test, the meanings of words, can be eliminated when equal opportunities for…

  20. Social Responsibility in Librarianship: Essays on Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae, Ed.

    In a culturally complex world, librarians can best work toward the equalization of library services if they understand their institutions in the light of cultural history. The six essays in this book highlight problems that affect unempowered populations, and address a variety of cultural problems and biases--problems that contribute to the…

  1. EQUALS Investigations: Flea-Sized Surgeons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Karen; Whitlow, Robert

    EQUALS is a teacher education program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. It supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics which has students working in groups, uses active assessment methods, and incorporates a broad mathematics curriculum…

  2. Race Equality Scheme 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) is strongly committed to promoting race equality in the way that HMIE staff go about performing their role within Scottish education. Scottish society reflects cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity and Scottish education should be accessible to all. No-one should be disadvantaged or…

  3. Evaluating Faculty Performance Under the Equal Pay for Equal Work Doctrine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzan, Bert Carl; Hunt, Thomas Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Faculty promotion and salary policies at the University of Texas at Austin are analyzed to determine whether male and female faculty members are rewarded equally for equal academic qualifications and performances. This regression analysis tends to support the discrimination hypothesis with respect to both promotion and salary policies. (Author/LBH)

  4. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  5. Equality in the Workplace. An Equal Opportunities Handbook for Trainers. Human Resource Management in Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This workbook, which is intended as a practical guide for human resource managers, trainers, and others concerned with developing and implementing equal opportunities training programs in British workplaces, examines issues in and methods for equal opportunities training. The introduction gives an overview of current training trends and issues.…

  6. Equal Opportunities and European Educational/Vocational Policy [and] Equal Opportunities and the European Social Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    This document contains a symposium paper and a conference paper. "Equal Opportunities and European Educational and Vocational Policy" explores the symposium theme of concepts of difference as it relates directly to the European discourse of equal opportunities and its influence on European educational and vocational policy. It outlines…

  7. Equality of Opportunity in Higher Education - The Impact of Contract Compliance and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sylvia

    In discussing the impact of contract compliance and the Equal Rights Amendment on equality of opportunity in higher education, the author focuses primarily on women employed as faculty members and staff at universities and colleges. The basic and fundamental fact is that women have been treated differently, and that is to say, less well, than men.…

  8. Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, Alienor L M; Kuempel, Caitlin D; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas (PAs) are a central part of biodiversity conservation strategies around the world. Today, PAs cover c15% of the Earth's land mass and c3% of the global oceans. These numbers are expected to grow rapidly to meet the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Biodiversity target 11, which aims to see 17% and 10% of terrestrial and marine biomes protected, respectively, by 2020. This target also requires countries to ensure that PAs protect an "ecologically representative" sample of their biodiversity. At present, there is no clear definition of what desirable ecological representation looks like, or guidelines of how to standardize its assessment as the PA estate grows. We propose a systematic approach to measure ecological representation in PA networks using the Protection Equality (PE) metric, which measures how equally ecological features, such as habitats, within a country's borders are protected. We present an R package and two Protection Equality (PE) measures; proportional to area PE, and fixed area PE, which measure the representativeness of a country's PA network. We illustrate the PE metrics with two case studies: coral reef protection across countries and ecoregions in the Coral Triangle, and representation of ecoregions of six of the largest countries in the world. Our results provide repeatable transparency to the issue of representation in PA networks and provide a starting point for further discussion, evaluation and testing of representation metrics. They also highlight clear shortcomings in current PA networks, particularly where they are biased towards certain assemblage types or habitats. Our proposed metrics should be used to report on measuring progress towards the representation component of Aichi Target 11. The PE metrics can be used to measure the representation of any kind of ecological feature including: species, ecoregions, processes or habitats.

  9. Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planning

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Caitlin D.; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas (PAs) are a central part of biodiversity conservation strategies around the world. Today, PAs cover c15% of the Earth’s land mass and c3% of the global oceans. These numbers are expected to grow rapidly to meet the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Biodiversity target 11, which aims to see 17% and 10% of terrestrial and marine biomes protected, respectively, by 2020. This target also requires countries to ensure that PAs protect an “ecologically representative” sample of their biodiversity. At present, there is no clear definition of what desirable ecological representation looks like, or guidelines of how to standardize its assessment as the PA estate grows. We propose a systematic approach to measure ecological representation in PA networks using the Protection Equality (PE) metric, which measures how equally ecological features, such as habitats, within a country’s borders are protected. We present an R package and two Protection Equality (PE) measures; proportional to area PE, and fixed area PE, which measure the representativeness of a country’s PA network. We illustrate the PE metrics with two case studies: coral reef protection across countries and ecoregions in the Coral Triangle, and representation of ecoregions of six of the largest countries in the world. Our results provide repeatable transparency to the issue of representation in PA networks and provide a starting point for further discussion, evaluation and testing of representation metrics. They also highlight clear shortcomings in current PA networks, particularly where they are biased towards certain assemblage types or habitats. Our proposed metrics should be used to report on measuring progress towards the representation component of Aichi Target 11. The PE metrics can be used to measure the representation of any kind of ecological feature including: species, ecoregions, processes or habitats. PMID:28199341

  10. Kalman filtering approach to blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutlu, Mehmet

    1993-12-01

    Digital communication systems suffer from the channel distortion problem which introduces errors due to intersymbol interference. The solution to this problem is provided by equalizers which use a training sequence to adapt to the channel. However in many cases in which a training sequence is unfeasible, the channel must be adapted blindly. Most of the blind equalization algorithms known so far have problems of convergence to local minima. Our intention is to offer an alternative approach by using extended Kalman filtering and hidden Markov models. They seem to yield more efficient algorithms which take the statistics of the transmitted sequence into consideration. The theoretical development of these new algorithms is discussed in this thesis. Also these algorithms have been simulated under different conditions. The results of simulations and comparisons with existing systems are provided. The models for simulations are presented as MATLAB codes.

  11. Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.

  12. Temporal control mechanism in equaled interval tapping.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1996-05-01

    Subjects who were at intermediate levels of musical performance made equaled interval tapping in several tempos. The temporal fluctuation for the tapping was observed and analysed. The power spectrum of the fluctuation showed a critical phenomenon at around a frequency which corresponds to the period of 20 taps, for all tempos and all subjects, i.e., the slope of the spectrum was flat or had a positive value in the high frequency region above the critical frequency but it increased as the frequency decreased in the low frequency region below the critical frequency. Moreover, auto-regressive models and Akaike's information criterion were introduced to determine the critical tap number. The order of the best auto-regressive model for the temporal fluctuation data was distributed around 20 taps. These results show that the memory capacity of 20 taps governs the control of equaled interval tapping. To interpret the critical phenomenon of 20 taps with the memory capacity of the short term memory, the so called magic number seven, a simple chunking assumption was introduced; subjects might have unconsciously chunked every three taps during the tapping. If the chunking assumption is true, when subjects consciously chunk every seven taps, the memory capacity of taps should shift to about 50 taps. To test if the assumption is true or not, subjects made a three-beat rhythm tapping and a seven-beat rhythm tapping with equaled intervals. As a result, the memory capacity for these accented tappings were also estimated as 20 taps. This suggests that the critical phenomenon cannot be explained by the chunking assumption and the magic number seven, rather this finding suggests that there exists a memory capacity of 20 taps and this is used for equaled interval tapping.

  13. When equal masses don't balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these applications the analysis does not require calculus, so the ideas are accessible even to first-year students.

  14. Rethinking equal access: agency, quality, and norms.

    PubMed

    Ruger, J P

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Global Health Council convened healthcare providers, community organizers, policymakers and researchers at Health Systems: Putting Pieces Together to discuss health from a systems perspective. Its report and others have established healthcare access and quality as two of the most important issues in health policy today. Still, there is little agreement about what equal access and quality mean for health system development. At the philosophical level, few have sought to understand why differences in healthcare quality are morally so troubling. While there has been considerable work in medical ethics on equal access, these efforts have neglected health agency (individuals' ability to work toward health goals they value) and health norms, both of which influence individuals' ability to be healthy. This paper argues for rethinking equal access in terms of an alternative ethical aim: to ensure the social conditions in which all individuals have the capability to be healthy. This perspective requires that we examine injustices not just by the level of healthcare resources, but by the: (1) quality of those resources and their capacity to enable effective health functioning; (2) extent to which society supports health agency so that individuals can convert healthcare resources into health functioning; and (3) nature of health norms, which affect individuals' efforts to achieve functioning.

  15. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  16. Chest conduction properties and ECG equalization.

    PubMed

    Delle Cave, G; Fabricatore, G; Nolfe, G; Petrosino, M; Pizzuti, G P

    2000-01-01

    In common practice of detecting and recording biomedical signals, it is often implicitly assumed that the propagation, through the whole circuit human body-electrodes recording devices, is frequency and voltage independent. As a consequence, clinicians are not aware that recorded signals do not correspond faithfully to the original electrical activity of organs under investigation. We have studied the transmission of electrical signals in human body at various voltages and frequencies to understand if and to which extent the most diffused stimulating and recording techniques used in medicine are affected by global body conduction properties. Our results show that, in order to obtain a more faithful detection of electrical activity produced or evoked by human organs (e.g. EGG, electromyography, etc.), it is convenient to 'equalize'' recorded signals. To this purpose, two equalization techniques are proposed, based, respectively, on a simple hardware filtering during acquisition, or FFT post-processing of the acquired signals. As an application, we have studied the transmission of electrical signal in human chest and have compared equalized high frequency ECG signals with raw (original) recordings.

  17. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  18. 29 CFR 1620.25 - Equalization of rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equalization of rates. 1620.25 Section 1620.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.25 Equalization of rates. Under the express terms of the EPA, when a prohibited sex-based wage differential...

  19. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A..., three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act regardless of whether he or...

  20. 12 CFR 268.101 - General policy for equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)), or the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy for equal opportunity. 268.101... RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity §...

  1. 12 CFR 268.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part....

  2. Some Thoughts on the Equal Pay Act and Coaching Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boring, Phyllis

    This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…

  3. Equality of Education and Citizenship: Challenges of European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follesdal, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    What kind of equality among Europeans does equal citizenship require, especially regarding education? In particular, is there good reason to insist of equality of education among Europeans--and if so, equality of what? To what extent should the same knowledge base and citizenship norms be taught across state borders and religious and other…

  4. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access equipment. 36.191 Section 36.191... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Telecommunications Property Equal Access Equipment § 36.191 Equal access equipment. (a) Equal access investment includes only initial...

  5. 77 FR 43498 - Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1614 RIN Number 3046-AA73 Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Equal Employment Opportunity...

  6. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  7. Spearman's g and the Problem of Educational Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes approach to equal education that seeks equality of outcome as well as equality of opportunity. Discusses Spearman's theory of g that attempts to explain individual differences in intelligence. Contrasts efforts at genuinely reducing equality of outcome, including Aptitude X Treatment Interaction, Mastery Learning, and Thinking Skills…

  8. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity standards. 30.3 Section 30.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal... the program sponsor; and (3) Take affirmative action to provide equal opportunity in...

  9. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Equal opportunity standards. 30.3 Section 30.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal... the program sponsor; and (3) Take affirmative action to provide equal opportunity in...

  10. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal opportunity standards. 30.3 Section 30.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal... the program sponsor; and (3) Take affirmative action to provide equal opportunity in...

  11. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal opportunity standards. 30.3 Section 30.3 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal... the program sponsor; and (3) Take affirmative action to provide equal opportunity in...

  12. Why Should We Demand Equality of Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals how equal educational opportunities, equal job opportunities and equality of opportunity for welfare are related to each other, and how they are related to other demands for justice. There are several important objections to the emphasis on equal educational opportunities. Nevertheless, this paper shows that demanding equal…

  13. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  14. Evolution of equal division among unequal partners.

    PubMed

    Debove, Stéphane; Baumard, Nicolas; André, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of human fairness is its insensitivity to power: although strong individuals are often in a position to coerce weak individuals, fairness requires them to share the benefits of cooperation equally. The existence of such egalitarianism is poorly explained by current evolutionary models. We present a model based on cooperation and partner choice that can account for the emergence of a psychological disposition toward fairness, whatever the balance of power between the cooperative partners. We model the evolution of the division of a benefit in an interaction similar to an ultimatum game, in a population made up of individuals of variable strength. The model shows that strong individuals will not receive any advantage from their strength, instead having to share the benefits of cooperation equally with weak individuals at the evolutionary equilibrium, a result that is robust to variations in population size and the proportion of weak individuals. We discuss how this model suggests an explanation for why egalitarian behaviors toward everyone, including the weak, should be more likely to evolve in humans than in any other species.

  15. Pioneers and laggards - is the effect of gender equality on health dependent on context?

    PubMed

    Backhans, Mona Christina; Burström, Bo; Lindholm, Lars; Månsdotter, Anna

    2009-04-01

    This study combines data at individual and area level to examine interactions between equality within couples and gender equality in the municipality in which individuals live. The research question is whether the context impacts on the association between gender equality and health. The material consists of data on 37,423 men and 37,616 women in 279 Swedish municipalities, who had their first child in 1978. The couples were classified according to indicators of their level of gender equality in 1980 in the public sphere (occupation and income) and private sphere (child care leave and parental leave) compared to that of their municipality. The health outcome is compensated days from sickness insurance during 1986-1999 with a cut-off at the 85% percentile. Data were analysed using logistic regression with the overall odds as reference. The results concerning gender equality in the private sphere show that among fathers, those who are equal in an equal municipality have lower levels of sick leave than the average while laggards (less equal than their municipality) and modest laggards have higher levels. In the public sphere, pioneers (more equal t han their municipality) fare better than the average while laggards fare worse. For mothers, those who are traditional in their roles in the public sphere are protected from high levels of sick leave, while the reverse is true for those who are equal. Traditional mothers in a traditional municipality have the lowest level of sick leave and pioneers the highest. These results show that there are distinct benefits as well as disadvantages to being a gender pioneer and/or a laggard in comparison to your municipality. The associations are markedly different for men and women.

  16. Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-05-27

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  17. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  18. Newsmaker interview: Geraldine Ferraro. Striving for equality.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Geraldine Ferraro is a long-standing advocate of women's rights who currently serves as the US ambassador to the UN's Human Rights Commission. She was elected to the US Congress in 1978, after which she served three terms as a representative from the state of New York. Ms. Ferraro led efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment, sponsored the Women's Economic Equity Act, and ran on the Democratic national ticket in 1984 as the first woman vice-presidential candidate. This paper presents the text of her interview with ZPG about women's well-being, current political trends, and population growth. Ms. Ferraro became interested in population issues in the wake of the 1973 Supreme Court decision on Roe vs. Wade. She explains how a 1989 trip to the Philippines made her more aware of the impact of rapid population growth and overpopulation. Ms. Ferraro believes that overpopulation is due to poor health care and high infant and child mortality, the oppression of and discrimination against women, and inadequate social services. Educating both men and women and ensuring the provision of family planning methods are needed to start dealing with such problems. Ms. Ferraro responds to questions on how the health and well-being of women are linked with the need to stabilize population growth, why women in the US have not attained equality with men, the movement of the US away from being a leader on population issues both domestically and internationally, how local communities across the US can influence the direction of population-related policies, and what she hopes will be accomplished at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995.

  19. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  20. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

  1. Equalization of loudspeaker response using balanced model truncation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansheng; Cai, Zhibo; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional loudspeaker equalization algorithms cannot decide the order of an equalizer before the whole equalization procedure has been completed. Designers have to try many times before they determine a proper order of the equalization filter. A method which solves this drawback is presented for loudspeaker equalization using balanced model truncation. The order of the equalizer can be easily decided using this algorithm and the error between the model and the loudspeaker can also be readily controlled. Examples are presented and the performance of the proposed method is discussed with comparative experiments.

  2. 101 Short Problems from EQUALS = 101 Problemas Cortos del programma EQUALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenmark, Jean Kerr, Ed.

    EQUALS is a teacher advisory program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. The program supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics, including having students working in groups, using active assessment methods, and incorporating a broad mathematics…

  3. The Equal Rights Amendment: Guaranteeing Equal Rights for Women Under the Constitution. Clearinghouse Publication 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the effects that the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment will have on laws concerning women. The amendment's impacts on divorced, married, and employed women, on women in the military and in school, and on women dependent on pensions, insurance, and social security are all analyzed. A discussion of the Constitutional…

  4. Regulatory Fit and Equal Opportunity/Diversity: Implications for the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    required for duty. Until recently, these military BFOQs prohibited admitted homosexuals from serving and prohibited women from serving in combat positions... choice is the vigilant goal pursuit strategy that is not oriented toward differences. Operational Recommendations for DEOMI Regulatory focus/fit...equally difficult. From the egalitarian perspective, seeking diversity is the morally correct choice (Syed & Kramer, 2009); diversity is not a

  5. Equal Employment Opportunity: are you overlooking the application form?

    PubMed

    Lowell, R S; DeLoach, J A

    1982-01-01

    In 1975 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) listed those subjects and questions on employment application forms that could be considered violations of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Since then, how well have U.S. firms abided by EEOC regulations in this area? Navy Lieutenants Richard S. Lowell and Jay A. DeLoach, graduate students in management and supervision at Central Michigan University, screened the application blanks used by 50 major organizations and found that 48 of them contained violations--most of which occurred in questions concerning military background, education, arrest record, physical handicaps, age, and name. The authors strongly recommend that human resources managers reevaluate their companies' selection processes and check for any violations on their application forms.

  6. 76 FR 39233 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Equal Opportunity for Veterans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... RIN 9000-AL67 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Equal Opportunity for Veterans AGENCIES: Department of... rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement Department of Labor (DOL) regulations on equal opportunity provisions for various categories of military veterans. The interim...

  7. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 22.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment opportunities. Public Mobile Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  8. Equalizer: a scalable parallel rendering framework.

    PubMed

    Eilemann, Stefan; Makhinya, Maxim; Pajarola, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Continuing improvements in CPU and GPU performances as well as increasing multi-core processor and cluster-based parallelism demand for flexible and scalable parallel rendering solutions that can exploit multipipe hardware accelerated graphics. In fact, to achieve interactive visualization, scalable rendering systems are essential to cope with the rapid growth of data sets. However, parallel rendering systems are non-trivial to develop and often only application specific implementations have been proposed. The task of developing a scalable parallel rendering framework is even more difficult if it should be generic to support various types of data and visualization applications, and at the same time work efficiently on a cluster with distributed graphics cards. In this paper we introduce a novel system called Equalizer, a toolkit for scalable parallel rendering based on OpenGL which provides an application programming interface (API) to develop scalable graphics applications for a wide range of systems ranging from large distributed visualization clusters and multi-processor multipipe graphics systems to single-processor single-pipe desktop machines. We describe the system architecture, the basic API, discuss its advantages over previous approaches, present example configurations and usage scenarios as well as scalability results.

  9. Organelle size equalization by a constitutive process.

    PubMed

    Ludington, William B; Shi, Linda Z; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-11-20

    How cells control organelle size is an elusive problem. Two predominant models for size control can be distinguished: (1) induced control, where organelle genesis, maintenance, and disassembly are three separate programs that are activated in response to size change, and (2) constitutive control, where stable size results from the balance between continuous organelle assembly and disassembly. The problem has been studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii because the flagella are easy to measure, their size changes only in the length dimension, and the genetics are comparable to yeast. Length dynamics in Chlamydomonas flagella are quite robust: they maintain a length of about 12 μm and recover from amputation in about 90 min with a growth rate that decreases smoothly to zero as the length approaches 12 μm. Despite a wealth of experimental studies, existing data are consistent with both induced and constitutive control models for flagella. Here we developed novel microfluidic trapping and laser microsurgery techniques in Chlamydomonas to distinguish between length control models by measuring the two flagella on a single cell as they equilibrate after amputation of a single flagellum. The results suggest that cells equalize flagellar length by constitutive control.

  10. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  11. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section... Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A complainant is authorized under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards..., if the violation is willful, three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay...

  12. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Pay Act. 1614.202 Section 1614.202 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.25 - Equalization of rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equalization of rates. 1620.25 Section 1620.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.25... hiring or transferring employees to perform the previously lower-paid job at the lower rate....

  14. 76 FR 21221 - National Equal Pay Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... economic equality for all, regardless of gender. When the Equal Pay Act was signed into law in 1963, women... exist for working women, who still earn less on average than working men. Each year, National Equal Pay... harder to close the gaps that still exist. At a time when families across this country are struggling...

  15. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  17. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  18. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528.5... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  19. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  20. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528.5... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  1. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  2. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  3. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  4. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  5. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  6. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Written equal employment opportunity program. 42.304 Section 42.304 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Equal Employment Opportunity Program Guidelines §...

  7. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written equal employment opportunity program. 42.304 Section 42.304 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Equal Employment Opportunity Program Guidelines §...

  8. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Written equal employment opportunity program. 42.304 Section 42.304 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Equal Employment Opportunity Program Guidelines §...

  9. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Written equal employment opportunity program. 42.304 Section 42.304 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Equal Employment Opportunity Program Guidelines §...

  10. 48 CFR 19.202-3 - Equal low bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal low bids. 19.202-3 Section 19.202-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.202-3 Equal low bids. In the event of equal low bids (see...

  11. 48 CFR 14.408-6 - Equal low bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal low bids. 14.408-6... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-6 Equal low bids. (a) Contracts shall be awarded in the following order of priority when two or more low bids are equal in...

  12. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  13. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The Equal Housing Lender Poster shall be at least 11 inches by 14 inches in size, and shall bear the... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for...

  14. The Fate of Equality in a Technological Civilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The meaning of equality has been radically altered since the Enlightenment. In the 18th century, equality acquired political and economic meanings specifically in the contexts of democracy and capitalism. Today, the context in which equality is understood and practiced is technology as our most immediate and compelling environment. Moreover, the…

  15. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employment rights and their right to notify the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Federal... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 22.321 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal...

  16. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976) IT IS ILLEGAL TO DISCRIMINATE IN ANY CREDIT... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for...

  17. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... employment rights and their right to notify the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Federal... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 22.321 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal...

  18. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  19. Employment equality legislation, 3 March 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    On 1 April 1988, new employment equality legislation came into effect in Israel. The new legislation outlaws discrimination at work on the grounds of sex, marital status, and parenthood with respect to recruitment, terms of employment, promotion, vocational training, retraining, dismissal, and severance pay. Under the legislation, 1) employers may not cause prejudice to workers who allege discrimination, help others to do so, or decline sexual advances by a direct or indirect supervisor; 2) the burden of proof in discrimination claims against an employer is on the employer if the worker can show that requirements set by the employer have been met; 3) company managers and co-owners in a partnership are personally liable for violations on the part of the employer if the firm has over six workers unless they prove that the offense was committed without their knowledge or that they had taken all appropriate measures to prevent it; and 4) no special rights given to women by law, collective agreement, or other work contract are to be considered discrimination. The legislation establishes a Public Council to advise the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs on implementing and publicizing the legislation. It also allows a father to receive the following work benefits that were previously restricted to mothers: 1) leave of absence to care for a sick child and 2) statutory leave and statutory entitlement to severance pay for resigning to care for a newborn or adopted baby if the father is the sole guardian or if the mother renounces her right because she is working.

  20. Equal Pay for Equal Qualifications? A Model for Determining Race or Sex Discrimination in Salaries. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffo, John; And Others

    Equal pay for equal work by persons of equal qualifications is the concept behind laws against race and sex discrimination in salaries in the United States. However, determining the existence and extent of discrimination is not a simple matter. A four-step procedure is recommended that attempts to uncover the existence of discrimination and begins…

  1. Design of a transversal equalizer for electronic dispersion compensation in optical communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhen-bin; Shi, Yong; Wang, Bo; Zeng, Xiang-ye

    2011-01-01

    A programmable transversal equalizer for electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) in optical fiber communication systems is developed. Based on the SiGe technology with a cut-off frequency of 80 GHz, the equalizer consists of 6 seriesparallel amplifiers as delay units and 7 Gilbert variable gain amplifiers as taps, which ensure that the equalizer can work at the bit rate of 10 Gb/s. With different tap gains, the forward voltage gain of the transversal equalizer varies, which demonstrates that the equalizer has various filtering characteristics such as low pass filtering, band pass filtering, band reject filtering, and notch filtering, so it can effectively simulate the inverse transfer function of dispersive channels in optical communications, and can be used for compensating the inter-symbol interference and other nonlinear problems caused by dispersion. The equalizer (including pads) occupies an area of 0.40 mm×1.08 mm, and its total power dissipation is 400 mW with 3.3 V power supply.

  2. An Overview of Federal Court Decisions Affecting Equal Rights for Women in Education. Report No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William

    This publication is a study of federal court decisions as they affect the equal rights of women in education. Because the majority of such cases have involved employment, the main focus of the study is on that area. Primary objective of the study is to derive from relevant federal cases the basic judicial principles applicable to the concept of…

  3. A Reasonably Equal Share: Educational Equity in Vermont. A Status Report, Year 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Vermont's Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1997, Act 60, was designed to rectify educational inequities cited in the State Supreme Court ruling that the state's foundation formula was unconstitutional. This study examines the degree to which Act 60 has improved inequitable conditions in the three main areas cited in the court decision.…

  4. Equally parsimonious pathways through an RNA sequence space are not equally likely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; DSouza, L. M.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental system for determining the potential ability of sequences resembling 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to perform as functional 5S rRNAs in vivo in the Escherichia coli cellular environment was devised previously. Presumably, the only 5S rRNA sequences that would have been fixed by ancestral populations are ones that were functionally valid, and hence the actual historical paths taken through RNA sequence space during 5S rRNA evolution would have most likely utilized valid sequences. Herein, we examine the potential validity of all sequence intermediates along alternative equally parsimonious trajectories through RNA sequence space which connect two pairs of sequences that had previously been shown to behave as valid 5S rRNAs in E. coli. The first trajectory requires a total of four changes. The 14 sequence intermediates provide 24 apparently equally parsimonious paths by which the transition could occur. The second trajectory involves three changes, six intermediate sequences, and six potentially equally parsimonious paths. In total, only eight of the 20 sequence intermediates were found to be clearly invalid. As a consequence of the position of these invalid intermediates in the sequence space, seven of the 30 possible paths consisted of exclusively valid sequences. In several cases, the apparent validity/invalidity of the intermediate sequences could not be anticipated on the basis of current knowledge of the 5S rRNA structure. This suggests that the interdependencies in RNA sequence space may be more complex than currently appreciated. If ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony are to be regarded as actual historical sequences, then the present results would suggest that they should also satisfy a validity requirement and that, in at least limited cases, this conjecture can be tested experimentally.

  5. Dual-mode type algorithms for blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerackody, Vijitha; Kassam, Saleem A.

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive channel equalization accomplished without resorting to a training sequence is known as blind equalization. The Godard algorithm and the generalized Sato algorithm are two widely referenced algorithms for blind equalization of a QAM system. These algorithms exhibit very slow convergence rates when compared to algorithms employed in conventional data-aided equalization schemes. In order to speed up the convergence process, these algorithms may be switched over to a decision-directed equalization scheme once the error level is reasonably low. We present a scheme which is capable of operating in two modes: blind equalization mode and a mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode. In this proposed scheme, the dominant mode of operation changes from the blind equalization mode at higher error levels to the mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode at lower error levels. Manual switch-over to the decision-directed mode from the blind equalization mode, or vice-versa, is not necessary since transitions between the two modes take place smoothly and automatically.

  6. Equity, Equal Shares or Equal Final Outcomes? Group Goal Guides Allocations of Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ali; Eek, Daniel; Gärling, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    In an experiment we investigate preferences for allocation of a public good among group members who contributed unequally in providing the public good. Inducing the group goal of productivity resulted in preferences for equitable allocations, whereas inducing the group goals of harmony and social concern resulted in preferences for equal final outcomes. The study makes a contribution by simultaneously treating provision and allocation of a public good, thus viewing these as related processes. Another contribution is that a new paradigm is introduced that bears closer resemblance to real life public good dilemmas than previous research paradigms do. PMID:28179890

  7. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  8. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  9. Department of Defense Military Equal Opportunity (MEO) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    1997 USD(P&R) SUBJECT: Department of Defense Military Equal Opportunity (MEO) Program References: (a) DoD Directive 1350.2, subject as above...Military Departments, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Service Chiefs), May 19, 1994 1 (c) Secretary of Defense Memorandum, " Equal ...in the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense ( Equal Opportunity), Pentagon, Washington, DC, (703) 697-6381 or DSN 227-6381. Report

  10. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  11. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employer's size and resources. (1) Internal communication of the employer's obligation to provide equal... obligation. (2) Development of reasonable internal procedures to insure that the employer's obligation...

  12. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employer's size and resources. (1) Internal communication of the employer's obligation to provide equal... obligation. (2) Development of reasonable internal procedures to insure that the employer's obligation...

  13. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employer's size and resources. (1) Internal communication of the employer's obligation to provide equal... obligation. (2) Development of reasonable internal procedures to insure that the employer's obligation...

  14. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employer's size and resources. (1) Internal communication of the employer's obligation to provide equal... obligation. (2) Development of reasonable internal procedures to insure that the employer's obligation...

  15. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employer's size and resources. (1) Internal communication of the employer's obligation to provide equal... obligation. (2) Development of reasonable internal procedures to insure that the employer's obligation...

  16. Multiple point least squares equalization in a room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, S. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Equalization filters designed to minimize the mean square error between a delayed version of the original electrical signal and the equalized response at a point in a room have previously been investigated. In general, such a strategy degrades the response at positions in a room away from the equalization point. A method is presented for designing an equalization filter by adjusting the filter coefficients to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors between the equalized responses at multiple points in the room and delayed versions of the original, electrical signal. Such an equalization filter can give a more uniform frequency response over a greater volume of the enclosure than can the single point equalizer above. Computer simulation results are presented of equalizing the frequency responses from a loudspeaker to various typical ear positions, in a room with dimensions and acoustic damping typical of a car interior, using the two approaches outlined above. Adaptive filter algorithms, which can automatically adjust the coefficients of a digital equalization filter to achieve this minimization, will also be discussed.

  17. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments, job classifications, organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and...) Adaption of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made to the equal opportunity clause...

  18. BOREAS Regional DEM in Raster Format and AEAC Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, David; Verdin, Kristine; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set is based on the GTOPO30 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) produced by the United States Geological Survey EROS Data Center (USGS EDC). The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) region (1,000 km x 1000 km) was extracted from the GTOPO30 data and reprojected by BOREAS staff into the Albers Equal-Area Conic (AEAC) projection. The pixel size of these data is 1 km. The data are stored in binary, image format files.

  19. Cortical Magnification Plus Cortical Plasticity Equals Vision?

    PubMed Central

    Born, Richard T.; Trott, Alexander; Hartmann, Till

    2014-01-01

    Most approaches to visual prostheses have focused on the retina, and for good reasons. The earlier that one introduces signals into the visual system, the more one can take advantage of its prodigious computational abilities. For methods that make use of microelectrodes to introduce electrical signals, however, the limited density and volume occupying nature of the electrodes place severe limits on the image resolution that can be provided to the brain. In this regard, non-retinal areas in general, and the primary visual cortex in particular, possess one large advantage: “magnification factor” (MF)—a value that represents the distance across a sheet of neurons that represents a given angle of the visual field. In the foveal representation of primate primary visual cortex, the MF is enormous—on the order of 15–20 mm/deg in monkeys and humans, whereas on the retina, the MF is limited by the optical design of the eye to around 0.3 mm/deg. This means that, for an electrode array of a given density, a much higher- resolution image can be introduced into V1 than onto the retina (or any other visual structure). In addition to this tremendous advantage in resolution, visual cortex is plastic at many different levels ranging from a very local ability to learn to better detect electrical stimulation to higher levels of learning that permit human observers to adapt to radical changes to their visual inputs. We argue that the combination of the large magnification factor and the impressive ability of the cerebral cortex to learn to recognize arbitrary patterns, might outweigh the disadvantages of bypassing earlier processing stages and makes V1 a viable option for the restoration of vision. PMID:25449335

  20. Make them equal partners in development.

    PubMed

    Mishra, T K

    The general status of women in India and the world, their potential as entrepreneurs in India, and the Indian government's initiatives for women are described. Women are actually good household managers and essential for success of the family and the nation, but economic development alone will not benefit women by a "trickle down" effect because male superiority is a vested interest. Women around the world perform 2/3 of the work, but receive 1/10 of the income and own less than 1/100 of the property. Although female literacy in India has grown from 18.7% in 1971 to 24.8% in 1981, the absolute number of illiterate women has grown from 215 to 241 million, and the ratio of illiterate women to men has risen. Higher education for women is largely limited to home economics, art, literature and dressmaking. Women are taking up spinning, weaving, crafts, matchmaking, cereal processing and other cottage industries. Elite urban women are also starting businesses doing marketing, advertising, electronics, designing, textiles and beauty clinics. Entrepreneurial women face problems with credit, bureaucratic hurdles, harassment by inspectors, huge consultancy and legal fees. Women's welfare organizations should foster their economic development. The Indian government has proposed anti-poverty programs, job programs, legal safeguards, and promotion of women in the media. It has suggested that a Ministry of Women and Child Development be created to enforce the law for women. A Ministry of Rural Development has initiated a Scheme for the Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA). There is a National Committee on Women, headed by the Prime Minister, to advise the Central and State Governments on policy, legislative and administrative measures needed to remove economic and social inequalities for women.

  1. The Equal Pay Act: Higher Education and the Court's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Swanson, Austin D.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 for college and university employees are reviewed through an examination of trends in court decisions and legal treatment of the issues. It is concluded that case law has been evolutionary, with concepts of "equal,""work," and others not altered drastically by the courts in recent years.…

  2. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  3. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  4. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  5. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  6. A proposal for an 'equal peer-review' statement.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-08-01

    To make the peer-review process as objective as possible, I suggest the introduction of an 'equal peer-review' statement that preserves author anonymity across the board, thus removing any potential bias related to nominal or institutional 'prestige'; this would guarantee an equal peer-review process for all authors and grant applicants.

  7. Equality: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The second in a special four-part series of law-school partnership handbooks on constitutional themes, this document focuses on equality. "Equality--the Forgotten Word" (J. A. Hughes) discusses what has been considered the U.S. Constitution's one flaw, its failure to abolish slavery, and the remedy to that flaw, the Fourteenth Amendment.…

  8. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities....

  9. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities....

  10. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities....

  11. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities....

  12. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section 73.881 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities....

  13. Educational Equity or Equality - Which Do We Really Want?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    I had not considered the words equality and equity to have significantly different meanings until a response from a reader about the connotations of a suggested assignment caused me to research some of the writing on the issue. This distinction seemed to get at the heart of the reader's concern…. Equality means everyone is treated the same; equity means everyone is treated fairly.

  14. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  15. Women at Work: The Myth of Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Day; Krieter, Nancy

    The advances women have made in the past decade have created the myth that women have achieved equal opportunity in the job market. In reality, the opposite is true. The current economic status of women demonstrates the need for strict enforcement of equal opportunity laws. Department of Labor data indicate that the wage gap between men and women…

  16. 48 CFR 52.219-2 - Equal Low Bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal Low Bids. 52.219-2 Section 52.219-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES... Low Bids. As prescribed in 19.308(c), insert the following provision: Equal Low Bids (OCT 1995)...

  17. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  18. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seeking loans. The poster shall be at least 11 by 14 inches in size, and the text shall be easily legible... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one...

  19. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all qualified... Commission, no later than May 31st following the grant of that licensee's first Commercial Mobile...

  20. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  1. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  2. The Education Equality Initiative and the Citizen Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Denise

    2005-01-01

    The Education Equality Initiative (EEI) has been established by the Department of Education and Science in an attempt to address educational disadvantage through the strategic allocation of funding to promote equality of access, treatment and outcomes within a lifelong learning framework for individuals and groups. The aim of this initiative is to…

  3. The American self and the long march to legal equality.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Legally, women, Native Americans, and African-Americans were defined by the American Constitution as inferior. The pragmatists gradually showed that all selves are equal. These ideas helped the minorities to attain nearly full legal status. But economic status is going in the other direction, toward inequality. It threatens to overcome the hard-won legal equality and make it meaningless.

  4. District Power Equalizing: Cure-All or Prescription?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.; Addonizio, Michael F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the conflicting goals of school finance reform--educational equity, equality, and excellence--and their effects on the district power equalizing (DPE) method of achieving school equity. Describes the experiences with DPE in California, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan. (RW)

  5. Fair Equality of Opportunity in Our Actual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Fair equality of opportunity, a principle that governs the competition for desirable jobs, can seem irrelevant in our actual world, for two reasons. First, parents have broad liberty to raise their children as they see fit, which seems to undermine the fair equality of opportunity-based commitment to eliminating the effects of social circumstances…

  6. Choosing Silence for Equality in and through Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers silences and equality as combined from a theoretical perspective. Equality in and through chosen, deliberate and regular silence experience is seen as an equaliser: if no one is speaking no one can dominate. The article uses a bifurcated concept of silence: weak, negative forms and strong, positive forms. Only the strong…

  7. Fair Equality of Opportunity and Selective Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Can selecting on the basis of academic ability at secondary school level be reconciled with equality of opportunity? One common view is that although the two can be reconciled in principle, for various contingent reasons selection tends to undermine equality of opportunity in practice, for example, it tends to advantage children who have been…

  8. Equality of Opportunity, Cultural Diversity and Claims for Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardoc, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines some of the tensions, problems and challenges associated with claims for equality of opportunity (the fairness argument). The introductory part identifies three separate forms of justification for public education, including the argument associated with equality of opportunity. Part II examines in detail two questions…

  9. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  10. The Swiss Equal Rights Amendment: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerckhoff, Richard K.; Leupp, Timothy

    The Swiss legal system has been openly protective of male privilege while the American system has traditionally claimed to support equality for all people. Yet the Swiss have succeeded in passing an equal rights amendment in a short time and with little national discord. Because of the nature of their political process, the Swiss were able to move…

  11. 76 FR 36885 - Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 RIN No. 7100-AD-78 Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing for public comment a proposed rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit.... \\2\\ Section 1029(a) of the Dodd-Frank Act states: ``Except as permitted in subsection (b), the...

  12. Equal-Path, Phase-Shifting, Sample-Point Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed interferometer combination of sample-point interferometer and equal-path interferometer. Used to monitor optical figures of arrays of mirrors or of segmented mirrors. Incorporation of phase shifting with part of equal-path interferometer renders new interferometer insensitive to vibration and air turbulence. Instrument used over large distances, on ground, or on vibrating structures.

  13. Affirmative Action, Delivered Equality and the Concept of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalman, Ralph

    This paper describes three models of society: (1) the gemeinschaft, (2) the gesellschaft, and (3) the pseudo-gemeinschaft, and examines the affirmative action process and its relationship to the utopian ideals of equality of opportunity and delivered equality. In a gemeinschaft community, members look out for one another and the community exists…

  14. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  15. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  16. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  17. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  18. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  19. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  20. Towards an Analytical Framework for Accountability Regarding Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Johan; Prinsloo, Justus

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue of accountability for equal educational opportunities against the background of the constitutional provision that elevates accountability above a management tool to a national goal and value. It asserts that the government is indeed accountable for equal educational opportunities. However, government reporting on…

  1. Teaching the Substitutive Conception of the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew; Gilmore, Camilla; Evans, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A cumulative body of research has shown that children typically shift from an "operational" to a "relational" conception of the equals sign as they move through schooling. Jones (2008) argued that a truly relational conception of the equals sign comprises a "substitutive" component and a "sameness"…

  2. A New Nonparametric Levene Test for Equal Variances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstokke, David W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of the equality of variances are sometimes used on their own to compare variability across groups of experimental or non-experimental conditions but they are most often used alongside other methods to support assumptions made about variances. A new nonparametric test of equality of variances is described and compared to current "gold…

  3. Luminance-Chrominance Gain Equalizer Based on Bernstein Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutchavong, Vanvisa; Sangaroon, Ornlarp; Benjangkaprasert, Chawalit; Janchitrapongvej, Kanok

    This paper presents a linear luminance-chrominance gain equalizer for correcting the linear chrominance gain distortion in the color TV transmission system. The proposed gain equalizer was implemented based on Bernstein polynomials. As it is known that the Bernstein filter has flexible parameters to adjust the circuit performance for the best results. In addition, the modulated 20T sine-squared pulse test signal is generated for testing the performance of the proposed gain equalizer, which can be measured all three types of the linear chrominance distortions. As the results, the proposed gain equalizer is also proved to be efficient in equalizing both the low gain and the high gain chrominance distortions without degrading its phase characteristics.

  4. Better to be equal? Challenges to equality for cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders in a social decision game.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Eva A; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda Bc; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-02-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we evaluated the possibility that children with autism spectrum disorders may be less likely than typically developing children to show a prioritisation of equality. A total of 69 typically developing (mean age 11;6 years) and 57 cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders (mean age 11;7 years) played a social decision game in which the equality option was pitted against alternatives that varied in instrumental outcomes. Results showed that both groups were more likely to choose the equality option when there was no cost to the self. However, even though children with autism spectrum disorders appeared to view equality as preferable to causing explicit harm to others, they departed from an equality stance when there was an opportunity to increase instrumental gain without any obvious harm to the self or the other. Typically developing children, in contrast, showed similar prioritisation of equality across these contexts. Future research needs to address the question of how differences in the commitment to equality affect children's social behaviour and relationships in daily life.

  5. Jarzynski equality: connections to thermodynamics and the second law.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Benoit; Ronis, David

    2007-01-01

    The one-dimensional expanding ideal gas model is used to compute the exact nonequilibrium distribution function. The state of the system during the expansion is defined in terms of local thermodynamics quantities. The final equilibrium free energy, obtained a long time after the expansion, is compared against the free energy that appears in the Jarzynski equality. Within this model, where the Jarzynski equality holds rigorously, the free energy change that appears in the equality does not equal the actual free energy change of the system at any time of the process. More generally, the work bound that is obtained from the Jarzynski equality is an upper bound to the upper bound that is obtained from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The cancellation of the dissipative (nonequilibrium) terms that result in the Jarzynski equality is shown in the framework of response theory. This is used to show that the intuitive assumption that the Jarzynski work bound becomes equal to the average work done when the system evolves quasistatically is incorrect under some conditions.

  6. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  7. Blind Equalization with the Lattice Constant Modulus Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Initialization h(n) = k8Q(n - 1) + hk6(n - 2) + hkb(n - 3) (27) In [2], Godard argued that undesirable local minima of the cost where function J in the space of...equalizer. According to and Godard , the initial value of this "reference" tap-weight should h =[h , h 3 ]T. (29) be set to a value larger than a... Godard , "Self-Recovering Equalization and Carrier [8] E.H. Satrrius, and S.T. Alexander, "Channel Equalization Tracking In Two-Dimensional Data

  8. Moving beyond gender: processes that create relationship equality.

    PubMed

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2005-04-01

    Equality is related to relationship success, yet few couples achieve it. In this qualitative study, we examine how couples with children in two time cohorts (1982 and 2001) moved toward equality. The analysis identifies three types of couples: Postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. Movement toward equality is facilitated by: (a) Stimulus for change, including awareness of gender, commitment to family and work, and situational pressures; and (b) patterns that promote change, including active negotiation, challenges to gender entitlement, development of new competencies, and mutual attention to relationship and family tasks. Implications for practice are discussed.

  9. Modeling and equalization of nonlinear bandlimited satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantinides, K.; Yao, K.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of modeling and equalization of a nonlinear satellite channel is considered. The channel is assumed to be bandlimited and exhibits both amplitude and phase nonlinearities. A discrete time satellite link is modeled under both uplink and downlink white Gaussian noise. Under conditions of practical interest, a simple and computationally efficient design technique for the minimum mean square error linear equalizer is presented. The bit error probability and some numerical results for a binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) system demonstrate that the proposed equalization technique outperforms standard linear receiver structures.

  10. Study of a co-designed decision feedback equalizer, deinterleaver, and decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peile, Robert E.; Welch, Loyd

    1990-01-01

    A technique that promises better quality data from band limited channels at lower received power in digital transmission systems is presented. Data transmission, in such systems often suffers from intersymbol interference (ISI) and noise. Two separate techniques, channel coding and equalization, have caused considerable advances in the state of communication systems and both concern themselves with removing the undesired effects of a communication channel. Equalizers mitigate the ISI whereas coding schemes are used to incorporate error-correction. In the past, most of the research in these two areas has been carried out separately. However, the individual techniques have strengths and weaknesses that are complementary in many applications: an integrated approach realizes gains in excess to that of a simple juxtaposition. Coding schemes have been successfully used in cascade with linear equalizers which in the absence of ISI provide excellent performance. However, when both ISI and the noise level are relatively high, nonlinear receivers like the decision feedback equalizer (DFE) perform better. The DFE has its drawbacks: it suffers from error propagation. The technique presented here takes advantage of interleaving to integrate the two approaches so that the error propagation in DFE can be reduced with the help of error correction provided by the decoder. The results of simulations carried out for both, binary, and non-binary, channels confirm that significant gain can be obtained by codesigning equalizer and decoder. Although, systems with time-invariant channels and simple DFE having linear filters were looked into, the technique is fairly general and can easily be modified for more sophisticated equalizers to obtain even larger gains.

  11. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    PubMed Central

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  12. Affirmative Action: Equal Opportunity for Women in Library Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFichy, Wendy

    1973-01-01

    Women can achieve equal opportunity in library management through Affirmative Action Committees. Several steps are suggested: the determination of present status; assessment of library policies affecting hiring, parental leave and promotion; some strategies to attain managerial positions. (21 references) (Author)

  13. Cost-Sharing in Gaining Equal Employment Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James E., Jr

    1976-01-01

    The process of collective bargaining needs the assistance of congressional legislation in order to respond successfully to equal employment opportunity problems. A proposal to develop an Affirmative Action Adjustment Assistant Act is presented as a possible solution. (EC)

  14. Equal Employment Law and the Employer--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Will

    1979-01-01

    Sets forth in simple terms some of the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972. Available from the New York State Bar Association, One Elk Street, Albany, N.Y. 12207; sc $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  15. Equal Pay: A Thirty-Five Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Ida L.

    Issued on the 35th anniversary of the signing of the Equal Pay Act (1963), this report is a historical analysis of the economic trends affecting women workers from the years leading up to passage of the act through the present. It is divided into three time periods to highlight important developments: Part I--The Early Impact of the Equal Pay Act,…

  16. Evaluating CMA Equalization of SOQPSK-TG for Aeronautical Telemetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Aeronautical Telemetry March 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Test Resource Management...Equalization of SOQPK-TG Data for Aeronautical Telemetry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: W900KK-13-C-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER: N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This standard is defined and used for aeronautical telemetry. Based on the iNET-packet structure, the adaptive block processing CMA equalizer can be

  17. Design of the Core 2-4 GHz Betatron Equalizer

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    2000-01-01

    The core betatron equalizer in the Accumulator in the Antiproton Source at Fermilab needed to be upgraded. The performance could be rated as only circa 650 MHz when the system was a 2 GHz system. The old equalizer did not correct for the strong phase mismatch for the relatively strong gain of the system slightly below 2 GHz. The design corrects this phase mismatch and is relatively well matched both in and out of band.

  18. Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints and with an unknown parameter vector are considered in this paper. With some simplifications, the problem is reduced to solving a linear, time-varying two-point boundary-value problem with integral path equality constraints. A modified backward sweep method is used to solve this problem. Two example problems are solved to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the solution technique.

  19. Real-Time CMA Equalization of SOQPSK for Aeronautical Telemetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Telemetry Conference ( ITC ) 2004, San Diego, CA. [3] A.Cole-Rhodes, H. Umuolo, F. Moazzami, M. Rice, “A Block Processing Approach to CMA Equalization...Systems, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 2340–2352, October 2013. [7] M. Rice, M. Saquib, M.S. Afran, A.Cole-Rhodes, F. Moazzami, “A Comparison of Three Equalization Techniques for iNET-formatted SOQPSK-TG”, submitted to ITC 2014.

  20. Least absolute value state estimation with equality and inequality constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Abur, A. ); Celik, M.K. )

    1993-05-01

    A least absolute value (LAV) state estimator, which can handle both equality and inequality constraints on measurements, is developed. It is shown that, the use of equality constraints will actually reduce the number of Simplex iterations and thus the overall cpu time. The constraints can be used to enhance the reliability of the state estimator without affecting the computational efficiency of the estimator. The developed estimation program is tested using 14 through 1,000 bus power systems.

  1. Power-output regularization in global sound equalization.

    PubMed

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Cambourakis, George; Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of equalization in room acoustics is to compensate for the undesired modification that an enclosure introduces to signals such as audio or speech. In this work, equalization in a large part of the volume of a room is addressed. The multiple point method is employed with an acoustic power-output penalty term instead of the traditional quadratic source effort penalty term. Simulation results demonstrate that this technique gives a smoother decline of the reproduction performance away from the control points.

  2. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  3. Measurements satisfying the quantum Cramer-Rao equality

    SciTech Connect

    Luczak, Andrzej

    2009-07-15

    The situation where the quantum Cramer-Rao inequality for a general measurement becomes equality is analyzed in some detail in the case of a family of pure states. In particular, it turns out that under some natural assumptions, the measurement in question is simple, and the states must have a special form. This fact in turn allows us to obtain in the two-dimensional case a characterization of the pure states for which the quantum Cramer-Rao equality holds.

  4. What Physicist Mean By The Equals Sign In Undergraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohrabi Alaee, Dina; Kornick, Kellianne; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical concepts and tools have an important role in physics. Faculties want students to think critically about mathematics and the underlying fundamental concepts, rather than simply memorizing a series of equations and answers. The equals sign - ubiquitous in problem solving - carries different conceptual meaning depending on how it is used; this meaning is deeply tied to cultural practices in problem solving in physics. We use symbolic forms to investigate the conceptual and cultural meanings of the equals sign across physics contexts. We built and validated a rubric to classify the ways that physics students use the equals sign in their written work. Our categories are causality, assignments, definitional, balancing, and just math. We analyze students' use of the equals sign in their written homework and exam solutions in an upper-division electrostatics course. We correlate the kinds of equal signs within problem solutions with the difficulty of the problem. We compare they ways students use the equals sign to their course lectures and textbook.

  5. What Physicists Mean By the Equals Sign in Undergraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornick, Kellianne; Alaee, Dina; Sayre, Eleanor; Franklin, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical syntax allows for the description of meaningful concepts in the physical sciences, and having nuanced proficiency in mathematical formalism is closely tied to communication and understanding of physical principles. The concept of equality is especially important, as it constrains and dictates the relationships between two equated expressions, and a student with detailed understanding of these relationships can derive physical meaning from syntactical expressions mediated by equals signs by knowing the ``meaning'' of equals signs. We delineate types of equals signs as used in undergraduate textbooks and develop a categorization scheme in order to investigate how equals signs are used paradigmatically and culturally in textbooks to convey physical meaning. We classify equals signs into general clusters (causal, definitional, assignment, balancing, and ``just math''), each cluster containing more detailed types. We investigate differences across various topics and between introductory and upper-division textbooks. We found that upper division textbooks are more likely to use balancing, definitional, and more complex kinds of assignment forms, while introductory texts have much higher frequencies of simple assignment and ``just math'' types.

  6. Approximate Minimum Bit Error Rate Equalization for Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Lorant; Levendovszky, Janos; Olah, Andras; Treplan, Gergely

    2010-12-01

    A novel channel equalizer algorithm is introduced for wireless communication systems to combat channel distortions resulting from multipath propagation. The novel algorithm is based on minimizing the bit error rate (BER) using a fast approximation of its gradient with respect to the equalizer coefficients. This approximation is obtained by estimating the exponential summation in the gradient with only some carefully chosen dominant terms. The paper derives an algorithm to calculate these dominant terms in real-time. Summing only these dominant terms provides a highly accurate approximation of the true gradient. Combined with a fast adaptive channel state estimator, the new equalization algorithm yields better performance than the traditional zero forcing (ZF) or minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizers. The performance of the new method is tested by simulations performed on standard wireless channels. From the performance analysis one can infer that the new equalizer is capable of efficient channel equalization and maintaining a relatively low bit error probability in the case of channels corrupted by frequency selectivity. Hence, the new algorithm can contribute to ensuring QoS communication over highly distorted channels.

  7. The transverse and oblique cylindrical equal-area projection of the ellipsoid.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The formulas for the ellipsoidal projection are derived for both forward and inverse computations and consist of modifying the formulas obtained by using the authalic sphere so that the scale along the central line of the projection is constant. Fourier series are used to eliminate recurring numerical integration and other lengthy trigonometric computations of co-ordinates.-from Author

  8. Automated Area Beam Equalization Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    glandular dose of the whole breast can be calculated from the sum of all pixilated igD , within an ROI in the mammogram weighted by the fraction of...and mask and creates a weighted average glandular dose igD , image. An ROI around the breast region can be drawn manually. The total sum within

  9. Have health human resources become more equal between rural and urban areas after the new reform?

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Dong, Hengjin

    2014-12-01

    The lack of health human resources is a global issue. China also faces the same issue, in addition to the equity of human resources allocation. With the launch of new healthcare reform of China in 2009, have the issues been improved? Relevant data from China Health Statistical Yearbook and a qualitative study show that the unequal allocation of health human resources is getting worse than before.

  10. Have health human resources become more equal between rural and urban areas after the new reform?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Dong, Hengjin

    2014-01-01

    The lack of health human resources is a global issue. China also faces the same issue, in addition to the equity of human resources allocation. With the launch of new healthcare reform of China in 2009, have the issues been improved? Relevant data from China Health Statistical Yearbook and a qualitative study show that the unequal allocation of health human resources is getting worse than before. PMID:25489591

  11. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  12. A selective equalizer for NiMH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, A.; Stuart, T. A.

    A unique method has been developed to equalize nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery packs using a new selective equalizer. This equalizer detects batteries either at a very low state of charge (SOC) or at an extremely high SOC. In this system a set of electromechanical relays is connected in a matrix to route boost current to the weaker batteries. The relay switching is controlled by a 32 bit microcontroller, and the boost current is supplied by a boost charger. Once a weak battery is detected, it is scheduled for a specific boost time by a special "Round Robin" (RR) algorithm. The equalizer was tested on a pack of 12 series connected 12 V 93 ampere hour (Ah) NiMH batteries. Test results show that the equalizer was able to re-balance an artificially unbalanced pack, and the capacity was increased by 27% within six charge-discharge cycles. Results indicate the number of cycles required to re-balance the pack was significantly reduced by using this technique.

  13. Equalizer system and method for series connected energy storing devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ross, Guy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the charge voltage of a number of electrochemical cells connected in series is disclosed. Equalization circuitry is provided to control the amount of charge current supplied to individual electrochemical cells included within the series string of electrochemical cells without interrupting the flow of charge current through the series string. The equalization circuitry balances the potential of each of the electrochemical cells to within a pre-determined voltage setpoint tolerance during charging, and, if necessary, prior to initiating charging. Equalization of cell potentials may be effected toward the end of a charge cycle or throughout the charge cycle. Overcharge protection is also provided for each of the electrochemical cells coupled to the series connection. During a discharge mode of operation in accordance with one embodiment, the equalization circuitry is substantially non-conductive with respect to the flow of discharge current from the series string of electrochemical cells. In accordance with another embodiment, equalization of the series string of cells is effected during a discharge cycle.

  14. Prioritizing environmental justice and equality: diesel emissions in southern California.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julian D; Swor, Kathryn R; Nguyen, Nam P

    2014-04-01

    Existing environmental policies aim to reduce emissions but lack standards for addressing environmental justice. Environmental justice research documents disparities in exposure to air pollution; however, little guidance currently exists on how to make improvements or on how specific emission-reduction scenarios would improve or deteriorate environmental justice conditions. Here, we quantify how emission reductions from specific sources would change various measures of environmental equality and justice. We evaluate potential emission reductions for fine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in Southern California for five sources: on-road mobile, off-road mobile, ships, trains, and stationary. Our approach employs state-of-the-science dispersion and exposure models. We compare four environmental goals: impact, efficiency, equality, and justice. Results indicate potential trade-offs among those goals. For example, reductions in train emissions produce the greatest improvements in terms of efficiency, equality, and justice, whereas off-road mobile source reductions can have the greatest total impact. Reductions in on-road emissions produce improvements in impact, equality, and justice, whereas emission reductions from ships would widen existing population inequalities. Results are similar for complex versus simplified exposure analyses. The approach employed here could usefully be applied elsewhere to evaluate opportunities for improving environmental equality and justice in other locations.

  15. Blind equalization and source separation with MSK inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellier, Olivier; Comon, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    Channel equalization and identification appear as key issues in improving wireless communications. It is known that the linearization of the GMSK modulation leads to a continuous phase OQPSK which can be considered as a Minimum SHift Keying (MSK) modulation. Thus methods of equalization and identification when the channel is input by MSK modulated signals is worth to look at. Most algorithms consider MSK signals as two independent white binary PAM staggered signals; this is not the case in our approach. Here, MSK signals are seen, after sampling at baud rate, as colored complex discrete signals. Even if this view of MSK modulation is quite simple, it has never been utilized with purpose of blind equalization. The particular statistics of such signals are studied, yielding an original closed-form analytical solution to blind equalization, both in the monovariate case and in the source separation problem. Simulations show a good behavior of the algorithms in terms of bit error rate as a function of SNR, both in the case of blind equalization and source separation.

  16. Reconstruction of Energy Surfaces from Friction Force Microscopy Measurements with the Jarzynski Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Ronen; Klafter, Joseph; Urbakh, Michael

    Free energy is one of the most fundamental thermodynamic functions, determining relative phase stability and serving as a generating function for other thermodynamic quantities. The calculation of free energies is a challenging enterprise. In equilibrium statistical mechanics, the free energy is related to the canonical partition function. The partition function itself involves integrations over all degrees of freedom in the system and, in most cases, cannot be easily calculated directly. In 1997, Jarzynski proved a remarkable equality that allows computing the equilibrium free-energy difference between two states from the probability distribution of the nonequilibrium work done on the system to switch between the two states. The Jarzynski equality provides a powerful free-energy difference estimator from a set of irreversible experiments. This method is closely related to free-energy perturbation approach, which is also a computational technique for estimating free-energy differences. The ability to map potential profiles and topologies is of major significance to areas as diverse as biological recognition and nanoscale friction. This capability has been demonstrated for frictional studies where a force between the tip of the scanning force microscope and the surface is probed. The surface free-energy corrugation produces a detectable friction forces. Thus, friction force microscopy (FFM) should be able to discriminate between energetically different areas on the probed surface. Here, we apply the Jarzynski equality for the analysis of FFM measurements and thus obtain a variation of the free energy along a surface.

  17. EQUATIONS AND THE EQUAL SIGN IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS.

    PubMed

    Powell, Sarah R

    2012-06-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of standard and nonstandard equation types appearing within the student textbook. Except in 1 of the 8 curricula, students typically do not receive exposure to nonstandard equation types that promote a relational understanding of the equal sign. An analysis of the accompanying teacher manual for each textbook suggests that students receive minimal instruction on relational definitions of the equal sign, with the majority of instruction occurring in grades K-2 and minimal instruction provided in grades 3-5.

  18. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  19. A benchmark study of controlled emptying of equalization basins.

    PubMed

    Bolmstedt, J; Olsson, G

    2005-01-01

    Storm tanks, or equalization basins, have been used for many years in sewer or wastewater treatment systems to reduce the amount of combined sewer overflows. In this paper, a systematic control of an equalization basin is used not only to dampen or reduce the hydraulic load, but also to systematically improve the effluent quality in a nitrogen removal plant. It is demonstrated that the effluent ammonia concentration is the key component. The Benchmark Simulation Model 1, implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, has been used to perform the evaluations. It has been extended with systematic rainfall generations. Intuitively, it is apparent that the equalization basin should be emptied before a rainfall. This requires a prediction capacity. It is shown that the choice of prediction time is by no means trivial and it is not true that a long prediction horizon is always advantageous.

  20. Nonlinear equality constraints in feasible sequential quadratic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, C.; Tits, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk we show that convergence of a feasible sequential quadratic programming algorithm modified to handle smooth nonlinear equality constraints. The modification of the algorithm to incorporate equality constraints is based on a scheme proposed by Mayne and Polak and is implemented in fsqp/cfsqp, an optimization package that generates feasible iterates. Nonlinear equality constraints are treated as {open_quotes}{<=}-type constraints to be satisfied by all iterates, thus precluding any positive value, and an exact penalty term is added to the objective function which penalizes negative values. For example, the problem minimize f(x) s.t. h(x) = 0, with h(x) a scalar, is replaced by minimize f(x) - ch(x) s.t. h(x) {<=} 0. The modified problem is equivalent to the original problem when c is large enough (but finite). Such a value is determined automatically via iterative adjustments.

  1. Equal division of estates and the exchange motive.

    PubMed

    Norton, Edward C; Taylor, Donald H

    2005-01-01

    Although the bequest motive is one of the most important theoretical extensions of the life-cycle hypothesis, few empirical studies have measured determinants of unequal estate division. We estimated whether several proxies that are consistent with exchange and altruism lead to unequal estate division using data from a longitudinal survey of deceased elderly persons linked to probate court records. Equal division was the rule-between 70 and 83% of estates were divided equally, depending on the strictness of the definition of equal division. Several measures of exchange were not significant predictors of unequal division. Two factors that are consistent with both exchange and altruism- writing the last will and testament within five years of death and having more children-predict unequal estate division. The models control for selection, because many decedents do not file a record in probate court.

  2. Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Millar, David S; Savory, Seb J

    2011-04-25

    Coherent detection in combination with digital signal processing has recently enabled significant progress in the capacity of optical communications systems. This improvement has enabled detection of optimum constellations for optical signals in four dimensions. In this paper, we propose and investigate an algorithm for the blind adaptive equalization of one such modulation format: polarization-switched quaternary phase shift keying (PS-QPSK). The proposed algorithm, which includes both blind initialization and adaptation of the equalizer, is found to be insensitive to the input polarization state and demonstrates highly robust convergence in the presence of PDL, DGD and polarization rotation.

  3. Jarzynski equality in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    DOE PAGES

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-13

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT -symmetry. In the regime of broken PT -symmetry the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT -norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system – two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT -symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  4. Histogram Equalization with Variable Enhancement Degree for Preserving Mean Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Takashi; Murahira, Kota; Taguchi, Akira

    The histogram equalization (HE) is one of the common methods used for improving contrast in digital images. However, this technique causes a fluctuation of mean brightness. The fluctuation leads to the flicker for video signal. In order to preserve the mean brightness, the dynamic histogram equalization (DHE) is proposed. In this letter, we propose a novel DHE which is called the DHE with variable enhancement degree (DHEwVED). This method can change from DHE to HE by turning one parameter. We also show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Jarzynski Equality in PT-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-17

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT-symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT symmetry. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system-two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  6. Generalization of Carey's equality and a theorem on stationary population.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Carey, James R

    2015-09-01

    Carey's Equality pertaining to stationary models is well known. In this paper, we have stated and proved a fundamental theorem related to the formation of this Equality. This theorem will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of each captive subject, and their corresponding follow-up duration in a stationary population. We have demonstrated a numerical example of a captive cohort and the survival pattern of medfly populations. These results can be adopted to understand age-structure and aging process in stationary and non-stationary population models.

  7. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  8. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender equality is…

  9. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  10. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  11. Equal Pay Act: Wage Differentials for Time of Day Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Richard Alan

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court held in Corning Glass Works cases involving male only employees for night shifts that the time of day worked could constitute a factor other than sex whereby the wage differential might qualify as an exception under the Equal Pay Act. Shift differentials could be legal if proven to be nondiscriminatory. (LBH)

  12. Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Martha, Ed.; Shweder, Richard A., Ed.; Markus, Hazel Rose, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Educators and policymakers who share the goal of equal opportunity in schools often hold differing notions of what entails a just school in multicultural America. Some emphasize the importance of integration and uniform treatment for all, while others point to the benefits of honoring cultural diversity in ways that make minority students feel at…

  13. Equality and Diversity in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Dadzie, Stella

    This document is a practical guide to help managers of adult and community education programs in the United Kingdom address equality and diversity in the context of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) remit and the Common Inspection Framework. The following are among the topics discussed in Sections 1-4: (1) learner-centered approaches…

  14. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... personnel policies and practices and working conditions. (v) Conduct a continuing review of job structure... opportunity in every aspect of employment policy and practice. (1) Under the terms of its program, each... and vigorous enforcement of the policy of equal opportunity, and establish a procedure to review...

  15. National Advisory Council on Equality of Educational Opportunity, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    Section 716 of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) provides for the establishment of a fifteen member National Advisory Council on Equality of Educational Opportunity (NACEEO). The purpose of the Council is to oversee the major functions of ESAA which are to provide financial assistance to aid in the school desegregation process. In this final…

  16. From Equal to Equivalent Pay: Salary Discrimination in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Ester

    1977-01-01

    Examines the federal statutes barring sex discrimination in employment and argues that the work of any two professors is comparable but not equal. Suggests using regression analysis to prove salary discrimination and discusses the legal justification for adopting regression analysis and the standard of comparable pay for comparable work.…

  17. State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Randall G.; Elrod, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Many states (18 of 39) use revenue generated by lotteries to help fund higher education. The revenue is generated as a regressive tax disproportionately collected. As such, do state lotteries contribute toward facilitation of equal access to higher education for low-income and minority citizens? Given population trends, college enrollment, and…

  18. Expansion and Equality of Access to Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Xiaohao

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the role of socio-economic status in determining access to higher education over time. Findings show that the overall equality of higher education opportunity has improved because of the inclusion of more marginal students into lower-tier higher education institutions (HEIs); however, students from higher socio-economic status…

  19. Promoting Disability Equality and Inclusive Learning in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah; Posas, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 created a positive duty on the public sector to promote disability equality. This duty extends to higher education and local planning authorities. Based on Zuber-Skerrit's CRASP model for professional development, this paper examines an initiative to enact the duty. It details a completed action…

  20. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  1. 41 CFR 60-741.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; v. Leaves of absence... opportunity clause in each of its subcontracts subject to this part. (c) Adaption of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made to the equal opportunity clause as shall be appropriate to...

  2. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and expression of its religious beliefs, subject to the provisions of § 2.33 of this subpart. Among... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section... Labor Programs for Religious Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of...

  3. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and expression of its religious beliefs, subject to the provisions of § 2.33 of this subpart. Among... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32... Labor Programs for Religious Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of...

  4. The Equal Pay Act: The First 30 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Suzanne M.; Hodge, John W.; Mishra, Jitendra M.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis by decade of the effects of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 shows that women's earnings relative to men's increased by 10 cents from 1960-1990. Black and Hispanic women's earnings lagged further behind. More education and experience did not help women narrow the gap. (SK)

  5. Equal Employment Opportunity in Japan: A View from the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Linda N.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law of 1985 and assesses its impact on economic opportunities for Japanese women. She argues that two aspects of Japan's socioeconomic environment--the lifetime employment system and the labor supply pattern of Japanese women--diminish its likely impact. (Author/CH)

  6. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  7. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prejudice or discrimination based upon sex, race, color, religion, or national origin, from the licensee's..., religion, or national origin. (a) Equal employment opportunity program. Each licensee shall establish... qualified applicants without regard to sex, race, color, religion or national origin, and solicit...

  8. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prejudice or discrimination based upon sex, race, color, religion, or national origin, from the licensee's..., religion, or national origin. (a) Equal employment opportunity program. Each licensee shall establish... qualified applicants without regard to sex, race, color, religion or national origin, and solicit...

  9. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prejudice or discrimination based upon sex, race, color, religion, or national origin, from the licensee's..., religion, or national origin. (a) Equal employment opportunity program. Each licensee shall establish... qualified applicants without regard to sex, race, color, religion or national origin, and solicit...

  10. The Constitutional Framework for Pursuing Equal Opportunities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malherbe, Rassie

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of equal learning opportunities is crucially important for the improvement of the quality of life of millions of people. The virtues of education in preparing learners for life, for meaningful interaction with other human beings, for constructive civic and political involvement, and for successful economic participation stand beyond…

  11. Equality, Quality and Quantity: The Elusive Triangle in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Since independence in 1947, India's educational goals have included expansion, improved quality, and equal opportunity. The author analyzes India's successes and failures in reaching these goals in the context of its limited economic resources, the traditional educational values of its people, and its traditionally stratified social system. (SJL)

  12. 75 FR 21155 - National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... still exists. Nearly half of all working Americans are women, yet they earn only about 80 cents for.... This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, or... give our daughters and granddaughters the gift of true equality. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  13. 47 CFR 73.2080 - Equal employment opportunities (EEO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gender from among those who share their religious affiliation or belief. For purposes of this rule, a... other measures needed to ensure genuine equality of opportunity to participate fully in all..., national origin, religion, or gender. (i) A station employment unit shall use recruitment sources for...

  14. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  15. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52.211-6 Section 52.211-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  16. Evaluation of Effect of CMA Radius on SOQPSK Equalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    the International Telemetry Conference ( ITC ) 2004, San Diego, CA. [3] A.Cole-Rhodes, H. Umuolo, F. Moazzami, M. Rice, “Real-Time CMA Equalization...of SOQPSK for Aeronautical Telemetry”, submitted to ITC 2014. [4] A.Cole-Rhodes, H. Umuolo, F. Moazzami, M. Rice, “A Block Processing Approach to CMA

  17. Isochronous classical systems and quantum systems with equally spaced spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Perelomov, A. M.; Rañada, M. F.

    2007-11-01

    We study isoperiodic classical systems, what allows us to find the classical isochronous systems, i.e. having a period independent of the energy. The corresponding quantum analog, systems with an equally spaced spectrum are analysed by looking for possible creation-like differential operators. The harmonic oscillator and the isotonic oscillator are the two main essentially unique examples of such situation.

  18. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  19. Gender Equality in SOCRATES. Final Report. SCRE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hamilton, Sheila

    SOCRATES is the European Community education action program. SOCRATES I began in 1995 and ended in 1999. SOCRATES II, begun in 2000, continues until December 31, 2006. This study sought to identify how both the principles and practices of equal opportunities between women and men were interpreted in a sample of 100 centralized and 113…

  20. Legislation and Equality in Basic Education for All in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    In China, legislation exists which requires compulsory schooling for all students of school age. This article examines the functions of and the constraints on using law to institutionalize equality in basic education. It argues that, in China, law is a last resort, holding governments of various levels accountable. Law can be a device of social…

  1. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  2. Equality of Educational Opportunity in an Expanding Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Aage Bottger

    To determine whether the equality of educational opportunity increases in proportion to the rapid expansion of a national school system, questionnaire response data from 1957 to 1962 Danish higher education graduates were analyzed. Social inequality was defined as the relationship between social origin and educational potential. Data analysis…

  3. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunity implementation. 27.6 Section 27.6 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, PUBLIC LAND ORDERS, AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  4. 43 CFR 27.5 - Equal opportunity terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunity terms. 27.5 Section 27.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, PUBLIC LAND ORDERS, AND OTHER FEDERAL AUTHORIZATIONS GRANTED OR...

  5. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. THE EQUALIZING IMPACT OF STATE AID TO EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARKIN, DAVID

    THE STATE AID TO EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN KENTUCKY, MISSOURI, AND TENNESSEE ARE INVESTIGATED WITH RESPECT TO THEIR COMPENSATION FOR DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY OF LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO SUPPORT EDUCATION. A HYPOTHETICAL AID FORMULA WAS USED AS A STANDARD AGAINST WHICH TO MEASURE THE PRESENT EQUALIZATION SCHEMA IN EACH OF THE THREE STATES. KENTUCKY…

  7. Rights, Equality, and the Ethics of School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Where a plurality of opinions exists, the effect of uniform educational policy denies a minority group's desires for equal rights and serves partisan views. Dworkin's theory of rights supports this perspective. Governmental imposition of uniform schooling practices on unwilling persons is an illegitimate devaluation of some citizens' lives. (36…

  8. Advancing Equality of Opportunity: A Matter of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia J., Ed.

    Papers include: public responsibility for equality and justice (Charles V. Hamilton); justice is the reversal of discrimination (Kenneth S. Tollett); the ramifications of Bakke and the destiny of affirmative action (Herbert O. Reid, Sr.); the justice of affirmative action (Kenneth A. Strike); legislative and administrative attacks on affirmative…

  9. Parallel-Processing Equalizers for Multi-Gbps Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew; Ghuman, Parminder; Hoy, Scott; Satorius, Edgar H.

    2004-01-01

    Architectures have been proposed for the design of frequency-domain least-mean-square complex equalizers that would be integral parts of parallel- processing digital receivers of multi-gigahertz radio signals and other quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) of data signals at rates of multiple gigabits per second. Equalizers as used here denotes receiver subsystems that compensate for distortions in the phase and frequency responses of the broad-band radio-frequency channels typically used to convey such signals. The proposed architectures are suitable for realization in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry and, in particular, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) application- specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at frequencies lower than modulation symbol rates. A digital receiver of the type to which the proposed architecture applies (see Figure 1) would include an analog-to-digital converter (A/D) operating at a rate, fs, of 4 samples per symbol period. To obtain the high speed necessary for sampling, the A/D and a 1:16 demultiplexer immediately following it would be constructed as GaAs integrated circuits. The parallel-processing circuitry downstream of the demultiplexer, including a demodulator followed by an equalizer, would operate at a rate of only fs/16 (in other words, at 1/4 of the symbol rate). The output from the equalizer would be four parallel streams of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) samples.

  10. The Importance of Equal Sign Understanding in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.; Hattikudur, Shanta; McNeil, Nicole M.; Stephens, Ana C.

    2008-01-01

    The equal sign is perhaps the most prevalent symbol in school mathematics, and developing an understanding of it has typically been considered mathematically straightforward. In fact, after its initial introduction during students' early elementary school education, little, if any instructional time is explicitly spent on the concept in the later…

  11. Evaluating the Equal-Interval Hypothesis with Test Score Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingue, Benjamin Webre

    2012-01-01

    In psychometrics, it is difficult to verify that measurement instruments can be used to produce numeric values with the desirable property that differences between units are equal-interval because the attributes being measured are latent. The theory of additive conjoint measurement (e.g., Krantz, Luce, Suppes, & Tversky, 1971, ACM) guarantees…

  12. The Psychological Costs to Quality and Equality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The initial part of this paper summarizes the bases for the assertion that the most immediate, overwhelming, and stubborn obstacles to achieving quality and equality in education lie as much in the character and way of life of the American Negro as in the indifference and hostility of the white community toward blacks. A discussion of prenatal…

  13. Different but Equal? Assessing European Dual HE Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    In higher education dual systems, graduates are qualified to apply for jobs in same professional fields along two separated educational routes. The research problem is whether the rival applicants for professional positions are treated equally in the labour market despite their different qualifications. From the graduates point of view, to be…

  14. Political Education and Equality: Gramsci Against "False Consciousness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Mark E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes and assesses the contributions of Marxist political theorist Antonio Gramsci to developing a meaningful theory relating political education to equality. Identifies Gramsci's major contribution as the substitution of the notion of an ambiguous common sense for false consciousness. (Author/DB)

  15. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-03-24

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner's opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other's opinions regardless of true differences in their competence-even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members.

  16. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  17. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  18. Individuality, Equality, and Creative Democracy--The Task before Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Education is ubiquitous and inevitable; schooling is an institutionalized activity usually confined to designated times and places. Public schooling is subject to public regulation and control, presumably for the common good. The author contends that true democratic education seeks educational equality as a way to educate individuals capable of…

  19. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  20. The Meritocratic Conception of Educational Equality: Ideal Theory Run Amuck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The dominant conception of educational equality in the United States is meritocratic: an individual's chances of educational achievements should track only (natural) talent and effort, not social class or other morally irrelevant factors. The meritocratic conception must presuppose that natural talent and effort can be isolated from social…

  1. Equal Rights Amendment Controversy: Two Worlds in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Sonja K.

    1979-01-01

    The Equal Rights Amendment controversy is studied as a conflict between two world views that are created by the rhetoric generated by proponents and opponents. Descriptions of the settings, actions, characters, and motivations of the opposing worlds reveal little common ground on which traditional argumentation can occur. (JMF)

  2. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affirmative action and equal opportunity. 1316.2 Section 1316.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... directive or are in fact segregated on the basis of race, religion, color, or national origin, because...

  3. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Affirmative action and equal opportunity. 1316.2 Section 1316.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... directive or are in fact segregated on the basis of race, religion, color, or national origin, because...

  4. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affirmative action and equal opportunity. 1316.2 Section 1316.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... directive or are in fact segregated on the basis of race, religion, color, or national origin, because...

  5. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and vigorous enforcement of the policy of equal opportunity, and establish a procedure to review and... personnel policies and practices and working conditions. (v) Conduct a continuing review of job structure... opportunity in every aspect of employment policy and practice. (1) Under the terms of its program,...

  6. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  7. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social service..., although this requirement does not preclude DOL, DOL social service providers, or State and...

  8. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equal opportunity in all aspects of its operations. An acceptable program must include an analysis of... operation. The implementing affirmative action plans shall include the following: (a) Services, financial... operation of the recipient, contractor or subcontractor which offer and provide services, financial...

  9. Equality of Educational Opportunities at Public Primary Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of equality of educational opportunities across Argentina's public primary schools. The main finding is that there are inequalities between jurisdictions, but even greater inequalities within them, suggesting the existence of serious problems in the distribution of resources at the sub-national level. Following the…

  10. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equal terms. No single way to do this is prescribed by law. Any method that treats competing customers... the same rate per unit or amount purchased. Thus, a seller might offer promotional allowances of up to... seller may offer to pay a specified part (e.g., 50 percent) of the cost of local advertising up to...

  11. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equal terms. No single way to do this is prescribed by law. Any method that treats competing customers... the same rate per unit or amount purchased. Thus, a seller might offer promotional allowances of up to... seller may offer to pay a specified part (e.g., 50 percent) of the cost of local advertising up to...

  12. The acoustic effects of vowel equalization training in singers.

    PubMed

    Dromey, Christopher; Heaton, Emily; Hopkin, J Arden

    2011-11-01

    Vowel equalization is a technique that can be used by singers to achieve a more balanced vocal resonance, or chiaroscuro, by balancing corresponding front and back vowels, which share approximate tongue heights, and also high and low vowels by means of a more neutral or centralized lingual posture. The goal of this single group study was to quantify acoustic changes in vowels after a brief training session in vowel equalization. Fifteen young adults with amateur singing experience sang a passage and sustained isolated vowels both before and after a 15-minute training session in vowel equalization. The first two formants of the target vowels /e, i, ɑ, o, u/ were measured from microphone recordings. An analysis of variance was used to test for changes in formant values after the training session. These formant values mostly changed in a manner reflective of a more central tongue posture. For the sustained vowels, all formant changes suggested a more neutral tongue position after the training session. The vowels in the singing passage mostly changed in the expected direction, with exceptions possibly attributable to coarticulation. The changes in the vowel formants indicated that even a brief training session can result in significant changes in vowel acoustics. Further work to explore the perceptual consequences of vowel equalization is warranted.

  13. The Changing Ideology of Educational Reform: Equality Yields to Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.; Wiggins, Thomas

    After World War II, an optimistic, rationalist ideology infused with Jeffersonian values influenced worldwide educational growth. The idea of a universal, free, compulsory system replaced an older elitist ideology. The equality ideology held that (1) cultural integration was necessary for national unity and (2) a shortage of trained manpower was…

  14. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...; (2) The value of the lands to be conveyed out of Federal ownership is not more than $150,000 as based...) The Federal and non-Federal lands are substantially similar in location, acreage, use, and...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  18. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  19. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  2. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  3. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  6. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  7. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  10. Assessment of College Students' Understanding of the Equals Relation: Development and Validation of an Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that many elementary students do not comprehend that the equal sign is an indication that an equality relation exists between two structures. Instead, they perceive the equal sign as an indication that a particular procedure is to be performed. As students mature, and as their exposure to the equal sign and equality relations in…

  11. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  14. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be...

  16. Report on Wellesley Conference on Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity Policy in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Ronnie Steinberg

    After a brief discussion of conference background and structure, these proceedings identify and summarize equal pay and employment policy issues discussed at a four-day working conference of sixty-five people from twelve advanced industrialized countries. Focus is on progress to date and alternative strategies for implementing policies. Strategies…

  17. Equal Employment in Postsecondary HPERD. Administrative Guidelines for Compliance with Title VII and the Equal Pay Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursall, John G.

    1989-01-01

    Outlined are key provisions, relevant to education, of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963. Administrative guidelines to insure compliance are presented, as well as preventive measures that reduce vulnerability to charges of discrimination in hiring, promotion, and compensation. (IAH)

  18. Better to Be Equal? Challenges to Equality for Cognitively Able Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Social Decision Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Eva A.; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we…

  19. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of AZ91 alloy deformed by equal-channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Braszczyńska-Malik, K N; Lityńska, L; Baliga, W

    2006-10-01

    The microstructure of transverse and longitudinal sections of a commercial AZ91 alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing was examined by transmission electron microscopy. A high dislocation density and large number of deformation twins were observed in the investigated material. The {102}(matrix) // {012}(twin) twinning system was determined by selection area diffraction patterns obtained from the twin and matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analyses also revealed that the twins interacted with each other and pile-ups of dislocations occurred near the twin boundary.

  20. Automatic latency equalization in VHDL-implemented complex pipelined systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In the pipelined data processing systems it is very important to ensure that parallel paths delay data by the same number of clock cycles. If that condition is not met, the processing blocks receive data not properly aligned in time and produce incorrect results. Manual equalization of latencies is a tedious and error-prone work. This paper presents an automatic method of latency equalization in systems described in VHDL. The proposed method uses simulation to measure latencies and verify introduced correction. The solution is portable between different simulation and synthesis tools. The method does not increase the complexity of the synthesized design comparing to the solution based on manual latency adjustment. The example implementation of the proposed methodology together with a simple design demonstrating its use is available as an open source project under BSD license.

  1. A successive overrelaxation iterative technique for an adaptive equalizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovych, O. S.

    1973-01-01

    An adaptive strategy for the equalization of pulse-amplitude-modulated signals in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive noise is reported. The successive overrelaxation iterative technique is used as the algorithm for the iterative adjustment of the equalizer coefficents during a training period for the minimization of the mean square error. With 2-cyclic and nonnegative Jacobi matrices substantial improvement is demonstrated in the rate of convergence over the commonly used gradient techniques. The Jacobi theorems are also extended to nonpositive Jacobi matrices. Numerical examples strongly indicate that the improvements obtained for the special cases are possible for general channel characteristics. The technique is analytically demonstrated to decrease the mean square error at each iteration for a large range of parameter values for light or moderate intersymbol interference and for small intervals for general channels. Analytically, convergence of the relaxation algorithm was proven in a noisy environment and the coefficient variance was demonstrated to be bounded.

  2. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money.

    PubMed

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-12-22

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (pay-offs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement.

  3. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  4. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money

    PubMed Central

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (payoffs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement. PMID:25355480

  5. Incremental non-equal channel angular pressing - FE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2016-10-01

    Equal channel angular pressing is the most popular process of severe plastic deformation used to refine grain structure in metals in order to improve their properties. One of the features of severe plastic deformation is lack of change of billet's shape and dimensions. However, for practical reasons, departure from this pure definition might be useful. This paper considers a possibility of changing billet's cross section in the first pass of the incremental version of equal channel angular pressing from round to rectangular to avoid material loss when machining the initial billet. The process has been simulated using a finite element program Abaqus. This simulation showed feasibility of the process and provided information regarding tool geometry and required forces.

  6. Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    non- linear hybrid systems by linear algebraic methods. In Radhia Cousot and Matthieu Martel, editors, SAS, volume 6337 of LNCS, pages 373–389. Springer...Tarski. A decision method for elementary algebra and geometry. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 59, 1951. [36] Wolfgang Walter. Ordinary...Invariance of Conjunctions of Polynomial Equalities for Algebraic Differential Equations Khalil Ghorbal1 Andrew Sogokon2 André Platzer1 July 2014

  7. Blind Equalization and Fading Channel Signal Recovery of OFDM Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    subchannel is affected by flat-fading, which can be easily equalized. A guard time interval between symbols prevents inter-symbol interference...provided in this chapter. The principle behind OFDM is the idea that a wideband frequency channel can be divided into subchannels with narrower...investigated a DFT-based adaptive method for channel estimation. The next chapter discusses an algorithm for the estimation of data in null subchannels

  8. Recent Progress in Promoting Gender Equality for Japanese Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Setsuko; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka

    2009-04-01

    The last three years have been an epoch-making period in promoting gender equality in the Japanese science community. Motivated by recommendations we made on the basis of a large-scale survey, the Japanese government started several projects in 2006 for supporting women scientists and attracting girls to science and technology. In spite of these efforts, we see only very slow increase in the number of women researchers in professional positions.

  9. Path integral analysis of Jarzynski's equality: analytical results.

    PubMed

    Minh, David D L; Adib, Artur B

    2009-02-01

    We apply path integrals to study nonequilibrium work theorems in the context of Brownian dynamics, deriving in particular the equations of motion governing the most typical and most dominant trajectories. For the analytically soluble cases of a moving harmonic potential and a harmonic oscillator with a time-dependent natural frequency, we find such trajectories, evaluate the work-weighted propagators, and validate Jarzynski's equality.

  10. Broadband optical equalizer using fault tolerant digital micromirrors.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel; Mughal, M Junaid

    2003-06-30

    For the first time, the design and demonstration of a near continuous spectral processing mode broadband equalizer is described using the earlier proposed macro-pixel spatial approach for multiwavelength fiber-optic attenuation in combination with a high spectral resolution broadband transmissive volume Bragg grating. The demonstrated design features low loss and low polarization dependent loss with broadband operation. Such an analog mode spectral processor can impact optical applications ranging from test and instrumentation to dynamic alloptical networks.

  11. Grain refinement of aluminum using equal-channel angular pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Z.; Furukawa, M.; Nemoto, M.; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-07-01

    Using the technique of equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing, it is possible to reduce the grain size of polycrystalline materials to the submicrometer level. Thus, this processing technique has the potential for producing materials which may exhibit superplasticity. This paper describes various factors affecting the development and evolution of the microstructure produced by ECA pressing. Optimization of such factors is then presented for the advent of superplasticity.

  12. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  13. A Spectral Method for the Equal Width Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Archilla, Bosco

    1996-05-01

    A spectral discretization of the equal width equation (EWE) is presented. The method is shown to be convergent and nonlinearly stable. Time-stepping is performed with high-order Adams methods. The spectral accuracy of the scheme reveals some features of the EWE that the methods previously used could not bare out properly. For instance, we may now study the changes in amplitude and velocity of solitary waves after collisions.

  14. Weak boson production amplitude zeros; equalities of the helicity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Fizuli

    2002-08-01

    We investigate the radiation amplitude zeros exhibited by many standard model amplitudes for triple weak gauge boson production processes. We show that WZγ production amplitudes have an especially rich structure in terms of zeros; these amplitudes have zeros originating from several different sources. It is also shown that the type-I current null zone is the special case of the equality of the specific helicity amplitudes.

  15. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  16. Islamic politics and women's quest for gender equality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa; Sadr, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutions-the majority of whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)-are able to oversee the elected authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regime's gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least in the case of Iran and Shi'ism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities') equality has more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles.

  17. 25 CFR 39.100 - What is the Indian School Equalization Formula?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...? The Indian School Equalization Formula (ISEF) was established to allocate Indian School Equalization Program (ISEP) funds. OIEP applies ISEF to determine funding allocation for Bureau-funded schools...

  18. Gaussian Sum Approximation Approach to Blu-ray Disc Channel Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyunmin; Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong

    2009-03-01

    A new equalization method for Blu-ray (BR) recording channels is proposed. The proposed equalizer incorporates the Gaussian sum approximation (GSA) into a Kalman filtering framework to mitigate intersymbol interference in BR recording systems. The proposed equalizer consists of a bank of linear equalizers using the Kalman filtering algorithm and its output is obtained by combining the outputs of linear equalizers through the GSA. The proposed equalizer shows a better performance than the conventional equalizers and a similar performance with the only equalization technique to the partial response maximum likelihood methods in terms of bit-error-rate.

  19. Nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, G.; Detroux, T.; Viguié, R.; Kerschen, G.

    2015-02-01

    This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments.

  20. OD (Organization Development) Interventions that Enhance Equal Opportunity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    aide to aaesam mod Identify by week nim obe) Socialization process Socialization model Self - esteem Organization form and structure Equal Opportunity... self - esteem and a positive self -image. iACSion For Unannm ,niced Just ifi; .t i On _ _ Av oo ilbtit Cd va nd/or Dit Special I so...\\ _ . S,, 0102. LF...around the organization’s con- cerns for operational readiness and the individual’s need for self - esteem and a positive self -image. 4 ~.4I4 ! TABLE OF

  1. Fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhat, M.; Hendawy, N. I.; Zaki, A. A.

    2003-02-01

    A new kind of interference fringes, fringes of equal tangential inclination by curvature-induced birefringence, is presented. These are two-beam interference fringes produced by bending a thin sheet of birefringent material into a part of an exact cylinder such that the curvature is constant. Due to this curvature there is a uniform birefringence being induced. The change in birefringence induced by applying different radii of curvatures to a Fortepan sheet is measured. The stored (fixed) or natural birefringence of this sheet is deduced.

  2. 48 CFR 2811.104-70 - Brand-name or equal description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand-name or equal... 2811.104-70 Brand-name or equal description. When a brand-name or equal description is used, the clause set forth in 2852.211-70, Brand-name or Equal, shall be inserted into the solicitation....

  3. Unruly Desires and a Love Worth Wanting: A Serious Look at Wilson's "Love between Equals."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Examines John Wilson's ideal of love between equals presented in his work "Love between Equals." Assesses whom Wilson perceives as counting as equals and examines Wilson's ideas further by addressing who in this equal relationship is taking responsibility for whose sexuality. Highlights a moral peril associated with his ideal of…

  4. Equality at Work. Supervising: Industrial Relations. The Choice Series #86. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Rosemary

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in ensuring equality of treatment and opportunity in the workplace. Discussed in the first three sections are the following topics: equality at work (the meaning of the term equality, the importance of equality at work, inequality and unfairness at work, and procedures to…

  5. Adaptive sigmoid function bihistogram equalization for image contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga-Garcia, Edgar F.; Sanchez-Yanez, Raul E.; Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Garcia-Hernandez, Ma. de Guadalupe

    2015-09-01

    Contrast enhancement plays a key role in a wide range of applications including consumer electronic applications, such as video surveillance, digital cameras, and televisions. The main goal of contrast enhancement is to increase the quality of images. However, most state-of-the-art methods induce different types of distortion such as intensity shift, wash-out, noise, intensity burn-out, and intensity saturation. In addition, in consumer electronics, simple and fast methods are required in order to be implemented in real time. A bihistogram equalization method based on adaptive sigmoid functions is proposed. It consists of splitting the image histogram into two parts that are equalized independently by using adaptive sigmoid functions. In order to preserve the mean brightness of the input image, the parameter of the sigmoid functions is chosen to minimize the absolute mean brightness metric. Experiments on the Berkeley database have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of images and preserves their mean brightness. An application to improve the colorfulness of images is also presented.

  6. Visualization of equal phase lines of progressing flexural wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents educational experiments, in which propagation and interference of elastic waves with a frequency of 25-30 kHz in thin plates are analysed. For obtaining these waves a magnetostriction radiator and an ultrasonic generator are used. The described devices are available for production in an educational laboratory. A standing flexural wave is visualized with dry fine powder. The powder accumulates in the nodes of the standing wave, and the distance between the nodes is equal to a half-wavelength. The unexpected phenomenon of visualization of a progressing flexural wave with powder is considered. The observed pattern consists of concentric circles, the smallest distance between which is equal to the wavelength. A simple theory of this phenomenon is offered. Measurements of the length and the velocity of the flexural wave in the plate are carried out. It is shown that the experimental results are well coordinated with the theory. The material of this paper is topical for students, graduate students and physics lecturers.

  7. The flexible fairness: equality, earned entitlement, and self-interest.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yi; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Shen, Xueyi; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants' decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed "partners," while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered "fair" only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way.

  8. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-15

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  9. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  10. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents' education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin.

  11. Visibility Equalizer Cutaway Visualization of Mesoscopic Biological Models

    PubMed Central

    Le Muzic, M.; Mindek, P.; Sorger, J.; Autin, L.; Goodsell, D.; Viola, I.

    2017-01-01

    In scientific illustrations and visualization, cutaway views are often employed as an effective technique for occlusion management in densely packed scenes. We propose a novel method for authoring cutaway illustrations of mesoscopic biological models. In contrast to the existing cutaway algorithms, we take advantage of the specific nature of the biological models. These models consist of thousands of instances with a comparably smaller number of different types. Our method constitutes a two stage process. In the first step, clipping objects are placed in the scene, creating a cutaway visualization of the model. During this process, a hierarchical list of stacked bars inform the user about the instance visibility distribution of each individual molecular type in the scene. In the second step, the visibility of each molecular type is fine-tuned through these bars, which at this point act as interactive visibility equalizers. An evaluation of our technique with domain experts confirmed that our equalizer-based approach for visibility specification was valuable and effective for both, scientific and educational purposes. PMID:28344374

  12. Equal Spacing and Expanding Schedules in Children's Categorization and Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Bjork, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand how generalization develops across the lifespan, researchers have examined the factors of the learning environment that promote the acquisition and generalization of categories. One such factor is the timing of learning events, which recent findings suggest may play a particularly important role in children's generalization. In the current study, we build upon these findings by examining the impact of equally spaced versus expanding learning schedules on children's ability to generalize from studied exemplars of a given category to new exemplars presented on a later test. We found no significant effects of learning schedule when the generalization test was administered immediately after the learning phase, but there was a clear difference when the generalization test was delayed by 24 hours: Children in the expanding condition significantly outperformed children in the equally spaced learning condition. These results suggest forgetting and retrieval dynamics may be lower-level cognitive mechanisms promoting generalization and have several implications for broad theories of learning, cognition, and development. PMID:24613074

  13. EMG versus torque control of human-machine systems: equalizing control signal variability does not equalize error or uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reva E; Koerding, Konrad P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2016-08-25

    In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors. Second, we quantified uncertainty by measuring the just-noticeable difference of a visual perturbation. We found that for equal errors, EMG resulted in higher movement uncertainty than both torque and torque+noise. The differences suggest that performance and confidence are influenced by more than just the noisiness of the control signal, and suggest that other factors, such as the user's ability to incorporate feedback and develop accurate internal models, also have significant impacts on the performance and confidence of a person's actions. We theorize that users have difficulty distinguishing between random and systematic errors for EMG control, and future work should examine in more detail the types of errors made with EMG control.

  14. Multifractality of random eigenfunctions and generalization of Jarzynski equality

    PubMed Central

    Khaymovich, I.M.; Koski, J.V.; Saira, O.-P.; Kravtsov, V.E.; Pekola, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Systems driven out of equilibrium experience large fluctuations of the dissipated work. The same is true for wavefunction amplitudes in disordered systems close to the Anderson localization transition. In both cases, the probability distribution function is given by the large-deviation ansatz. Here we exploit the analogy between the statistics of work dissipated in a driven single-electron box and that of random multifractal wavefunction amplitudes, and uncover new relations that generalize the Jarzynski equality. We checked the new relations theoretically using the rate equations for sequential tunnelling of electrons and experimentally by measuring the dissipated work in a driven single-electron box and found a remarkable correspondence. The results represent an important universal feature of the work statistics in systems out of equilibrium and help to understand the nature of the symmetry of multifractal exponents in the theory of Anderson localization. PMID:25912652

  15. Anti-equality: Social comparison in young children

    PubMed Central

    Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Wynn, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Young children dislike getting less than others, which might suggest a general preference for equal outcomes. However, young children are typically not averse to others receiving less than themselves. These results are consistent with two alternatives: young children might not have any preferences about others receiving less than themselves, or they might have preferences for others receiving less than themselves. We test these alternatives with 5- to 10-year-old children. We replicate previous findings that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also find that 5- and 6-year-olds will spitefully take a cost to ensure that another’s welfare falls below their own. This result suggests that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for others to get less relative to oneself. PMID:24291266

  16. State of Mathematics and Science Education: Schools Are Not Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics and science are key areas of knowledge for development but South African performance in these areas is still of concern. This policy-related article provides a nuanced analysis of performance indicators. Using Gauteng as a case study the article examines the mathematics trends (the period 1998-2003) in participation and in particular…

  17. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, PUBLIC LAND ORDERS, AND OTHER FEDERAL AUTHORIZATIONS... in offering services, opportunities, or benefits to minority groups and women, and all areas of employment in which it could be deficient in the utilization of minority groups and women and all areas...

  18. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... States by employees who were not recruited within the United States. ... in offering services, opportunities, or benefits to minority groups and women, and all areas of employment in which it could be deficient in the utilization of minority groups and women and all areas...

  19. Report examines links among women's equality, smaller families, healthier children.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    This article reports on a new study by Nancy Riley about the relationship between gender equality and fertility and mortality declines in developing countries. Findings indicate that mortality and fertility has declined in countries without gender equality. Fertility and child mortality decline is related to women's educational status and employment. Riley argues that women's power to make decisions about health care, contraception, and the timing and number of children, if affected by education and paid employment, is more likely to lower mortality and fertility. Women's power may decline in countries where women's education and employment are advanced, but their role in society remains that of mothers. All developing countries showed a relationship between the amount of education and family size and child health. Fertility tends to be lowest among highly educated women. However, women's education has a stronger effect on child health and mortality. Maternal education also affects child nutritional status. Women's education offers women the option of job opportunities and new values or ideas. Women's employment may result in increased resources and status or in poverty and heavy physical labor. Societal views of women's work may reflect an increased self-worth for working women or lower status or the failure of a husband to adequately provide for family welfare. The key to the impact of women's employment is whether work becomes a way to achieve greater power for women in decision making about child welfare and family planning. Employment outside the home educates. In most countries, women who worked for cash had fewer children, but differences in fertility between working and nonworking women range from small to large. Higher income for Nigerian women means more children. Women's work also has inconsistent effects on child health.

  20. The choice between allocation principles: amplifying when equality dominates.

    PubMed

    Eek, Daniel; Selart, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    One hundred and ninety participants (95 undergraduates and 95 employees) responded to a factorial survey in which a number of case-based organizational allocation tasks were described. Participants were asked to imagine themselves as employees in fictitious organizations and chose among three allocations of employee-development schemes invested by the manager in different work groups. The allocations regarded how such investments should be allocated between two parties. Participants chose twice, once picking the fairest and once the best allocation. One between-subjects factor varied whether the parties represented social (i.e., choosing among allocations between two different work groups) or temporal comparisons (i.e., choosing among allocations between the present and the following year). Another between-subjects factor varied whether participants' in-group was represented by the parties or not. One allocation maximized the outcome to one party, another maximized the joint outcome received by both parties, and a third provided both parties with equal but lower outcomes. It was predicted that equality, although always deficient to both parties, would be the preferred allocation when parties represented social comparisons and when choices were based on fairness. When parties represented temporal comparisons, and when choices were based on preference, maximizing the joint outcome was hypothesized to be the preferred allocation. Results supported these hypotheses. Against what was predicted, whether the in-group was represented by the parties or not did not moderate the results, indicating that participants' allocation preferences were not affected by self-interest. The main message is that people make sensible distinctions between what they prefer and what they regard as fair. The results were the same for participating students who imagined themselves as being employees and participants who were true employees, suggesting that no serious threats to external