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Sample records for albers equal area

  1. Extended equal area criterion revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, X.; Wehenkel, L.; Belhomme, R.; Rousseaux, P.; Pavella, M. ); Euxibie, E.; Heilbronn, B.; Lesigne, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted on the EHV French power system in order to revisit the extended equal area criterion and test its suitability as a fast transient stability indicator. The assumptions underlying the method are reexamined, causes liable to invalidate them are identified, and indices are devised to automatically circumvent them. The selection of candidate critical machines is also reconsidered and an augmented criterion is proposed. The various improvements are developed and tested on about 1000 stability scenarios, covering the entire 400-kV system; the severity of the scenarios, resulting from the combination of weakened both pre- and post-fault configurations, subjects the method to particularly stringent conditions. The obtained results show that the devised tools contribute to significantly reinforce its robustness and reliability.

  2. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  3. Equal area rule methods for ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, G.S.; Hanif, N.S.M.; Alvarado, J.F.J.; Hall, K.R.; Eubank, P.T.

    1995-12-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior of fluid mixtures is an important design consideration for both chemical processes and oil production. Eubank and Hall have recently shown the equal area rule (EAR) applies to the composition derivative of the Gibbs energy of a binary system at fixed pressure and temperature regardless of derivative continuity. A sufficient condition for equilibria, EAR is faster and simpler than either the familiar tangent-line method or the area method of Eubank et al. Here, the authors show that EAR can be extended to ternary systems exhibiting one, two, or three phases at equilibrium. A single directional vector is searched in composition space; at equilibrium, this vector is the familiar tie line. A sensitive criterion for equilibrium under EAR is equality of orthogonal derivatives such as ({partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}x{sub 1}){sub x{sub 2}P,T} at the end points ({alpha} and {beta}), where g {equivalent_to} ({Delta}{sub m}G/RT). Repeated use of the binary algorithm published in the first reference allows rapid, simple solution of ternary problems, even with hand-held calculations for cases where the background model is simple (e.g., activity coefficient models) and the derivative continuous.

  4. Obituary: Henry Albers (1925-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromey, Fred

    2011-12-01

    Henry Albers, professor of astronomy at Vassar College for over thirty years, died March 29, 2009, in Fairhope, Alabama. For his work at Vassar, where he held the Maria Mitchell Chair, Albers received the first Maria Mitchell Women in Science Award for his inspiration of women astronomers. He said "In the final analysis it is the students who bring the joy into teaching." As a professional astronomer, Albers did observational work on Galactic structure in the southern Milky Way, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. In retirement, Albers published Maria Mitchell - A Life in Journals and Letters, the firsthand account of America's first woman astronomer. Albers's research was on photographic near-infrared spectroscopy of red giant stars in the southern Milky Way, some proper motion studies, and on the structure of the Magellanic Clouds. A series of seven NSF grants supported his six trips to Chile to make spectroscopic observations, as well as his sabbatical collaborations at Minnesota, Leiden, and the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh. Henry Albers arrived at Vassar in 1958, to find an astronomy program that had been recently absorbed by the physics department, and that was suffering neglect after the retirement of Maud Makemson. For the next 31 years, with incredible energy -- he sometimes taught seven courses a year -- he built the astronomy program into one double in size (from one to two tenure lines), whose th century facilities have been replaced with a st century observatory. For a remarkable stretch of 20-some-years, Albers and physicist Bob Stearns, with considerable grace, alternated chairmanship of the joint department of physics and astronomy. Henry Albers was a devoted citizen of Vassar College and an enthusiastic participant in the process of faculty governance at that institution. He would have been the first to concede that his enthusiasm was sometimes excessive, and that his contributions at faculty meetings occasionally failed to move the

  5. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  6. Derivative of Area Equals Perimeter--Coincidence or Rule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Sinitsky, Ilya; Leikin, Roza

    2013-01-01

    Why is the derivative of the area of a circle equal to its circumference? Why is the derivative of the volume of a sphere equal to its surface area? And why does a similar relationship not hold for a square or a cube? Or does it? In their work in teacher education, these authors have heard at times undesirable responses to these questions:…

  7. An equal area law for holographic entanglement entropy of the AdS-RN black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.

    2015-12-01

    The Anti-de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström (AdS-RN) black hole in the canonical ensemble undergoes a phase transition similar to the liquid-gas phase transition, i.e. the isocharges on the entropy-temperature plane develop an unstable branch when the charge is smaller than a critical value. It was later discovered that the isocharges on the entanglement entropy -temperature plane also exhibit the same van der Waals-like structure, for spherical entangling regions. In this paper, we present numerical results which sharpen this similarity between entanglement entropy and black hole entropy, by showing that both of these entropies obey Maxwell's equal area law to an accuracy of around 1%. Moreover, we checked this for a wide range of size of the spherical entangling region, and the equal area law holds independently of the size. We also checked the equal area law for AdS-RN in 4 and 5 dimensions, so the conclusion is not specific to a particular dimension. Finally, we repeated the same procedure for a similar, van der Waals-like transition of the dyonic black hole in AdS in a mixed ensemble (fixed electric potential and fixed magnetic charge), and showed that the equal area law is not valid in this case. Thus the equal area law for entanglement entropy seems to be specific to the AdS-RN background.

  8. Map Projections and the Visual Detective: How to Tell if a Map Is Equal-Area, Conformal, or Neither

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Judy M.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to see whether a map is equal-area, conformal, or neither is useful for looking intelligently at large-area maps. For example, only if a map is equal-area can reliable judgments of relative size be made. If a map is equal-area, latitude-longitude cells are equal in size between a given pair of parallels, the cells between a given pair…

  9. An alternative way to achieve Kepler's laws of equal areas and ellipses for the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-09-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of equal area for the Earth was applied to analyse the angular velocity or the reciprocal of the distance—for the Earth's orbit around the Sun—and can be defined as a periodic function by analysing the available data, which help explain the law of ellipses for the Earth.

  10. An Alternative Way to Achieve Kepler's Laws of Equal Areas and Ellipses for the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of…

  11. A note on Maxwell's equal area law for black hole phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shan-Quan; Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-09-01

    The state equation of the charged AdS black hole is reviewed in the T- plane. With a view on the the phase transition, the T- S, P- V, P- graphs are plotted and then the equal area law is used in the three cases to get the phase transition point ( P, T). The analytical phase transition point relations for P- T of a charged AdS black hole has been obtained successfully. By comparing the three results, we find that the equal area law possibly cannot be used directly for the P- plane. According to the T- S, P- V results, we plot the P- T- Q graph and find that for a highly charged black hole a very low temperature condition is required for the phase transition.

  12. Testing for the equality of area under the curves when using destructive measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Bailer, A J

    1988-06-01

    The area under a curve (AUC) of metabolite concentration or drug concentration over time has biological meaning in many situations, and the test of AUC equality among a set of different dosing regimens is often of interest. For the situation where the experimental unit must be sacrificed in order to obtain an estimate of the metabolite or drug concentration, it is noted that linear combinations of mean concentrations at time points for a particular dosing regimen can be used to estimate the AUC for that regimen. Contrasts among AUC estimates are readily constructed and tested within this derivation. PMID:3221328

  13. Evaluation of global equal-area mass grid solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron

    2015-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) range-rate data was inverted into global equal-area mass grid solutions at the Center for Space Research (CSR) using Tikhonov Regularization to stabilize the ill-posed inversion problem. These solutions are intended to be used for applications in Hydrology, Oceanography, Cryosphere etc without any need for post-processing. This paper evaluates these solutions with emphasis on spatial and temporal characteristics of the signal content. These solutions will be validated against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  14. Estimation of aquifer scale proportion using equal area grids: assessment of regional scale groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Landon, Matthew K.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of an aquifer with constituent concentrations above a specified threshold (high concentrations) is taken as a nondimensional measure of regional scale water quality. If computed on the basis of area, it can be referred to as the aquifer scale proportion. A spatially unbiased estimate of aquifer scale proportion and a confidence interval for that estimate are obtained through the use of equal area grids and the binomial distribution. Traditionally, the confidence interval for a binomial proportion is computed using either the standard interval or the exact interval. Research from the statistics literature has shown that the standard interval should not be used and that the exact interval is overly conservative. On the basis of coverage probability and interval width, the Jeffreys interval is preferred. If more than one sample per cell is available, cell declustering is used to estimate the aquifer scale proportion, and Kish's design effect may be useful for estimating an effective number of samples. The binomial distribution is also used to quantify the adequacy of a grid with a given number of cells for identifying a small target, defined as a constituent that is present at high concentrations in a small proportion of the aquifer. Case studies illustrate a consistency between approaches that use one well per grid cell and many wells per cell. The methods presented in this paper provide a quantitative basis for designing a sampling program and for utilizing existing data.

  15. Wald's entropy is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of the effective gravitational coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadad, Merav

    2009-02-15

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of black holes in Einstein's theory of gravity is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of Newton's constant. Wald has proposed that in general theories of gravity the entropy of stationary black holes with bifurcate Killing horizons is a Noether charge which is in general different from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We show that the Noether charge entropy is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of the effective gravitational coupling on the horizon defined by the coefficient of the kinetic term of a specific metric perturbation polarization on the horizon. We present several explicit examples of static spherically symmetric black holes.

  16. Food Self-Provisioning in Czechia: Beyond Coping Strategy of the Poor--A Response to Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union" (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged…

  17. Illustrated type catalogue of Amphidromus Albers, 1850 in the Natural History Museum, London, and descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sutcharit, Chirasak; Ablett, Jonathan; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Naggs, Fred; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The collection of the Southeast Asian tree snail genus Amphidromus Albers, 1850 at the Natural History Museum, London includes more than 100 lots of type specimens representing 85 name-bearing types, 9 paratypes and 6 paralectotypes, and one nomen nudum. Lectotypes are here designated for Amphidromus cambojiensis, Amphidromus perakensis globosus, Amphidromus columellaris gloriosa, Amphidromus maculiferus inflata, Amphidromus lepidus, Amphidromus sinistralis lutea, Amphidromus moniliferus, Amphidromus maculiferus obscura, Amphidromus sinistralis rosea and Amphidromus sinensi vicaria. In addition, the missing types of A.A. Gould were discovered and their type status is discussed. A complete catalogue of these types, including colour photographs is provided for the first time. After examining these type specimens, two new Amphidromus species, Amphidromus (Syndromus) globonevilli Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. and Amphidromus (Syndromus) principalis Sutcharit & Panha, sp. n. were recognized and are described herein. PMID:25878542

  18. Convergence and reliability of the Rehr-Albers formalism in multiple-scattering calculations of photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ynzunza, R.X.; Kaduwela, A.P.; Van Hove, M.A.; Fadley, C.S. |

    1998-11-01

    The Rehr-Albers (RA) separable Green{close_quote}s-function formalism, which is based on an expansion series, has been successful in speeding up multiple-scattering cluster calculations for photoelectron diffraction simulations, particularly in its second-order version. The performance of this formalism is explored here in terms of computational speed, convergence over orders of multiple scattering, over orders of approximation, and over cluster size, by comparison with exact cluster-based formalisms. It is found that the second-order RA approximation [characterized by (6{times}6) scattering matrices] is adequate for many situations, particularly if the initial state from which photoemission occurs is of {ital s} or {ital p} type. For the most general and quantitative applications, higher-order versions of RA may become necessary for {ital d} initial states [third-order, i.e., (10{times}10) matrices] and {ital f} initial states [fourth-order, i.e., (15{times}15) matrices]. However, the required RA order decreases as an electron wave proceeds along a multiple-scattering path, and this can be exploited, together with the selective and automated cutoff of weakly contributing matrix elements and paths, to yield computer time savings of at least an order of magnitude with no significant loss of accuracy. Cluster sizes of up to approximately 100 atoms should be sufficient for most problems that require about 5{percent} accuracy in diffracted intensities. Excellent sensitivity to structure is seen in comparisons of second-order theory with variable geometry to exact theory as a fictitious {open_quotes}experiment.{close_quotes} Our implementation of the Rehr-Albers formalism thus represents a versatile, quantitative, and efficient method for the accurate simulation of photoelectron diffraction. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. 50 CFR Table 43 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area 43 Table... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 43 Table 43 to Part 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area Longitude Latitude 1687... coordinate system is North American Datum 1983, Albers. * This boundary extends in a clockwise direction...

  20. Equality Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malzer, Maris; Popovic, Milica; Striedinger, Angelika; Bjorklund, Karin; Olsson, Anna-Clara; Elstad, Linda; Brus, Sanja; Stark, Kat; Stojanovic, Marko; Scholz, Christine

    2009-01-01

    "Tolerance is not enough, discrimination must be fought" is what ESU staff stated in their Seminar on Equality in London, last May. Following their seminar, they decided to provide members with more practical tools to fight discrimination in higher education. This handbook aims at as part of that strategy. Focusing on several issues that are high…

  1. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  2. Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

  3. EZ-ROSE: a computer program for equal-area circular histograms and statistical analysis of two-dimensional vectorial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Jaco H.

    2000-03-01

    EZ-ROSE 1.0 is a computer program for the statistical analysis of populations of two-dimensional vectorial data and their presentation in equal-area rose diagrams. The program is implemented as a Microsoft® Excel workbook containing worksheets for the input of directional (circular) or lineational (semi-circular) data and their automatic processing, which includes the calculation of a frequency distribution for a selected class width, statistical analysis, and the construction of a rose diagram in CorelDraw™. The statistical analysis involves tests of uniformity for the vectorial population distribution, such as the nonparametric Kuiper and Watson tests and the parametric Rayleigh test. The statistics calculated include the vector mean, its magnitude (length) and strength (data concentration); the Batschelet circular standard deviation as an alternative measure of vectorial concentration; and a confidence sector for the vector mean. The statistics together with the frequency data are used to prepare a Corel Script™ file that contains all the necessary instructions to draw automatically an equal-area circular frequency histogram (rose diagram) in CorelDraw™. The advantages of EZ-ROSE, compared to other software for circular statistics, are: (1) the ability to use an equal-area scale in rose diagrams; (2) the wide range of tools for a comprehensive statistical analysis; (3) the ease of use, as Microsoft® Excel and CorelDraw™ are widely known to users of Microsoft® Windows; and (4) the high degree of flexibility due to the application of Microsoft® Excel and CorelDraw™, which offer a whole range of tools for possible addition of other statistical methods and changes of the rose-diagram layout.

  4. Equal Opportunity in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…

  5. Defining Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ronald E.

    1977-01-01

    Defines equality of education in three areas: 1) by the degree of integration of school systems; 2) by a comparison of material resources and assets in education; and 3) by the effects of schooling as measured by the mean scores of groups on standardized tests. Available from: College of Education, 107 Quadrangle, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa…

  6. [Morbus Albers Schonberg osteopetrosis].

    PubMed

    Saracević, Ediba; Hasanbegović, Edo

    2005-01-01

    The patient presented has bone disease, so called "mramor disease". The disease is characterized by insuffiticnty of ostcoclasts which results n persisting of primary spongiosis without normal eroding and bone rebuilding. The discase is diagnosed by X rays where the bone density is increased. The medular space is completly closed by dense bone knitting which, with soft cortical space, seems like bone in bone. This is autosomal recessive disease with serious clinical picture in infants. PMID:15875483

  7. Gender Equality in Teacher Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Torill Scharning

    1995-01-01

    Most senior trade union posts are held by men, even in organizations where most members are women. The paper examines how the Norwegian Union of Teachers has advanced in this area, noting the status of gender equality in Norway, Norway's work toward gender equality, and the country's focus on educational change. (SM)

  8. Job Patterns for Minorities and Women in Private Industry: Equal Employment Opportunity Report, 1969. Volume 1: The Nation, States, Industries. Volume 2: Metropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Report for 1969 documents the results of job discrimination, based on more than 150,000 reports submitted by 44,000 employers covering more than 28 million workers. These reports provide statistics of employment by sex, race, and national origin in nine standard occupational categories: officials and managers,…

  9. A Study of Equality of Educational Opportunity for Mexican Americans in Nine School Districts of the San Antonio Area. United States Commission on Civil Rights, Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The report is the result of a study that investigated the extent to which Mexican American students in 9 independent school districts in metropolitan San Antonio, Texas, were afforded equal educational opportunities. The districts were Alamo Heights, East Central, Edgewood, Harlandale, North East, Northside, San Antonio, South San Antonio, and…

  10. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  11. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  12. Science EQUALS Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kitty B., Ed.; Conwell, Catherine R., Ed.

    The purpose of the EQUALS programs is to increase the interest and awareness that females and minorities have concerning mathematics and science related careers. This book, produced by an EQUALS program in North Carolina, contains 35 hands-on, discovery science activities that center around four EQUALS processes--problem solving, cooperative…

  13. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  14. Early Understanding of Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  15. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  16. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  17. Integer Equal Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  18. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Close, E. R.; Merrill, D. W.; Holmes, H. H.

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of disease can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.

  19. Equalization in redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor); Cominelli, Donald F. (Inventor); O'Neill, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A miscomparison between a channel's configuration data base and a voted system configuration data base in a redundant channel system having identically operating, frame synchronous channels triggers autoequalization of the channel's historical signal data bases in a hierarchical, chronological manner with that of a correctly operating channel. After equalization, symmetrization of the channel's configuration data base with that of the system permits upgrading of the previously degraded channel to full redundancy. An externally provided equalization command, e.g., manually actuated, can also trigger equalization.

  20. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  1. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view. PMID:17845448

  2. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To equalize the agreed upon values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an exchange, either...

  3. Equality and Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2013-01-01

    A recent national curriculum guide for upper secondary schools in my home country, Iceland, requires secondary schools to work towards equality and five other overarching aims. This requirement raises questions about to what extent secondary schools have to change their curricula in order to approach these aims or work towards them in an adequate…

  4. Status Equalization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Deslonde, James

    The introduction of the Multiple Ability Curriculum (MAC) and Expectation Training (ET) into the curriculum of racially integrated elementary schools appears to improve the equal status interaction between students of differing academic and social status. The goals of the MAC and ET are the following: (1) prevent classroom dominance by students of…

  5. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  6. The Circle and Sphere as Great Equalizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1991-01-01

    From the equality of the ratios of the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and its circumscribed cylinder, the exploration of theorems relating the ratios of surface areas and volumes of a sphere and other circumscribed solids in three dimensions, and analogous questions relating two-dimensional concepts of perimeter and area is recounted. (MDH)

  7. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  8. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  9. Equality in Education: An Equality of Condition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen; Baker, John

    2005-01-01

    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of "equality of condition", we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition;…

  10. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To... as compensation for costs under § 2201.1-3 of this part may not exceed 25 percent of the value of...

  11. 43 CFR 2201.6 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Value equalization; cash equalization... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.6 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To... as compensation for costs under § 2201.1-3 of this part may not exceed 25 percent of the value of...

  12. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a) To equalize the agreed upon values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an...

  13. Genes and equality.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, C

    2004-12-01

    The way people think about equality as a value will influence how they think genetic interventions should be regulated. In this paper the author uses the taxonomy of equality put forth by Derek Parfit and applies this to the issue of genetic interventions. It is argued that telic egalitarianism is untenable and that deontic egalitarianism collapses into prioritarianism. The priority view maintains that it is morally more important to benefit the people who are worse off. Once this precision has been given to the concerns egalitarians have, a number of diverse issues must be considered before determining what the just regulation of genetic interventions would be. Consideration must be given to the current situation of the least advantaged, the fiscal realities behind genetic interventions, the budget constraints on other social programmes egalitarians believe should receive scarce public funds, and the interconnected nature of genetic information. These considerations might lead egalitarians to abandon what they take to be the obvious policy recommendations for them to endorse regarding the regulation of gene therapies and enhancements. PMID:15574450

  14. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3. 0 m. y. old in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-12-01

    This map is one of a series of maps designed for hot dry rock geothermal assessment in Arizona, New Mexico, and the Trans-Peco area of the west Texas. The 3.0 m.y. cutoff age was selected because original heat has probably largely dissipated in older rocks. The location of volcanic centers is more important to geothermal resource assessment than the location of their associated volcanic rocks; however, ages have been determined for numerous flows far from their source. Therefore, the distribution of all volcanic rocks less than or equal to 3.0 m.y. old, for which there is at least one determined age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages were obtained from the original literature in all cases except for McKee and others (1974), Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976). The abstract by McKee and others (1974) lists only the ages of various rocks they dated, so locations were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). The dates of Silberman and others (1976), Ulrich and McKee (1976), and Wolfe and McKee (1976) are taken from written communications cited by Luedke and Smith (1978); therefore, both references are shown on the map for those ages.

  15. Webster and women's equality.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D; Wilder, M J

    1989-01-01

    The National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL) and the Women's Legal Defense Fund (WLDF) co-authored an "amicus curiae" brief in "Webster." The brief was written for 77 organizations who believe in equality of women. The brief said that constitutional protection of a woman's right to choose is guaranteed by the right to privacy. The brief said that if abortions were illegal, women would not be able to take place in society equally with men. Liberty would be taken away from women. If the state interferes with abortion, the principle of bodily integrity is violated. In "Winston v. Lee," the Supreme Court found that the state could not compel a criminal to undergo an invasive surgical procedure to retrieve a bullet necessary for the state to prosecute with. 1 in 4 women have a cesarean section, which requires a larger incision in the abdomen, and has many risks. Bearing and raising children often puts a damper on women's employment opportunities. Therefore, if the Supreme Court denied women the right to bear children when and where they wanted, women would not have the right to plan their futures. If the Supreme Court were to agree that "interest in potential life outweighs" a woman's tight to procreate autonomously, states could declare all abortions illegal, investigate them to see if they were induced on purpose, and murder women who induced them. Contraceptive devices could be declared illegal. Laws could be used to force women to submit to cesarean sections and other fetal surgery. Pre-viability abortion restrictions should be rejected because they have old-fashioned notions of women's role in society. They reinforce stereotypes. Missouri's law stresses aiding "potential," rather than actual life. PMID:2603859

  16. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a... to as compensation for costs under § 254.7 of this subpart may not exceed 25 percent of the value...

  17. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a... to as compensation for costs under § 254.7 of this subpart may not exceed 25 percent of the value...

  18. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a... to as compensation for costs under § 254.7 of this subpart may not exceed 25 percent of the value...

  19. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  20. Managing for Equal Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    This document is a chapter in "The Principles and Practice of Educational Management," which aims to provide a systematic and analytical introduction to the study of educational management. The structure of the book reflects the main substantive areas of educational leadership and management, and most of the major themes are covered in the…

  1. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  2. Equality and Education -- Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John

    1975-01-01

    Discusses equality in education within the framework of the ideas of John Rawls, asserting that even though in the real world it is not easy to implement his version of equality and justice without endangering his prior principle of liberty, he provides a philosophical foundation for the reconsideration of the meritocratic principle. (Author/JM)

  3. Ensuring equal opportunity sprinkler irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equal opportunity for plants to sprinkler irrigation water must be carefully considered by crop producers, irrigation consultants, and the industry that supplies the irrigation equipment. Equal opportunity can be negated by improper marketing, design, and installation, as well as through improper f...

  4. Equal Educational Opportunity Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Since theory and practice of equal educational opportunity is an issue which is currently confronting decisionmakers at all levels of American education, this handbook presents key federal regulations and Oregon statutes, and administrative rules which provide for equality in employment and in the delivery of educational services. Sources of…

  5. Democracy, Equal Citizenship, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Two appealing principles of educational distribution--equality and sufficiency--are comparatively assessed. The initial point of comparison is the distribution of civic educational goods. One reason to favor equality in educational distribution rather than sufficiency is the elimination of undeserved positional advantage in access to labor…

  6. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  7. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  8. Equalization of data transmission cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  9. Electronegativity Equalization and Partial Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article elaborates the relationship between covalent radius, homonuclear bond energy, and electronegativity, and sets the background for bond energy calculation by discussing the nature of heteronuclear covalent bonding on the basis of electronegativity equalization and particle charge. (DT)

  10. Equal Education and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Hershel

    1970-01-01

    A number of court cases are cited which trace the development of various definitions and interpretations of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution as would be applicable to inadequate" schools. (DM)

  11. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Nancy Lloyd; Rothman, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the legal battleground upon which one struggle for the equality of women is being fought. Updates a civil rights decision of crucial importance to nursing--Lemons v City and County of Denver. (JOW)

  12. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  13. Equal Educational Opportunity in High School Athletics. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Charles D., Sr., Ed.; And Others

    These conference proceedings cover three general areas: (1) purposes and values of high school athletics, (2) the need for a definition of equality, and (3) the legal basis for athletics and evolving definitions of equality. Specific essays discuss topics such as the organization and legal basis for athletics; racial segregation in high school…

  14. 48 CFR 14.408-6 - Equal low bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respects: (1) Small business concerns that are also labor surplus area concerns. (2) Other small business concerns. (3) Other business concerns. (b) If two or more bidders still remain equally eligible after... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-6 Equal low bids....

  15. Equal Employment + Equal Pay = Multiple Problems for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot; Reback, Joyce E.

    1974-01-01

    Issues involved in government regulation of university employment practices are discussed: confidentiality of records, pregnancy as a disability, alleged discrimination in benefits, tests and other employment criteria, seniority and layoff, reverse discrimination, use of statistics for determination of discrimination, and the Equal Pay Act. (JT)

  16. Genomics and equal opportunity ethics.

    PubMed

    Cappelen, A W; Norheim, O F; Tungodden, B

    2008-05-01

    Genomics provides information on genetic susceptibility to diseases and new possibilities for interventions which can fundamentally alter the design of fair health policies. The aim of this paper is to explore implications of genomics from the perspective of equal opportunity ethics. The ideal of equal opportunity requires that individuals are held responsible for some, but not all, factors that affect their health. Informational problems, however, often make it difficult to implement the ideal of equal opportunity in the context of healthcare. In this paper, examples are considered of how new genetic information may affect the way individual responsibility for choice is assigned. It is also argued that genomics may result in relocation of the responsibility cut by providing both new information and new technology. Finally, how genomics may affect healthcare policies and the market for health insurance is discussed. PMID:18448717

  17. Higher Education and Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, John J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the Bakke case, in which the courts first encountered the question of legality of reverse discrimination, is explored; its constitutional significance is examined. It is concluded that the virtue of the decision is in its support of affirmative action and its equal protection implications. (MSE)

  18. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  19. Extending Understanding of Equal Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Elisabeth T.

    1988-01-01

    Presents four strategies for teaching secondary students about equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment. To be taught by the classroom teacher or a visiting lawyer, these strategies use such methods as a panel discussion and examination of Fourteenth Amendment court cases to accomplish their goals. (GEA)

  20. The Road to Racial Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he was born in 1954, just four months after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision outlawed the "separate but equal" doctrine of school segregation. He discusses how that fact has shaped his life immeasurably. Beginning with entering the world in Tallahassee, Fla., where his father taught…

  1. Equalizing Educational Opportunity Through Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGary, Carroll R.

    This speech incorporates a major policy statement regarding school subsidies in Maine. The author discusses equality of educational opportunity; and he comments on the property tax, wealth-connected inequities, and class action suits. The speech focuses on a discussion of the Maine subsidy law and its effects; as well as the Maine property, sales,…

  2. The Forces of Information Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, William H.

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that college trustees and campus executives must understand the tools of information technology and be open to the changes created by equalized access to information, even if they threaten traditions and symbols. This means addressing new issues of organizational functions, changes in the order of teaching/learning and life events,…

  3. Religious Freedom vs. Sex Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines Susan Moller Okin's writing on conflicts between religious freedom and sex equality, and her criticism of "political liberal" approaches to these conflicts, which I take to be a part of her lifelong critique of the public-private distinction. I argue that, while Okin ultimately accepted a version of the distinction, she was…

  4. Equalization among Florida School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern; Shiver, Lee

    1983-01-01

    This statistical analysis of funding equalization from 1970 to 1981 evaluates the distributional equity achieved by Florida's school finance plan and examines the relationship between selected per pupil revenue measures and variables thought to influence school district spending, concluding that greater equity has not been attained. (MJL)

  5. Bias or equality? Unconscious thought equally integrates temporally scattered information.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiansheng; Gao, Qiyang; Zhou, Jifan; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Mowei

    2014-04-01

    In previous experiments on unconscious thought, information was presented to participants in one continuous session; however, in daily life, information is delivered in a temporally partitioned way. We examined whether unconscious thought could equally integrate temporally scattered information when making overall evaluations. When presenting participants with information in two temporally partitioned sessions, participants' overall evaluation was based on neither the information in the first session (Experiment 1) nor that in the second session (Experiment 2); instead, information in both sessions were equally integrated to reach a final judgment. Conscious thought, however, overemphasized information in the second session. Experiments 3 and 4 further ruled out possible influencing factors including differences in the distributions of positive/negative attributes in the first and second sessions and on-line judgment. These findings suggested that unconscious thought can integrate information from a wider range of periods during an evaluation, while conscious thought cannot. PMID:24583456

  6. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  7. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  8. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  9. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination. PMID:27044191

  10. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  11. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  12. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    PubMed

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law. PMID:12179426

  13. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R D effort here at SLAC.

  14. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R&D effort here at SLAC.

  15. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  16. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  17. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  18. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. PMID:25452125

  19. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108.6 Equal access. (a) General....

  20. 76 FR 59237 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... 7100 AD 78 Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is publishing a final rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  1. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  2. Gandhigram: fostering equality through development.

    PubMed

    Devi, R K

    1991-12-01

    A noticeable trend towards 1-child families reveals the success of Gandhigram, an integrated rural development program in Tamil Nadu, India. Founded in 1947 by T.S. Soundram, Gandhigram has adhered to Gandhian principles of truth, nonviolence, castlessness, and equality between the sexes. The program has combined health and family planning with social welfare, education, and economic development. From the outset, Gandhigram has sought community participation, including the involvement of women. Girls have been encouraged to attend school up to at least the 10th level, and employment opportunities for women have been increased. Women's increased economic independence and level of education have influenced their decision to delay marriage by about 2 1/2 years, to choose their own partners, and to decide on the number of children they want. And increasingly, women are opting to limit family size to 2 -- and sometimes 1 -- child. Women are choosing to undergo tubectomies at a younger age, partly because of the availability of recanalization surgery, which has allowed mothers who have lost a child to conceive again. Unlike typical government family planning programs, which usually provide only contraception to meet the objective of a small family norm, Gandhigram also offers infertility services. Not all of Gandhigram's efforts have resulted in success. For example, a plan to develop a health insurance program did not succeed. However, Gandhigram's 44 years of experience have revealed the necessary elements for success. These elements include community participation, the participation of women through educational and employment programs, and easy access to services. PMID:12317116

  3. Counseling Girls for Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the unequal position of women in the labor force is a critical issue for guidance counselors. Counselors should encourage girls to try different areas and counteract stereotypes that both students and teachers have concerning education and careers for girls. (JAC)

  4. The Status of Equal Opportunity for Minorities in Moorhead, Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, St. Paul.

    This report contains information received at a public fact finding meeting held in Moorhead, Minnesota, in 1999. The meeting examined equal opportunity conditions for minority residents in Moorhead, noting possible disparities in four areas: income and employment, education, public safety, and housing and public accommodation. To buttress the data…

  5. Different but Equal? Dilemmas in the Reform of Girls' Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Victoria

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to achieve educational equality for girls are examined critically, and reform issues are discussed, including the public/private dichotomy within education and efforts to increase female access to and participation in male-dominated subject areas. These issues are then related to the Australian gender-inclusive curriculum design and to…

  6. The Problem of Defending Equal Rights for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Lois A.

    1981-01-01

    The positions of three advocates of human rights--Bernard A. O. Williams, A. I. Melden, and Stanley I. Benn--are sketched, and deemed inadequate for extending equal educational rights to severely mentally and emotionally handicapped persons. Lines of inquiry for theorists in this area are suggested. (PP)

  7. The Equal Protection Clause, School Integration, and the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    The history of cases before the United States Supreme Court in which minorities have sought relief from discriminatory state laws under the "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth Amendment (and the "due process clause" of the Fifth Amendment for federal action) suggests that court action in this area has changed over time. Not only has court…

  8. Sexual Equality and the Family in the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, F. L.

    This paper traces and analyzes the development of the Supreme Court's work in the area of sexual equality, with particular emphasis on the family dimension of this issue. The Court is criticized for both the legal and policy inadequacies of its recent decisions. It is argued that the Court has failed to use a consistent, principled standard by…

  9. A Model Policy Statement and Guidelines for Implementation: Equal Treatment of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This booklet offers a model policy statement that schools shall provide equal educational opportunities to all students regardless of sex. It includes stipulations and guidelines to achieve equal access in all areas of education. The following areas are considered: (1) Course offerings: every course shall be open to all students and schools should…

  10. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-05-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation [Wos87] in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  11. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation (Wos87) in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  12. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-21188 Filed 8-27-13; 11:15 am] Billing code... march toward gender equality. We have fought for equal pay, prohibited gender discrimination in America... strategy to close any gender pay gap within the Federal workforce. To build on this work, I will...

  13. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  15. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  16. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  17. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  18. School Law: A Question of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the Equal Access Act (EAA) as it pertains to high-school student clubs. It raises basics questions about EAA: What does "equal" mean? What level of access is required? Does the First Amendment's free-speech clause offer broader protection to student clubs than the EAA? (WFA)

  19. Combining Vector Quantization and Histogram Equalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Pamela C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of contrast enhancement techniques focuses on the use of histogram equalization with a data compression technique, i.e., tree-structured vector quantization. The enhancement technique of intensity windowing is described, and the use of enhancement techniques for medical images is explained, including adaptive histogram equalization.…

  20. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  1. Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)

  2. Brown and the Politics of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Assesses the progress of equality since Brown v Topeka Board of Education and argues that there still has not been a full implementation of that Supreme Court decree. School integration is shown to be declining. It is recommended that The court could merge the equality standards of Plessy v Ferguson with Brown to provide quality education. (GR)

  3. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  4. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  5. New spatial diversity equalizer based on PLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Wei

    2011-10-01

    A new Spatial Diversity Equalizer (SDE) based on phase-locked loop (PLL) is proposed to overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and phase rotations simultaneously in the digital communication system. The proposed SDE consists of equal gain combining technique based on a famous blind equalization algorithm constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and a PLL. Compared with conventional SDE, the proposed SDE has not only faster convergence rate and lower residual error but also the ability to recover carrier phase rotation. The efficiency of the method is proved by computer simulation.

  6. Contributorships Are Not 'Weighable' to be Equal.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-05-01

    A new trend to assign some authors as 'first co-authors' is noticeable in scientific publications as a statement highlighting that two or more authors 'contributed equally' to a reported work. However, the requirements of scientific rigor, honesty, and accuracy in academic standards make such statements invalid and, thus, should be avoided. A potential solution is to specify the role of each co-author, from study conception to communication of results, and let readers judge the importance of each contribution by themselves. Alternatively, authors should demonstrate how they contributed 'equally' when they are defined as 'equal contributors'. PMID:27025412

  7. The Bakke Opinions and Equal Protection Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Kenneth L.; Horowitz, Harold W.

    1979-01-01

    Constitutional issues addressed in the Supreme Court's decision are reviewed. The opinions rendered by Justice Powell are viewed as reflections of the weakness of recent equal protection theory, and as signs of future doctrine. (GC)

  8. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  9. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  10. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchon, Carles Navarro; Sun, Peng; Guo, Qinghua; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with turbo-equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation-propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator-decoder to the equalizer and computes messages returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach leads to a significant performance improvement compared to state-of-the-art turbo-equalizers and allows for trading performance with complexity. We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to significantly reduce the complexity of the PGA compared to that considered in the initial paper proposing the method.

  11. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS General § 622.6 Equal opportunity. The Pub. L. 83-566 and...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  14. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  15. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  16. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  17. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  18. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  19. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  20. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  1. A novel parallel architecture for local histogram equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohannessian, Mesrob I.; Choueiter, Ghinwa F.; Diab, Hassan

    2005-07-01

    Local histogram equalization is an image enhancement algorithm that has found wide application in the pre-processing stage of areas such as computer vision, pattern recognition and medical imaging. The computationally intensive nature of the procedure, however, is a main limitation when real time interactive applications are in question. This work explores the possibility of performing parallel local histogram equalization, using an array of special purpose elementary processors, through an HDL implementation that targets FPGA or ASIC platforms. A novel parallelization scheme is presented and the corresponding architecture is derived. The algorithm is reduced to pixel-level operations. Processing elements are assigned image blocks, to maintain a reasonable performance-cost ratio. To further simplify both processor and memory organizations, a bit-serial access scheme is used. A brief performance assessment is provided to illustrate and quantify the merit of the approach.

  2. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature... ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108... equal access to school premises or facilities to conduct meetings. (2) Benefits and services. Any...

  3. The Equal Access Act: Recent Court Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines court decisions which led to the passage of the Equal Access Act of 1984. Although the act was designed to clarify the issue over the legality of permitting religious clubs to meet on school property, it may have created more confusion. Concludes that the Supreme Court may have to decide the issue. (SLM)

  4. The Path to Equal Rights in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The litigant in a historic reverse-discrimination case against the University of Michigan, and subsequently the leader of a Michigan ballot initiative that carried the day against long odds, recounts how her simple call for equal treatment under the law persuaded the people of her state that color-conscious preferences are wrong.

  5. The Internet and Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing inequalities rather than mitigate them. This paper discusses the…

  6. An American Perspective on Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles; Perkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court ushered in a new era in American history on May 17, 1954 in its monumental ruling in "Brown v Board of Education," Topeka, Kansas. "Brown" is not only the Court's most significant decision on race and equal educational opportunities, but also ranks among the most important cases it has ever decided. In "Brown" a…

  7. Equal Opportunity and Racial Differences in IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joseph F.; Holland, Cynthia R.

    2002-01-01

    Administered an intelligence test to blacks and whites in 2 studies involving 254 community college students and 2 more studies involving 115 community college students. Results show that differences in knowledge between blacks and whites for items on an intelligence test, the meanings of words, can be eliminated when equal opportunities for…

  8. Power Equalization through Organization Development Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartunek, Jean M.; Keys, Christopher B.

    The effects of a three-year Organization Development (OD) intervention on power equalization were examined in seven experimental and seven control schools. The principals and teachers from experimental schools participated in OD workshops, in a project-coordinating council for planning and policy, and in school goal-setting activities. The power…

  9. 75 FR 53559 - Women's Equality Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-21904 Filed 8-30-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... education and economic opportunity, face gender-based violence, and cannot participate fully and equally in... to all Americans, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability,...

  10. Race Equality Scheme 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) is strongly committed to promoting race equality in the way that HMIE staff go about performing their role within Scottish education. Scottish society reflects cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity and Scottish education should be accessible to all. No-one should be disadvantaged or…

  11. When Equal Masses Don't Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald; Peidle, Joseph; Rueckner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    We treat a modified Atwood's machine in which equal masses do not balance because of being in an accelerated frame of reference. Analysis of the problem illuminates the meaning of inertial forces, d'Alembert's principle, the use of free-body diagrams and the selection of appropriate systems for the diagrams. In spite of the range of these…

  12. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  13. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... August 29, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8848--Women's Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8848 of August 24, 2012...

  14. 7 CFR 622.6 - Equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (7 CFR Part 15), which provide that no person in the United States shall, on the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity. 622.6 Section 622.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  15. Three Utilities for the Equal Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2005-01-01

    We compare the activity of young children using a microworld and a JavaScript relational calculator with the literature on children using traditional calculators. We describe how the children constructed different meanings for the equal sign in each setting. It appears that the nature of the meaning constructed is highly dependent on specificities…

  16. Disability in the UK: Measuring Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdam, Kingsley; Afkhami, Reza; Olsen, Wendy; Thornton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In this article we identify the key survey data for examining the issue of equality in the lives of disabled people in the UK. Such data is essential for assessing change in quality of life over time and for the evaluation of the impact of policy initiatives. For each data source we consider definitions, data collection, issue coverage, sample…

  17. Position Paper: NO equals x Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Thomas R.; Shy, Carl M.

    1972-01-01

    Doubts about the accuracy of measured concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in ambient air have led the Environmental Protection Agency to reassess both the analytical technique and the extent to which nitrogen oxides (NO equals x) control will need to satisfy federal laws. (BL)

  18. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  19. Equalizing Multi-School Curriculum by Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etowah County Board of Education, Gadsden, AL.

    A three year project aimed at providing equal educational opportunity for all students in the seven high schools of Etowah County, Alabama by implementing a county-wide curriculum using a flexible, rotating schedule, audio-graphic network, instructional television, a learning center, and individualized instruction. The report rates the project as…

  20. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  1. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  2. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  3. Sourcebook of Equal Educational Opportunity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    This reference book offers current information about equal opportunity in education through the elimination of racial, cultural, sexist, and linguistic barriers facing minority groups. The volume consists of seven parts, plus subject and geographical indexes. The first section includes a general demographic overview of the U.S., with statistics on…

  4. Women and Employment. Policies for Equal Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document contains the proceedings of a high-level conference on the Employment of Women, attended by labor ministers and other high officials of countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Delegates to the conference adopted a 14-point declaration pledging themselves to achieve equality of…

  5. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  6. Equal Justice Under Law. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore; And Others

    This document is a teachers' guide to accompany the book "Equal Justice Under Law: The Supreme Court in American Life." Because the book contains a tremendous amount of detail, the guide does not attempt to explicate everything in the text. Instead the guide attempts to provide more detail on one or more of the issues covered in different sections…

  7. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  8. Social Responsibility in Librarianship: Essays on Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae, Ed.

    In a culturally complex world, librarians can best work toward the equalization of library services if they understand their institutions in the light of cultural history. The six essays in this book highlight problems that affect unempowered populations, and address a variety of cultural problems and biases--problems that contribute to the…

  9. Equality in the Workplace. An Equal Opportunities Handbook for Trainers. Human Resource Management in Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Helen

    This workbook, which is intended as a practical guide for human resource managers, trainers, and others concerned with developing and implementing equal opportunities training programs in British workplaces, examines issues in and methods for equal opportunities training. The introduction gives an overview of current training trends and issues.…

  10. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    PubMed

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas. PMID:12290525

  11. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst`s task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  12. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  13. Microscopic justification of the equal filling approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Martin, Sara; Robledo, L. M.

    2008-07-15

    The equal filling approximation, a procedure widely used in mean-field calculations to treat the dynamics of odd nuclei in a time-reversal invariant way, is justified as the consequence of a variational principle over an average energy functional. The ideas of statistical quantum mechanics are employed in the justification. As an illustration of the method, the ground and lowest-lying states of some octupole deformed radium isotopes are computed.

  14. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  15. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkel, Jean; Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz; Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discretization error limited by the number of equalization bits.

  16. Local structure of equality constrained NLP problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, J.

    1994-12-31

    We show that locally around a feasible point, the behavior of an equality constrained nonlinear program is described by the gradient and the Hessian of the Lagrangian on the tangent subspace. In particular this holds true for reduced gradient approaches. Applying the same ideas to the control of nonlinear ODE:s, one can device first and second order methods that can be applied also to stiff problems. We finally describe an application of these ideas to the optimization of the production of human growth factor by fed-batch fermentation.

  17. 47 CFR 36.191 - Equal access equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access equipment. 36.191 Section 36.191... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Telecommunications Property Equal Access Equipment § 36.191 Equal access equipment. (a) Equal access investment includes only initial...

  18. 47 CFR 36.421 - Equal access expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal access expenses. 36.421 Section 36.421... AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Operating Expenses and Taxes Equal Access Expenses § 36.421 Equal access expenses. (a) Equal access expenses include only initial incremental...

  19. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices...

  20. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act....

  1. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  2. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  3. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  4. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees...

  5. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  7. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  8. Public hospital care: equal for all or equal for some? Evidence from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Hanson, Kara; Solon, Orville

    2015-03-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, government budgets are rarely sufficient to cover a public hospital's operating costs. Shortfalls are typically financed through a combination of health insurance contributions and user charges. The mixed nature of this financing arrangement potentially creates financial incentives to treat patients with equal health need unequally. Using data from the Philippines, the authors analyzed whether doctors respond to such incentives. After controlling for a patient's condition, they found that patients using insurance, paying more for hospital accommodation, and being treated in externally monitored hospitals were likely to receive more care. This highlights the worrying possibility that public hospital patients with equal health needs are not always equally treated. PMID:23420059

  9. rp Process and Masses of N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Schury, P.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Folden, C. M. III; Guenaut, C.; Kwan, E.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A.; Ringle, R.; Schatz, H.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.

    2009-04-03

    High-precision Penning-trap mass measurements of the N{approx_equal}Z{approx_equal}34 nuclides {sup 68}Se, {sup 70}Se, {sup 70m}Br, and {sup 71}Br were performed, reaching experimental uncertainties of 0.5-15 keV. The new and improved mass data together with theoretical Coulomb displacement energies were used as input for rp process network calculations. An increase in the effective lifetime of the waiting point nucleus {sup 68}Se was found, and more precise information was obtained on the luminosity during a type I x-ray burst along with the final elemental abundances after the burst.

  10. Jarzynski equality for non-Hamiltonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Deweese, Michael R.

    Recent years have witnessed major advances in our understanding of nonequilibrium processes. The Jarzynski equality, for example, provides a link between equilibrium free energy differences and finite-time, nonequilibrium dynamics. We propose a generalization of this relation to non-Hamiltonian dynamics, relevant for active matter systems, continuous feedback, and computer simulation. Surprisingly, this relation allows us to calculate the free energy difference between the desired initial and final states using arbitrary dynamics. As a practical matter, this dissociation between the dynamics and the initial and final states promises to facilitate a range of techniques for free energy estimation in a single, universal expression. This material is based upon work supported in part by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the U.S. Army Research Office under Contract Number W911NF-13-1-0390.

  11. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  12. Social Epigenetics and Equality of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Michele; Del Savio, Lorenzo; Stupka, Elia

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological reports of associations between socioeconomic status and epigenetic markers that predict vulnerability to diseases are bringing to light substantial biological effects of social inequalities. Here, we start the discussion of the moral consequences of these findings. We firstly highlight their explanatory importance in the context of the research program on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and the social determinants of health. In the second section, we review some theories of the moral status of health inequalities. Rather than a complete outline of the debate, we single out those theories that rest on the principle of equality of opportunity and analyze the consequences of DOHaD and epigenetics for these particular conceptions of justice. We argue that DOHaD and epigenetics reshape the conceptual distinction between natural and acquired traits on which these theories rely and might provide important policy tools to tackle unjust distributions of health. PMID:23864907

  13. Acoustical numerology and lucky equal temperaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald E.

    1988-04-01

    Equally tempered musical scales with N steps per octave are known to work especially well in approximating justly tuned intervals for such values as N=12, 19, 31, and 53. A quantitative measure of the closeness of such fits is suggested, in terms of the probabilities of coming as close to randomly chosen intervals as to the justly tuned targets. When two or more harmonic intervals are considered simultaneously, this involves a Monte Carlo evaluation of the probabilities. The results can be used to gauge how much advantage the special values of N mentioned above have over others. This article presents the rationale and method of computation, together with illustrative results in a few of the most interesting cases. References are provided to help relate these results to earlier works by music theorists.

  14. Pressure equalizing photovoltaic assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-05-27

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the peripheral edge of the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  15. Is Primatology an Equal-Opportunity Discipline?

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of “equal-opportunity” discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an “equal-opportunity” discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of “glass ceiling” as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues. PMID:22272353

  16. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

  17. Equalization of loudspeaker response using balanced model truncation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiansheng; Cai, Zhibo; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional loudspeaker equalization algorithms cannot decide the order of an equalizer before the whole equalization procedure has been completed. Designers have to try many times before they determine a proper order of the equalization filter. A method which solves this drawback is presented for loudspeaker equalization using balanced model truncation. The order of the equalizer can be easily decided using this algorithm and the error between the model and the loudspeaker can also be readily controlled. Examples are presented and the performance of the proposed method is discussed with comparative experiments. PMID:25920872

  18. The Equal Right to Inequality: Equality and Utility in on- and off-Campus Subject Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The principle of equality states that it is bad for some people to be worse off than others. In the context of distance education, this principle is violated on those occasions where on-campus students have access, not only to all the resources available to distance education students, but also to face-to-face tutorials. This is because the…

  19. Equal Opportunity Handbook: A Resource on Equal Opportunities for Education and Employment in Oregon Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This handbook is an information source for Oregon public school districts developing policies to ensure equal opportunities in education, employment, and the provision of educational services required by Federal and state laws, regulations, and policies. Not addressed are issues and services for the handicapped or programs for migrants, the…

  20. 101 Short Problems from EQUALS = 101 Problemas Cortos del programma EQUALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenmark, Jean Kerr, Ed.

    EQUALS is a teacher advisory program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. The program supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics, including having students working in groups, using active assessment methods, and incorporating a broad mathematics…

  1. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  2. FAINT EXTENDED OH EMISSION FROM THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE DIRECTION l Almost-Equal-To 108 Degree-Sign , b Almost-Equal-To 5 Degree-Sign

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Ronald J.; Rodriguez, Monica Ivette; Black, John H.; Booth, Roy S. E-mail: mrm@iaa.es E-mail: rbooth@ska.ac.za

    2012-04-15

    We have mapped faint 1667 OH line emission (T{sub A} Almost-Equal-To 20-40 mK in our Almost-Equal-To 30' beam) along many lines of sight in the Galaxy covering an area of Almost-Equal-To 4 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 4 Degree-Sign in the general direction of l Almost-Equal-To 108 Degree-Sign , b Almost-Equal-To 5 Degree-Sign . The OH emission is widespread, similar in extent to the local H I (r {approx}< 2 kpc) both in space and in velocity. The OH profile amplitudes show a good general correlation with those of H I in spectral channels of Almost-Equal-To 1 km s{sup -1}; this relation is described by T{sub A} (OH) Almost-Equal-To 1.50 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} T{sub B} (H I) for values of T{sub B} (H I) {approx}< 60-70 K. Beyond this the H I line appears to 'saturate', and few values are recorded above Almost-Equal-To 90 K. However, the OH brightness continues to rise, by a further factor Almost-Equal-To 3. The OH velocity profiles show multiple features with widths typically 2-3 km s{sup -1}, but less than 10% of these features are associated with CO(1-0) emission in existing surveys of the area smoothed to comparable resolution.

  3. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  4. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  5. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all...

  6. Subsea choke and riser pressure equalization system

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, F.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a subsea choke and riser pressure equalization system comprising, in combination: a section of riser pipe; a choke conduit line mechanically supported by said riser pipe; a variable choke valve having an inlet port and a discharge port; a gate valve having an inlet port and a discharge port; a gate valve having an inlet port conected in fluid communiction with the choke line and an output port connected in fluid communication with the inlet port of the variable choke for permitting diversion of fluid from the choke line to the variable choke; and, means connecting the discharge port of the variable choke in fluid communication with the interior of the riser section, said means including a discharge conduit extending from said choke valve in inclined relation with respect to the axis of said riser, whereby fluid diverted from said choke conduit is discharged into said riser in counterflow relation with respect to the upward flow of drilling fluid through said riser.

  7. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  8. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  9. 76 FR 36885 - Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 RIN No. 7100-AD-78 Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing for public comment a proposed rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  10. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  11. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  12. 12 CFR 128.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 128.5 Section 128... REQUIREMENTS § 128.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  13. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  14. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  15. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528.5... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  16. 12 CFR 390.146 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 390.146 Section....146 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each State savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  17. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one or more Equal Housing Lender Posters, the text of which is prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  18. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for the... by a dwelling shall post and maintain an Equal Housing Lender Poster in the lobby of each of...

  19. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section 268.407 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Appeals to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission §...

  20. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section 268.407 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Appeals to the Equal Employment...

  1. 45 CFR 1616.6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 1616.6 Section 1616... ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.6 Equal employment opportunity. A recipient shall adopt employment qualifications... employment, and shall take affirmative action to insure equal employment opportunity....

  2. 45 CFR 2543.81 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 2543.81 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.81 Equal employment opportunity. All contracts shall contain a provision requiring compliance with E.O. 11246, “Equal Employment Opportunity,” as amended by...

  3. 47 CFR 73.881 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 73.881 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.881 Equal employment opportunities. General EEO policy. Equal employment opportunity shall be afforded by all LPFM licensees and permittees to...

  4. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  5. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  6. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  7. 43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.5 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:...

  8. 43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.5 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:...

  9. 43 CFR 2201.5 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchanges at approximately equal value... PROCEDURES Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.5 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:...

  10. 36 CFR 254.11 - Exchanges at approximately equal value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equal value. 254.11 Section 254.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.11 Exchanges at approximately equal value. (a) The authorized officer may exchange lands which are of approximately equal value upon a determination that:...

  11. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program. This section incorporates the statutory requirements for establishing and conducting an equal opportunity recruitment program consistent with law within the...

  12. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  14. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  16. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  17. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  18. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  19. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  1. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  2. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  3. The Struggle for Gender Equality: How Men Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Men's responses to women's demands for educational equality during three peak periods of activism for women's equality (mid-nineteenth century, turn of the century, and contemporary era) are examined for the insight they offer into the different issues and shifting arguments for and against gender equality in this and other arenas. (MSE)

  4. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In...

  5. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  6. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  8. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  10. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  11. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1071 RIN 3170-AA27 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule AGENCY: Bureau of... Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA or the Act) requires agencies ] that conduct adversary adjudications..., Credit, Credit unions, Equal access to justice, Law enforcement, National banks, Savings...

  12. 75 FR 17622 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight 12 CFR Part 1705 RIN 2590-AA29 Equal Access to Justice Act... form, the OFHEO ``Implementation of the Equal Access to ] Justice Act'' regulation at 12 CFR part 1705... Subjects in 12 CFR Parts 1203 and 1705 Administrative practice and procedure, Equal access to...

  13. Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Francine M.

    Noting that details of everyday life contribute to parental equality or inequality, this qualitative study focused on how couples transformed parental roles to create truly equal families. Participating in the study were 88 couples in 4 categories, based on division of parental responsibilities: equal sharers, 60-40 couples, 75-25 couples, and…

  14. Employment equality legislation, 3 March 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    On 1 April 1988, new employment equality legislation came into effect in Israel. The new legislation outlaws discrimination at work on the grounds of sex, marital status, and parenthood with respect to recruitment, terms of employment, promotion, vocational training, retraining, dismissal, and severance pay. Under the legislation, 1) employers may not cause prejudice to workers who allege discrimination, help others to do so, or decline sexual advances by a direct or indirect supervisor; 2) the burden of proof in discrimination claims against an employer is on the employer if the worker can show that requirements set by the employer have been met; 3) company managers and co-owners in a partnership are personally liable for violations on the part of the employer if the firm has over six workers unless they prove that the offense was committed without their knowledge or that they had taken all appropriate measures to prevent it; and 4) no special rights given to women by law, collective agreement, or other work contract are to be considered discrimination. The legislation establishes a Public Council to advise the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs on implementing and publicizing the legislation. It also allows a father to receive the following work benefits that were previously restricted to mothers: 1) leave of absence to care for a sick child and 2) statutory leave and statutory entitlement to severance pay for resigning to care for a newborn or adopted baby if the father is the sole guardian or if the mother renounces her right because she is working. PMID:12289294

  15. Seeking Equal Educational Opportunity for Appalachian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, James

    The broadcasting media's treatment of Appalachia was cited as one example of the massive failure of America's institutions to meet the needs of the area's people. From government at all levels to churches, private agencies, schools, colleges, labor unions, etc., the region has received an unequal share of exploitation, netlect, unfulfilled…

  16. Superchannel transmission system based on multi-channel equalization.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-17

    We proposed a new method for superchannel transmission based on the newly proposed multi-channel equalization technique. This method allows us to realize tight channel spacing (equal to the baud rate) without using frequency-locked lasers and complex spectral shaping techniques at the transmitter. The inter-channel interference originated from the tight channel spacing is removed at the receiver by joint equalization of multiple adjacent channels. When the channel spacing is equal to the baud rate, our simulation results show that, with conventional oversample ratio (2 samples per symbol), realistic laser frequency offset and laser linewidth, the proposed multi-channel-equalization based method can achieve better performance than the traditional method using spectral shaping plus single channel equalization, although at the expense of a moderate increase in DSP complexity. The paper also gives a simple method to process the data after conventional chromatic dispersion compensation, which enables subsequent multi-channel equalization for long-haul transmissions. PMID:23787667

  17. Gender and Sexuality: The Discursive Limits of "Equality" in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrish, Liz; Sauntson, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This special issue sets out to investigate a number of areas of concern, regarding gender and sexuality, which are identifiable in the current British higher education environment. We argue that current dominant "neoliberal" discourses, which emphasise the commodification of higher education in the U.K., function to set limits upon "equality".…

  18. A Reasonably Equal Share: Educational Equity in Vermont. A Status Report, Year 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Vermont's Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1997, Act 60, was designed to rectify educational inequities cited in the State Supreme Court ruling that the state's foundation formula was unconstitutional. This study examines the degree to which Act 60 has improved inequitable conditions in the three main areas cited in the court decision.…

  19. Family-Friendly Policies and Equal Opportunities: A Contradiction in Terms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagilhole, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a research study of one large public sector organisation's strategy to promote gender equality and family friendliness. An examination was made of the organisation's policy documentation in this area and a questionnaire survey containing both closed and open-ended questions was undertaken across all staff in…

  20. National Advisory Council on Equality of Educational Opportunity. Report for Calendar Year 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Equality of Educational Opportunity.

    This report by the National Advisory Council on Equality of Educational Opportunity (NACEEO) contains the major activities undertaken for 1976 and delineates the recommendations made for that year. The recommendations made are in the areas of legislation, administration and special projects. Two of the 1976 recommendations are: (1) state education…

  1. Equally parsimonious pathways through an RNA sequence space are not equally likely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; DSouza, L. M.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental system for determining the potential ability of sequences resembling 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to perform as functional 5S rRNAs in vivo in the Escherichia coli cellular environment was devised previously. Presumably, the only 5S rRNA sequences that would have been fixed by ancestral populations are ones that were functionally valid, and hence the actual historical paths taken through RNA sequence space during 5S rRNA evolution would have most likely utilized valid sequences. Herein, we examine the potential validity of all sequence intermediates along alternative equally parsimonious trajectories through RNA sequence space which connect two pairs of sequences that had previously been shown to behave as valid 5S rRNAs in E. coli. The first trajectory requires a total of four changes. The 14 sequence intermediates provide 24 apparently equally parsimonious paths by which the transition could occur. The second trajectory involves three changes, six intermediate sequences, and six potentially equally parsimonious paths. In total, only eight of the 20 sequence intermediates were found to be clearly invalid. As a consequence of the position of these invalid intermediates in the sequence space, seven of the 30 possible paths consisted of exclusively valid sequences. In several cases, the apparent validity/invalidity of the intermediate sequences could not be anticipated on the basis of current knowledge of the 5S rRNA structure. This suggests that the interdependencies in RNA sequence space may be more complex than currently appreciated. If ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony are to be regarded as actual historical sequences, then the present results would suggest that they should also satisfy a validity requirement and that, in at least limited cases, this conjecture can be tested experimentally.

  2. Dual-mode type algorithms for blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerackody, Vijitha; Kassam, Saleem A.

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive channel equalization accomplished without resorting to a training sequence is known as blind equalization. The Godard algorithm and the generalized Sato algorithm are two widely referenced algorithms for blind equalization of a QAM system. These algorithms exhibit very slow convergence rates when compared to algorithms employed in conventional data-aided equalization schemes. In order to speed up the convergence process, these algorithms may be switched over to a decision-directed equalization scheme once the error level is reasonably low. We present a scheme which is capable of operating in two modes: blind equalization mode and a mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode. In this proposed scheme, the dominant mode of operation changes from the blind equalization mode at higher error levels to the mode similar to the decision-directed equalization mode at lower error levels. Manual switch-over to the decision-directed mode from the blind equalization mode, or vice-versa, is not necessary since transitions between the two modes take place smoothly and automatically.

  3. Direct handling of equality constraints in multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Gabriele, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been several hierarchic multilevel optimization algorithms proposed and implemented in design studies. Equality constraints are often imposed between levels in these multilevel optimizations to maintain system and subsystem variable continuity. Equality constraints of this nature will be referred to as coupling equality constraints. In many implementation studies these coupling equality constraints have been handled indirectly. This indirect handling has been accomplished using the coupling equality constraints' explicit functional relations to eliminate design variables (generally at the subsystem level), with the resulting optimization taking place in a reduced design space. In one multilevel optimization study where the coupling equality constraints were handled directly, the researchers encountered numerical difficulties which prevented their multilevel optimization from reaching the same minimum found in conventional single level solutions. The researchers did not explain the exact nature of the numerical difficulties other than to associate them with the direct handling of the coupling equality constraints. The coupling equality constraints are handled directly, by employing the Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method as the optimizer within a multilevel linear decomposition scheme based on the Sobieski hierarchic algorithm. Two engineering design examples are solved using this approach. The results show that the direct handling of coupling equality constraints in a multilevel optimization does not introduce any problems when the GRG method is employed as the internal optimizer. The optimums achieved are comparable to those achieved in single level solutions and in multilevel studies where the equality constraints have been handled indirectly.

  4. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  5. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  6. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  7. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and employment practices and adopt positive recruitment, training, job design and other measures... herein. (5) Complaints indicating a general pattern of disregard of equal employment practices which...

  8. Multiple point least squares equalization in a room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, S. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Equalization filters designed to minimize the mean square error between a delayed version of the original electrical signal and the equalized response at a point in a room have previously been investigated. In general, such a strategy degrades the response at positions in a room away from the equalization point. A method is presented for designing an equalization filter by adjusting the filter coefficients to minimize the sum of the squares of the errors between the equalized responses at multiple points in the room and delayed versions of the original, electrical signal. Such an equalization filter can give a more uniform frequency response over a greater volume of the enclosure than can the single point equalizer above. Computer simulation results are presented of equalizing the frequency responses from a loudspeaker to various typical ear positions, in a room with dimensions and acoustic damping typical of a car interior, using the two approaches outlined above. Adaptive filter algorithms, which can automatically adjust the coefficients of a digital equalization filter to achieve this minimization, will also be discussed.

  9. Channel Equalization for Single Carrier MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Zheng, Yahong Rosa; Xiao, Chengshan; Yang, T. C.; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) underwater acoustic (UWA) channels introduce both space-time interference (STI) and time-varying phase distortion for transmitted signals. In such cases, the equalized symbols produced by conventional equalizer aiming for STI cancelation suffer phase rotation and thus cannot be reliably detected. In this paper, we propose a new equalization scheme for high data rate single carrier MIMO UWA channels. Different from existing methods employing joint equalization and symbolwise phase tracking technology, the proposed scheme decouples the interference cancelation (IC) operation and the phase compensation operation, leading to a generalized equalizer structure combining an IC equalizer with a phase compensator. The decoupling of the two functionalities leads to robust signal detection, which is most desirable in practical UWA applications. MIMO linear equalizer (LE) is adopted to remove space-time interference, and a groupwise phase estimation and correction method is used to compensate the phase rotation. In addition, the layered space-time processing technology is adopted to enhance the equalization performance. The proposed equalization scheme is tested to be very robust with extensive experimental data collected at Kauai, Hawaii, in September 2005, and Saint Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, in May 2006.

  10. Performance of DBS-Radio using concatenated coding and equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevargiz, J.; Bell, D.; Truong, L.; Vaisnys, A.; Suwitra, K.; Henson, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) receiver is being developed for operation in a multipath Rayleigh channel. This receiver uses equalization and concatenated coding, in addition to open loop and closed loop architectures for carrier demodulation and symbol synchronization. Performance test results of this receiver are presented in both AWGN and multipath Rayleigh channels. Simulation results show that the performance of the receiver operating in a multipath Rayleigh channel is significantly improved by using equalization. These results show that fractional-symbol equalization offers a performance advantage over full symbol equalization. Also presented is the base-line performance of the DBS-R receiver using concatenated coding and interleaving.

  11. A low power 3.125 Gbps CMOS analog equalizer for serial links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ju; Yumei, Zhou; Yishu, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    A CMOS analog equalizer is designed to meet the different high speed communication specifications, such as USB 2.0, PCI-E and rapid IO. The proposed circuit architecture could facilitate the wide frequency scale ranging from 1 to 3.125 Gbps by adjusting the locations of pole and zero, so that the circuit can change its response accordingly as the channel characteristic alters. In order to balance the parasitic capacitors in the internal point, symmetric switches are addressed to generate the equal load for differential signals. A prototype chip was fabricated in 0.13-μm 1P8M mix-signal CMOS technology. The actual area is 0.49 × 0.5 mm2, and the analog equalizer operates up to 3.125 Gbps over 3 m RG-58 coaxial cable and 50 cm FR4-PCB trace. The overall power dissipation is approximately 14.4 mW.

  12. Cortical Magnification Plus Cortical Plasticity Equals Vision?

    PubMed Central

    Born, Richard T.; Trott, Alexander; Hartmann, Till

    2014-01-01

    Most approaches to visual prostheses have focused on the retina, and for good reasons. The earlier that one introduces signals into the visual system, the more one can take advantage of its prodigious computational abilities. For methods that make use of microelectrodes to introduce electrical signals, however, the limited density and volume occupying nature of the electrodes place severe limits on the image resolution that can be provided to the brain. In this regard, non-retinal areas in general, and the primary visual cortex in particular, possess one large advantage: “magnification factor” (MF)—a value that represents the distance across a sheet of neurons that represents a given angle of the visual field. In the foveal representation of primate primary visual cortex, the MF is enormous—on the order of 15–20 mm/deg in monkeys and humans, whereas on the retina, the MF is limited by the optical design of the eye to around 0.3 mm/deg. This means that, for an electrode array of a given density, a much higher- resolution image can be introduced into V1 than onto the retina (or any other visual structure). In addition to this tremendous advantage in resolution, visual cortex is plastic at many different levels ranging from a very local ability to learn to better detect electrical stimulation to higher levels of learning that permit human observers to adapt to radical changes to their visual inputs. We argue that the combination of the large magnification factor and the impressive ability of the cerebral cortex to learn to recognize arbitrary patterns, might outweigh the disadvantages of bypassing earlier processing stages and makes V1 a viable option for the restoration of vision. PMID:25449335

  13. Make them equal partners in development.

    PubMed

    Mishra, T K

    The general status of women in India and the world, their potential as entrepreneurs in India, and the Indian government's initiatives for women are described. Women are actually good household managers and essential for success of the family and the nation, but economic development alone will not benefit women by a "trickle down" effect because male superiority is a vested interest. Women around the world perform 2/3 of the work, but receive 1/10 of the income and own less than 1/100 of the property. Although female literacy in India has grown from 18.7% in 1971 to 24.8% in 1981, the absolute number of illiterate women has grown from 215 to 241 million, and the ratio of illiterate women to men has risen. Higher education for women is largely limited to home economics, art, literature and dressmaking. Women are taking up spinning, weaving, crafts, matchmaking, cereal processing and other cottage industries. Elite urban women are also starting businesses doing marketing, advertising, electronics, designing, textiles and beauty clinics. Entrepreneurial women face problems with credit, bureaucratic hurdles, harassment by inspectors, huge consultancy and legal fees. Women's welfare organizations should foster their economic development. The Indian government has proposed anti-poverty programs, job programs, legal safeguards, and promotion of women in the media. It has suggested that a Ministry of Women and Child Development be created to enforce the law for women. A Ministry of Rural Development has initiated a Scheme for the Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA). There is a National Committee on Women, headed by the Prime Minister, to advise the Central and State Governments on policy, legislative and administrative measures needed to remove economic and social inequalities for women. PMID:12281793

  14. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 22.321 Section 22.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment opportunities. Public Mobile...

  15. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 22.321 Section 22.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment opportunities. Public Mobile...

  16. 47 CFR 73.2080 - Equal employment opportunities (EEO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities (EEO). 73.2080 Section 73.2080 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2080 Equal employment opportunities (EEO). (a) General EEO policy....

  17. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Maintaining systematic contacts with minority and human relations organizations, leaders and spokespersons to... herein. (5) Complaints indicating a general pattern of disregard of equal employment practices which are...) Communicate its equal employment opportunity policy and program and its employment needs to sources...

  18. The Power War: Male Response to Power Loss under Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the male response to anticipated loss of power as women continue to demand equality and equal power. Describes the scope of male power, and analyzes the importance of power to men in terms of the male sex-role stereotype. Hypothesizes some likely male responses to a loss of power. (BH)

  19. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  20. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.... (ii) (c) Affirmative outreach. (1) If the procedures that the recipient intends to use to make...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.184 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 3015.184 Section 3015... employment opportunity. (a) The Attachment 0 requires recipients to include in contracts in excess of $10,000 a provision requiring compliance with Executive Order 11246, concerning equal employment...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1702 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 76.1702 Section... employment opportunity. (a) Every employment unit with six or more full-time employees shall maintain for... pursuant to § 76.77 and the equal employment opportunity program information described in paragraph (b)...

  3. 48 CFR 970.2208 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employment opportunity. The equal employment opportunity provisions of 48 CFR subpart 22.8 and subpart 922.8 of this chapter, including Executive Order 11246 and 41 CFR part 60, are applicable to DOE management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal...

  4. 7 CFR 4279.58 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Opportunity Act as contained in the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation implementing that Act (see 12 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal Credit Opportunity Act. 4279.58 Section 4279.58... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.58 Equal...

  5. 47 CFR 78.75 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 78.75 Section 78.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.75 Equal employment opportunities. See Subpart...

  6. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  7. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  8. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  9. 29 CFR 30.3 - Equal opportunity standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING § 30.3 Equal opportunity standards. (a) Obligations of sponsors. Each sponsor of an apprenticeship program shall: (1) Recruit, select, employ, and train apprentices during their apprenticeship, without discrimination...

  10. Equal Education Opportunity for All the Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped, Philadelphia, PA.

    The booklet contains 12 selected papers on equal educational opportunity for visually handicapped (VH) children that were presented at the 52nd biennial conference (June, 1974) of the Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped. Included are presentations on the following: the history and concept of equal educational opportunity (B.…

  11. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  12. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  13. Equal Protection in Special Admissions Programs: Forward from Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julius

    1979-01-01

    Bakke's equal protection holding is analyzed and an assessment is offered of what the decisions mean for academic special admissions programs. Discussion focuses on how race may be used as a factor in admissions decisions consistently with the equal protection clause of the Federal Constitution. (Author/MSE)

  14. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity requirements. 1720.15 Section 1720.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEES FOR BONDS AND NOTES ISSUED FOR ELECTRIFICATION OR TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.15 Equal opportunity...

  15. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equal opportunity requirements. 1720.15 Section 1720.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEES FOR BONDS AND NOTES ISSUED FOR ELECTRIFICATION OR TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.15 Equal opportunity...

  16. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of... designation, or other description, and identification of a commercial catalog where it is listed. (3) Name...

  17. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of... designation, or other description, and identification of a commercial catalog where it is listed. (3) Name...

  18. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of... designation, or other description, and identification of a commercial catalog where it is listed. (3) Name...

  19. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  20. An Application of the Equal Pay Act to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Debra H.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)

  1. 7 CFR 4279.58 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Opportunity Act as contained in the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation implementing that Act (see 12 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equal Credit Opportunity Act. 4279.58 Section 4279.58... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.58 Equal...

  2. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  3. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  4. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be included... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  5. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  6. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  7. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms....

  8. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms....

  9. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section 2.32 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Equal Treatment in Department of Labor Programs for Religious Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of...

  10. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to...

  11. Towards an Analytical Framework for Accountability Regarding Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Johan; Prinsloo, Justus

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue of accountability for equal educational opportunities against the background of the constitutional provision that elevates accountability above a management tool to a national goal and value. It asserts that the government is indeed accountable for equal educational opportunities. However, government reporting on…

  12. Teaching the Substitutive Conception of the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew; Gilmore, Camilla; Evans, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    A cumulative body of research has shown that children typically shift from an "operational" to a "relational" conception of the equals sign as they move through schooling. Jones (2008) argued that a truly relational conception of the equals sign comprises a "substitutive" component and a "sameness"…

  13. 47 CFR 73.2080 - Equal employment opportunities (EEO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities (EEO). 73.2080 Section 73.2080 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.2080 Equal employment opportunities (EEO). (a) General EEO policy....

  14. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  15. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacha, Ibrahim; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel

    2006-12-01

    We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is the number of emitted signals,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the data vector length, and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  16. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  17. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  18. 75 FR 65214 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Justice Act. The proposed regulation was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 17622 (April 7, 2010... Oversight 12 CFR Part 1705 RIN 2590-AA29 Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Housing... OFHEO Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act regulation at 12 CFR part 1705. IV. Section...

  19. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  20. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  1. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  2. 24 CFR 582.330 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, recipients serving a designated...) and implementing regulations at 41 CFR chapter 60-741. (2) The nondiscrimination and equal opportunity... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE...

  3. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  4. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  5. 47 CFR 101.311 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 101.311 Section 101.311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions § 101.311 Equal...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-26 - Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal Opportunity. 52.222-26 Section 52.222-26 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-26 Equal Opportunity. As prescribed in...

  7. Toward a New Definition of Equal Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Considers the meaning of "equal educational opportunity." Asserts that successful learning depends on the interaction of many factors, including teacher-student interactions, and equality of educational opportunity will be achieved only when interactions are productive for all children. Achieving equity will require a collaborative approach with…

  8. 29 CFR 2.32 - Equal participation of religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.32 Equal participation of religious organizations. (a... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal participation of religious organizations. 2.32 Section... or participate in DOL programs for which they are otherwise eligible. DOL, DOL social...

  9. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Diego von B. M.; Halmenschlager, Vitor; Ortolan, Leonardo; De Castro, Maria C. F.; De Castro, Fernando C. C.; Ourique, Fabrício

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  10. Better to be equal? Challenges to equality for cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders in a social decision game.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Eva A; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda Bc; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-02-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we evaluated the possibility that children with autism spectrum disorders may be less likely than typically developing children to show a prioritisation of equality. A total of 69 typically developing (mean age 11;6 years) and 57 cognitively able children with autism spectrum disorders (mean age 11;7 years) played a social decision game in which the equality option was pitted against alternatives that varied in instrumental outcomes. Results showed that both groups were more likely to choose the equality option when there was no cost to the self. However, even though children with autism spectrum disorders appeared to view equality as preferable to causing explicit harm to others, they departed from an equality stance when there was an opportunity to increase instrumental gain without any obvious harm to the self or the other. Typically developing children, in contrast, showed similar prioritisation of equality across these contexts. Future research needs to address the question of how differences in the commitment to equality affect children's social behaviour and relationships in daily life. PMID:24523411

  11. Moving beyond gender: processes that create relationship equality.

    PubMed

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2005-04-01

    Equality is related to relationship success, yet few couples achieve it. In this qualitative study, we examine how couples with children in two time cohorts (1982 and 2001) moved toward equality. The analysis identifies three types of couples: Postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. Movement toward equality is facilitated by: (a) Stimulus for change, including awareness of gender, commitment to family and work, and situational pressures; and (b) patterns that promote change, including active negotiation, challenges to gender entitlement, development of new competencies, and mutual attention to relationship and family tasks. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:15974060

  12. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    PubMed

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration. PMID:21133335

  13. Study of a co-designed decision feedback equalizer, deinterleaver, and decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peile, Robert E.; Welch, Loyd

    1990-01-01

    A technique that promises better quality data from band limited channels at lower received power in digital transmission systems is presented. Data transmission, in such systems often suffers from intersymbol interference (ISI) and noise. Two separate techniques, channel coding and equalization, have caused considerable advances in the state of communication systems and both concern themselves with removing the undesired effects of a communication channel. Equalizers mitigate the ISI whereas coding schemes are used to incorporate error-correction. In the past, most of the research in these two areas has been carried out separately. However, the individual techniques have strengths and weaknesses that are complementary in many applications: an integrated approach realizes gains in excess to that of a simple juxtaposition. Coding schemes have been successfully used in cascade with linear equalizers which in the absence of ISI provide excellent performance. However, when both ISI and the noise level are relatively high, nonlinear receivers like the decision feedback equalizer (DFE) perform better. The DFE has its drawbacks: it suffers from error propagation. The technique presented here takes advantage of interleaving to integrate the two approaches so that the error propagation in DFE can be reduced with the help of error correction provided by the decoder. The results of simulations carried out for both, binary, and non-binary, channels confirm that significant gain can be obtained by codesigning equalizer and decoder. Although, systems with time-invariant channels and simple DFE having linear filters were looked into, the technique is fairly general and can easily be modified for more sophisticated equalizers to obtain even larger gains.

  14. On-line equalization for lithium-ion battery packs based on charging cell voltages: Part 2. Fuzzy logic equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Xu, Liangfei

    2014-02-01

    In the first part of this work, we propose dissipative cell equalization (DCE) algorithm based on remaining charging capacity estimation (RCCE) and establish a pack model with 8 cells in series. The results show that RCCE-DCE algorithm is suitable for on-line equalization in electric vehicles (EVs) and no over-equalization happens. However, 1% pack capacity difference from the DCE theoretical pack capacity is observed with RCCE-DCE algorithm. Therefore, as the second part of the series, we propose fuzzy logic (FL) DCE algorithm based on charging cell voltage curves (CCVCs). Cell capacities and SOCs are fuzzily identified in FL-DCE algorithm by comparing cell voltages at the beginning and end of charging. Adaptive FL-DCE is further improved to prevent over-equalization and maintain the equalization capability. The simulation results show that pack capacity difference from the DCE theoretical pack capacity with the adaptive FL-DCE is smaller than that with RCCE-DCE algorithm, and the duration of the infant stage is also shorter. The proposed adaptive FL-DCE is suitable for on-line equalization in EVs and well prevents over-equalization.

  15. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    PubMed Central

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  16. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  17. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  18. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  19. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  20. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.6 Equal opportunity implementation. Within... as to facilitiate the participation of minority business enterprises; (4) Submit periodic reports...

  1. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal..., regulations, and orders, or by any other means authorized by law; (e) The recipient, contractor,...

  2. Implementing the Equal Access Act and State Constitutional Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the issue of whether implementation of the Equal Access Act would violate the constitutions of some states that require a stricter separation of church and state than the federal Constitution. (MLF)

  3. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  4. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  5. 7 CFR 1720.15 - Equal opportunity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1720.15 Equal opportunity requirements. Executive Order 12898, “Environmental Justice.” To comply with... environmental justice. The Civil Rights Impact Analysis will be conducted prior to application approval or...

  6. 24 CFR 200.30 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Cross Cutting Regulations § 200.30 Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5,...

  7. Equal Employment Law and the Employer--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Will

    1979-01-01

    Sets forth in simple terms some of the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972. Available from the New York State Bar Association, One Elk Street, Albany, N.Y. 12207; sc $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  8. Implications of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Richard P.

    1977-01-01

    Explains the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunities Act Amendments of 1976 (Public Law 94-239, 94th Congress, H.R. 6516, March 23, 1976), discusses their implications, and suggests enforcement improvements in the Act. (Author/RK)

  9. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal..., regulations, and orders, or by any other means authorized by law; (e) The recipient, contractor,...

  10. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made in the equal opportunity clause as shall... defined in the regulations of the Secretary of Labor at 41 CFR Chapter 60, which is paid for in whole...

  11. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of language. Such necessary changes in language may be made in the equal opportunity clause as shall... defined in the regulations of the Secretary of Labor at 41 CFR Chapter 60, which is paid for in whole...

  12. Full Employment and Economic Equality. Jobs and Minority Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bernard E.

    1976-01-01

    Traces some of the evidence that supports the full employment minority advancement thesis, and discusses some additional measures required to assist full employment in achieving racial equality. Most of the discussion focuses on black workers. (Author/AM)

  13. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal opportunity clause..., regulations, and orders, or by any other means authorized by law; (e) The recipient, contractor,...

  14. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  15. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  16. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  17. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  18. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts involving step 3-type work of $10,000 or more are subject...

  19. Menopause: Not All Hot Flashes Are Created Equal

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160027.html Menopause: Not All Hot Flashes Are Created Equal Weight, race, education and lifestyle all affect timing, duration of symptoms, research indicates To ...

  20. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  1. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clauses. (a) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  2. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clauses. (a) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be... contracts and subcontracts. The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(b) is required to be... participating (pursuant to 41 CFR 60-4.5) in a Hometown Plan approved by the U.S. Department of Labor in...

  3. Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints and with an unknown parameter vector are considered in this paper. With some simplifications, the problem is reduced to solving a linear, time-varying two-point boundary-value problem with integral path equality constraints. A modified backward sweep method is used to solve this problem. Two example problems are solved to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the solution technique.

  4. Constructions of equality and discrimination in professional men's talk.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sarah C E

    2002-09-01

    The contradiction between support for egalitarian employment practices and the maintenance of occupational androcentrism was examined by discursively analysing constructions of equality and discrimination from 46 interviews with professional men. Accounts of equality were produced through the interpretative repertories of 'interchangeability', 'individual ability' and 'pragmatism'. This enables, first, an understanding of discrimination as 'non-individualism', a term used to describe the treatment of social group memberships as salient, and second, defined interventions based on a structural analysis of equality as discrimination. These repertoires minimized the gendered nature of men and women's experiences and negated the use of context in favour of an abstract principle of individualism. Participants warranted their accounts through feminist arguments, two-sided argument formulations, and the construction of a dichotomy between individualist-equality and structuralist-discrimination-supporting the material practice of 'affirmative non-action', the active support of non-action. Relating the findings to equal opportunity policy, occupational cultural analyses and the discursive production of 'new sexism', the article identifies the absence of an account that conceptualizes both individual and structural facets of equality. PMID:12419012

  5. Equality of the sexes in Sweden under a new government.

    PubMed

    Mccrea, J M

    1979-07-01

    Although the Social Democratic Party lost its long control of Parliament, Sweden is a country with a strong egalitarian philosophy which transcends party politics, and it is felt that the loss of the election had virtually no affect on policy toward women or other aspects of social policy. A review of the Swedish political situation, including political parties; election issues; aftermath of the election; and labor force participation precedes consideration of developments in the economic status of women, 1976-1978. Factors considered include Labour Market Board equality measures; parenthood insurance; work hours; the Committee on Equality Between Men and Women; proposed legislation on equality; private agreements between employers and trade unions on family policy; and womens' participation. It is concluded that the new government has merely continued the equality programs of the previous government, with the only meaningful contribution of the new Equality Committee to draft legislation prohibiting discrimination. The law on equality is a vital issue for the Liberal Party and they will have to persuade the Social Democrats that its enactment will provide the basis of an egalitarian society. PMID:12309568

  6. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  7. Monotonic convergent quantum optimal control method with exact equality constraints on the optimized control fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-05-01

    We present a monotonic convergent quantum optimal control method that can be utilized to optimize the control field while exactly enforcing multiple equality constraints for steering quantum systems from an initial state towards desired quantum states. For illustration, special consideration is given to finding optimal control fields with (i) exact zero area and (ii) exact zero area along with constant pulse fluence. The method combined with these two types of constraints is successfully employed to maximize the state-to-state transition probability in a model vibrating diatomic molecule.

  8. Particle Filtering Equalization Method for a Satellite Communication Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sénécal, Stéphane; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Cavazzana, Laurent

    2004-12-01

    We propose the use of particle filtering techniques and Monte Carlo methods to tackle the in-line and blind equalization of a satellite communication channel. The main difficulties encountered are the nonlinear distortions caused by the amplifier stage in the satellite. Several processing methods manage to take into account these nonlinearities but they require the knowledge of a training input sequence for updating the equalizer parameters. Blind equalization methods also exist but they require a Volterra modelization of the system which is not suited for equalization purpose for the present model. The aim of the method proposed in the paper is also to blindly restore the emitted message. To reach this goal, a Bayesian point of view is adopted. Prior knowledge of the emitted symbols and of the nonlinear amplification model, as well as the information available from the received signal, is jointly used by considering the posterior distribution of the input sequence. Such a probability distribution is very difficult to study and thus motivates the implementation of Monte Carlo simulation methods. The presentation of the equalization method is cut into two parts. The first part solves the problem for a simplified model, focusing on the nonlinearities of the model. The second part deals with the complete model, using sampling approaches previously developed. The algorithms are illustrated and their performance is evaluated using bit error rate versus signal-to-noise ratio curves.

  9. Equalizer system and method for series connected energy storing devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ross, Guy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the charge voltage of a number of electrochemical cells connected in series is disclosed. Equalization circuitry is provided to control the amount of charge current supplied to individual electrochemical cells included within the series string of electrochemical cells without interrupting the flow of charge current through the series string. The equalization circuitry balances the potential of each of the electrochemical cells to within a pre-determined voltage setpoint tolerance during charging, and, if necessary, prior to initiating charging. Equalization of cell potentials may be effected toward the end of a charge cycle or throughout the charge cycle. Overcharge protection is also provided for each of the electrochemical cells coupled to the series connection. During a discharge mode of operation in accordance with one embodiment, the equalization circuitry is substantially non-conductive with respect to the flow of discharge current from the series string of electrochemical cells. In accordance with another embodiment, equalization of the series string of cells is effected during a discharge cycle.

  10. A selective equalizer for NiMH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, A.; Stuart, T. A.

    A unique method has been developed to equalize nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery packs using a new selective equalizer. This equalizer detects batteries either at a very low state of charge (SOC) or at an extremely high SOC. In this system a set of electromechanical relays is connected in a matrix to route boost current to the weaker batteries. The relay switching is controlled by a 32 bit microcontroller, and the boost current is supplied by a boost charger. Once a weak battery is detected, it is scheduled for a specific boost time by a special "Round Robin" (RR) algorithm. The equalizer was tested on a pack of 12 series connected 12 V 93 ampere hour (Ah) NiMH batteries. Test results show that the equalizer was able to re-balance an artificially unbalanced pack, and the capacity was increased by 27% within six charge-discharge cycles. Results indicate the number of cycles required to re-balance the pack was significantly reduced by using this technique.

  11. Reconstruction of Energy Surfaces from Friction Force Microscopy Measurements with the Jarzynski Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Ronen; Klafter, Joseph; Urbakh, Michael

    Free energy is one of the most fundamental thermodynamic functions, determining relative phase stability and serving as a generating function for other thermodynamic quantities. The calculation of free energies is a challenging enterprise. In equilibrium statistical mechanics, the free energy is related to the canonical partition function. The partition function itself involves integrations over all degrees of freedom in the system and, in most cases, cannot be easily calculated directly. In 1997, Jarzynski proved a remarkable equality that allows computing the equilibrium free-energy difference between two states from the probability distribution of the nonequilibrium work done on the system to switch between the two states. The Jarzynski equality provides a powerful free-energy difference estimator from a set of irreversible experiments. This method is closely related to free-energy perturbation approach, which is also a computational technique for estimating free-energy differences. The ability to map potential profiles and topologies is of major significance to areas as diverse as biological recognition and nanoscale friction. This capability has been demonstrated for frictional studies where a force between the tip of the scanning force microscope and the surface is probed. The surface free-energy corrugation produces a detectable friction forces. Thus, friction force microscopy (FFM) should be able to discriminate between energetically different areas on the probed surface. Here, we apply the Jarzynski equality for the analysis of FFM measurements and thus obtain a variation of the free energy along a surface.

  12. Comparison of hybrid adaptive blind equalizers for QAM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labed, A.; Belouchrani, A.; Aissa-El-Bey, A.; Chonavel, T.

    2009-06-01

    This paper compares different hybrid blind equalization algorithms used for QAM signals. In hybrid equalizers, a penalty term, with zeros at constellation points coordinates, called constellation matching error (CME) is added to the criterion of one of the standard algorithms, such as the constant modulus algorithm (CMA), the multimodulus algorithm (MMA) or the recently proposed extended constant modulus algorithm (ECMA). Among the CMEs, to be considered, we have recently introduced a new one which is the product of l1-norm of the deviations of equalizer output from the constellation points. The hybrid algorithms, obtained by combining different CMEs with the CMA or the ECMA are compared through simulations on 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM signals transmitted over different channels.

  13. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes. PMID:10257047

  14. EQUATIONS AND THE EQUAL SIGN IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 − 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 − 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of standard and nonstandard equation types appearing within the student textbook. Except in 1 of the 8 curricula, students typically do not receive exposure to nonstandard equation types that promote a relational understanding of the equal sign. An analysis of the accompanying teacher manual for each textbook suggests that students receive minimal instruction on relational definitions of the equal sign, with the majority of instruction occurring in grades K–2 and minimal instruction provided in grades 3–5. PMID:22707760

  15. EQUATIONS AND THE EQUAL SIGN IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS.

    PubMed

    Powell, Sarah R

    2012-06-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of standard and nonstandard equation types appearing within the student textbook. Except in 1 of the 8 curricula, students typically do not receive exposure to nonstandard equation types that promote a relational understanding of the equal sign. An analysis of the accompanying teacher manual for each textbook suggests that students receive minimal instruction on relational definitions of the equal sign, with the majority of instruction occurring in grades K-2 and minimal instruction provided in grades 3-5. PMID:22707760

  16. [Equality between men and women is a right].

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    Equality between men and women is one of the basic human rights. Investments in health, education, and family planning are the fundamental measures for promoting sexual equality. Promoting equality in turn is an investment in improving the health of women and children and the quality of human resources. By reducing pressure for large families, sexual equality creates conditions for faster economic growth. Women control most of the nonmonetary economy including subsistence agriculture, care of children, and domestic work, and they also play an important role in the monetary economy, although much of their work is unrecognized. The unfavorable condition of women limits their access to productive goods and social services. A strong inverse relationship exists between fertility and female education. More educated women have a greater probability of receiving prenatal care and of providing adequate care for their children. In many countries of Latin America, more than 20% of births are to adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies are often problematic, resulting in interrupted education, perpetuation of poverty, health complications, abortion, or even suicide. The problems of adolescent maternity are closely related to the inferior position of women. Education and family planning services are essential in breaking the vicious cycle. Access to employment for women contributes to reducing fertility, improves the position of women in the family, directly aids children, and reduces the woman's need to have many children for old age security. To establish conditions of equality between men and women, political actions must be taken to assure women equal social conditions and economic opportunities. Men must become more involved in family planning and in child care. The society as a whole must understand the social function of maternity. PMID:12179420

  17. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  18. Initial ensemble dependence of Jarzynski equality in the thermodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Euijin; Kim, Yong Woon; Yi, Juyeon

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the initial ensemble dependence of the Jarzynski relation for nonequilibrium work performed on a classical system in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that the Jarzynski equality holds also for a microcanonical ensemble only if the work process is quasi statically slow. If work is performed by a rapid perturbation, the average of exponentiated work expanded on a microcanonical system markedly deviates from the Jarzynski equality. Such deviation in fact quantifies the ratio of the energy distributions of nonequilibrium states in relative to equilibrium distribution. We exemplify these points in a simple model system both for the cases of deterministic and stochastic dynamics.

  19. Jarzynski equality in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-13

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT -symmetry. In the regime of broken PT -symmetry the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT -norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system – two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT -symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  20. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 90.168 Section 90.168 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile...

  1. Parallel-Processing Equalizers for Multi-Gbps Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew; Ghuman, Parminder; Hoy, Scott; Satorius, Edgar H.

    2004-01-01

    Architectures have been proposed for the design of frequency-domain least-mean-square complex equalizers that would be integral parts of parallel- processing digital receivers of multi-gigahertz radio signals and other quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) of data signals at rates of multiple gigabits per second. Equalizers as used here denotes receiver subsystems that compensate for distortions in the phase and frequency responses of the broad-band radio-frequency channels typically used to convey such signals. The proposed architectures are suitable for realization in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry and, in particular, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) application- specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at frequencies lower than modulation symbol rates. A digital receiver of the type to which the proposed architecture applies (see Figure 1) would include an analog-to-digital converter (A/D) operating at a rate, fs, of 4 samples per symbol period. To obtain the high speed necessary for sampling, the A/D and a 1:16 demultiplexer immediately following it would be constructed as GaAs integrated circuits. The parallel-processing circuitry downstream of the demultiplexer, including a demodulator followed by an equalizer, would operate at a rate of only fs/16 (in other words, at 1/4 of the symbol rate). The output from the equalizer would be four parallel streams of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) samples.

  2. The Constitutional Framework for Pursuing Equal Opportunities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malherbe, Rassie

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of equal learning opportunities is crucially important for the improvement of the quality of life of millions of people. The virtues of education in preparing learners for life, for meaningful interaction with other human beings, for constructive civic and political involvement, and for successful economic participation stand beyond…

  3. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  4. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  5. 76 FR 39233 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Equal Opportunity for Veterans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Programs, Department of Labor, 60-300.2 (p), 72 FR 44393.) B. Delete References to the VETS-100 Form... Federal Register at 75 FR 60249 on September 29, 2010, to implement DOL regulations on equal opportunity... interim rule amending 48 CFR parts 1, 22, and 52, which was published in the Federal Register at 75...

  6. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... civil service. The policy in 5 U.S.C. 7201(b) reads as follows: “It is the policy of the United States....” 5 U.S.C. 7201(c) requires under regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management:...

  7. 5 CFR 720.101 - Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment... civil service. The policy in 5 U.S.C. 7201(b) reads as follows: “It is the policy of the United States....” 5 U.S.C. 7201(c) requires under regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management:...

  8. Equality, Inclusion and Marketization of Nordic Education: Introductory Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a Nordic model of education is sometimes used to refer to the considerable similarities of education reforms and systems of the five Nordic countries (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) during the second half of the 20th century--reforms that aimed at social justice, equality and cohesion not least by providing…

  9. 43 CFR 27.5 - Equal opportunity terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equal opportunity terms. 27.5 Section 27.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, PUBLIC LAND ORDERS, AND OTHER FEDERAL AUTHORIZATIONS GRANTED OR ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 §...

  10. Organizing for Change: PEER's Guide to Campaigning for Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-McCormick, Lynda; And Others

    This manual is a workbook designed to prepare and help citizens' groups to campaign for equal education for children of both sexes in their communities' public elementary and secondary schools. The manual is divided into two major sections. Section I, "Planning Your Campaign," includes chapters on (1) goal setting; (2) analyzing the community,…

  11. Promoting equality by assessing discrimination in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burr, Steven A; Leung, Yee L

    2015-11-01

    How well do you understand your impact on the opportunities of others, and their impact on your opportunities? Do you reflect on the equality of your values and whether your behaviour could be improved? This article gives an overview of these issues for hospital doctors. PMID:26551494

  12. Equal Educational Opportunity, Constitutional Uniformity and the "Defunis" Remand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Arval A.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes competing definitions of equal educational opportunity and determines that some state courts are required to give affirmative content to the term, but the Fourteenth Amendment is interpreted only as a limitation on state action. Relates this discussion to the inconclusive history of Defunis v. Odegaard regarding racially conditioned law…

  13. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2001-06-01

    Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  14. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2003-09-01

    Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  15. Learning To Change. A WEA Equal Opportunities Training Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, London (England).

    This training pack contains materials to help embed the principles of equal opportunities into the practice of part-time tutors and voluntary members of the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), a national voluntary organization dedicated to giving adults in the United Kingdom access to organized learning. Part 1 describes the rationale for the…

  16. Promoting Disability Equality and Inclusive Learning in Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah; Posas, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 created a positive duty on the public sector to promote disability equality. This duty extends to higher education and local planning authorities. Based on Zuber-Skerrit's CRASP model for professional development, this paper examines an initiative to enact the duty. It details a completed action…

  17. Legal and Judicial Problems in Mandating Equal Time for Creationism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Gerald

    This paper, presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Biology Teachers, is focused on legal and judicial problems in mandating equal time for creationism. Past events provide evidence that legislation, policies, and local resolutions that require science textbooks and curricula to include the Genesis account of creation are…

  18. 78 FR 62339 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... opportunity. Whether sprinting across finish lines, leading innovation in business and government, or creating... hereby proclaim October 15, 2013, as Blind Americans Equality Day. I call upon public officials, business... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc....

  19. 24 CFR 81.101 - Equal employment opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 81... employment opportunity. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac shall comply with sections 1 and 2 of Executive Order 11478 (3 CFR, 1966-1970 Compilation, p. 803), as amended by Executive Order 12106, (3 CFR,...

  20. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  1. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  2. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  3. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  4. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Affirmative action...

  5. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative action and equal opportunity. 1316.2 Section 1316.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY GENERAL CONDITIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS FOR INCORPORATION IN CONTRACT DOCUMENTS OR ACTIONS Text of Conditions and Certifications §...

  6. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  7. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  8. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provisions: “Affirmative Action for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era” clause, 41 CFR 60-250.4; the “Affirmative Action for Handicapped Workers” clause, 41 CFR 60-741.4; and the “Equal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affirmative action...

  9. 24 CFR 578.93 - Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements set forth in 24 CFR 5.105(a) are applicable. (b) Housing for... federal nondiscrimination laws in 24 CFR 5.105 (e.g., the housing may be limited to homeless veterans... Persons with AIDS program under 24 CFR part 574 may be limited to persons with acquired...

  10. CALIFORNIA LAWS AND POLICIES RELATING TO EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA, BY LAW AND CUSTOM, HAS HISTORICALLY OPERATED ON THE DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY OF EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY. HOWEVER, PRIMARILY BECAUSE OF RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION, DE FACTO SEGREGATION DOES EXIST AND HAS BEEN CHALLENGED WITH THE LEGAL AUTHORITY AND MORAL LEADERSHIP OF THE STATE. THE CALIFORNIA EDUCATION CODE PROVIDES FOR THE…

  11. Discipline: Impact on Access to Equal Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert, Rika; de Waal, Elda; Rossouw, JP

    2004-01-01

    Complying with the founding values (human dignity, equality and freedom) of the South African Constitution is one of the most important challenges of creating and maintaining a safe, disciplined environment where effective teaching and learning can take place. All school principals, educators and school governing bodies--bearing in mind the…

  12. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Achieving Equality of Student Internet Access within Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward; Davidson, Ann Locke

    One benefit often expected to flow from Internet use in schools is an increase in equality of educational opportunity as all kinds of schools gain access to the same extraordinary set of resources and opportunities for interaction with the outside world. Yet, prior research suggests that patterns of technology access often mirror existing…

  14. The Meritocratic Conception of Educational Equality: Ideal Theory Run Amuck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The dominant conception of educational equality in the United States is meritocratic: an individual's chances of educational achievements should track only (natural) talent and effort, not social class or other morally irrelevant factors. The meritocratic conception must presuppose that natural talent and effort can be isolated from social…

  15. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  16. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  17. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  18. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified by race, sex and national origin (include for example Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program...

  19. District Power Equalization, Horizontal Equity and the Property Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, John

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the traditional district power equalization (DPE) grant formula achieves horizontal equity, that the formula must be modified when the measure of fiscal capacity differs from the legal tax base, and that the inclusion of a tax exporting variable leads to the breakdown of horizontal equity. (Author/IRT)

  20. Equal Employment Opportunity Regulation and Change in Compensation Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of equal employment opportunity regulation on the compensation practices of one organization over a three-year period. Female and minority employees who were employed at the time of the policy change received little benefit; newcomers experienced moderate benefit. (Author/IRT)

  1. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  2. Advancing Equality of Opportunity: A Matter of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia J., Ed.

    Papers include: public responsibility for equality and justice (Charles V. Hamilton); justice is the reversal of discrimination (Kenneth S. Tollett); the ramifications of Bakke and the destiny of affirmative action (Herbert O. Reid, Sr.); the justice of affirmative action (Kenneth A. Strike); legislative and administrative attacks on affirmative…

  3. Equality of Educational Opportunities at Public Primary Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of equality of educational opportunities across Argentina's public primary schools. The main finding is that there are inequalities between jurisdictions, but even greater inequalities within them, suggesting the existence of serious problems in the distribution of resources at the sub-national level. Following…

  4. Did School Finance Equalization Increase Revenue Instability for School Districts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balu, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    This study uses an Interrupted Time Series analysis with a non-equivalent comparison group to estimate the causal effect of school finance equalization on district revenue instability. The author applies a microeconomic framework to an understudied problem in education finance and policy. In so doing, she illustrates how policies can sometimes…

  5. 28 CFR 42.304 - Written equal employment opportunity program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Justice Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 28 CFR part 50, set out the appropriate... CFR 60-2.24(e). (h) Plan for dissemination of the applicant's Equal Employment Opportunity Program to... Compliance, U.S. Department of Labor, found at 41 CFR 60-2.21. (i) Designation of specified personnel...

  6. Equal Time for "Creation Science": A Freedom of Communication Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E.

    When the Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law that required public schools to give "equal time" to "creation science," an apparent contradiction was created because groups that traditionally supported the defense of civil liberties in general and freedom of expression in particular seemed to support a position designed to limit rather than…

  7. Equations and the Equal Sign in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2012-01-01

    To promote a relational understanding of the equal sign (=), students may require exposure to a variety of equation types (i.e., 3 = 8 - 5; 2 + 3 = 1 + 4; 9 - 3 = 6). The purpose of this study was to evaluate 8 elementary curricula for degree of exposure to equation types. Across 6 elementary grade levels, curricula were coded for the number of…

  8. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  9. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  10. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  11. The Myth of Social Equalization: Hispanics and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso-Edwards, Flora

    There is a popular and pervasive myth that higher education has been a potent social equalizer and great enfranchising vehicle for immigrants to the United States. Historic facts place the vast majority of yesterday's immigrants behind pushcarts or alongside mass production lines, waiting two or three generations before benefiting from the fruits…

  12. Equality, Quality and Quantity: The Elusive Triangle in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Since independence in 1947, India's educational goals have included expansion, improved quality, and equal opportunity. The author analyzes India's successes and failures in reaching these goals in the context of its limited economic resources, the traditional educational values of its people, and its traditionally stratified social system. (SJL)

  13. Social Justice, Equality and Inclusion in Scottish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Social justice, equality and inclusion are complex and inter-linked concepts and feature prominently in Scottish social policy rhetoric. This paper begins with an overview of the discourses surrounding these concepts and the ways in which they are used in Scottish education policy, which, in general, is founded on principles of universalism. The…

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-35 - Equal Opportunity for Veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... opportunity clause at 41 CFR 60-300.5(a), as of March 24, 2014. This clause prohibits discrimination against... Veterans. 52.222-35 Section 52.222-35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....222-35 Equal Opportunity for Veterans. As prescribed in 22.1310(a)(1), insert the following...

  15. Feminists and the Ideology and Practice of Marital Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisure, Karen R.; Allen, Katherine R.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty heterosexual married female and male feminists were interviewed and asked to describe the influence of feminism on their marriage. Couples reported practicing vigilance, which entails a critique of gender injustices, public acts of equality, support of wives' activities, reflective assessment, and emotional involvement. (JPS)

  16. The Equal Access Act: Policy and Regulations for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, H. Lawrence; Martin, James

    The Equal Access Act of 1984 was drafted to implement access for religious clubs to public secondary schools, but with constitutionally protected safeguards to preclude entanglement of church and state. A number of challenges were made on the constitutional grounds of excessive entanglement of church and state, as well as what the definition of…

  17. Equality and Education: The Role of Universities and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses equal education issues in Victoria, Australia, summarizing the expansion of secondary and higher education since the 1940s. Explores transition problems between school and university furthering social inequalities. Views educational structures from abundancy and scarcity perspectives, cautioning that limited resources will maintain the…

  18. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.321 Equal employment.... (b) EEO statement. Each licensee having 16 or more full-time employees shall file with the FCC, no... shall file with the FCC, no later than May 31st thereafter, a revised statement reflecting the...

  19. Locating, Recruiting, and Employing Women: An Equal Opportunity Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxley, Cecelia H.

    To aid employers in providing equal opportunities for women workers, this book describes working women today, their education and training, laws, regulations, and programs providing employment protection, and suggests ways of recruiting, employing, and working with women. An overview of women in the present workforce is presented--their…

  20. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... business is a corporate or other type of organization, and who is actively engaged in its management. iii... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-300.5 Section 60-300.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating...

  1. Different but Equal? Assessing European Dual HE Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    In higher education dual systems, graduates are qualified to apply for jobs in same professional fields along two separated educational routes. The research problem is whether the rival applicants for professional positions are treated equally in the labour market despite their different qualifications. From the graduates point of view, to be…

  2. Redefining Equality: Authoritarian Populism and the Conservative Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    This article examines equality in education within the context of two larger conflicts--the breakdown of the largely liberal consensus that guided much educational and social policy since World War II and the growth of the new right and conservative movements. (IAH)

  3. NC Families and Communities Equals Success (FACES): Six Months Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria E.; Campbell, Kimm; Honess, Karen; Gallagher, Natalie Gibbs; Thurber, Lori; Smitley, Andy

    This paper reports on clinical and school outcomes after 6 months of implementing the North Carolina FACES (Families and Communities Equals Success) mental health program. Of the 210 children and youth participating in the program evaluation, 42 percent were African American, more than three quarters were male, 55 percent of families had annual…

  4. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  5. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  6. Evaluating the Equal-Interval Hypothesis with Test Score Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingue, Benjamin Webre

    2012-01-01

    In psychometrics, it is difficult to verify that measurement instruments can be used to produce numeric values with the desirable property that differences between units are equal-interval because the attributes being measured are latent. The theory of additive conjoint measurement (e.g., Krantz, Luce, Suppes, & Tversky, 1971, ACM) guarantees…

  7. Gender Equality in SOCRATES. Final Report. SCRE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hamilton, Sheila

    SOCRATES is the European Community education action program. SOCRATES I began in 1995 and ended in 1999. SOCRATES II, begun in 2000, continues until December 31, 2006. This study sought to identify how both the principles and practices of equal opportunities between women and men were interpreted in a sample of 100 centralized and 113…

  8. 76 FR 40874 - Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended... recipients' employees understand their customer service role. Collection will occur during face-to-face... Forest Service Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record AGENCY: Forest...

  9. 24 CFR 200.30 - Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and equal opportunity. 200.30 Section 200.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  10. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  11. Education Reform in Latin America: Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the general developments and challenges of Latin American public education systems from the 1970s to the late 1990s. A framework using five stages of equal educational opportunity is used to organize the findings: (1) Enrollment--Involves the mechanisms needed to enroll children in school; (2) Quality--Great disparities in…

  12. State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Randall G.; Elrod, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Many states (18 of 39) use revenue generated by lotteries to help fund higher education. The revenue is generated as a regressive tax disproportionately collected. As such, do state lotteries contribute toward facilitation of equal access to higher education for low-income and minority citizens? Given population trends, college enrollment, and…

  13. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 50-GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF RELIGION OR NATIONAL ORIGIN § 60-50.2 Equal employment... applicants for employment because of religion or national origin, and must take affirmative action to insure... religion or national origin. Such action includes, but is not limited to the following:...

  14. Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Martha, Ed.; Shweder, Richard A., Ed.; Markus, Hazel Rose, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Educators and policymakers who share the goal of equal opportunity in schools often hold differing notions of what entails a just school in multicultural America. Some emphasize the importance of integration and uniform treatment for all, while others point to the benefits of honoring cultural diversity in ways that make minority students feel at…

  15. Equal Employment Opportunity Civil Suits: An Analysis of Their Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses pertinent aspects of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, Civil Service Commission and Air Force regulations, and judicial decisions and remedies that bear on the responsibilities and rights of the Air Force. Available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; sc $1.80.…

  16. The Construction of Motherhood: Tasks, Relational Connection, and Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Randi S.; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative analysis of 50 couples explored how gender equality is related to the construction of motherhood in their day-to-day interactions. Results identified two models of mothering: (a) mothering as a gendered talent and (b) mothering as conscious collaboration. The first model perpetuated gender inequality through a recursive…

  17. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Credit Rights in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this pamphlet describes the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. The act prohibits discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, and age when applying for a mortgage or home improvement loan. The…

  18. 75 FR 21155 - National Equal Pay Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 78 / Friday, April 23, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8502 of April 20, 2010 National Equal Pay Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America...

  19. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  20. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  2. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  3. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  6. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  7. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  8. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  9. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  10. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  11. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. 1620.15 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the...

  12. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs that require equal effort to perform. Where...

  13. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. 1620.17... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.17 Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance. (a) In general. The equal pay standard applies to jobs the performance of which requires equal...

  14. 29 CFR 1620.1 - Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. 1620.1 Section 1620.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.1 Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. (a) Since the Equal Pay Act, 29...

  15. Better to Be Equal? Challenges to Equality for Cognitively Able Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Social Decision Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Eva A.; Banerjee, Robin; Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Stockmann, Lex; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds questions about whether humans have an aversion to inequity and how a commitment to equality might play a role in cooperation and other aspects of social interactions. Examining the social decisions of children with autism spectrum disorders provides a fascinating opportunity to explore these issues. Specifically, we…

  16. Report on Wellesley Conference on Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity Policy in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Ronnie Steinberg

    After a brief discussion of conference background and structure, these proceedings identify and summarize equal pay and employment policy issues discussed at a four-day working conference of sixty-five people from twelve advanced industrialized countries. Focus is on progress to date and alternative strategies for implementing policies. Strategies…

  17. 76 FR 11246 - Public Availability of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) FY 2010 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Public Availability of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY...

  18. 77 FR 6563 - Public Availability of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) FY 2011 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Public Availability of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY...

  19. 78 FR 14091 - Public Availability of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) FY 2012 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Public Availability of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY...

  20. CONMAP - USGS MARINE MAPPING PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Escowitz, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has commenced a marine mapping program, CONMAP (the Continental Margin Maps), which is supported by, and dependent on, a foundation of digital data-bases. The goal of the program's first phase is to prepare a series of maps that completely cover the Exclusive Economic Zone. The maps will be prepared using an Albers' Conic Equal-Area Projection at a scale of 1:1,000,000. An initial product of CONMAP will be a series of base map panels portraying the topographic and bathymetric relief, political boundaries and key geographic locations. Additional maps will be prepared which portray other data types and analytical themes.

  1. Area scintillations of Bessel Gaussian and modified Bessel Gaussian beams of zeroth order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, H. T.

    2010-01-01

    As an extension of our previous study, the area scintillation aspects of Bessel Gaussian and modified Bessel Gaussian beams of zeroth order are investigated. The analysis is carried out on the basis of equal source sizes and equal source powers. It is found that, when compared on equal source size basis, modified Bessel Gaussian beams always have less area scintillations than a Gaussian beam, while Bessel Gaussian beams exhibit more area scintillations. Comparison on equal source power basis, however, removes the advantage of modified Bessel Gaussian beams, that is, their area scintillations become nearly the same as those of the Gaussian beam. On the other hand, for the case of equal source powers, Bessel Gaussian beams with larger width parameters continue to have higher area scintillations than the Gaussian beam. We provide graphical illustrations for profiles of equal source size beams, equal source power beams and the curves to aid the selection of equal source power beams.

  2. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  3. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money.

    PubMed

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-12-22

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (pay-offs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement. PMID:25355480

  4. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money

    PubMed Central

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (payoffs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement. PMID:25355480

  5. A successive overrelaxation iterative technique for an adaptive equalizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosovych, O. S.

    1973-01-01

    An adaptive strategy for the equalization of pulse-amplitude-modulated signals in the presence of intersymbol interference and additive noise is reported. The successive overrelaxation iterative technique is used as the algorithm for the iterative adjustment of the equalizer coefficents during a training period for the minimization of the mean square error. With 2-cyclic and nonnegative Jacobi matrices substantial improvement is demonstrated in the rate of convergence over the commonly used gradient techniques. The Jacobi theorems are also extended to nonpositive Jacobi matrices. Numerical examples strongly indicate that the improvements obtained for the special cases are possible for general channel characteristics. The technique is analytically demonstrated to decrease the mean square error at each iteration for a large range of parameter values for light or moderate intersymbol interference and for small intervals for general channels. Analytically, convergence of the relaxation algorithm was proven in a noisy environment and the coefficient variance was demonstrated to be bounded.

  6. Numerical Verification of a 2-D PSF Equalization Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Shane; Kankelborg, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Multi-Order Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (MOSES) forms images of the transition region at HE II 30.4 in three spectral orders. Subtle differences between these images encode line profile information. However, differences in instrument point-spread function (PSF) in the three orders lead to non-negligible systematic errors in the retrieval of the line profiles. We describe a technique for equalizing the PSFs, and provide numerical verification of the technique's validity.

  7. An Improved Periodogram Technique for 2-D PSF Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Shane; Kankelborg, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The Multi-Order Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (MOSES) forms images of the transition region at HE II 30.4 in three spectral orders. Subtle differences between these images encode line profile information. However, differences in instrument point-spread function (PSF) in the three orders lead to non-negligible systematic errors in the retrieval of the line profiles. We describe an improved periodogram technique for equalizing the PSFs, and provide numerical verification of the technique's validity.

  8. Lossless beam combiners for nearly equal laser frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubrich, D.; Dornseifer, M.; Wynands, R.

    2000-02-01

    We discuss three ways to combine two laser beams with equal linear polarizations and very closely spaced frequencies into a single output beam containing up to 100% of the input power of each beam. One setup, a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, is examined in detail; it allows to adjust the combined output power electronically with the help of a simple servo loop. With off-the-shelf optical components we obtained a 98% efficiency.

  9. Flood detection/monitoring using adjustable histogram equalization technique.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Fakhera; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul; Arif, Fahim

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique. PMID:24558332

  10. Grain refinement of aluminum using equal-channel angular pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Z.; Furukawa, M.; Nemoto, M.; Langdon, T.G.

    2000-07-01

    Using the technique of equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing, it is possible to reduce the grain size of polycrystalline materials to the submicrometer level. Thus, this processing technique has the potential for producing materials which may exhibit superplasticity. This paper describes various factors affecting the development and evolution of the microstructure produced by ECA pressing. Optimization of such factors is then presented for the advent of superplasticity.

  11. Flood Detection/Monitoring Using Adjustable Histogram Equalization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique. PMID:24558332

  12. A co-designed equalization, modulation, and coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peile, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The commercial impact and technical success of Trellis Coded Modulation seems to illustrate that, if Shannon's capacity is going to be neared, the modulation and coding of an analogue signal ought to be viewed as an integrated process. More recent work has focused on going beyond the gains obtained for Average White Gaussian Noise and has tried to combine the coding/modulation with adaptive equalization. The motive is to gain similar advances on less perfect or idealized channels.

  13. Recent Progress in Promoting Gender Equality for Japanese Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Setsuko; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka

    2009-04-01

    The last three years have been an epoch-making period in promoting gender equality in the Japanese science community. Motivated by recommendations we made on the basis of a large-scale survey, the Japanese government started several projects in 2006 for supporting women scientists and attracting girls to science and technology. In spite of these efforts, we see only very slow increase in the number of women researchers in professional positions.

  14. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  15. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  16. Islamic politics and women's quest for gender equality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa; Sadr, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutions-the majority of whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)-are able to oversee the elected authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regime's gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least in the case of Iran and Shi'ism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities') equality has more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles. PMID:20857567

  17. Time-domain digital pre-equalization for band-limited signals based on receiver-side adaptive equalizers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Chien, Hung-Chang

    2014-08-25

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate a time-domain digital pre-equalization (DPEQ) scheme for bandwidth-limited optical coherent communication systems, which is based on feedback of channel characteristics from the receiver-side blind and adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi- modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). Based on the proposed DPEQ scheme, we theoretically and experimentally study its performance in terms of various channel conditions as well as resolutions for channel estimation, such as filtering bandwidth, taps length, and OSNR. Using a high speed 64-GSa/s DAC in cooperation with the proposed DPEQ technique, we successfully synthesized band-limited 40-Gbaud signals in modulation formats of polarization-diversion multiplexed (PDM) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 8-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 16-QAM, and significant improvement in both back-to-back and transmission BER performances are also demonstrated. PMID:25321257

  18. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender…

  19. Equality of Medical Health Resource Allocation in China Based on the Gini Coefficient Method

    PubMed Central

    JIN, Jian; WANG, Jianxiang; MA, Xiaoyi; WANG, Yuding; LI, Renyong

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Chinese government is trying to achieve the goal of “universal access to basic health care services”. However, the inequality of the distribution of health care resources across the country is the biggest obstacle. This paper aims to explore these inequalities and the extent to which the method of analysis influences the perception. Methods: The indicators of health care resource distribution studied consisted of the number of health care institutions, the number of beds in health care institutions and the number of medical personnel. Data were obtained from the China Statistical Yearbook 2014. The extent of equality was assessed using the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient Method. Results: Health care resource distribution in China demonstrates inequalities. The demographic Gini Coefficients based on the Lorenz Curves for the distribution of health care institutions, beds in health care institutions and medical personnel are 0.190, 0.070 and 0.070 respectively, while the corresponding Coefficients based on geographical areas are 0.616, 0.639 and 0.650. Conclusion: The equality of China’s demographically assessed distribution of health care resources is greater than that of its geographically measured distribution. Coefficients expressed by population imply there is ready access to healthcare in all regions, whilst the Coefficients by geographical area apparently indicate inequality. This is the result of the sparsity of population. PMID:26056663

  20. Density equalized map projections: a method for analysing clustering around a fixed point.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J; Selvin, S; Merrill, D W

    1988-04-01

    Cases plotted on a geopolitical map entail difficulties in interpretation and analysis because of variable population density in the study area. Density equalized map projections (DEMPs) eliminate the distribution of the resident population as an interfering influence by transforming map area to be proportional to population. This paper discusses a transformation algorithm, its properties, and develops statistical methods to detect clustering of cases around a fixed point for data plotted on DEMPs. We suggest two numeric methods where exact solutions are too complicated or do not exist. Finally, we illustrate these methods using data from Denver and Jefferson counties in Colorado to investigate whether lung cancer and leukaemia incidence patterns are associated with plutonium exposure from the Rocky Flats plant site. PMID:3368676