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Sample records for albert einstein 1879-1955

  1. Albert Einstein 1879-1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)

  2. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany, described the photoelectric effect (for which he received the Nobel prize in 1921) and created the theory of special relativity in 1905 in his spare time, while an employee of the Swiss patent office. The theory of relativity was based on two hypotheses, that the laws of physics had to have the same form in any frame of reference and that the speed of ...

  3. Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...

  4. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  5. Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.

  6. Conversations With Albert Einstein. II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)

  7. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  8. Albert Einstein, Cosmos and Religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djokovic, V.; Grujic, P.

    2007-06-01

    We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect) and agnosticism (epistemological aspect). His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo-) Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects) and religious (intuitive aspects) thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics.

  9. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, João Gama; Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-10-27

    In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics.

  10. Albert Einstein - And the Frontiers of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    1997-11-01

    Albert Einstein did not impress his first teachers. They found him a dreamy child without an especially promising future. But some time in his early years he developed what he called "wonder" about the world. Later in life, he remembered two instances from his childhood--his fascination at age five with a compass and his introduction to the lucidity and certainty of geometry--that may have been the first signs of what was to come. From these ordinary beginnings, Einstein became one of the greatest scientific thinkers of all time. This illuminating biography describes in understandable language the experiments and revolutionary theories that flowed from Einstein's imagination and intellect--from his theory of relativity, which changed our conception of the universe and our place in it, to his search for a unified field theory that would explain all of the forces in the universe.

  11. New Information about Albert Einstein's Brain.

    PubMed

    Falk, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In order to glean information about hominin (or other) brains that no longer exist, details of external neuroanatomy that are reproduced on endocranial casts (endocasts) from fossilized braincases may be described and interpreted. Despite being, of necessity, speculative, such studies can be very informative when conducted in light of the literature on comparative neuroanatomy, paleontology, and functional imaging studies. Albert Einstein's brain no longer exists in an intact state, but there are photographs of it in various views. Applying techniques developed from paleoanthropology, previously unrecognized details of external neuroanatomy are identified on these photographs. This information should be of interest to paleoneurologists, comparative neuroanatomists, historians of science, and cognitive neuroscientists. The new identifications of cortical features should also be archived for future scholars who will have access to additional information from improved functional imaging technology. Meanwhile, to the extent possible, Einstein's cerebral cortex is investigated in light of available data about variation in human sulcal patterns. Although much of his cortical surface was unremarkable, regions in and near Einstein's primary somatosensory and motor cortices were unusual. It is possible that these atypical aspects of Einstein's cerebral cortex were related to the difficulty with which he acquired language, his preference for thinking in sensory impressions including visual images rather than words, and his early training on the violin.

  12. Albert Einstein and LD: An Evaluation of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Marlin

    2000-01-01

    This article refutes claims that Albert Einstein had a learning disability and argues the claim derives its force not from evidence but from belief that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment and from desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including exceptional individuals. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  13. Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, T.

    We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.

  14. Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)

  15. Albert Einstein and LD: an evaluation of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M

    2000-01-01

    Historical figures suspected of having learning disabilities are often subjected to retrospective diagnoses. One such figure is Albert Einstein. Several organizations that promote the interests of individuals with learning disabilities claim that Einstein had a learning disability. A review of biographical sources, however, provides little or no evidence to support this claim. The claim derives its force not from evidence but from a powerful belief--that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment--and from an equally powerful desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including within it exceptional individuals.

  16. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  17. Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, R.

    2013-04-01

    Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.

  18. Paul Ehrenfest, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein: Colleagues and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Martin J.

    2010-09-01

    In May 1918 Paul Ehrenfest received a monograph from Niels Bohr in which Bohr had used Ehrenfest's adiabatic principle as an essential assumption for understanding atomic structure. Ehrenfest responded by inviting Bohr, whom he had never met, to give a talk at a meeting in Leiden in late April 1919, which Bohr accepted; he lived with Ehrenfest, his mathematician wife Tatyana, and their young family for two weeks. Albert Einstein was unable to attend this meeting, but in October 1919 he visited his old friend Ehrenfest and his family in Leiden, where Ehrenfest told him how much he had enjoyed and profited from Bohr's visit. Einstein first met Bohr when Bohr gave a lecture in Berlin at the end of April 1920, and the two immediately proclaimed unbounded admiration for each other as physicists and as human beings. Ehrenfest hoped that he and they would meet at the Third Solvay Conference in Brussels in early April 1921, but his hope was unfulfilled. Einstein, the only physicist from Germany who was invited to it in this bitter postwar atmosphere, decided instead to accompany Chaim Weizmann on a trip to the United States to help raise money for the new Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Bohr became so overworked with the planning and construction of his new Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen that he could only draft the first part of his Solvay report and ask Ehrenfest to present it, which Ehrenfest agreed to do following the presentation of his own report. After recovering his strength, Bohr invited Ehrenfest to give a lecture in Copenhagen that fall, and Ehrenfest, battling his deep-seated self-doubts, spent three weeks in Copenhagen in December 1921 accompanied by his daughter Tanya and her future husband, the two Ehrenfests staying with the Bohrs in their apartment in Bohr's new Institute for Theoretical Physics. Immediately after leaving Copenhagen, Ehrenfest wrote to Einstein, telling him once again that Bohr was a prodigious physicist, and again

  19. Albert Einstein and his mentor Max Talmey. The seventh Charles B. Snyder Lecture.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G

    1997-01-01

    While he was a student at the Munich medical school, Max Talmey strongly influenced the education of Albert Einstein. Their association occurred during five years of Einstein's second decade. They lost contact for many years after each left Munich. Talmey emigrated to the United States and practiced medicine, mainly ophthalmology, in New York City. He made significant contributions to medicine, to the popularization of Einstein's work, and to the development of international languages. The relationship of Talmey and Einstein was rekindled when Einstein visited and later moved to the United States.

  20. Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne'eman, Yuval

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)

  1. Mistaken Identity and Mirror Images: Albert and Carl Einstein, Leiden and Berlin, Relativity and Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2012-06-01

    Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.

  2. [ISO 9002 at the Center of Pediatric Intensive Care at the Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital].

    PubMed

    Gé Lacerda, D P; Rocha, M L; Santos, R P

    2000-01-01

    This study shows the process of implementation of a quality program in Pediatric Intensive Therapy Center of "Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein" which resulted in the certification of this service for the Standards ISO 9002/94. It points out the nurse's role as a leader in this process.

  3. The Gendering of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie in Children's Biographies: Some Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rachel E.; Jarrard, Amber R.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Few twentieth century scientists have generated as much interest as Albert Einstein and Marie Currie. Their lives are centrally depicted in numerous children's biographies of famous scientists. Yet their stories reflect interesting paradoxes and tacit sets of unexplored sociocultural assumptions about gender in science education and the larger…

  4. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  5. Albert Einstein's Personal Papers: A Physics Teaching Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of using Einstein the man as a way of generating interest in the study of physics among students. Finds that it provides an instantly recognizable face for science, thus a gateway to the subject through the discussion of the man. (Author/CCM)

  6. Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Noreen; Akabas, Myles H; Betzler, Thomas F; Castaldi, Maria; Kelly, Mary S; Levy, Adam S; Reichgott, Michael J; Ruberman, Louise; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2016-01-01

    The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a 'holistic' approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four 'Admissions Competencies' that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1) cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2) communication skills; 3) personal and professional development; and 4) knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process.

  7. Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Noreen; Akabas, Myles H.; Betzler, Thomas F.; Castaldi, Maria; Kelly, Mary S.; Levy, Adam S.; Reichgott, Michael J.; Ruberman, Louise; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a ‘holistic’ approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four ‘Admissions Competencies’ that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1) cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2) communication skills; 3) personal and professional development; and 4) knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process. PMID:26847852

  8. The cerebral cortex of Albert Einstein: a description and preliminary analysis of unpublished photographs.

    PubMed

    Falk, Dean; Lepore, Frederick E; Noe, Adrianne

    2013-04-01

    Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein's brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein's entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein's sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein's brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein's brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein's parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein's brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein's brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci.

  9. Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994. Report To Accompany S. 2104. 103D Congress, 2d Session, Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    This document contains the text of the "Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994" (S. 2104) along with related analysis. The bill establishes a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that provides them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and…

  10. [Never forget this in making your drawings and equations! A conversation with Albert Einstein on learning, teaching and the secrets of the world].

    PubMed

    Brunner, A

    2009-03-01

    Albert Einstein, the genius--this aspect often has been noted. A neglected aspect is Einstein's role as student and teacher. For this reason, Einstein's notes have been looked at once again. The selected original quotes are composed into the format of a fictive dialogue. The original context and coherence of his comments have thereby been respected carefully.

  11. Albert Einstein and Wernher von Braun - the two great German-American physicists seen in a historical perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-04-01

    It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.

  12. Bridging the knowledge gap: An analysis of Albert Einstein's popularized presentation of the equivalence of mass and energy.

    PubMed

    Kapon, Shulamit

    2014-11-01

    This article presents an analysis of a scientific article written by Albert Einstein in 1946 for the general public that explains the equivalence of mass and energy and discusses the implications of this principle. It is argued that an intelligent popularization of many advanced ideas in physics requires more than the simple elimination of mathematical formalisms and complicated scientific conceptions. Rather, it is shown that Einstein developed an alternative argument for the general public that bypasses the core of the formal derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy to provide a sense of derivation based on the history of science and the nature of scientific inquiry. This alternative argument is supported and enhanced by variety of explanatory devices orchestrated to coherently support and promote the reader's understanding. The discussion centers on comparisons to other scientific expositions written by Einstein for the general public.

  13. Annotations to D.B. Herrmann's contribution ``On Albert Einstein's political views'' (German Title: Anmerkungen zu D.B. Herrmanns Beitrag ``Über Albert Einsteins politische Ansichten'')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    Referring to the Straus-Herrmann correspondence, we deal only with one aspect of the ``political Einstein'': his attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin (who were in the past sometimes called the ``classics of Marxism-Leninism''). Einstein revered Marx, but condemned Stalin as a criminal. He also resisted attempts to be misused by representatives of ``dialectic materialism''.

  14. Interprofessional student education: exchange program between Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Pacific College of Oriental Medicine.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Belinda J; Herron, Patrick D; Downie, Sherry A; Myers, Daniel C; Milan, Felise B; Olson, Todd R; Kligler, Ben E; Sierpina, Victor S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), of which estimated 38% of adults in the United States used in 2007, has engendered changes in medical school curricula to increase students' awareness of it. Exchange programs between conventional medical schools and CAM institutions are recognized as an effective method of interprofessional education. The exchange program between Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein, Yeshiva University) and Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY) is in its fifth year and is part of a broader relationship between the schools encompassing research, clinical training, interinstitutional faculty and board appointments, and several educational activities. The Einstein/PCOM-NY student education exchange program is part of the Einstein Introduction to Clinical Medicine Program and involves students from Einstein learning about Chinese medicine through a lecture, the experience of having acupuncture, and a four-hour preceptorship at the PCOM outpatient clinic. The students from PCOM learn about allopathic medicine training through an orientation lecture, a two-and-a-half-hour dissection laboratory session along side Einstein student hosts, and a tour of the clinical skills center at the Einstein campus. In the 2011/2012 offering of the exchange program, the participating Einstein and PCOM students were surveyed to assess the educational outcomes. The data indicate that the exchange program was highly valued by all students and provided a unique learning experience. Survey responses from the Einstein students indicated the need for greater emphasis on referral information, which has been highlighted in the literature as an important medical curriculum integrative medicine competency.

  15. What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.

    2009-01-01

    Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in…

  16. BOOK REVIEW: The Legacy of Albert Einstein: A Collection of Essays in Celebration of the Year of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-10-01

    During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924 1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916 1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c—also for spontaneous emission—in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work—general relativity—there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable

  17. Niels Bohr's discussions with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schroedinger: the origins of the principles of uncertainty and complementarity

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, J.

    1987-05-01

    In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schroedinger during 1920-1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925-1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory - formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan - Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in September 1927 and at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels the following month, Bohr publicly enunciated his complementarity principle, which had been developing in his mind for several years. The Bohr-Einstein discussions about the consistency and completeness of quantum mechanics and of physical theory as such - formally begun in October 1927 at the fifth Solvay Conference and carried on at the sixth Solvay Conference in October 1930 - were continued during the next decades. All these aspects are briefly summarized.

  18. The Creative Power of Formal Analogies in Physics: The Case of Albert Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In order to show how formal analogies between different physical systems play an important conceptual work in physics, this paper analyzes the evolution of Einstein's thoughts on the structure of radiation from the point of view of the formal analogies he used as "lenses" to "see" through the "black box" of Planck's…

  19. The Creative Power of Formal Analogies in Physics: The Case of Albert Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, Yves

    2015-07-01

    In order to show how formal analogies between different physical systems play an important conceptual work in physics, this paper analyzes the evolution of Einstein's thoughts on the structure of radiation from the point of view of the formal analogies he used as "lenses" to "see" through the "black box" of Planck's blackbody radiation law. A comparison is also made with his 1925 paper on the quantum gas where he used the same formal methods. Changes of formal points of view are most of the time taken for granted or passed over in silence in studies on the mathematization of physics as if they had no special significance. Revisiting Einstein's classic papers on the nature of light and matter from the angle of the various theoretical tools he used, namely entropy and energy fluctuation calculations, helps explain why he was in a unique position to make visible the particle structure of radiation and the dual (particle and wave) nature of light and matter. Finally, this case study calls attention to the more general question of the surprising creative power of formal analogies and their frequent use in theoretical physics. This aspect of intellectual creation can be useful in the teaching of physics.

  20. Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2007-04-01

    In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst observed that the new quantum theory might both clarify unresolved problems in the specific heats of gases and shed new light on quantum theory itself. He noted that measurements of the specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures might be particularly informative. Arnold Euken, working in Nernst's laboratory in Berlin, published the first measurements in 1912. They showed a sharp drop, corresponding to the rotational degrees of freedom ``freezing out.'' Nernst also developed a theory in his 1911 paper, in which, remarkably, rotational energies were not quantized. Instead, the specific heat fell off because the gas was in equilibrium with quantized Planck oscillators. Nernst's theory was flawed But Einstein adopted an improved version at the 1911 Solvay Conference, and in 1913, he and Otto Stern published a more detailed treatment, in which they suggested tentatively that Planck's recently introduced zero-point energy might reduce or even eliminate the need to quantize physical systems. This episode points out just how mysterious quantum phenomena seemed early in the 20th century.

  1. A review of the contributions of Albert Einstein to earth sciences--in commemoration of the World Year of Physics.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.

  2. Niels Bohr's discussions with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger: The origins of the principles of uncertainty and complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Jagdish

    1987-05-01

    In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger during 1920 1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925 1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory—formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan—Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in September 1927 and at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels the following month, Bohr publicly enunciated his complementarity principle, which had been developing in his mind for several years. The Bohr-Einstein discussions about the consistency and completeness of qnautum mechanics and of physical theory as such—formally begun in October 1927 at the fifth Solvay Conference and carried on at the sixth Solvay Conference in October 1930—were continued during the next decades. All these aspects are briefly summarized.

  3. The Gift of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur I.

    1998-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the early years of the great polymath Henri Poincare (1854-1912) and the icon of 20th-century science, Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Similarities and dissimilarities are discussed in how both men related to their educational systems, and lessons are drawn for identification and support of gifted children. (CR)

  4. The controversy between Alexander Friedmann and Albert Einstein about the possibility of a non-static world (German Title: Die Kontroverse zwischen Alexander Friedmann und Albert Einstein um die Möglichkeit einer nichtstatischen Welt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Georg

    Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.

  5. August Kopff, the theory of relativity and two letters from Albert Einstein to Kopff in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. (German Title: August Kopff, die Relativitätstheorie, und zwei Briefe Albert Einsteins an Kopff im Archiv des Astronomischen Rechen-Instituts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    August Kopff (1882-1960) was one of the most eminent German astronomers of his time with a high international reputation. He started his career at the Heidelberg Observatory. In addition to carrying out observations he worked on the theory of relativity. From 1919 to 1924 he gave lectures on special and general relativity at the University of Heidelberg. In 1921 and 1923 he published a scientific textbook on the theory of relativity, which was also translated into English, Italian and Russian. He also wrote many related journal articles. In 1922 he was a member of a solar-eclipse expedition for measuring the light deflection by the Sun. In 1928, a large textbook article by him on relativity theory was published. From 1924 to 1954 Kopff was director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, first at Berlin and since 1945 in Heidelberg. There he worked mainly on astrometry, especially on the fundamental catalogues FK3 and FK4. From 1947 to 1950 Kopff was also director of the observatory in Heidelberg. An exchange of letters between Kopff and Einstein from the year 1930 is documented in the Albert Einstein Archives. Two original letters by Einstein survived in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. We edit here this correspondence, which concerns the dynamical evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the planetary system due to tidal friction.

  6. Albert's Alphabet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ann R.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how she introduced a lesson called Albert's Alphabet to her kindergarten students. This lesson introduces the design thinking process to kindergartners in a developmentally appropriate way. She began the lesson by reading Leslie Tyron's book "Albert's Alphabet," which tells the story of Albert Goose,…

  7. When Art Meets Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…

  8. Retrospective study evaluating dose standards for infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheinberg, Morton; Goldenberg, José; Feldman, Daniel P; Nóbrega, João Luiz

    2008-08-01

    We determined, in our surrounding environment, the proportion of patients being treated with infliximab who required a therapeutic scheme escalation (an infliximab dose increase surpassing the level of 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks and/or a decrease on the current between infusions' interval). This was a study of the retrospective analysis of data from the 41 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving an infliximab therapy at the Albert Einstein Israelita Hospital, from January 2001 up to December 2005. A questionnaire was applied to these patients, assessing their clinical and laboratory data, adverse events, and individual information regarding the infliximab administration. Therapeutic dose information was available in 68% (28/41) of the RA patients, with 46% of these (13/28) receiving a dose increase, and 30% (8/27) experiencing a shortening of the between infusions' interval. The average final infliximab dose (4.21 mg/kg) was significantly greater than their average initial dose (3.29 mg/kg). The average time intervals between the initial and final infusions, though shortened, were not significantly different. A proportion of 73% (30/41) of these patients demonstrated improvement in at least one of the assessed clinical parameters, and 50% of these patients (15/30) experienced a dose increase, while 20% (6/30) experienced shortening of the between treatments' interval. A total of 20% (8/41) of the original patients experienced adverse events. Although infliximab is effective in the control of RA, dose adjustment and/or shortening of the between treatments' interval is frequently required.

  9. [Two traditions in the scientific learning of the world. A case study of creation and reception of quantum mechanics over the period 1925-1927, on the bases of discussion between Werner Heisenberg and Albert Einstein].

    PubMed

    Krajniak, Wiktor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the analyses of discussion between Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg in the period 1925-1927. Their disputes, relating to the sources of scientific knowledge, its methods and the value of knowledge acquired in this way, are part of the characteristic for the European science discourse between rationalism and empirism. On the basis of some sources and literature on the subject, the epistemological positions of both scholars in the period were reconstructed. This episode, yet poorly known, is a unique example of scientific disputes, whose range covers a broad spectrum of methodological problems associated with the historical development of science. The conducted analysis sheds some light on the source of popularity of logical empirism in the first half of the 20th century. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the neopositivist ideas which reflect Heisenberg's research program, being the starting point for the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The main assumption of logical empirism, concerning acquisition of scientific knowledge only by means of empirical procedures and logical analysis of the language of science, in view of the voiced by Einstein arguments, bears little relationship with actual testing practices in the historical aspect of the development of science. The criticism of Heisenberg's program, carried out by Einstein, provided arguments for the main critics of the neopositivist ideal and contributed to the bankruptcy of the idea of logical empirism, thereby starting a period of critical rationalism prosperity, arising from criticism of neopositivism and alluding to Einstein's ideas.

  10. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the international meeting on 'New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' (Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam, Germany, 17 21 July 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, M.; Rezzolla, L.

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, frontiers represent a treacherous terrain to venture into, where hidden obstacles are present and uncharted territories lie ahead. At the same time, frontiers are also a place where new perspectives can be appreciated and have often been the cradle of new and thriving developments. With this in mind and inspired by this spirit, the Numerical Relativity Group at the Albert Einstein Institute (AEI) organized a `New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' meeting on 17 21 July 2006 at the AEI campus in Potsdam, Germany. It is an interesting historical remark that the suggestion of the meeting was first made in the late summer of 2005 and thus at a time that for many reasons has been a turning point in the recent history of numerical relativity. A few months earlier (April 2005) in fact, F Pretorius had announced the first multi-orbit simulations of binary black holes and computed the waveforms from the inspiral, merger and ring-down (`Numerical Relativity', Banff International Research Station, Banff, Canada, 16 21 April 2005). At that time, the work of Pretorius served as an important boost to the research in this field and although no other group has yet adopted the techniques he employed, his results provided the numerical relativity community with clear evidence that the binary black hole problem could be solved. A few months later (November 2005), equally striking results were presented by the NASA Goddard and Texas/Brownsville groups, who also reported, independently, multi-orbit evolutions of binary black holes using numerical techniques and formulations of the Einstein equations which were markedly distinct from those suggested by Pretorius (`Numerical Relativity 2005', Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD, USA, 2 4 November 2005). A few months later other groups were able to repeat the same simulations and obtain equivalent results, testifying that the community as a whole had reached comparable levels of maturity in both the numerical

  11. Einstein as Evaluator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulley, Darrel N.

    1982-01-01

    Like any other person, Albert Einstein was an informal evaluator, engaged in placing value on various aspects of his life, work, and the world. Based on Einstein's own statements, this paper speculates about what Einstein would have been like as a connoisseur evaluator, a conceptual evaluator, or a responsive evaluator. (Author/BW)

  12. Einstein Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    A brief description on the work and life of the great physicist scientist Albert Einstein is presented. The photoelectric paper written by him in 1905 led him to the study of fluctuations in the energy density of radiation and from there to the incomplete nature of the equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, which failed to account for…

  13. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  14. Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The texts of four speeches, given at the 1979 Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy held in Rome, are presented. Each address relates to some aspect of the life and times of Albert Einstein. (SA)

  15. Einstein Up in Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  16. Einstein, Picasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arthur I.

    2004-11-01

    How the 20th century’s most important scientist—Albert Einstein—and its most important artist—Pablo Picasso—made their greatest discoveries at almost the same time is a remarkable story: Einstein's relativity theory in 1905 and Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon two years later. A scientist and an artist confronted the same problem—the nature of time and simultaneity—and resolved it after realizing a new aesthetic. At the nascent moment of creativity boundaries dissolve between disciplines. This article explores the similarities in the early work of two of the greatest icons of Art and Science of the last century.

  17. Examining the Enigmatic Einstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…

  18. From Newton to Einstein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)

  19. Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodle, Walter S.

    1985-01-01

    The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)

  20. General Motors sued for 'denigrating' Einstein's image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The US car giant General Motors (GM) has played down the consequences of a lawsuit against it for using the likeness of Albert Einstein in an advertisement for its Terrain sports utility vehicle (SUV).

  1. Albert Nawahi Like

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimoto, Warren

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Albert Nawahi Like, Hawai'i Department of Education teacher from 1927 to 1965. Albert Nawahi Like was born 1900 in Honolulu's Chinatown. When Like was eight years old, his family moved to Kalihi. After the death in 1912 of his father, Edward Like, who was editor of the Hawaiian-language newspaper "Ke…

  2. Einstein and Millikan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Charlotte

    2005-03-01

    Albert Einstein traveled to America by boat during the great depression to consult with scientists at the California Institute of Technology. He was a theoretical physicist, a Nobel Prize winner, and a 20th century folk hero. Few members of the general public understood his theories, but they idolized him all the same. The invitation came from physicist Robert Millikan, who had initiated a visiting-scholars program at Caltech shortly after he became head of the school in 1921. Einstein's visits to the campus in 1931, 1932, and 1933 capped Millikan's campaign to make Caltech one of the physics capitals of the world. Mount Wilson astronomer Edwin Hubble's discovery that redshifts are proportional to their distances from the observer challenged Einstein's cosmological picture of a static universe. The big question at Caltech in 1931 was whether Einstein would give up his cosmological constant and accept the idea of an expanding universe. By day, Einstein discussed his theory and its interpretation at length with Richard Tolman, Hubble, and the other scientists on the campus. By night, Einstein filled his travel diary with his personal impressions. During his third visit, Einstein sidestepped as long as possible the question of whether conditions in Germany might prevent his return there. After the January 30 announcement that Hitler had become chancellor of Germany, the question could no longer be evaded. He postponed his return trip for a few weeks and then went to Belgium for several months instead of to Berlin. In the fall of 1933, Albert Einstein returned to the United States as an emigre and became a charter member of Abraham Flexner's new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Why did Einstein go to Princeton and not Pasadena?

  3. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  4. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  5. From the Classroom to Washington: Einsteins on Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kent H., Ed.; Byers, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was delighted to host a group of current and former Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as they celebrated the 20th anniversary of the fellowship program. Outstanding math and science teachers in America's K-12 schools, the Einstein Fellows spend a year (or sometimes two) working on…

  6. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign.

  7. Albert Behnke: nitrogen narcosis.

    PubMed

    Grover, Casey A; Grover, David H

    2014-02-01

    As early as 1826, divers diving to great depths noted that descent often resulted in a phenomenon of intoxication and euphoria. In 1935, Albert Behnke discovered nitrogen as the cause of this clinical syndrome, a condition now known as nitrogen narcosis. Nitrogen narcosis consists of the development of euphoria, a false sense of security, and impaired judgment upon underwater descent using compressed air below 3-4 atmospheres (99 to 132 feet). At greater depths, symptoms can progress to loss of consciousness. The syndrome remains relatively unchanged in modern diving when compressed air is used. Behnke's use of non-nitrogen-containing gas mixtures subsequent to his discovery during the 1939 rescue of the wrecked submarine USS Squalus pioneered the use of non-nitrogen-containing gas mixtures, which are used by modern divers when working at great depth to avoid the effects of nitrogen narcosis.

  8. Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive…

  9. [Albert Bandura and his work].

    PubMed

    Guerrin, Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    The Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1925) author of the concept of self-efficacy is still not much known of nurses. This article offers an outline of his biography and his work. Theories of Albert Bandura provide a positive, dynamic relationship with the agentivity human control over events that affect their existence. The concept of vicarious learning, self-efficacy and agency can enrich nursing research.

  10. Multiple Intelligences and the Artistic Imagination: A Case Study of Einstein and Picasso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Clair T.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that Albert Einstein and Pablo Picasso possessed similar artistic thought processes, maintaining that their influential discoveries (relativity theory and cubist painting), which launched 20th-century modernism, were amazingly similar in concept. (SR)

  11. Rediscovering Einstein's legacy: How Einstein anticipates Kuhn and Feyerabend on the nature of science.

    PubMed

    Oberheim, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend promote incommensurability as a central component of their conflicting accounts of the nature of science. This paper argues that in so doing, they both develop Albert Einstein's views, albeit in different directions. Einstein describes scientific revolutions as conceptual replacements, not mere revisions, endorsing 'Kant-on-wheels' metaphysics in light of 'world change'. Einstein emphasizes underdetermination of theory by evidence, rational disagreement in theory choice, and the non-neutrality of empirical evidence. Einstein even uses the term 'incommensurable' specifically to apply to challenges posed to comparatively evaluating scientific theories in 1949, more than a decade before Kuhn and Feyerabend. This analysis shows how Einstein anticipates substantial components of Kuhn and Feyerabend's views, and suggests that there are strong reasons to suspect that Kuhn and Feyerabend were directly inspired by Einstein's use of the term 'incommensurable', as well as his more general methodological and philosophical reflections.

  12. Sylvanus Albert Reed Award: Eastman N. Jacobs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1937-01-01

    Sylvanus Albert Reed Award - Eastman N. Jacobs: In 1937, Eastman N. Jacobs, one of Langley's most adventurous researchers, received the Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for his contributions to the aerodynamic improvement of airfoils.

  13. How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.

  14. A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Carol C.

    This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role

  15. Einstein on Race and Racism, presented by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger

    2007-10-01

    It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''

  16. Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.

  17. Tribute: Remembering Albert Greve (1938-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jaap

    2012-02-01

    With the sudden death of Albert Greve on 13 June 2011, caused by a massive heart attack, the radio astronomy community lost a remarkable member, and many of us a very good friend. The career of Albert was characterized by a broad array of activities, all performed at a high level of professionalism and an enduring wit.

  18. Celebrating Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.

  19. Beyond Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne; White, Nicholas; Wanjek, Christopher

    2005-10-01

    NASA plans a scientific journey to answer three pressing questions raised yet unanswered by Einstein's theories: What is dark energy? What happens at the edge of a black hole? What powered the Big Bang?

  20. Peripatetic Highlights in Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Ann M.

    The capital city of the Swiss Canton of Bern and of the Swiss Confederation is nestled in a narrow loop of the Aare river, at the foot of the Alps. The old town, founded around 1191, is well preserved despite a devastating fire in 1405.** Major industries of the region developed under the constraints of modest domestic markets, high transportation costs, and protectionist legislation across national borders. Switzerland thus found its niche in higher-end markets, such as chocolate making, engine building, instruments, fine textiles, and chemicals or pharmaceuticals. My tour past historically significant scientific sites in Bern will use the local legacy of its most illustrious residents, Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who lived there from 1902-1909, and Fritz Houtermans (1903-1966), who lived there from 1952-1966, as its guiding thread through the old town and the university district. Place names in italics mark stops along the tour.

  1. Centenarian Einstein

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)

  2. Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rife, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).

  3. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2010-06-18

    Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.

  4. Correcting the record on Watson, Rayner, and Little Albert: Albert Barger as "psychology's lost boy".

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell A; Digdon, Nancy; Harris, Ben; Smithson, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    In 1920, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner attempted to condition a phobia in a young infant named "Albert B." In 2009, Beck, Levinson, and Irons proposed that Little Albert, as he is now known, was actually an infant named Douglas Merritte. More recently, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) claimed that Little Albert (Douglas) was neurologically impaired at the time of the experiment. They also alleged that Watson, in a severe breach of ethics, probably knew of Little Albert's condition when selecting him for the study and then fraudulently hid this fact in his published accounts of the case. In this article, we present the discovery of another individual, Albert Barger, who appears to match the characteristics of Little Albert better than Douglas Merritte does. We examine the evidence for Albert Barger as having been Little Albert and, where relevant, contrast it with the evidence for Douglas Merritte. As for the allegations of fraudulent activity by Watson, we offer comments at the end of this article. We also present evidence concerning whether Little Albert (Albert Barger) grew up with the fear of furry animals, as Watson and Rayner speculated he might.

  5. Einstein, Mach, and the Fortunes of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, David

    2005-04-01

    Early in his life, Albert Einstein considered himself a devoted student of the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. Mach's famous critiques of Newton's absolute space and time -- most notably Mach's explanation of Newton's bucket experiment -- held a strong sway over Einstein as he struggled to formulate general relativity. Einstein was convinced that his emerging theory of gravity should be consistent with Mach's principle, which states that local inertial effects arise due to gravitational interactions with distant matter. Once completed, Einstein's general relativity enjoyed two decades of worldwide attention, only to fall out of physicists' interest during the 1930s and 1940s, when topics like nuclear physics claimed center stage. Gravity began to return to the limelight during the 1950s and especially the 1960s, and once again Mach proved to be a major spur: Princeton physicists Carl Brans and Robert Dicke introduced a rival theory of gravity in 1961 which they argued satisfied Mach's principle better than Einstein's general relativity did. The Brans-Dicke theory, and the new generation of experiments designed to test its predictions against those of general relativity, played a major role in bringing Einstein's beloved topic back to the center of physics.

  6. Einstein's meanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2007-05-01

    What does Einstein have to do with subduction? Good question. Peaceful Lake Budi, lying at the heart of an Indian reservation in the Deep South of Chile, had subsided by two meters in the 1960 mega-thrust earthquake. This unique South American salt lake was hiding an awful secret: it was actually an oxbow, not a lake. But Einstein had realized in 1926 that meanders are natural freaks. Rivers will not flow uphill, yet - he claimed - they don't flow down the path of steepest descent either. This anomaly was put at the doorstep of a weak Coriolis Force. Thus Einstein problematized the dilemma of the earth sciences. How can a non-force produce margin-parallel compression in a convergent margin where extension is expected? In fact, where does the energy for meander formation come from? Good question . . . Even Wikipedia knows that Coriolis is not a “force” but an “effect”. So is the obliquity of plate convergence in subduction. Where did Einstein err, and where was he a pioneer? Coastal ablation plus alternating subsidence and emergence in giant earthquakes may yield an answer. Einstein, A. (1926). Die Ursache der Maeanderbildung der Flusslaeufe und das sogenannte Baersche Gesetz, Naturwissenschaften, 14, fascicle II.

  7. Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2015-09-01

    We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.

  8. Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.

    2005-12-01

    Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors

  9. Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on theWorld

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.

    2005-07-30

    The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).

  10. Wer entdeckte die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie? Prioritätsstreit zwischen Hilbert und Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Klaus P.

    2005-09-01

    Im November 1915 arbeiteten Albert Einstein und David Hilbert an den Feldgleichungen der Gravitationstheorie. Im Jahre 1997 behaupteten die Wissenschaftshistoriker Corry, Renn und Stachel in einer viel beachteten Arbeit, Hilbert habe die entscheidenden Formeln von Einstein gestohlen. Grundlage ihrer Argumentation war eine wieder gefundene Korrekturfahne von Hilberts entscheidender Arbeit. Die Physikhistorikerin Daniela Wuensch bringt jedoch detaillierte Argumente dafür vor, dass die entscheidende Quelle, nämlich die Korrekturfahne, in neuerer Zeit manipuliert worden ist, um Einsteins Priorität unangetastet zu lassen. Einstein bleibt aber der Entdecker der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie.

  11. Einstein's Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  12. Einstein's Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-10-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.

  13. Beyond Einstein

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Joel Primack

    2007-10-08

    The National Academy of Sciences was commissioned in 2006 to report on how to restart the Beyond Einstein program, which includes missions to understand dark energy, test general relativity, and observe gravity waves from merging supermassive black holes. This colloquium by one of the members of the recently released Academy study will explain the research strategy that the report proposes and its implications for continued U.S. participation in the exploration of the universe.

  14. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  15. Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschkowski, H.

    Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.

  16. Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, Roger H.

    2005-05-01

    The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.

  17. Einstein unmasked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This is a remarkable and, at times, bewilderingly diverse volume. Consisting of 20 essays that represent the proceedings of a conference held in 2005 in Berlin, Germany, during the International Year of Physics, it offers insights into Einstein's influence on a swathe of human activity. In the introduction the distinguished editors make some remarkable claims for the book, calling it "an unique attempt" and saying that "there is no better introduction to...string theory", while the first essay states "Not since Newton's Principia..." Clearly this is a volume that aspires to high standards.

  18. Gravity Probe B: Examining Einstein's Spacetime with Gyroscopes. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer

    This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3)…

  19. Going to School with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: Gender Roles in Children's Science Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this…

  20. 76 FR 11789 - Albert Poet: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... of TRI- Toxin, a Botulinum Toxin Type A drug manufactured by Toxin Research International, Inc. TRI... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Albert Poet: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order...

  1. Albert Shanker's Legacy: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois

    Albert Shanker headed the American Federation of Teachers for 22 years and was president of the New York City teachers union. Both organizations were transformed by his presence. Shanker altered the politics of education and teacher unionism. During his tenure, American political life encountered the birth of social movements challenging the…

  2. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  3. Einstein's Annalen Papers: The Complete Collection 1901 - 1922

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2005-05-01

    In 1905, Einstein's Annus Mirabilis, Albert Einstein made three discoveries concerning the foundations of nature which form the basis of his fame as a physicist. These revolutionary papers on the light-quantum hypothesis, Brownian motion, and special relativity, were published in the journal "Annalen der Physik". All three are now established as pillars of modern science and its applications in technology and are an indispensable part of the modern world. This volume presents some of the most significant original papers which Albert Einstein ever wrote. It includes the facsimiles of the three revolutionary papers of 1905. In addition it contains papers which show the consequences of the ground-breaking ideas of these seminal papers from E=mc² to the quantum theory of specific heats. It also features Einstein's first exposition of his new general theory of relativity. Introducing the original German papers the science historians Jürgen Renn (MPI for the History of Science, Berlin), David C. Cassidy (Hofstra University, Hempstead), Michel Janssen (University of Minnesota), and Robert Rynasiewicz (John Hopkins University) complement and comment the collection with topical articles.

  4. Cerebral cortex astroglia and the brain of a genius: A propos of A. Einstein's

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Jorge A.; Reisin, Hernán D.; Miguel-Hidalgo, José J.; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astroglial layout of the cerebral cortex from Albert Einstein and other four age-matched human cases lacking any known neurological disease was analyzed using quantification of geometrical features mathematically defined. Several parameters (parallelism, relative depth, tortuosity) describing the primate-specific interlaminar glial processes did not show individually distinctive characteristics in any of the samples analyzed. However, A. Einstein's astrocytic processes showed larger sizes and higher numbers of interlaminar terminal masses, reaching sizes of 15 μm in diameter. These bulbous endings are of unknown significance and they have been described occurring in Alzheimer's disease. These observations are placed in the context of the general discussion regarding the proposal – by other authors – that structural, postmortem characteristics of the aged brain of Albert Einstein may serve as markers of his cognitive performance, a proposal to which the authors of this paper do not subscribe, and argue against. PMID:16675021

  5. El destino del asteroide Albert (719)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; Melita, M. D.; Brunini, A.

    Albert is the only numbered asteroid that remains lost at present. This object has been discovered while it was making a close apporach to the Earth by Johann Palisa in the Imperial Observatory of Vienna. According to the standard procedure of the time, a number was assigned to it shortly after a preliminar orbit has been obtained and it was named after a great benefactor of Imperial Observatory, Baron Albert von Rothschild. In this work we analyze why this body could not be recovered in its subsequent approaches to the Earth. Basicaly the cause of the loss can be summarized as follows. Given the high absolute magnitude of the object it can only be observed when it is close to the Earth. But naturally, at the close approches, the uncertanty in the position in the celestial sphere is the greatest due to a parallax effect. We have estimated the uncertanty in R.A. and declination by the non-linear propagation of the initial obervational uncertanty. We have determined that, when the aparent magnitude was low enough to observe the object with the instruments available at the time, the uncertainty region exceeded noticeably the region where it was searched. Regarding its possible recovery at present, the uncertainty in its position practicaly covers the whole sky. Nevertheless, the plane of the orbit is bounded in a narrow strip for a considerable length of time, which makes its recovery posible in old plates. The causes of the loss of Albert (719) are common to all NEO's, which is distintive about it is that it was numbered after just a few obervations, while at present the standard procedure requires that the orbit should be very well established before a denomination is given. Given the almost imposibility of its systematic recovery, in the future Albert (719) might be the first asteroid whose denomination is reassigned to another object.

  6. Einstein's Universe - Gravity at Work and Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, A.

    2001-07-01

    On Albert Einstein's seventy-sixth and final birthday, a friend gave him a simple toy made from a broomstick, a brass ball attached to a length of string, and a weak spring. Einstein was delighted: the toy worked on a principle he had conceived fifty years earlier when he was working on his revolutionary theory of gravitya principle whose implications are still confounding physicists today.Starting with this winning anecdote, Anthony Zee begins his animated discussion of phenomena ranging from the emergence of galaxies to the curvature of space-time, evidence for the existence of gravity waves, and the shape of the universe in the first nanoseconds of creation and today. Making complex ideas accessible without oversimplifying, Zee leads the reader through the implications of Einstein's theory and its influence on modern physics. His playful and lucid style conveys the excitement of some of the latest developments in physics, and his new Afterword brings things even further up-to-date.

  7. Einstein's Revolutionary Light--Quantum Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuewer, R. H.

    2006-03-01

    Albert Einstein's light-quantum paper was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself called ``very revolutionary''. I sketch his arguments for light quanta, his analysis of the photoelectric effect, and his introduction of the wave-particle duality into physics in 1909. I show that Robert Andrews Millikan, in common with almost all physicists at the time, rejected Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis as an interpretation of his photoelectric-effect experiments of 1915. I then trace the complex experimental and theoretical route that Arthur Holly Compton followed between 1916 and 1922 that led to his discovery of the Compton effect, a discovery that Peter Debye also made virtually simultaneously and independently. Compton's discovery, however, was challenged on experimental grounds by William Duane and on theoretical grounds by Niels Bohr in the Bohr--Kramers--Slater theory of 1924, and only after that theory was disproved experimentally the following year by Walther Bothe and Hans Geiger in Berlin and by Compton and Alfred W. Simon in Chicago was Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists.

  8. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MAIN ENTRANCE - SOUTH FACADE - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October 1, 1935. GENERAL VIEW, SOUTH ELEVATION - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 27. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. PLASTER CORNICE - MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. 1934 - 1935 WHEEL PIT UNDER RESTORATION - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. 1934, 1935. CREEK SIDE DURING RESTORATION - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Obituary: Albert Gray Mowbray, 1916-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Albert G. Mowbray was born on 23 June 1916. He was the son of Albert Henry Mowbray, a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley [UCB], and Elizabeth Gray Mowbray. He had one sister, Mary Elizabeth. Mowbray did undergraduate and graduate work at UCB. His 1943 PhD. dissertation had to do with the apparent sizes of globular clusters. Mowbray became an observing assistant at Lick Observatory in about 1942; later that year he went to the Perkins Observatory, operated for Ohio Wesleyan University by the Ohio State University [OSU]. Due to the wartime shortage of instructors, he also taught physics at OSU. In 1946 Mowbray joined the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. By 1948 he lived in Pasadena California, and was a volunteer observer at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Later, until 1956, he was employed by UCB professor Leland Cunningham, a solar-system dynamicist. Mowbray did computations and measured plates for Cunningham. Mowbray joined the physics faculty at San Jose State College (now California State University, San Jose) in 1957. In addition to the AAS, Mowbray was a member of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He died in San Francisco, California, on 21 August 2002. The kind assistance of George Herbig, Virginia Trimble, and Elizabeth Roemer is acknowledged.

  15. Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeUnes, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)

  16. Dr. Albert Carr--Science Educator 1930-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The very first issue of "Educational Perspectives" was published in October of 1962. Dr. Albert Carr wrote one of the inaugural essays on the topic of current developments in science education, and he went on to write several other articles for the journal. This article shares why Dr. Albert Carr's colleagues remember him for his…

  17. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  18. Albert and Erwin: decline and fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaire, Denis

    2015-04-01

    More than a century has passed since quantum theory began to pose teasing questions about how we interpret our world. Books abound that offer alternative views of the problems the theory raises, and Einstein's Dice and Schrödinger's Cat is another.

  19. Echoing Citizen Einstein in the East: Andrei Sakharov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhéaume, Charles

    2006-11-01

    As if a handing of the torch, Andrei Sakharov saw his dissidence acquire initial impetus from nuclear tests that it was clear were becoming out of control in the hands of an unscrupulous regime in 1955, the very year Einstein died. He had of course drawn from the latter's science for the realization of the Soviet H-bomb. From then on, however, it would be the humanistic views of Einstein that would lead his way. Not only was he not an anti-Semite like many in official circles in the Soviet Union at the time but through experiences in his young age and later in his work on the bomb where he had many Jewish colleagues, Sakharov had come to admire Jewish culture and particularly its inclination towards intellectual life. It was with a fully open mind then that he got acquainted with Einstein's ideas on how the great man saw the world. Sakharov would divulge his own vision of the world in an essay titled "Progress, Peaceful Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom" in 1968. The Albert Einstein Peace Prize he would be awarded in 1988 for his relentless advocacy of peace would come as a confirmation of the spiritual linkage between the two men. This paper scrutinizes traces of Einstein's thinking in Sakharov's own. It focuses particularly on their convergent understanding of the notion of world government.

  20. Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.

  1. Policing epistemic deviance: Albert Von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll(1).

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862-1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862-1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an 'occult complex'. Moll's analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll's treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll.

  2. Design analysis of the Einstein refrigeration cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, S.V.; Delano, A.; Schaefer, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    After developing the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein spent several years working with Leo Szilard on absorption refrigeration cycles. In 1930, they obtained a US patent for a unique single pressure absorption cycle. The single pressure eliminates the need for a solution pump. Their cycle has only recently been rediscovered. The cycle utilizes butane as its refrigerant, ammonia as a pressure equalizing fluid, and water as an absorbing fluid. This cycle is dramatically different in both concept and detail than the better-known ammonia-water-hydrogen cycle. In this study, thermodynamic and mixture property models of the Einstein cycle were created to gain insight into the cycle's operating characteristics and to calculate its performance. A conceptual demonstration model was built and successfully operated, showing for the first time the viability of the cycle. The model results found that the system pressure is an important design parameter, with the COP having an optimum when the system pressure is equal to the saturation pressure of the butane refrigerant. It was also found that for a given system pressure, there is a maximum condenser-absorber temperature and a minimum evaporator temperature.

  3. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  4. Einstein for Everyone

    SciTech Connect

    Piccioni, Robert

    2010-10-05

    Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.

  5. Einstein and Boltzmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2005-03-01

    In 1916 Einstein published a remarkable paper entitled ``On the Quantum Theory of Radiation''ootnotetextA. Einstein ``On the Quantum theory of Radiation,'' Phys. Zeitschrift 18 (1917) 121. First printed in Mitteilungender Physikalischen Gesellschaft Zurich. No 18, 1916. Translated into English in Van der Waerden ``Sources of Quantum Mechanics'' (North Holland 1967) pp. 63-77. in which he obtained Planck's formula for black-body radiation by introducing a new statistical hypothesis for the emmision and absorption of electromagneic radiation based on discrete bundles of energy and momentum which are now called photons. Einstein radiation theory replaced Maxwell's classical theory by a stochastic process which, when properly interpreted, also gives well known statistics of massless particles with even spin.^2 This quantum distribution, however, was not discovered by Einstein but was communicated to him by Bose in 1924. Like Boltzmann's classical counterpart, Einstein's statistical theory leads to an irreversible approach to thermal equilibrium, but because this violates time reversal, Einstein theory can not be regarded as a fundamental theory of physical process.ootnotetextM. Nauenberg ``The evolution of radiation towards thermal equilibrium: A soluble model which illustrates the foundations of statistical mechanics,'' American Journal of Physics 72 (2004) 313 Apparently Einstein and his contemporaries were unaware of this problem, and even today this problem is ignored in contemporary discussions of Einstein's treatment of the black-body spectrum.

  6. Einstein for Everyone

    ScienceCinema

    Piccioni, Robert

    2016-07-12

    Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.

  7. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit. The area is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). The image was produced by using only the L-band. The three polarization channels HH, HV and VV are illustrated by red, green and blue respectively. The changes in the intensity of each color are related to various surface conditions such as variations in forest stands, frozen or thawed condition of the surface, disturbances (fire and deforestation), and areas of regrowth. Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the white Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are also shown by dark areas in the image. Since most of the logging practice at the Prince Albert area is around the major highways, the deforested areas can be easily detected as small geometrically shaped dark regions along the roads. At the time of the SIR-C/X-SAR overpass a major part of the forest is either frozen or undergoing the spring thaw. The L-band HH shows a high return in the jack pine forest. The reddish areas in the image are old jack pine forest, 12 to 17 meters (40to 55 feet) in height and 60 to 75 years old. The orange

  8. 14. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES (RIGHT) AND YOUTHFUL HELPER (WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES (RIGHT) AND YOUTHFUL HELPER (WALLY HALES), HANDLING HUGE 'KEY' TO WIND OPEN THE CENTER SWING SPAN. - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  9. Albert Gallatin and the Movement for Peace with Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix, Richard

    1969-01-01

    An account of Albert Gallatin's efforts at promoting peace during the Mexican American war in 1847: In particular, the pamphlet Gallatin authored as an appeal for peace is discussed in terms of its distribution and impact. (AP)

  10. Biographical sketch: John Albert Key, 1890-1955.

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A

    2013-07-01

    This biographical sketch on John Albert Key corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-2913-y.

  11. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER, COURT YARD - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MANTEL, SOUTHWEST BEDROOM - 2d FLOOR - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MANTEL, SECOND FLOOR LIVING ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. CEILING AND CHANDELIER IN MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. FRAGMENTS OF PLASTER CEILING ROSETTE - MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October 1, 1935. DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION AT COURT WALL. - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns Photographer c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns Photographer c. 1934-35 PIERCE MILL (Before restoration) - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 12. Photocopy of drawing, measured and drawn by Albert P. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing, measured and drawn by Albert P. Erb. WEST ELEVATION - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. LIVING ROOM MANTLE (DINING ROOM SAME) - Captain Joseph Johnson House, 49 T Street Southwest, Buzzards Point, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 7. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1880's. VOLCANO LITTLE THEATRE GUILD. SOME CAST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  1. 19. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. THE OLD STILES HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  2. 9. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  3. 16. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. STILES RESIDENCE, THORNHILL FARM. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  4. 17. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. THE OLD STILES HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  5. 5. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1880. VOLCANO TOWN HALL. BLACKLIN HOUSE AT LEFT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  6. 1. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  7. 14. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. MOUNT FARM OIL COMPANY. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  8. 12. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. THORNHILL STORE. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  9. [Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

    2007-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor.

  10. Evolution of brain and culture: the neurological and cognitive journey from Australopithecus to Albert Einstein.

    PubMed

    Falk, Dean

    2016-06-20

    Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking. The delay in ancestral babies' physical development eventually precipitated an evolutionary reversal in which they became increasing unable to cling independently to their mothers. For the first time in prehistory, babies were, thus, periodically deprived of direct physical contact with their mothers. This prompted the emergence of a second evo-devo trend in which infants sought contact comfort from caregivers using evolved signals, including new ways of crying that are conserved in modern babies. Such signaling stimulated intense reciprocal interactions between prehistoric mothers and infants that seeded the eventual emergence of motherese and, subsequently, protolanguage. The third trend was for an extreme acceleration in brain growth that began prior to the last trimester of gestation and continued through infants' first postnatal year (early "brain spurt"). Conservation of this trend in modern babies explains why human brains reach adult sizes that are over three times those of chimpanzees. The fossil record of hominin cranial capacities together with comparative neuroanatomical data suggest that, around 3 million years ago, early brain spurts began to facilitate an evolutionary trajectory for increasingly large adult brains in association with neurological reorganization. The prehistoric increase in brain size eventually caused parturition to become exceedingly difficult, and this difficulty, known as the "obstetrical dilemma", is likely to constrain the future evolution of brain size and, thus, privilege ongoing evolution in neurological reorganization. In modern babies, the brain spurt is accompanied by formation and tuning (pruning) of neurological connections, and development of dynamic higher-order networks that facilitate acquisition of grammatical language and, later in development, other advanced computational abilities such as musical or mathematical perception and performance. The cumulative evidence suggests that the emergence and refinement of grammatical language was a prime mover of hominin brain evolution.

  11. The Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship: Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milbourne, Jeff; Wheeler, Sam

    2017-02-01

    In an ideal world, education policy and practice would exist as parts of a coherent system. Effective practice would inform policy and that policy would, in turn, promote the tenets of effective practice at the local, state, and national levels. Policymakers and practitioners would collaborate and, by extension, have familiarity and respect for one another's perspective. Unfortunately, our current education system is a far cry from the ideal, a fact that we as practitioners know all too well.

  12. NYPIRG Petition to Object to Yeshiva University's Albert Einstein College of Medicane Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Einstein and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, John

    2005-03-01

    As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .

  14. Einstein Ring in Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    population. The far away lensed galaxy, however, is extremely active, having recently experienced bursts of star formation. It is a compact galaxy, 7,000 light-years across. "Because the gravitational pull of matter bends the path of light rays, astronomical objects - stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters - can act like lenses, which magnify and severely distort the images of galaxies behind them, producing weird pictures as in a hall of mirrors", explains Chris Lidman (ESO), co-discover of the new cosmic mirage. In the most extreme case, where the foreground lensing galaxy and the background galaxy are perfectly lined up, the image of the background galaxy is stretched into a ring. Such an image is known as an Einstein ring, because the formula for the bending of light, first described in the early twentieth century by Chwolson and Link, uses Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Gravitational lensing provides a very useful tool with which to study the Universe. As "weighing scales", it provides a measure of the mass within the lensing body, and as a "magnifying glass", it allows us to see details in objects which would otherwise be beyond the reach of current telescopes. From the image, co-worker David Valls-Gabaud (CFHT), using state-of-the-art modelling algorithms, could deduce the mass of the galaxy acting as a lens - it is almost one million million suns. More information The paper describing this research has been published as a Letter to the Editor in Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 436, L21-L25 ("Discovery of a high-redshift Einstein ring", by R.A. Cabanac, D. Valls-Gabaud, A.O. Jaunsen, C. Lidman, and H. Jerjen). The paper is available for download in PDF format from the A&A web site.

  15. Einstein, Bose and Bose-Einstein Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8πυ^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8πυ^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.

  16. Einstein and 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, John

    2005-05-01

    From March 17 to September 29, 1905, just over six months, Einstein wrote five papers that shifted the tectonic foundations of physics and changed the face of Nature. Three of these papers, the March paper presenting the particle of light, the May paper on Brownian motion, and the June paper on the Special Theory of Relativity are universally recognized as fundamental; however, the Brownian motion paper cannot be divorced from Einstein's April paper, A New Determination of the Dimensions of Molecules, and the September paper that gave the world its most famous equation, E = mc^2, cannot be separated from the June paper. These five papers reveal characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics.

  17. Policing Epistemic Deviance: Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll1

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862–1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862–1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an ‘occult complex’. Moll’s analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll’s treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll. PMID:23002296

  18. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  19. Little Albert's alleged neurological impairment: Watson, Rayner, and historical revision.

    PubMed

    Digdon, Nancy; Powell, Russell A; Harris, Ben

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) announced that "Little Albert"-the infant that Watson and Rayner used in their 1920 study of conditioned fear (Watson & Rayner, 1920)-was not the healthy child the researchers described him to be, but was neurologically impaired almost from birth. Fridlund et al. also alleged that Watson had committed serious ethical breaches in regard to this research. Our article reexamines the evidentiary bases for these claims and arrives at an alternative interpretation of Albert as a normal infant. In order to set the stage for our interpretation, we first briefly describe the historical context for the Albert study, as well as how the study has been construed and revised since 1920. We then discuss the evidentiary issues in some detail, focusing on Fridlund et al.'s analysis of the film footage of Albert, and on the context within which Watson and Rayner conducted their study. In closing, we return to historical matters to speculate about why historiographical disputes matter and what the story of neurologically impaired Albert might be telling us about the discipline of psychology today.

  20. [Interculturality in the medical practice of Dr. Albert Schweitzer].

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Ruiz-Llanos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was a young and promising German who at age 29 decided to undertake the profession of Medical Doctor at the University of Strassburg after finishing a career in musical studies in Paris (1899) and obtaining in Berlin a doctoral degree in Philosophy and Theology. Surprisingly, Albert Schweitzer, despite his comfortable life in Europe, decided in 1913 to practice his medical career in a remote and small Equatorial African country. He devoted nearly 50 years of his life caring for the Black population at Lamaberene, where he built a hospital. In this paper, we attempt to develop some theoretical aspects related with interculturality in the medical practice of Dr. Albert Schweitzer. We begin by considering certain sociocultural variables in hospitals that give care to patients with cultural characteristics that are substantially different from those of the health care personnel who organize, administer, and execute medical functions.

  1. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  2. The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy.

    PubMed

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Murphy D; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Carvalho, Antonio C Campos de; Weiss, Louis M; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2015-01-01

    A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries.

  3. The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy

    PubMed Central

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Nosanchuk, Murphy D.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos; Weiss, Louis M.; Spray, David C.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries. PMID:26691452

  4. The Media of Relativity: Einstein and Telecommunications Technologies.

    PubMed

    Canales, Jimena

    2015-07-01

    How are fundamental constants, such as "c" for the speed of light, related to the technological environments that produce them? Relativistic cosmology, developed first by Albert Einstein, depended on military and commercial innovations in telecommunications. Prominent physicists (Hans Reichenbach, Max Born, Paul Langevin, Louis de Broglie, and Léon Brillouin, among others) worked in radio units during WWI and incorporated battlefield lessons into their research. Relativity physicists, working at the intersection of physics and optics by investigating light and electricity, responded to new challenges by developing a novel scientific framework. Ideas about lengths and solid bodies were overhauled because the old Newtonian mechanics assumed the possibility of "instantaneous signaling at a distance." Einstein's universe, where time and space dilated, where the shortest path between two points was often curved and non-Euclidean, followed the rules of electromagnetic "signal" transmission. For these scientists, light's constant speed in the absence of a gravitational field-a fundamental tenet of Einstein's theory-was a lesson derived from communication technologies.

  5. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  6. 76 FR 66072 - Albert Ronald Cioffi: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... unapproved drug derived from Botulinum Toxin Type A (TRI-toxin), sold by Toxin Research International (TRI... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Albert Ronald Cioffi: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order...

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. 1934, 1935 COPY OF PRINT LOANED BY MR. POLLEN JEWETT, NYACK, N.Y. TAKEN ABOUT 1900 VIEW ACROSS ROCK CREEK - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. View northeast, overview of Albert Thacker building group: chicken house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, overview of Albert Thacker building group: chicken house (HABS No. WV-267-D), wash house (267-C), privy (HABS No. WV-268-B), and house (267-A) (left to right in photograph) - 3249 Cyrus Road (House), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  9. 15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  10. The Continuing Saga of Little Albert in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Inaccuracies, especially concerning the stimulus generalization findings, in textbook descriptions of the Little Albert study have been well documented since the 1970s. However, there has not been a systematic examination of introductory psychology textbooks since the 1980s to determine whether such inaccuracies still persist. This study filled…

  11. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  12. Let's Nuke the Transpersonalists: A Response to Albert Ellis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Responds to Albert Ellis' 1986 article which proposed to use rational-emotive therapy (RET) to save the world from religious and psychological fanatics and nuclear war. Attempts to provide a more balanced view of religion, RET, non-RET therapies, and the role of psychology in averting nuclear war. (Author/ABL)

  13. Albert Ellis Revisited: Vague, General or Mild Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, William A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the writings of Albert Ellis dealing with religion and psychotherapy. Advocates a liberal form of theism in which (1) the use of symbolism and ritual are stressed; (2) faith is taken seriously but not as history or science; and (3) the importance of theology is affirmed. (JAC)

  14. Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products Building at left, looking northeast from Heinz Street. Heinz Lofts archway added ca. 2005. The bridge in the rear connects to the Bean Building. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 222. BUILDINGS 44 AND 42 (ENLISTED BARRACKS), 194041. ALBERT KAHN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. BUILDINGS 44 AND 42 (ENLISTED BARRACKS), 1940-41. ALBERT KAHN, INC., ARCHITECTS. VIEW FROM THE WEST SHOWING ENCLOSED CORRIDOR CONNECTING BUILDING 44 (ON LEFT) AND BUILDING 42. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  16. 6. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. STAGE, VOLCANO TOWN HALL. OLD GLORY, GETTING THE WORST OF IT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  17. 10. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV. EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND GATES RESIDENCE AT LEFT (n.d.). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  18. 8. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. INTERIOR VOLCANO TOWN HALL FROM STAGE SHOWING RAISED SEATS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  19. 3. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV. LOOKING DOWN THE CREEK, WEST BACK OF THE STORES, BEFORE THE FIRE (n.d.). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  20. 2. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1898. LARGE TANK, VOLOCANO STATION AND BAND HOUSE, AFTER THE RR WAS DISMANTLED. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  1. 23. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1897. TAKEN AT WATER TANKS NEAR THE HIGH TRESTLE. BOB FLEMING-ENGINEER, WILSH (?) ROLLINS-FIREMAN, OTH (?) COLLINS-PASSENGER (WITH CANE). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  2. 11. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. JOHN SHAFFER'S STORE AND JOHN WILSON'S BOWLING ALLEY AND SALOON IN FOREGROUND. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  3. 21. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV. 'JOHN NOON L(*(. SAYS HE DROVE THE FIRST SPIKE AND I SAW HIM PULL THE LAST ONE AT VOLCANO JUNCTION' SBS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  4. 18. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1998. THIS ENGINE HAD CAB KNOCKED OFF AND TIRES USED ON OTHER ENGINE, SO JOHN NOON AND PAT O'BRIEN WERE SCRAPING IT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  5. 13. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. VOLCANO SCHOOL HOUSE, ME. CHURCH IN WOODS AT LEFT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  6. 22. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1898. TANK, VOLCANO PUMPING STATION, AND BARNE HOUSE STILL STANDING AND IN USE. THIS SHOWS THE OLD RR LINE. (1934 CAPTION). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  7. 15. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, UP THE HILL, SOUTH OF THE TOWN (n.d.). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  8. 24. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. JIM RIDGE'S CARPENTER SHOP, LOOKING UP THE CREEK, EAST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  9. 4. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. CORNER OF THORNHILL STORE AND TOWN HALL. MRS. GATES AND JOHN SCHAFFER. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  10. 20. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. RESIDENCE OF E.W. STAPLES AND DR. W.H. SHARP. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  11. The Einstein Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The Einstein Toolkit Consortium is developing and supporting open software for relativistic astrophysics. Its aim is to provide the core computational tools that can enable new science, broaden our community, facilitate interdisciplinary research and take advantage of petascale computers and advanced cyberinfrastructure. The Einstein Toolkit currently consists of an open set of over 100 modules for the Cactus framework, primarily for computational relativity along with associated tools for simulation management and visualization. The toolkit includes solvers for vacuum spacetimes as well as relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics, along with modules for initial data, analysis and computational infrastructure. These modules have been developed and improved over many years by many different researchers. The Einstein Toolkit is supported by a distributed model, combining core support of software, tools, and documentation in its own repositories and through partnerships with other developers who contribute open software and coordinate together on development. As of January 2012 it has 68 registered members from 30 research groups world-wide. This talk will present the current capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit and will point to information how to leverage it for future research.

  12. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  13. Einstein and Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earman, John; Eisenstaedt, Jean

    Except for a few brief periods, Einstein was uninterested in analysing the nature of the spacetime singularities that appeared in solutions to his gravitational field equations for general relativity. The existence of such monstrosities reinforced his conviction that general relativity was an incomplete theory which would be superseded by a singularity-free unified field theory. Nevertheless, on a number of occasions between 1916 and the end of his life, Einstein was forced to confront singularities. His reactions show a strange asymmetry: he tended to be more disturbed by (what today we would call) merely apparent singularities and less disturbed by (what we would call) real singularities. Einstein had strong a priori ideas about what results a correct physical theory should deliver. In the process of searching through theoretical possibilities, he tended to push aside technical problems and jump over essential difficulties. Sometimes this method of working produced brilliant new ideas-such as the Einstein-Rosen bridge-and sometimes it lead him to miss important implications of his theory of gravity-such as gravitational collapse.

  14. Poincaré's Relativistic Physics: Its Origins and Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzir, Shaul

    2005-09-01

    Henri Poincaré (1854 1912) developed a relativistic physics by elevating the empirical inability to detect absolute motion, or motion relative to the ether, to the principle of relativity, and its mathematics ensured that it would be compatible with that principle. Although Poincaré’s aim and theory were similar to those of Albert Einstein (1879 1955) in creating his special theory of relativity, Poincaré’s relativistic physics should not be seen as an attempt to achieve Einstein’s theory but as an independent endeavor. Poincaré was led to advance the principle of relativity as a consequence of his reflections on late nineteenth-century electrodynamics; of his conviction that physics should be formulated as a physics of principles; of his conventionalistic arguments on the nature of time and its measurement; and of his knowledge of the experimental failure to detect absolute motion. The nonrelativistic theory of electrodynamics of Hendrik A.Lorentz (1853 1928) of 1904 provided the means for Poincaré to elaborate a relativistic physics that embraced all known physical forces, including that of gravitation. Poincaré did not assume any dynamical explanation of the Lorentz transformation, which followed from the principle of relativity, and he did not seek to dismiss classical concepts, such as that of the ether, in his new relativistic physics.

  15. The Physical Tourist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Ron, José M.

    2006-09-01

    I provide a tour of Madrid, focusing especially on physical institutions that were created during the 19th and 20th centuries.These include the Astronomical Observatory close to the Prado Museum, which itself was conceived as a home for the Royal Academy of Sciences but became instead a world-famous art museum in 1819, leaving the Royal Academy of Sciences without a permanent home until 1866.The Laboratory of Physical Researches was created in 1910, and under the direction of Blas Cabrera (1878 1945), who also held a professorship at the Universidad Central, it fostered most of the Spanish research in physics at the time, in particular the famous spectroscopic researches of Miguel A. Catalán (1894 1957). Nearby were the so-called Transatlantico building and the Students’ Residence where Albert Einstein (1879 1955), for example, lectured in 1923, and which together continue to serve as a major cultural center in Madrid. Later, the physical laboratory was replaced by the National Institute of Physics and Chemistry, which was constructed with funds from the Rockefeller Foundation and inaugurated in 1932. A new University City with its Faculty of Sciences also was constructed on the northwestern outskirts of Madrid, but almost all of its buildings were totally destroyed during the devastating Spanish Civil War of 1936 1939. It was reconstructed after the war and became home, for example, to Spain’s first nuclear reactor, which achieved criticality in 1958.

  16. Fritz Reiche and the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2005-12-01

    I discuss the family background and early life of the German theoretical physicist Fritz Reiche (1883 1969) in Berlin; his higher education at the University of Berlin under Max Planck (1858 1947); his subsequent work at the University of Breslau with Otto Lummer (1860 1925); his return to Berlin in 1911, where he completed his Habilitation thesis in 1913, married Bertha Ochs the following year, became a friend of Albert Einstein (1879 1955), and worked during and immediately after the Great War. In 1921 he was appointed as ordentlicher Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Breslau and worked there until he was dismissed in 1933. He spent the academic year 1934 1935 as a visiting professor at the German University in Prague and then returned to Berlin, where he remained until, with the crucial help of his friend Rudolf Ladenburg (1882 1952) and vital assistance of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, he, his wife Bertha, and their daughter Eve were able to emigrate to the United States in 1941 (their son Hans had already emigrated to England in 1939).From 1941 1946 he held appointments at the New School for Social Research in New York, the City College of New York, and Union College in Schenectady, New York, and then was appointed as an Adjunct Professor of Physics at New York University, where his contract was renewed year-by-year until his retirement in 1958.

  17. Einstein and Bose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, Kameshwar C.

    2005-04-01

    In June 1924, a relatively unknown Satyendra Nath Bose from Dacca, India, wrote a letter to Einstein beginning with ``Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal. I am anxious to know what you think of it. You will see that I have ventured to deduce the coefficient 8πυ^2/c^3 in Planck's law independent of the classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary regions in Phase-space have the content h^3. I do not know sufficient German to translate the paper. If you think the paper worth publication, I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik.'' Einstein did translate the article himself and got it published. He wrote to Ehrenfest: ``The Indian Bose has given a beautiful derivation of Planck's law, including the constant [i.e.8πυ^2/c^3].'' Einstein extended the ideas of Bose that implied, among other things, a new statistics for the light-quanta to the molecules of an ideal gas and wrote to Ehrenfest, `from a certain temperature on, the molecules ``condense'' without attractive forces, that is, they accumulate at zero velocity. The theory is pretty, but is there also some truth to it?' Abraham Pais has called Bose's paper ``the fourth and the last revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory.'' My paper will present the works of Bose and Einstein in their historical perspective and the eventual birth of the new quantum Bose-Einstein statistics.

  18. Bohr's Electron was Problematic for Einstein: String Theory Solved the Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, William

    2013-04-01

    Neils Bohr's 1913 model of the hydrogen electron was problematic for Albert Einstein. Bohr's electron rotates with positive kinetic energies +K but has addition negative potential energies - 2K. The total net energy is thus always negative with value - K. Einstein's special relativity requires energies to be positive. There's a Bohr negative energy conflict with Einstein's positive energy requirement. The two men debated the problem. Both would have preferred a different electron model having only positive energies. Bohr and Einstein couldn't find such a model. But Murray Gell-Mann did! In the 1960's, Gell-Mann introduced his loop-shaped string-like electron. Now, analysis with string theory shows that the hydrogen electron is a loop of string-like material with a length equal to the circumference of the circular orbit it occupies. It rotates like a lariat around its centered proton. This loop-shape has no negative potential energies: only positive +K relativistic kinetic energies. Waves induced on loop-shaped electrons propagate their energy at a speed matching the tangential speed of rotation. With matching wave speed and only positive kinetic energies, this loop-shaped electron model is uniquely suited to be governed by the Einstein relativistic equation for total mass-energy. Its calculated photon emissions are all in excellent agreement with experimental data and, of course, in agreement with those -K calculations by Neils Bohr 100 years ago. Problem solved!

  19. Reassessing the Ritz-Einstein debate on the radiation asymmetry in classical electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Mathias; Pietsch, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the debate between Walter Ritz and Albert Einstein on the origin and nature of the radiation asymmetry. We argue that Ritz's views on the radiation asymmetry were far richer and nuanced than the oft-cited joint letter with Einstein (Ritz & Einstein, 1909) suggests, and that Einstein's views in 1909 on the asymmetry are far more ambiguous than is commonly recognized. Indeed, there is strong evidence that Einstein ultimately came to agree with Ritz that elementary radiation processes in classical electrodynamics are non-symmetric and fully retarded. (Sommerfeld, 1968, p. 290; italics in the original). That is, what Sommerfeld is looking for is a mathematical condition that can restrict the solution space of the equation to those solutions that are physically possible. Rather than taking the wave equation as delimiting the range of what is physically possible and then looking for an explanation of why a large class of physically possible solutions is not actualized, the problem for Sommerfeld seems to be with the mathematics: the wave equation has 'too many' solutions. The Sommerfeld radiation condition, according to this view, does not explain the asymmetry, but is merely the mathematical condition imposing a restriction on the electromagnetic field in large distances that enables us to exclude non-physical solutions of the wave equation and restrict the solutions to the physically plausible purely diverging waves.

  20. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2005-03-17

    This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.

  1. Majority-Vote on Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Majority-vote model with noise is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition of the order parameter is well defined in this system. We calculate the value of the critical noise parameter qc for several values of connectivity z of the directed Barabási-Albert network. The critical exponentes β/ν, γ/ν and 1/ν were calculated for several values of z.

  2. Einstein, Bohr, and Bell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a

  3. Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.

  4. From conformal to Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, Giorgos; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    We provide a simple derivation of the equivalence between Einstein and conformal gravity (CG) with Neumann boundary conditions given by Maldacena. As Einstein spacetimes are Bach flat, a generic solution to CG would contain both Einstein and non-Einstein parts. Using this decomposition of the spacetime curvature in the Weyl tensor makes manifest the equivalence between the two theories, both at the level of the action and the variation of it. As a consequence, we show that the on-shell action for critical gravity in four dimensions is given uniquely in terms of the Bach tensor.

  5. Going to school with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: gender roles in children's science biographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Trevor

    2009-12-01

    One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this paper taps this unutilized resource to cultivate a unique perspective on the history of gender and authority in science and science education. Through analysis of explicit discussions of womanhood and science and implicit gendering of Curie and Einstein's school experiences within these books, this study demonstrates that while much has changed in how these stories are framed the gender of the scientist is still central to how they are represented in children's literature.

  6. The Einstein Dossiers: Science and Politics - Einstein's Berlin Period with an Appendix on Einstein's FBI File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern.

  7. Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M. A.

    In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know

  8. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, John

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  9. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  10. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  11. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  12. [A biographical sketch of Albert Szent-Györgyi].

    PubMed

    Berger, Zoltán; Berger Salinas, Alexandra; Szánthó Pongrácz, György

    2015-08-01

    Albert Szent-Györgyi was a Hungarian biochemist and physiologist. He identified the structure and function of vitamin C, naming it as ascorbic acid. His research on cellular respiration and oxidation provided the basis for Krebs' citric acid cycle. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937. With his collaborators, he discovered the biochemical basis of muscle contractility, isolating the basic proteins, giving them the name myosin and actin. Later on, he worked on the theory of carcinogenesis, linked to electron movements. He was one of the first researchers to describe the connection between free radicals and cancer. He lived a long, very complete life, defending always his opinion and freedom.

  13. Scanning transmission electron microscopy: Albert Crewe's vision and beyond.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Murfitt, Matthew F; Dellby, Niklas

    2012-12-01

    Some four decades were needed to catch up with the vision that Albert Crewe and his group had for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in the nineteen sixties and seventies: attaining 0.5Å resolution, and identifying single atoms spectroscopically. With these goals now attained, STEM developments are turning toward new directions, such as rapid atomic resolution imaging and exploring atomic bonding and electronic properties of samples at atomic resolution. The accomplishments and the future challenges are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples.

  14. Remembering Albert deutsch, an advocate for mental health.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    Albert Deutsch, journalist, advocate for the mentally ill, and honorary APA Fellow died 50 years ago. Author of The Mentally Ill in America and The Shame of the States, he believed in the obligation of individuals and institutions to advocate for patients. In 1961, he was in the midst of a vast project to assess the state of the art in psychiatric research. This article recalls aspects of Deutsch's life and work and places him in the historical context of individuals who have shown great compassion for disabled persons.

  15. Quasi-Einstein metrics on hypersurface families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stuart James

    2013-02-01

    We construct quasi-Einstein metrics on some hypersurface families. The hypersurfaces are circle bundles over the product of Fano, Kähler-Einstein manifolds. The quasi-Einstein metrics are related to various gradient Kähler-Ricci solitons constructed by Dancer and Wang and some Hermitian, non-Kähler, Einstein metrics constructed by Wang and Wang on the same manifolds.

  16. Three frequency false-color image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-frequency, false color image of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. It was produced using data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars that comprise the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). SIR-C/X-SAR acquired this image on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. Most of the dark blue areas in the image are the ice covered lakes. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are shown by light

  17. False-color composite image of Prince Albert, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of Highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake

  18. Psychology's Lost Boy: Will the Real Little Albert Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with the recent debate about the identity of psychology's lost boy-Little Albert, the infant subject in Watson and Rayner's classic experiment on fear conditioning. For decades, psychologists and psychology students have been intrigued by the mystery of Albert's fate. Now two evidentiary-based solutions to…

  19. Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…

  20. Albert W. Frenkel (1919-2015): photosynthesis research pioneer, much-loved teacher, and scholar.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Frenkel, Susanna

    2015-06-01

    Albert W. Frenkel, a pioneer in photosynthesis research, and discoverer of photophosphorylation in photosynthetic bacteria, is remembered here by two of us: Govindjee (historical corner editor of photosynthesis research) and Susanna Frenkel (SF; Albert Frenkel's daughter, who provided most of the family information).

  1. Meet Cover Directors--Steve Albert, Rainbow School, Kahuku, Hawaii; Chuck Larson, Seagull Schools, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Profiles Chuck Larson and Steve Albert, each of whom directs a multi-site child care organization in Hawaii. Larson directs Rainbow School, dedicated to the idea that learning is a natural, joyful accomplishment of living. Albert directs Seagull School, responding to the early educational needs of Hawaii's diverse community by offering affordable,…

  2. The Einstein Genome Gateway using WASP - a high throughput multi-layered life sciences portal for XSEDE.

    PubMed

    Golden, Aaron; McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; O Broin, Pilib; Moskowitz, David; Zhang, Zhengdong; Suzuki, Masako; Hargitai, Joseph; Calder, R Brent; Greally, John M

    2012-01-01

    Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies and their diverse applications in genomics and epigenomics research have yielded enormous new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of the human genome. The biggest hurdle remains the magnitude and diversity of the datasets generated, compromising our ability to manage, organize, process and ultimately analyse data. The Wiki-based Automated Sequence Processor (WASP), developed at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (hereafter Einstein), uniquely manages to tightly couple the sequencing platform, the sequencing assay, sample metadata and the automated workflows deployed on a heterogeneous high performance computing cluster infrastructure that yield sequenced, quality-controlled and 'mapped' sequence data, all within the one operating environment accessible by a web-based GUI interface. WASP at Einstein processes 4-6 TB of data per week and since its production cycle commenced it has processed ~ 1 PB of data overall and has revolutionized user interactivity with these new genomic technologies, who remain blissfully unaware of the data storage, management and most importantly processing services they request. The abstraction of such computational complexity for the user in effect makes WASP an ideal middleware solution, and an appropriate basis for the development of a grid-enabled resource - the Einstein Genome Gateway - as part of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) program. In this paper we discuss the existing WASP system, its proposed middleware role, and its planned interaction with XSEDE to form the Einstein Genome Gateway.

  3. EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel

    2005-12-01

    With this special issue, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contributes to the celebration of the World Year of Physics held in recognition of five brilliant papers written by Albert Einstein in 1905. There is no need to explain to the readers of this journal the content and importance of these papers, which are cornerstones of modern physics. The 51 contributions in this special issue represent current trends in quantum optics —100 years after the concept of light quanta was introduced. At first glance, in his famous papers of 1905, Einstein treated quite independent subjects—special relativity, the nature and statistical properties of light, electrodynamics of moving bodies and Brownian motion. We now know that all these phenomena are deeply related, and these relations are clearly shown in many papers in this issue. Most of the papers are based on the talks and poster contributions from participants of the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'05), which took place in Besançon, France, 2-6 May, 2005. This was the continuation of a series of meetings, originating with the first workshops organized by Professor Y S Kim at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in 1991 and by Professor V I Man'ko at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow in 1992. One of the main topics of ICSSUR'05 and this special issue is the theory and applications of squeezed states and their generalizations. At first glance, one could think that this subject has no relation to Einstein's papers. However, this is not true: the theory of squeezed states is deeply related to special relativity, as far as it is based on the representations of the Lorentz group (see the paper by Kim Y S and Noz M E, S458-S467), which also links the current concepts of entanglement and decoherence with Lorentz-covariance. Besides, studies of the different quantum states of light imply, after all, the study of photon (or photo

  4. Einstein: The Gourmet of Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joel

    1979-01-01

    Reports a psychiatrist's analysis of Einstein's personal account of how he developed the theory of relativity. The psychiatrist cites Janusian thinking, actively conceiving two or more opposite concepts simultaneously, as a characteristic of much creative thought in general. (MA)

  5. Einstein's steady-state cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2014-09-01

    Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a "steady-state" model of the universe. Cormac O'Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work.

  6. [From Einstein's Quantum Theory to modern laser therapy. The history of lasers in dermatology and aesthetic medicine].

    PubMed

    Graudenz, K; Raulin, C

    2003-07-01

    Laser technology has considerably expanded therapeutic modalities in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In addition, lasers have broadened the spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic options in many other medical fields. Dermatologists, especially Dr. Leon Goldman, played an important role in the evolution and use of medical lasers. There was a long way from the concept of stimulated emission as the fundamental idea of laser technology by Albert Einstein in 1917 to the practical use of the laser today. We review the development of laser technology from the early days through the latest advances.

  7. The NASA Beyond Einstein Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is part of NASA s Beyond Einstein program. This program seeks to answer the questions What Powered the Big Bang?, What happens at the edge of a Black Hole?, and What is Dark Energy?. LISA IS the first mission to be launched in this new program. This paper will give an overview of the Beyond Einstein program, its current status and where LISA fits in.

  8. Some notes on Einstein relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael P.; Masters, Andrew J.

    Transport coefficients are often expressed in the form of an Einstein relationship. In this report we point out some possibly surprising properties of the correlation functions appearing in such expressions and we discuss under what conditions the relationships are true. We further consider the Einstein relationship for the shear viscosity proposed by McQuarrie [in Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row), 1976]. On the basis both of theoretical analysis and computer simulation, we conclude that this expression is incorrect.

  9. The NASA Beyond Einstein Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.

  10. A tale of two icons: "the Jews all over the world boast of my name, pairing my with Einstein" (Freud, 1926).

    PubMed

    Forrester, John

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein, including the parallels in the trajectories of their scientific careers, starting with the 'annus mirabilis' of 1905. Noting how they shared much in common, the paper underlines that it was as "great Jewish thinkers" that they were most often twinned, and proceeds to compare and contrast the development of their self-consciousness of being Jewish. It then traces their relationship in one meeting and in correspondence, both private and public, from 1926 to their deaths, emphasizing Freud's envy of Einstein and Einstein's ambivalent admiration of Freud. The paper ends with a consideration of the significance of the figure of Moses in both of their final years.

  11. The Einstein Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  12. [Albert-Jean-Louis Brun, pharmacist of Geneva and vulcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1996-01-01

    Albert-Jean-Louis Brun (1851-1929), was chemist of the University of Bern (Switzerland) and "licencié ès sciences" of the University of Sorbonne (France). In Paris he was a faithful follower of Charles Friedel. In Coutance (Genève), where he was working in his own chemistry, he realised all his researchs. After a trip to Stromboli in 1901, he studied the volcanic phenomena as a chemist, as a mineralogist and as a geophysicist. His researchs brought him till the mediterranean volcanos--Vesuve, Etna, Santorin--, till Java and Krakatoa, then Canarian islands, and the lava lake of Kilauea, etc. The results of his works are collected in a big book called "Recherches sur l'exhalaison volcanique": he presents a theory which was the subject of a polemic with the professor Henri Gautier of the professor Henri Gautier of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris.

  13. Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mowbrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley's work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada's most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day.

  14. Wealth condensation in a Barabasi-Albert network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Montejo, J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    2010-04-01

    We study the flow of money among agents in a Barabasi-Albert (BA) scale free network, where each network node represents an agent and money exchange interactions are established through links. The system allows money trade between two agents at a time, betting a fraction f of the poorer’s agent wealth. We also allow for the bet to be biased, giving the poorer agent a winning probability p. In the no network case there is a phase transition involving a relationship between p and f. In the networked case, we also found a condensation interface, however, this is not a complete condensation due to the presence of clusters in the network and its topology. As can be expected, the winner is always a well-connected agent, but we also found that the mean wealth decreases with the agents’ connectivity.

  15. Relativity in Transylvania and Patusan: Finding the roots of Einstein's theories of relativity in "Dracula" and "Lord Jim"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Brian Shane

    This thesis investigates the similarities in the study of time and space in literature and science during the modern period. Specifically, it focuses on the portrayal of time and space within Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) and Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim (1899-1900), and compares the ideas presented with those later scientifically formulated by Albert Einstein in his special and general theories of relativity (1905-1915). Although both novels precede Einstein's theories, they reveal advanced complex ideas of time and space very similar to those later argued by the iconic physicist. These ideas follow a linear progression including a sense of temporal dissonance, the search for a communal sense of the present, the awareness and expansion of the individual's sense of the present, and the effect of mass on surrounding space. This approach enhances readings of Dracula and Lord Jim, illuminating the fascination with highly refined notions of time and space within modern European culture.

  16. A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an

  17. Second law study of the Einstein refrigeration cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, S.V.; Delano, A.; Schaefer, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    After formulating the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein spent several years developing absorption refrigeration cycles. In 1930, he obtained a US patent for a unique single pressure absorption cycle. The single pressure throughout the cycle eliminates the need for the solution pump found in conventional absorption cycles. The Einstein cycle utilizes butane as a refrigerant, ammonia as a pressure equalizing fluid, and water as an absorbing fluid. This cycle is dramatically different in both concept and detail than the better known ammonia-water-hydrogen cycle. Recent studies have shown that the cycle's COP is 0.17, which is relatively low compared to two-pressure cycles. This limits the cycle to refrigeration applications where simplicity, compactness, silent operation, and low cost are the important characteristics. Improved efficiency would open up other potential applications. In this study, a comprehensive second law analysis of the cycle was carried out on each component and process to determine the thermodynamic source of the low efficiency. The results show that the reversible COP for the cycle is 0.58, and that the component with the largest irreversibility is the generator. The entropic average temperatures for the heat flows into and out of the cycle are 353 K for the generator, 266 K for the evaporator, and 315 K for the absorber/condenser. The COP degradations from the ideal due to irreversibilities are 0.12 for the evaporator, 0.11 for the absorber/condenser, and 0.17 for the generator. The generator irreversibility is due to the inherent temperature difference in the internal heat exchange. The results show that there is a large potential for increasing the cycle's efficiency through design changes to raise the low generator temperature and to reduce the large generator irreversibilities.

  18. Recommendations for Broader Impacts in K-12: Advice from Einstein Educator Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, H. A.; LaDue, N.; Moore, J. D.; Whitsett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since 1994, the Albert Einstein Distinguished Science Educator Fellowship Act has brought Master K-12 STEM educators to Washington D.C. and Virginia for 11-month appointments in STEM-related Federal agencies and Congressional Offices. These top educators are leaders in their communities and often have years of experience working with government-funded researchers reaching out to the K-12 community. During their fellowship year, Einstein Fellows use their years of experience and expertise in to inform efforts and initiatives in the federal departments, directorates and offices to which they are assigned. The collaborative efforts of a group of NSF Einstein Fellows has led to the development of "Broader Impacts in the K-12 Community", a suite of experience-based recommendations and ideas designed to leverage grant resources and maximize effective partnerships between the research and K-12 communities. The goal of this presentation is to communicate best practices for researchers engaging in the realm of K-12 education from the perspective of educators. Challenges are highlighted and mapped to realistic solutions. Written originally as a panel talk to help NSF panel members consider feasible, high-quality K-12 broader impacts, this presentation has become an invaluable resource for principle investigators as they consider engaging with the K-12 community. While this presentation specifically addresses merit review components of NSF solicitations, these recommendations are relevant for any STEM initiatives that involve partnerships between scientists and teachers.

  19. 13. Photocopy of drawing (Original by Albert P.Erb) SOUTH ELEVATION,FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of drawing (Original by Albert P.Erb) SOUTH ELEVATION,FIRST FLOOR PLAN AND SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  20. Einstein for Schools and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…

  1. Walter C. Williams with Brig. General Albert Boyd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Walter C. Williams, (behind airplane model) Head of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Research Station at Edwards Air Force Base in California is examining a Northrop X-4 research airplane with Brig. Gen. Albert Boyd, Commander of Edwards Air Force Base. At Edwards, the Air Force Air Material Command ran a brief program on the X-4 during the summer of 1950 before delivering it to the NACA. Data was collected on these 14 flights, so they were logged as NACA test flights. General Boyd made flight number 13. Air Force and NACA pilots completed a total of 82 flights on X-4 #2 (46-677) between August 1950 and September 1953. There are three things that made the Mojave Desert, where Edwards Air Force Base is located, so well suited for flight research. The first was the area's flying conditions--clear skies with great visibility almost every day of the year. The second was the 44-square-mile Rogers Dry Lake, a natural landing site that General Boyd referred to as 'God's gift to the Air Force.' The third was the unpopulated area surrounding the lakebed, which led to fewer complaints about aircraft noise (including sonic booms) than would have occurred in more populated areas. There was also less chance of injury to the surrounding population in the event of an aircraft accident.

  2. Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Mowbrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the ‘Guinea Pig Club’. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley’s work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada’s most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day. PMID:24431953

  3. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  4. The Einstein Center for Epigenomics: studying the role of epigenomic dysregulation in human disease.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; Maqbool, Shahina B; Olea, Raul; Westby, Gael; Broin, Pilib Ó; Fazzari, Melissa J; Zheng, Deyou; Suzuki, Masako; Greally, John M

    2009-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of epigenetic and transcriptional dysregulation in the pathogenesis of a range of human diseases, not just in the best-studied example of cancer. It is, however, quite difficult for an individual investigator to perform these studies, as they involve genome-wide molecular assays combined with sophisticated computational analytical approaches of very large datasets that may be generated from various resources and technologies. In 2008, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, USA established a Center for Epigenomics to facilitate the research programs of its investigators, providing shared resources for genome-wide assays and for data analysis. As a result, several avenues of research are now expanding, with cancer epigenomics being complemented by studies of the epigenomics of infectious disease and a neuroepigenomics program.

  5. Arthur Beer and his relations with Einstein and the Warburg Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Albert Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding Editor of the series Vistas in Astronomy.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetto, E.

    2007-07-01

    Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour

  7. Polymer Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Chacón-Acosta, G.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we analyze a non-interacting one-dimensional polymer Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose-Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for λ2 up to ≲10-16 m2. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  8. Vision and cognition in the natural philosophy of Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus).

    PubMed

    Theiss, P; Grüsser, O J

    1994-01-01

    Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus, ca. 1197-1280) descended from a nobleman's family in Upper Suebia and studied natural philosophy and theology at the University of Padova, where he joined the Dominican order. Confronted with Aristotelian thought mainly in its Arabic modification (Avicenna, Al-Farabi, Averroes, Alhazen, Costa ben Luca and others) from his days in Padova, he elaborated in several books on the principles of natural philosophy, biology, brain and sense functions and psychology in addition to his theological and exegetic works. His observations and concepts on vision are discussed in detail. It is pointed out that Albert discovered some phenomena of vision not before known such as vestibular nystagmus and rod monochromacy, i.e. total colour blindness accompanied by photophobia. Based on clinical observations Albert also postulated a decussation of the optic nerve fibres at the optic chiasm. Albert's concept of higher order cognitive function is discussed and some of his explanations of dreams and neuropsychiatric disease on the basis of his cognitive model are mentioned. Albert's thoughts on vision and other sense perceptions, higher brain functions and cognition are considered as progressive elaborations of Galenic concepts as adapted by some Patristic theologians and the Arabic natural scientists and philosophers of the 9th-11th century.

  9. Putting agent-based modeling to work: results of the 4th International Project Albert Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Gary E.; Bjorkman, Eileen A.; Colton, Trevor

    2002-07-01

    Project Albert is an initiative of the US Marine Corps which uses a series of new models and tools, multidisciplinary teams, and the scientific method to explore questions of interest to military planners. Project Albert attempts to address key areas that traditional modeling and simulation techniques often do not capture satisfactorily and uses two data management concepts, data farming and data mining, to assist in identifying areas of interest. The current suite of models used by Project Albert includes four agent-based models that allow agents to interact with each other and produce emergent behaviors. The 4th International Project Albert Workshop was held 6-9 August 2001 in Australia. Workshop participants split into five groups, each of which attempted to apply various combinations of the Project Albert models to answer a series of questions in five areas: Control Operations; Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Intelligence Force Mix; Precision Maneuver; Mission Area Analysis; and Peace Support Operations. This paper focuses on the methodology used during the workshop, the results of the workshop, and a summary of follow-on work since the workshop.

  10. Einstein Gyrogroup as a B-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suksumran, Teerapong; Wiboonton, Keng

    2015-08-01

    Using the Clifford algebra formalism, we give an algebraic proof that the open unit ball B = v ∈Rn : ‖ v ‖ < 1 } of Rn equipped with Einstein addition ⊕E forms a B-loop or, equivalently, a uniquely 2-divisible gyrocommutative gyrogroup. We obtain a compact formula for Einstein addition in terms of Möbius addition. We then give a characterization of associativity and commutativity of vectors in B with respect to Einstein addition.

  11. Einstein as a Missionary of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed studies, Einstein's travels and their impact on the dissemination of relativity theory are examined. These activities as well as Einstein's own popular writings are interpreted in the context of his understanding of science as part of human culture.

  12. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a comparison of images over Prince Albert, produced by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on April 10, 1994, and again on orbit 20 of the second flight of Endeavour on October 1, 1994. The area is centered at 53.91 degrees north latitude and 104.69 degrees west longitude and is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of Candle Lake, between the gravel highway of 120 and west of highway 106. The area imaged is near the southern limit of the boreal forest. The boreal forest of North America is a continuous vegetation belt at high latitudes stretching across the continent from the Atlantic shoreline of central Labrador and then westward across Canada to the interior mountains and central coastal plains of Alaska. The forest is also part of a larger northern hemisphere circumpolar boreal forest belt. Coniferous trees dominate the entire forest but deciduous trees are also present. During the month of April, the forest experiences seasonal changes from a frozen condition to a thawed condition. The trees are completely frozen over the winter season and the forest floor is covered by snow. As the average temperature rises in the spring, the trees are thawed and the snow melts. This transition has an impact on the rate of moisture evaporation and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In late September and early October, the boreal forest experiences a relatively different seasonal change. At this time, the leaves on deciduous trees start changing color and dropping off. The soil and trees are quite often moist due to frequent rainfall and cloud cover. The evaporation of moisture and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere also diminishes at this time. SIR-C/X-SAR is sensitive to the moisture of soil and vegetation and can sense this freeze

  13. Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a comparison of images over Prince Albert, produced by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on April 10, 1994, and again on orbit 20 of the second flight of Endeavour on October 1, 1994. The area is centered at 53.91 degrees north latitude and 104.69 degrees west longitude and is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of Candle Lake, between the gravel highway of 120 and west of highway 106. The area imaged is near the southern limit of the boreal forest. The boreal forest of North America is a continuous vegetation belt at high latitudes stretching across the continent from the Atlantic shoreline of central Labrador and then westward across Canada to the interior mountains and central coastal plains of Alaska. The forest is also part of a larger northern hemisphere circumpolar boreal forest belt. Coniferous trees dominate the entire forest but deciduous trees are also present. During the month of April, the forest experiences seasonal changes from a frozen condition to a thawed condition. The trees are completely frozen over the winter season and the forest floor is covered by snow. As the average temperature rises in the spring, the trees are thawed and the snow melts. This transition has an impact on the rate of moisture evaporation and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In late September and early October, the boreal forest experiences a relatively different seasonal change. At this time, the leaves on deciduous trees start changing color and dropping off. The soil and trees are quite often moist due to frequent rainfall and cloud cover. The evaporation of moisture and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere also diminishes at this time. SIR-C/X-SAR is sensitive to the moisture of soil and vegetation and can sense this freeze

  14. Measuring Starlight Deflection during the 2017 Eclipse: Repeating the Experiment that made Einstein Famous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Donald

    2016-05-01

    In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.

  15. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: Remembering our Humanity: the deep impact of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Patricia M.

    2009-05-01

    ``There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest.'' Days before his death, Albert Einstein joined Bertrand Russell and other notable scientists and philosophers in issuing a statement calling for the abolition of war and for governments to ``find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them." As a first step, they called for the renunciation of nuclear weapons. The initiative led to the establishment of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, which bring together influential scholars and public figures concerned with reducing the danger of armed conflict and seeking cooperative solutions for global problems. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto has had a major impact on the way in which people discuss the issues of peace and war. The paper traces the growing awareness of the meaning of war, ways in which violent conflict can be prevented, particularly in the nuclear age, and the humanitarian imperative for so doing. From the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, London, 9 July 1955, signed also by Max Born, Percy W. Bridgman, Leopold Infeld, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Herman J. Muller, Linus Pauling, Cecil F. Powell, Joseph Rotblat and Hideki Yukawa

  16. Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.

  17. Einstein Manifolds as Yang-Mills Instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, John J.; Yang, Hyun Seok

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity can be formulated as a gauge theory of Lorentz group where spin connections play a role of gauge fields and Riemann curvature tensors correspond to their field strengths. One can then pose an interesting question: What is the Einstein equation from the gauge theory point of view? Or equivalently, what is the gauge theory object corresponding to Einstein manifolds? We show that the Einstein equations in four dimensions are precisely self-duality equations in Yang-Mills gauge theory and so Einstein manifolds correspond to Yang-Mills instantons in SO(4) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R gauge theory. Specifically, we prove that any Einstein manifold with or without a cosmological constant always arises as the sum of SU(2)L instantons and SU(2)R anti-instantons. This result explains why an Einstein manifold must be stable because two kinds of instantons belong to different gauge groups, instantons in SU(2)L and anti-instantons in SU(2)R, and so they cannot decay into a vacuum. We further illuminate the stability of Einstein manifolds by showing that they carry nontrivial topological invariants.

  18. Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian

    2009-01-01

    A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…

  19. Einstein as a Missionary of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…

  20. What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    2007-01-01

    People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is…

  1. Bose-Einstein condensate strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.

    2015-02-01

    We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schrödinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue, though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. Assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable stringlike astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.

  2. Socioeconomic Status, Risk of Obesity, and the Importance of Albert J. Stunkard

    PubMed Central

    Pavela, Gregory; Lewis, Dwight W.; Locher, Julie; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Albert J. Stunkard's influential career in obesity research spanned over fifty years and included several landmark studies on social factors related to obesity. This review discusses the important contributions Stunkard made to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status SES and obesity, extensions of his work, and reflects on Stunkard's role in the mentoring of succeeding generations of scientists. PMID:26746415

  3. The Albert Shanker Institute Five-Year Report, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the Albert Shanker Institute's activities over the past five years in the areas of education, labor, and democracy. In the area of education, the Institute has sponsored a wide range of forums, seminars, reports, and other activities that highlight the best thinking and solid research on the most effective ways to improve…

  4. Democracy's Champion: Albert Shanker and the International Impact of the American Federation of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Albert Shanker (1928-1997) is known mainly for his successful struggle to obtain collective bargaining for teachers, his leadership of teacher unions, and his championship of education reform. Shanker built large and powerful city, state, and national unions of teachers and other public employees that still stand as models both for union democracy…

  5. In the Beginning--Albert McKinley and the Founding of "The Social Studies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Oliver M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the founding of "The Social Studies" by Albert E. McKinley. The author briefly introduces McKinley's life and examines the evolution of the magazine. He identifies the conflicts and struggles between the historians and social studies educators for the magazine. The author concludes that the magazine has served both history…

  6. Distorting the Historical Record: One Detailed Example from the Albert Shanker Institute's Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a detailed example from the Albert Shanker Institute's report that shows the error of U.S. history textbooks and how it is distorting the historical record. One of the most glaring errors in textbooks is the treatment of the role that unions and labor activists played as key participants in the civil rights movement. The…

  7. A Common Language: British and American English, Conversations Between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph

    This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…

  8. Albert Gallatin: Champion of American Democracy. Friendship Hill National Historic Site Educational Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Register of Historic Places, Washington, DC. Interagency Resources Div.

    This teacher's guide is designed to prepare teachers and their students for a rewarding experience when visiting the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, the home of Albert Gallatin (1761-1849). Gallatin was a financier, entrepreneur, politician, diplomat, scholar, and colleague of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. The guide…

  9. Albert J. Beveridge as Imperialist and Progressive: The Means Justify the End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, A. Cheree

    1988-01-01

    Describes Senator Albert Jerimiah Beveridge as a leader in two early twentieth-century movements: imperialism and progressivism. Indicates that Beveridge's success demonstrates the possibility that rhetors can adapt to changes in the rhetorical situation without surrendering their personal convictions. (JK)

  10. The Canarias Einstein ring: a newly discovered optical Einstein ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Simioni, M.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Cassisi, S.; Walker, A. R.; Piotto, G.; Valdes, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of an optical Einstein ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. It is an almost complete ring (˜300°) with a diameter of ˜4.5 arcsec. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of z = 0.581, while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of z = 1.165. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be Mtot = (1.86 ± 0.23) × 1012 M⊙.

  11. Non-thermal Einstein relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichardaz, Robin; Pumir, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We consider a particle moving with equation of motion \\dot x=f(t) , where f(t) is a random function with statistics which are independent of x and t, with a finite drift velocity v=< f> and in the presence of a reflecting wall. Far away from the wall, translational invariance implies that the stationary probability distribution is P(x)∼ \\exp(α x) . A classical example of a problem of this type is sedimentation equilibrium, where α is determined by temperature. In this work we do not introduce a thermal reservoir and α is determined from the equation of motion. We consider a general approach to determining α which is not always in agreement with Einstein's relation between the mean velocity and the diffusion coefficient. We illustrate our results with a model inspired by the Boltzmann equation.

  12. Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ted

    2016-05-20

    A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.

  13. Stability of the Einstein static universe in Einstein-Cartan theory

    SciTech Connect

    Atazadeh, K.

    2014-06-01

    The existence and stability of the Einstein static solution have been built in the Einstein-Cartan gravity. We show that this solution in the presence of perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is cyclically stable around a center equilibrium point. Thus, study of this solution is interesting because it supports non-singular emergent cosmological models in which the early universe oscillates indeterminately about an initial Einstein static solution and is thus past eternal.

  14. Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)

  15. White Holes in Einstein-Aether Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkle, David; Akhoury, Ratindranath; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed of gravitational collapse in Einstein-aether theory. We find that under certain circumstances the collapse results in the temporary formation of a white hole horizon. NSF grant PHY-1505565.

  16. The creativity of Einstein and astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeldovich, Y. B.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of Einstein's scientific achievements for the 100th anniversary of his birth is presented. His works dealing with thermodynamics are described, along with his quantum theory of radiation. Most of the article discusses his general theory of relativity.

  17. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  18. The happiest thought of Einstein's life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, M.

    It is a commonly told story that Einstein formulated his famous principle of equivalence when thinking about what happens in a freely falling elevator, and that it was an original idea of his genius distinguished by the rare capability to see deep problems in the most ordinary things. In the reading of Einstein's and Ernst Mach's works the author has discovered that it was not a physicist in an elevator which led to the principle of equivalence but rather somebody falling from a roof; moreover, the idea behind the principle was not invented by Einstein himself but rather read by him from the book by Mach entitled The Science of Mechanics. The influence this book had on young Einstein is very well known.

  19. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2016-07-12

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  20. Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893-1986): the scientist who discovered vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Pietrzak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Albert Szent-Györgyi, a Hungarian biochemist, discovered vitamin C and rutin (vitamin P). The role of these vitamins in the body and their application to dermatology is vast. For the discovery of vitamin C and the description of oxidation, Albert Szent-Györgyi received a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1937. He discovered the role of adenosine triphosphate, actin-myosin, and many phases of the Krebs cycle, and also initiated studies on the influence of free radicals in the formation of tumors. Between 1918 and 1946, he worked in many European research centers and between 1947 and 1986, in the United States. His achievements were made possible due to his perseverance, which allowed him to overcome many maelstroms that plagued his scientific career.

  1. Analytic solutions for links and triangles distributions in finite Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo M.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.

    2017-01-01

    Barabási-Albert model describes many different natural networks, often yielding sensible explanations to the subjacent dynamics. However, finite size effects may prevent from discerning among different underlying physical mechanisms and from determining whether a particular finite system is driven by Barabási-Albert dynamics. Here we propose master equations for the evolution of the degrees, links and triangles distributions, solve them both analytically and by numerical iteration, and compare with numerical simulations. The analytic solutions for all these distributions predict the network evolution for systems as small as 100 nodes. The analytic method we developed is applicable for other classes of networks, representing a powerful tool to investigate the evolution of natural networks.

  2. Parameter specification for the degree distribution of simulated Barabási-Albert graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd-Zaid, Fairul; Kabban, Christine M. Schubert; Deckro, Richard F.; White, Edward D.

    2017-01-01

    The degree distribution of a simulated Barabási-Albert graph under linear preferential attachment is investigated. Specifically, the parameters of the power law distribution are estimated and compared against the theoretical values derived using mean field theory. Least squares method and MLE-nonparametric method were utilized to estimate the distribution parameters on 1000 simulated Barabási-Albert graphs for edge parameter m ∈ { 2 , 4 , 6 } and size n ∈ {2k : k = 5 , 6 , … , 14 , 15 } . Goodness of fit metrics were computed on a second set of simulated graphs for the median of the estimated parameters and other hypothetical values for the distribution parameters. The results suggest that the distribution of the parameters from simulated graphs are significantly different from the theoretical distribution and is also dependent on m. Further results confirm the finding that the parameter of the power law distribution, β, increases as m increases.

  3. Ising Model Spin S = 1 ON Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model with spin S = 1/2 was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Ising model spin S = 1 is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition is well defined in this system. We have obtained a first-order phase transition for values of connectivity m = 2 and m = 7 of the directed Barabási-Albert network.

  4. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    PubMed

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  5. Finite-size effects on semi-directed Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, M. A.; Sumour, Muneer A.; Elbitar, A. M.; Shabat, M. M.; Lima, F. W. S.

    2016-04-01

    In scale-free Barabási-Albert (BA) networks, we study the finite-size effect at different number m of neighbors. So, we investigate the effects of finite network size N for the recently developed semi-directed BA networks (SDBA1 and SDBA2) at fixed 2≤m≤300) and show and explain the gap in the distribution of the number k(i) of neighbors of the nodes i.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Albert Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C.; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A.; Plumblee, Jodie R.; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Whichard, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease. PMID:25733501

  7. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Kristensen, Thomas K; Stothard, J Russell; Kabatereine, Narcis B

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all locations, were highly susceptible to the S. mansoni isolates. Thus if B. choanomphala, which is an efficient intermediate host in Lake Victoria, is given an opportunity to occupy Lake Albert, it will most likely be compatible with the Albertine S. mansoni parasites. Equally, if B. stanleyi, currently restricted to Lake Albert invades Lake Victoria, it is likely to act as an efficient intermediate host. Future work should concentrate on intraspecific population-level differences in compatibility.

  8. Identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Albert isolates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Folster, Jason P; Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A; Plumblee, Jodie R; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Einsteins Kosmos. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Kosmologie Relativitatstheorie und zu Einsteins Wirken und Nachwirken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.

    2006-12-01

    This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses

  10. Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.

    2006-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.

  11. Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They

  12. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  13. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  14. Einstein Critical-Slowing-Down is Siegel CyberWar Denial-of-Access Queuing/Pinning/ Jamming/Aikido Via Siegel DIGIT-Physics BEC ``Intersection''-BECOME-UNION Barabasi Network/GRAPH-Physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh-Siegel Percolation GLOBALITY-to-LOCALITY Phase-Transition Critical-Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, Otto; Falcon, Pat; Alexander, G.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Einstein[Dover(03)] critical-slowing-down(CSD)[Pais, Subtle in The Lord; Life & Sci. of Albert Einstein(81)] is Siegel CyberWar denial-of-access(DOA) operations-research queuing theory/pinning/jamming/.../Read [Aikido, Aikibojitsu & Natural-Law(90)]/Aikido(!!!) phase-transition critical-phenomenon via Siegel DIGIT-Physics (Newcomb[Am.J.Math. 4,39(1881)]-{Planck[(1901)]-Einstein[(1905)])-Poincare[Calcul Probabilités(12)-p.313]-Weyl [Goett.Nachr.(14); Math.Ann.77,313 (16)]-{Bose[(24)-Einstein[(25)]-Fermi[(27)]-Dirac[(1927)]}-``Benford''[Proc.Am.Phil.Soc. 78,4,551 (38)]-Kac[Maths.Stat.-Reasoning(55)]-Raimi[Sci.Am. 221,109 (69)...]-Jech[preprint, PSU(95)]-Hill[Proc.AMS 123,3,887(95)]-Browne[NYT(8/98)]-Antonoff-Smith-Siegel[AMS Joint-Mtg.,S.-D.(02)] algebraic-inversion to yield ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-statistics (BEQS) with ZERO-digit Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION(BEC) ``INTERSECTION''-BECOME-UNION to Barabasi[PRL 876,5632(01); Rev.Mod.Phys.74,47(02)...] Network /Net/GRAPH(!!!)-physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh(1881)-Polya(21)-``Anderson''(58)-Siegel[J.Non-crystalline-Sol.40,453(80)

  15. Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History Robert V. Steiner, Ph.D. Project Director, Seminars on Science American Museum of Natural History The American Museum of Natural History, in collaboration with Hebrew University and the Skirball Cultural Center, has created a major exhibit on Albert Einstein, including extensive coverage of his contributions to relativity, quantum mechanics and unified field theories as well as the social and political dimensions of his life. Leveraging the assets of this exhibit as well as the expertise of the Museum's Department of Astrophysics and its Education Department, a six-week online professional development course for K-12 teachers has been created, providing inquires into some of the frontiers of physics through rich media resources, facilitated discussion forums and assignments. The course, which requires only minimal Web access, offers a unique opportunity for teachers across the United States to explore modern physics guided by a working scientist and a skilled online facilitator. The course includes original essays by Museum scientists, images, video, simulations, web links and digital resources for classroom use. The course design, development, implementation and evaluation are reviewed.

  16. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  17. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-09-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's speed-independent. This paper explores the history of "relativistic mass," emphasizing Einstein's public role and private thoughts. We show how the concept of speed-dependent mass mistakenly evolved out of a tangle of ideas despite Einstein's prescient reluctance. Along the way there will be previously unrevealed surprises (e.g., Einstein never derived the expression for "relativistic mass," and privately disapproved of it).

  18. Beyond Einstein: Exploring the Extreme Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate some of the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will carry and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.

  19. Propagating torsion in the Einstein frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popławski, Nikodem J.

    2006-11-01

    The Einstein-Cartan-Saa theory of torsion modifies the spacetime volume element so that it is compatible with the connection. The condition of connection compatibility gives constraints on torsion, which are also necessary for the consistence of torsion, minimal coupling, and electromagnetic gauge invariance. To solve the problem of positivity of energy associated with the torsionic scalar, we reformulate this theory in the Einstein conformal frame. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the Hojman-Rosenbaum-Ryan-Shepley theory of propagating torsion with a different factor in the torsionic kinetic term.

  20. Generating solutions to the Einstein field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contopoulos, I. G.; Esposito, F. P.; Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Witten, L.

    2016-11-01

    Exact solutions to the Einstein field equations may be generated from already existing ones (seed solutions), that admit at least one Killing vector. In this framework, a space of potentials is introduced. By the use of symmetries in this space, the set of potentials associated to a known solution is transformed into a new set, either by continuous transformations or by discrete transformations. In view of this method, and upon consideration of continuous transformations, we arrive at some exact, stationary axisymmetric solutions to the Einstein field equations in vacuum, that may be of geometrical or/and physical interest.

  1. Hypermass generalization of Einstein's gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The curvilinear invariant quaternion formalism is examined for curved space time. Einstein's gravitation equation is shown to have a simple and natural form in this notation. The hypermass generalization of particle mass, which was generated in our studies of the Dirac equation, is incorporated in gravitation by generalizing Einstein's equation. Covariance requires that the gravitational constant be generalized to an invariant quaternion when the mass is. The modification appears minor and of no importance cosmologically, unless one begins considering time and mass dependence of G.

  2. Bose-Einstein condensation. Twenty years after

    DOE PAGES

    Bagnato, V. S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; ...

    2015-02-23

    The aim of this introductory article is two-fold. First, we aim to offer a general introduction to the theme of Bose-Einstein condensates, and briefly discuss the evolution of a number of relevant research directions during the last two decades. Second, we introduce and present the articles that appear in this Special Volume of Romanian Reports in Physics celebrating the conclusion of the second decade since the experimental creation of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms.

  3. Einstein's opposition to the quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltete, Robert; Guy, Reed

    1990-07-01

    Einstein's opposition to the quantum theory is well known to physicists, but his reasons for being dissatisfied are not. Einstein regarded the theory as not only incomplete, but as fundamentally inadequate. He believed that the only reasonable interpretation of the quantum formalism was an ``ensemble interpretation,'' but he also thought that this interpretation and others were incomplete and irremediably inadequate, because they failed to describe the objective, real states of individual systems. He hoped, and expected, that a better theory would be developed—one expressed in terms of individuals having their own real states and from which the quantum theory could be recovered as an approximation.

  4. Robinson-Trautman solutions to Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, William

    2017-02-01

    Solutions to Einstein's equations in the form of a Robinson-Trautman metric are presented. In particular, we derive a pure radiation solution which is non-stationary and involves a mass m, The resulting spacetime is of Petrov Type II A special selection of parametric values throws up the feature of the particle `rocket', a Type D metric. A suitable transformation of the complex coordinates allows the metrics to be expressed in real form. A modification, by setting m to zero, of the Type II metric thereby converting it to Type III, is then shown to admit a null Einstein-Maxwell electromagnetic field.

  5. C. N. Yang on Einstein and Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    In Professor C. N. Yang’s view, Einstein’s strength was in his ability to distinguish what was truly important and to investigate it. Also, Einstein was unique in that he was able to zoom in as well as zoom out, just like a film which has both close-up and long shots. Many people are only able to have one view, either close-up or from afar, and cannot switch between the two. Professor C. N. Yang feels that, in the history of physics, only Newton can be compared with Einstein. Although Maxwell and Boltzmann were prominent physicists, their influence was not as great as Einstein’s.

  6. Einstein - Peace Now!: Visions and Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Reiner; Krieger, David

    2005-09-01

    Einstein was not only an extraordinary scientist, but also a person who faced his social responsibilities determinedly. The main focus of this book is put on topical articles by Scientific and Peace Nobel Prize laureates, prominent scientists and those committed to peace issues and justice, as well as citizens engagement for peace. Among the contributors are more than 10 Nobel Prize laureates, such as Mikhail Gorbachev, Walter Kohn, Joseph Rotblat, Alexander Ginzburg or Hans Bethe. This unique collection of intellectual thoughts on Einstein's vision of peace addresses a thoughtful, concerned and courageous audience, and was compiled to encourage and envision ways towards a more peaceful society.

  7. Proof of the entropy principle in Einstein-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sijie

    We consider a self-gravitating charged perfect fluid in a static spacetime. We assume that the Einstein constraint equation is satisfied. Then we prove that the extrema of the total entropy of fluid implies other components of Einstein's equation. Conversely, if Einstein's equation is satisfied, we show that the total entropy achieves an extremum. This work suggests that the maximum entropy principle is consistent with Einstein's equation when an electrostatic field is taken into account.

  8. Einstein and a century of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raine, D. J.

    2005-09-01

    In a world overabundant in information, a subject is defined by its iconography. Physics is the falling apple, the planetary atom, the laser, the mushroom cloud and the image of the later Einstein - images that represent, respectively, gravity, atomic theory, quantum theory, mass-energy and the scientist who had a hand in all four. It is therefore appropriate that World Year of Physics is called Einstein Year in the UK. Of course one can argue that progress in science depends on the contributions of many people; that there are other geniuses in physics, even some colourful personalities. Nevertheless there are fundamental reasons why Einstein's early achievements stand out even in their company. When at last the thought came to him that 'time itself was suspect', Einstein had found a new insight into the nature of the physical universe. It is this: that the universal properties of material objects tell us about the nature of space and time, and it is through these properties, not philosophical logic or common sense, that we discover the structure of spacetime. The later Einstein turned this successful formula on its head and sought to use the properties of spacetime to define those of material objects, thereby seeking to abolish matter entirely in favour of geometry. Before I introduce this special feature of European Journal of Physics I will say a few words about what is not here. Like all great geniuses Einstein can be seen as the climax of what went before him and the initiation of what was to follow. Looking back we can see the influence of Mach's positivism, according to which the role of science is to relate observations to other observations; hence only observations can tell us what is 'real'. But Einstein also grew up with the family electromechanical businesses, which testifies to the reality of the Maxwellian electromagnetic fields: thus only theory can tell us what is real! As is well known, Einstein himself refused to accept the full consequences of

  9. Conceptual Development of Einstein's Mass-Energy Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chee Leong; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2005-01-01

    Einstein's special theory of relativity was published in 1905. It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements in the history of human thought. Einstein described the equivalence of mass and energy as "the most important upshot of the special theory of relativity" (Einstein, 1919). In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of the…

  10. Einstein 1905-1955: His Approach to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault

    We review Einstein's epistemological conceptions, and indicate their philosophical roots. The particular importance of the ideas of Hume, Kant, Mach, and Poincaré is highlighted. The specific characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics are underlined. Lastly, we consider the practical application of Einstein's methodological principles to the two theories of relativity, and to quantum theory. We emphasize a Kantian approach to quantum theory.

  11. Evolution of egoism on semi-directed and undirected Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    2015-05-01

    Through Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of the four strategies: Ethnocentric, altruistic, egoistic and cosmopolitan in one community of individuals. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and semi-directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We study the Hammond-Axelrod (HA) model on undirected and semi-directed BA networks for the asexual reproduction case. With a small modification in the traditional HA model, our simulations showed that egoism wins, differently from other results found in the literature where ethnocentric strategy is common. Here, mechanisms such as reciprocity are absent.

  12. Biohistorical materials and contemporary privacy concerns-the forensic case of King Albert I.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Bekaert, Bram; Baumers, Maarten; Wenseleers, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; Borry, Pascal; Decorte, Ronny

    2016-09-01

    The rapid advancement of technology in genomic analysis increasingly allows researchers to study human biohistorical materials. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the privacy of the donor's living relatives and the negative impact they might experience from the (public) availability of genetic results, even in cases of scientific, forensic or historical relevance. This issue has become clear during a cold case investigation of a relic attributed to Belgian King and World War I-hero Albert I who died, according to the official version, in a solo climbing accident in 1934. Authentication of the relic with blood stains assigned to the King and collected on the place where his body was discovered is recognised as one of the final opportunities to test the plausibility of various conspiracy theories on the King's demise. While the historical value and current technological developments allow the genomic analysis of this relic, publication of genetic data would immediately lead to privacy concerns for living descendants and relatives of the King, including the Belgian and British royal families, even after more than 80 years. Therefore, the authentication study of the relic of King Albert I has been a difficult exercise towards balancing public research interests and privacy interests. The identification of the relic was realised by using a strict genetic genealogical approach including Y-chromosome and mitochondrial genome comparison with living relatives, thereby limiting the analysis to genomic regions relevant for identification. The genetic results combined with all available historical elements concerning the relic, provide strong evidence that King Albert I was indeed the donor of the blood stains, which is in line with the official climbing accident hypothesis and contradicts widespread 'mise-en-scène' scenarios. Since publication of the haploid data of the blood stains has the potential to violate the privacy of living relatives, we opted for

  13. Rational emotive therapy-a study of initial therapy sessions of Albert Ellis.

    PubMed

    Becker, I M; Rosenfeld, J G

    1976-10-01

    Because psychotherapy is what a therapist does, and not necessarily what he says he does, it is important to observe the activity of leaders in the field during their sessions. Twenty taped initial psychotherapy sessions by Albert Ellis were selected randomly from 70 recently recorded ones. Typescripts of each session were made, and two raters naive to the purposes were trained to place each of Ellis' statements into 1 of 17 categories. Each category consisted of a therapeutic technique. Some of these were ones that Ellis did during the 20 sessions examined was related very closely to what he has claimed to do, but that he did vary considerably from client to client.

  14. Einstein's contribution to cosmology - an overview (German Title: Einsteins Beitrag zur Kosmologie - ein Überblick)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Tobias

    It is well known that Einstein founded relativistic cosmology in 1917 when he published his ``Cosmological considerations in the general theory of relativity.'' He presented a static, spatially closed though unbounded cosmological model with a uniform large-scale distribution of matter. For more than a decade, he defended his Einstein model against the proposals of Friedmann (1922/23) and Lemaître (1927) who took non-static world models into consideration, as well as against the spatially infinite model worked out by Selety (1922). Only after getting acquainted with the latest observational data like Hubble's redshift-distance relation during visiting Hubble, Tolman and others in California around the turn of the year 1930, Einstein gave up his static model and began to accept expanding world models. In the aftermath, he himself proposed two expanding world models, namely the Friedmann-Einstein universe in 1931 and the Einstein-de Sitter universe in a joint paper with de Sitter in 1932. In Einstein's opinion, world models still had to be spatially closed, but the cosmological constant which he had introduced in 1917 to obtain a static cosmological model had to be abandoned. In his later years, Einstein showed scepticism against relativistic cosmology as can be seen from his remarks concerning the rotating Gödel universes (1949). Although Einstein seemed to consider relativistic cosmology as a ``fashionable disease'' the then discovered Friedmann-Lemaître models are still used to describe the large-scale evolution of the space-time background of the universe.

  15. The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1992-01-01

    The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.

  16. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  17. Einstein Slew Survey: Data analysis innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan F.; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new methods were needed in order to make the Einstein Slew X-ray Sky Survey. The innovations which enabled the Slew Survey to be done are summarized. These methods included experimental approach to large projects, parallel processing on a LAN, percolation source detection, minimum action identifications, and rapid dissemination of the whole data base.

  18. Chromohydrodynamics in Einstein-Cartan theory

    SciTech Connect

    Amorim, R.

    1986-05-15

    The complete dynamical system for a classical fluid endowed with non-Abelian charge density is obtained by using variational techniques. Spin density appears in a natural way, as a consequence of a usual gauge construction. Einstein-Cartan, Yang-Mills, and generalized Wong equations are explicitly shown.

  19. The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirac, P. A. M.

    1979-01-01

    This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)

  20. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  1. Einstein-Yang-Mills theory: Asymptotic symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Lambert, Pierre-Henry

    2013-11-01

    Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four-dimensional asymptotically flat case.

  2. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  3. Dynamics of the semiclassical Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.

    1986-03-15

    An investigation is done on the behavior of the Einstein equation for the case of a conformally invariant field in a conformally flat spacetime when higher-order derivative terms with logarithmic dependence on the scalar curvature are introduced. It is seen that in the quantum case, flat spacetime is always stable to conformally flat perturbations.

  4. Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Order Granting in part and Denying in part Petitions for Objection to Permits in Response to Remand

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Order Responding to a Request that the Administrator Object to the Issuance of an Operating Permit to Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in Bronx, NY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Therapy and ideology: psychoanalysis and its vicissitudes in pre-state Israel (including some hitherto unpublished letters by Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein).

    PubMed

    Rolnik, Eran J

    2010-12-01

    Few chapters in the historiography of psychoanalysis are as densely packed with trans-cultural, ideological, institutional, and moral issues as the coming of psychoanalysis to Jewish Palestine--a geopolitical space which bears some of the deepest scars of twentieth-century European, and in particular German, history. From the historical as well as the critical perspective, this article reconstructs the intricate connections between migration, separation and loss, continuity and new beginning which resonate in the formative years of psychoanalysis in pre-state Israel.

  7. Was Einstein Really a Pacifist? Einstein's Independent, Forward-Thinking, Flexible, and Self-Defined Pacifism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Virginia Iris

    2005-03-01

    Perhaps motivated by an admiration for Einstein and a desire to identify with him, combined with a majority world-view in opposition to pacifism, skeptics may often question whether Einstein was really a pacifist. They might point to the fact that his dramatic contributions to the field of physics at the beginning of the twentieth century made nuclear weapons possible, as well as his 1939 letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging him to develop such weapons before the Nazis would, as examples of at least an inconsistent stance on pacifism across time on Einstein's part. However, as this paper will show, Einstein's pacifism began early in his life, was a deep-seated conviction that he expressed repeatedly across the years, and was an independent pacifism that flowed from his own responses to events around him and contained some original and impressively forward-thinking elements. Moreover, in calling himself a pacifist, as Einstein did, he defined pacifism in his own terms, not according to the standards of others, and this self-defined pacifism included the flexibility to designate the Nazis as a special case that had to be opposed through the use of military violence, in his view. As early as during his childhood, Einstein already disliked competitive games, because of the necessity of winners and losers, and disliked military discipline. In his late thirties, living in Germany during the First World War with a prestigious academic position in Berlin, yet retaining his identity as a Swiss citizen, Einstein joined a small group of four intellectuals who signed the pacifist ``Appeal to the Europeans'' in response to the militarist ``Manifesto to the Civilized World'' signed by 93 German intellectuals. In private, throughout that War, Einstein repeatedly expressed his disgust and sense of alienation at the ``war-enthusiasm'' sentiment of the majority. In the aftermath of the War, Einstein was involved in a German private commission to investigate German war

  8. [Albert Schweitzer's MD thesis on Criticism of the medical pathographies on Jesus].

    PubMed

    Seidel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The prominent philosopher, theologian, physician, musicologist and organ soloist Albert Schweitzer (14. 1. 1875-4. 9. 1965) submitted his MD thesis Kritik der von medizinischer Seite veröffentlichten Pathographien uber Jesus (Criticism of the medical pathographies on Jesus) in 1913. Very soon he published this work under the title Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu. Darstellung und Kritik (The psychiatric evaluation of Jesus. Description and criticism) in order to reach a broader audience. Schweitzer's explicit motive for selecting this topic was to influence the theological debate by means of a M. D. thesis on psychiatric pathographies on Jesus. He was confronted with a lot of reproaches. These reproaches contended that his theological opinions had been supporting tendencies to describe Jesus as a mentally ill person or a religious fanatic. In addition, some authors of pathographies on Jesus (De Loosten, Binet-Sanglé, Hirsch, Rasmussen) characterized Jesus as mentally ill, suffering from paranoia. Schweitzer intended to reject the reproaches considering himself and the postulates of the authors of the pathographies. Schweitzer combined in a transdisciplinary way theological, psychiatric and psychopathological arguments. He did this in a very convincing way. Although Schweitzer did not deal with a central or explicit psychiatric question, he implicitly postulated transdisciplinary approaches for proper retrospective pathographies on historic persons. At the age of thirty, Schweitzer decided to finish his academic career and to begin studies in medicine as a preparation for work as a physician in Africa. This decision provoked much lack of understanding in his personal environment. Therefore it may be possible that a very personal motive contributed to the selection of the topic of the MD thesis. Among psychiatric authorities, Albert Schweitzer's interest in the criticisms of psychiatric pathographies and his transdisciplinary approach to this topic encountered

  9. Quantum Einstein-de Haas effect

    PubMed Central

    Ganzhorn, Marc; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The classical Einstein-de Haas experiment demonstrates that a change of magnetization in a macroscopic magnetic object results in a mechanical rotation of this magnet. This experiment can therefore be considered as a macroscopic manifestation of the conservation of total angular momentum and energy of electronic spins. Since the conservation of angular momentum is a consequence of a system's rotational invariance, it is valid for an ensemble of spins in a macroscopic ferromaget as well as for single spins. Here we propose an experimental realization of an Einstein-de Haas experiment at the single-spin level based on a single-molecule magnet coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We demonstrate that the spin associated with the single-molecule magnet is then subject to conservation of total angular momentum and energy, which results in a total suppression of the molecule's quantum tunnelling of magnetization. PMID:27126449

  10. Taming the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation.

    PubMed

    Harte, Abraham I

    2014-12-31

    Many of the technical complications associated with the general theory of relativity ultimately stem from the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation. It is shown here that an appropriate choice of dynamical variables may be used to eliminate all such nonlinearities beyond a particular order: Both Landau-Lifshitz and tetrad formulations of Einstein's equation are obtained that involve only finite products of the unknowns and their derivatives. Considerable additional simplifications arise in physically interesting cases where metrics become approximately Kerr or, e.g., plane waves, suggesting that the variables described here can be used to efficiently reformulate perturbation theory in a variety of contexts. In all cases, these variables are shown to have simple geometrical interpretations that directly relate the local causal structure associated with the metric of interest to the causal structure associated with a prescribed background. A new method to search for exact solutions is outlined as well.

  11. Solar physics at the Einstein Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Heibel, C.; Rendtel, J.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, Juergen H.; Diercke, A.; González Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Kuckein, C.; Önel, H.; Senthamizh Pavai, V.; Staude, J.; Verman, M.

    2016-11-01

    The solar observatory Einstein Tower ({Einsteinturm}) at the Telegrafenberg in Potsdam is both a landmark of modern architecture and an important place for solar physics. Originally built for high-resolution spectroscopy and measuring the gravitational redshift, research shifted over the years to understanding the active Sun and its magnetic field. Nowadays, telescope and spectrographs are used for research and development, i.e., testing instruments and in particular polarization optics for advanced instrumentation deployed at major European and international astronomical and solar telescopes. In addition, the Einstein Tower is used for educating and training of the next generation astrophysicists as well as for education and public outreach activities directed at the general public. This article comments on the observatory's unique architecture and the challenges of maintaining and conserving the building. It describes in detail the characteristics of telescope, spectrographs, and imagers; it portrays some of the research and development activities.

  12. Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs.

  13. Filling-In Models of Completion: Rejoinder to Kellman, Garrigan, Shipley, and Keane (2007) and Albert (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barton L.

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the computations involved in the processes underlying visual segmentation and interpolation in conditions of occlusion. P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, T. F. Shipley, and B. P. Keane and M. K. Albert defended the view that identical contour interpolation mechanisms underlie modal and amodal…

  14. It Gets Me Upset Talking about the Royal Albert: Collaborative Analysis of the Ethics of an Oral History Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mee, Steve

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing oral history project at the University of Cumbria seeks to uncover the lived experiences of people with learning difficulties who lived at the Royal Albert Hospital. A recently made video exposed the apparent distress this caused one of the participants. Ethical discussions about the project reached a point of being "stuck".…

  15. From the National Academies: A Tribute to the Science Education Legacy of National Academy of Sciences President Bruce Alberts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, Jay B.

    2005-01-01

    This column, "From the National Academies," was Bruce Alberts' idea, one of so many for improving education. As a long-standing member of the American Society for Cell Biology, the namesake for the prize that is awarded annually to cell biologists for excellence in science education, and one of the founding editors of this journal, Alberts…

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni in Uganda: DNA barcoding reveals substantial genetic diversity within Lake Albert and Lake Victoria populations.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Webster, B L; Weber, T; Nyakaana, S; Webster, J P; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B; Rollinson, D

    2009-11-01

    Representative samples of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria were examined using DNA barcoding, sequence analysis of two partially overlapping regions - ASMIT (396 bp) & MORGAN (617 bp) - of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1). The Victorian sample exhibited greater nucleotide diversity, 1.4% vs. 1.0%, and a significant population partition appeared as barcodes did not cross-over between lakes. With one exception, Lake Albert populations were more mixed by sampled location, while those from Lake Victoria appeared more secluded. Using statistical parsimony, barcode ASMIT 1 was putatively ancestral to all others and analysis of MORGAN cox1 confirmed population diversity. All samples fell into two of five well-resolved lineages; sub-lineages therein broadly partitioning by lake. It seems that barcode ASMIT 1 (and close variants) was likely widely dispersed throughout the Nilotic environment but later diversified in situ, and in parallel, within Lake Albert and Lake Victoria. The genetic uniformity of Ugandan S. mansoni can no longer be assumed, which might better explain known epidemiological heterogeneities. While it appears plausible that locally evolved heritable traits could spread through most of the Lake Albert populations, it seems unlikely they could quickly homogenise into Lake Victoria or amongst populations therein.

  17. Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza

    1999-08-01

    Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.

  18. Bose-Einstein condensates in rotating lattices.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajiv; Holland, M J; Carr, L D

    2006-02-17

    Strongly interacting bosons in a two-dimensional rotating square lattice are investigated via a modified Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Such a system corresponds to a rotating lattice potential imprinted on a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Second-order quantum phase transitions between states of different symmetries are observed at discrete rotation rates. For the square lattice we study, there are four possible ground-state symmetries.

  19. Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2008-03-01

    We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.

  20. Finding solutions to the Einstein equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, Robert Steven

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation is a description of a variety of methods of solving the Einstein equations describing the gravitational interaction in different mathematical and astrophysical settings. We begin by discussing a numerical study of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in spherical symmetry. The equations are presented along with boundary and initial conditions. An explanation of the numerical scheme is then given. This is followed by a discussion of the solutions obtained together with an interpretation in the context of gravitational collapse and critical phenomena at the threshold of black hole formation. Following this, we generalize the same system to axisymmetry. The full, gravitational equations are presented along with a short discussion of the problems we encountered in trying to solve these. As a first step we consider evolving the matter fields in flat space. The simplified equations are given and the numerical scheme implemented to solve them discussed. We then consider some analytic techniques to understanding the Einstein equations and the gravitating systems they should describe. One such is to change the spacetime dimension. This we do in considering magnetic solutions to the (2 + 1) Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system with nonzero cosmological constant. The solutions are investigated to determine whether these correspond to “soliton”-like solutions or black holes. As another example of this general approach, we introduce an extra timelike coordinate into the spherically symmetric vacuum system, and attempt to find a solution comparing the result to the more well known Schwarzschild solution. Finally, we give a short description of some preliminary work which will combine some of these numerical and analytical techniques. This approach simply takes the matter fields as weak and propagates them on a fixed spacetime background. In our particular case, we intend to study the evolution of Maxwell fields in the Schwarzschild geometry. We provide

  1. Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar field profile, one can then further evaluate whether these limits can be attributed to a genuine screening effect. For illustration, we apply the analysis to both a cubic galileon and a chameleon model as well as to Brans-Dicke theory. Finally, we emphasise that the scaling method also provides a natural approach for performing post-Newtonian expansions in screened regimes.

  2. Albert Sabin and the Coalition to Eliminate Polio from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Albert B. Sabin, MD, developer of the oral polio vaccine, was also a major proponent of its use in annual vaccination campaigns aimed at the elimination of polio. Sabin argued that administering his vaccine simultaneously to every child in a country would break polio's chains of transmission. Although he was already promoting mass vaccination by the 1960s, Sabin's efforts expanded considerably when he became an adviser to groups fighting polio in the Americas in the 1980s. Sabin's experiences provide a window into both the formation of the coalition that eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and what can happen when biomedical researchers become public health policy advisers. Although the polio elimination coalition succeeded in part because member groups often accommodated each other's priorities, Sabin was often limited by his indifference to the interests of those he was advising and to the shortcomings of his vaccine.

  3. Albert H. Munsell: A sense of color at the interface of art and science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    The color theory conceived and commercialized by Albert H. Munsell (1858-1918) has become a universal part of the lexicon of soil science. An American painter noted for his seascapes and portraits, he had a long-standing interest in the description of color. Munsell began studies aimed at standardizing color description, using hue, value, and chroma scales, around 1898. His landmark treatise, "A Color Notation," was published in 1905. Munsell died about 30 years before his color charts came into wide-spread use in soil survey programs in the United States. Dorothy Nickerson, who began her career as secretary and laboratory assistant to Munsell's son, and later spent 37 years at USDA as a color-science specialist, did much to adapt the Munsell Color System to soil-color usage. The legacy of color research pioneered by A.H. Munsell is honored today by the Munsell Color Science Laboratory established in 1983 at the Rochester Institute of Technology.

  4. Evolution of ethnocentrism on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of contingent cooperation and ethnocentrism in the one-shot game. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We first replicate the Hammond-Axelrod model of in-group favoritism on a square lattice and then generalize this model on undirected and directed BA networks for both asexual and sexual reproduction cases. Our simulations demonstrate that irrespective of the mode of reproduction, the ethnocentric strategy becomes common even though cooperation is individually costly and mechanisms such as reciprocity or conformity are absent. Moreover, our results indicate that the spread of favoritism towards similar others highly depends on the network topology and the associated heterogeneity of the studied population.

  5. Fordism in the hospital: Albert Kahn and the design of Old Main, 1917-25.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitin K

    2012-07-01

    The 1917-25 planning and construction at the University of Michigan of a new University Hospital, later dubbed Old Main, offers a noteworthy case study of the formal convergence of hospital and factory in early twentieth-century America. Designed by Albert Kahn, the architect responsible for Ford Motor Company's archetypal automobile plants, and located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, less than forty miles from Detroit's burgeoning factory landscape, Old Main was well positioned to reflect the values of industry in both appearance and operation. The building's outer surface represents a striking departure from the historicism that characterized several other hospitals of this period, while plans for the building's novel diagnostic unit demonstrate unique operational parallels to the assembly line model of production. Ultimately, Old Main's industrial design similarities cast it as a precociously modernist hospital, relating streamlined form to function more explicitly than many of its contemporary institutions.

  6. Local versus global knowledge in the Barabási-Albert scale-free network model.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Moreno, Yamir

    2004-03-01

    The scale-free model of Barabási and Albert (BA) gave rise to a burst of activity in the field of complex networks. In this paper, we revisit one of the main assumptions of the model, the preferential attachment (PA) rule. We study a model in which the PA rule is applied to a neighborhood of newly created nodes and thus no global knowledge of the network is assumed. We numerically show that global properties of the BA model such as the connectivity distribution and the average shortest path length are quite robust when there is some degree of local knowledge. In contrast, other properties such as the clustering coefficient and degree-degree correlations differ and approach the values measured for real-world networks.

  7. Einstein's Materialism and Modern Tests of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, J. P.

    After a presentation of Einstein's and Bohr's antagonistic point of view on the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics an illustration of their conflicting positions in the particular case of Young's double slit experiment is presented. It is then shown that in their most recent form (i. e. time dependent neutron interferometry) these experiments suggest (if one accepts absolute energymomentum conservation in all individual microprocesses) that Einstein was right in the Bohr-Einstein controversy.Translated AbstractEinsteins Materialismus und heutige Tests der QuantenmechanikNach einer Darstellung von Einsteins und Bohrs antagonistischen Standpunkten in der Interpretation der Quantenmechanik werden ihre widersprüchlichen Positionen im speziellen Fall des Youngschen Doppelspaltexperiments dargestellt. Es wird dann gezeigt, daß diese Experimente in ihrer neuesten Form (d. h. zeitabhängige Neutroneninterferometrie) Einstein in der Bohr-Einsteinkontroverse recht gaben (wenn man absolute Energie-Impulserhaltung bei allen individuellen Mikroprozessen annimmt).

  8. Extended Horava gravity and Einstein-aether theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Ted

    2010-05-15

    Einstein-aether theory is general relativity coupled to a dynamical, unit timelike vector. If this vector is restricted in the action to be hypersurface orthogonal, the theory is identical to the IR limit of the extension of Horava gravity proposed by Blas, Pujolas and Sibiryakov. Hypersurface orthogonal solutions of Einstein-aether theory are solutions to the IR limit of this theory, hence numerous results already obtained for Einstein-aether theory carry over.

  9. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations via Dissociation of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Kheruntsyan, K.V.; Drummond, P.D.; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-10-07

    Recent experimental measurements of atomic intensity correlations through atom shot noise suggest that atomic quadrature phase correlations may soon be measured with a similar precision. We propose a test of local realism with mesoscopic numbers of massive particles based on such measurements. Using dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules into bosonic atoms, we demonstrate that strongly entangled atomic beams may be produced which possess Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in field quadratures in direct analogy to the position and momentum correlations originally considered by EPR.

  10. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Correlations via Dissociation of a Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheruntsyan, K. V.; Olsen, M. K.; Drummond, P. D.

    2005-10-01

    Recent experimental measurements of atomic intensity correlations through atom shot noise suggest that atomic quadrature phase correlations may soon be measured with a similar precision. We propose a test of local realism with mesoscopic numbers of massive particles based on such measurements. Using dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules into bosonic atoms, we demonstrate that strongly entangled atomic beams may be produced which possess Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations in field quadratures in direct analogy to the position and momentum correlations originally considered by EPR.

  11. Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, G.C.; Bagnato, V.S.; Muniz, S.R.; Spehler, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid {sup 4}He, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.

  12. Extragalactic counterparts to Einstein slew survey sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Remillard, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein slew survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. The importance of bright X-ray surveys is stressed, and the slew survey is compared to the Rosat all sky survey. Statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data are discussed. The 238 slew survey active galactic nuclei, clusters, and BL Lacertae objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies are described.

  13. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  14. Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2009-11-15

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation to the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry. In addition, in the Appendix the repulsive or attractive character of the wormhole geometries is briefly discussed.

  15. Atom scattering from surface Einstein modes

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J.R.

    1988-04-15

    We consider the scattering of thermal-energy atoms by a surface with a dilute coverage of adsorbates having a dispersionless Einstein vibrational mode. We show that the diffuse elastic scattered intensity has a Debye-Waller-type thermal attenuation only at low temperatures, and at large temperatures the attenuation saturates to a much weaker form. Similar thermal attenuation behavior occurs for the diffuse inelastic intensities. For an ordered adsorbate layer there is also a diffuse elastic intensity which increases with temperature at small temperatures.

  16. Einstein’s Clocks

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    One of the most non-intuitive physics theories ever devised is Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity, which claim such crazy-sounding things as two people disagreeing on such familiar concepts as length and time. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln shows that every single day particle physicists prove that moving clocks tick more slowly than stationary ones. He uses an easy to understand example of particles that move for far longer distances than you would expect from combining their velocity and stationary lifetime.

  17. Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Tibor

    2005-06-01

    I argue that to understand the life and work of Leo Szilard (1898 1964) we have to understand, first, that he was driven by events to numerous departures, escapes, and exiles, changing his religion, his language, his country of residence, and his scientific disciplines; second, that he was a man haunted by major moral dilemmas throughout his life, burdened by a sincere and grave sense of responsibility for the fate of the world; and third, that he experienced a terrible sense of déjà vu: his excessive sensitivity and constant alertness were products of his experiences as a young student in Budapest in 1919. The mature Szilard in Berlin of 1933, and forever after, was always ready to move. I proceed as follows:After a brief introduction to his family background, youth, and education in Budapest, I discuss the impact of his army service in the Great War and of the tumultous events in Hungary in 1918 1919 on his life and psyche, forcing him to leave Budapest for Berlin in late 1919. He completed his doctoral degree under Max von Laue (1879 1960) at the University of Berlin in 1922 and his Habilitationsschrift in 1925. During the 1920s and early 1930s, he filed a number of patents, several of them jointly with Albert Einstein (1879 1955). He left Berlin in March 1933 for London where he played a leading role in the rescue operations for refugee scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany. He also carried out notable research in nuclear physics in London and Oxford before immigrating to the United States at the end of 1938. He drafted Einstein’s famous letter of August 2, 1939, to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, worked in the Manhattan Project during World War II, initiated a petition to President Harry S. Truman not to use the bomb on Japan, and immediately after the war was a leader in the scientists’ movement that resulted in civilian control of nuclear energy. In 1946 he turned to biology, in which his most significant contribution was to formulate a theory of

  18. [Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light.

  19. A Demonstration of Einstein's Equivalence of Gravity and Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In 1907, Einstein described a "Gedankenexperiment" in which he showed that free fall in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from a body at rest in an elevator accelerated upwards in zero gravity. This paper describes an apparatus, which is simple to make and simple to operate, that acts as an observable footnote to Einstein's example. It…

  20. Quantum Mechanics of the Einstein-Hopf Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milonni, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Einstein-Hopf model for the thermodynamic equilibrium between the electromagnetic field and dipole oscillators is considered within the framework of quantum mechanics. Both the wave and particle aspects of the Einstein fluctuation formula are interpreted in terms of the fundamental absorption and emission processes. (Author/SK)

  1. Mont Albert to Buck Mountain: Provenance of Appalachian Ophiolite Chromites Using Osmium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarik, W. G.; Gale, A.; Booker, C.

    2003-12-01

    Osmium 187Os/188Os isotopic ratios have been determined for chrome-rich spinels from a suite of Appalachian ophiolites thought to represent Iapetus margin mantle formed and emplaced during the Ordovician. Because Re is incompatible during mantle melting while Os is compatible, non-radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os can constrain the average source and the timing of melt extraction, especially as Os is concentrated in chromite. Radiogenic ratios indicate contamination from aged sources with high Re/Os, such as mafic or continental crust. In rocks where spinel is the only remaining primary mineral, these properties can constrain the tectonic environment of formation as well as active-margin Os transport. There is little correction for 187Os in-growth since the Ordovician due to very low sample Re. Each ultramafic unit (from Mont Albert on the Gaspé Peninsula of Québec down to the Blue Ridge of North Carolina) forms a unique cluster of 187Os/188Os ratios, spanning 1 to 3%, but the whole range is about 10%. This corresponds to a range of initial γ Os of -1 to +9, where γ Os is the percent deviation from a chondritic source at the age of formation (roughly 500 Ma). Within ophiolites where detailed mapping and other geochemical information are available, there is a correlation between mantle-like Os and tholeiitic basalts; radiogenic Os and boninites (Thetford Mines). Continental arc-related mantle chromites (Baltimore Mafic Complex; γ Os +4 to +7) are the most radiogenic. The least radiogenic are chromites from the Staten Island serpentinite and Mont Albert (γ Os -1 and 0, respectively), either indicating formation from a previously depleted source or that they predate the other Taconic ophiolites. The restricted range of each ophiolite, compared to the whole of the data set, allow provenance links to be made between isolated bodies. For example, the Buck Creek, NC ultramafic complex, which has undergone granulite facies metamorphism, (Tenthorey et al., 1996) has a

  2. Turbidite systems of lacustrine rift basins: Examples from the Lake Kivu and Lake Albert rifts, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Scholz, Christopher A.

    2015-07-01

    The Holocene turbidite systems of Lake Kivu and the Pliocene turbidite systems of Lake Albert in the East African Rift were examined using high-resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection data and sediment core information. Based on investigations of seismic facies and lithofacies, several key turbidity-flow depositional elements were observed, including channels, overbank levees with sediment waves, and depositional lobes. Analyses of the sources of the recent and ancient turbidite systems in these two extensional basins suggest that flood-induced hyperpycnal flows are important triggers of turbidity currents in lacustrine rift basins. From source to sink, sediment dispersal, facies distribution, and depositional thickness of the turbidite systems are strongly influenced by rift topography. The Lake Kivu and Lake Albert rifts serve as excellent analogues for understanding the sedimentary patterns of lacustrine turbidites in extensional basins.

  3. History and perspectives of medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ramharter, Michael; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Grobusch, Martin P; Winkler, Stefan; Graninger, Wolfgang; Krishna, Sanjeev; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Lell, Bertrand; Missinou, Michel A; Mavoungou, Elie; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon. In 1981 a research department--the Medical Research Unit--was established with the aim to perform research in the field of infectious diseases ( www.lambarene.org ). The main focus lies on clinical research on malaria and other parasitic diseases. Studies on the molecular biology and immunology of parasitic diseases are fostered since the inauguration of a novel building dedicated for basic science. A training program in clinical research in tropical diseases for African scientists has been set up recently.

  4. Cosmography: Cosmology without the Einstein equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2005-09-01

    How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane—as the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe become increasingly baroque, it behaves us to step back a little and carefully disentangle cosmological kinematics from cosmological dynamics. The use of basic symmetry principles (such as the cosmological principle) permits us to do a considerable amount, without ever having to address the vexatious issues of just how much “dark energy”, “dark matter”, “quintessence”, and/or “phantom matter” is needed in order to satisfy the Einstein equations. This is the sub-sector of cosmology that Weinberg refers to as “cosmography”, and in this article I will explore the extent to which cosmography is sufficient for analyzing the Hubble law and so describing many of the features of the universe around us.

  5. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  6. Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Vivien; Jaime, Marcelo; Batista, C. D.

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets. These magnets are natural realizations of gases of interacting bosons whose relevant parameters such as dimensionality, lattice geometry, amount of disorder, nature of the interactions, and particle concentration can vary widely between different compounds. The particle concentration can be easily tuned by applying an external magnetic field which plays the role of a chemical potential. This rich spectrum of realizations offers a unique possibility for studying the different physical behaviors that emerge in interacting Bose gases from the interplay between their relevant parameters. The plethora of other bosonic phases that can emerge in quantum magnets, of which the Bose-Einstein condensate is the most basic ground state, is reviewed. The compounds discussed in this review have been intensively studied in the last two decades and have led to important contributions in the area of quantum magnetism. In spite of their apparent simplicity, these systems often exhibit surprising behaviors. The possibility of using controlled theoretical approaches has triggered the discovery of unusual effects induced by frustration, dimensionality, or disorder.

  7. Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Act of 1994. Hearing on S. 2104 To Establish within the National Laboratories of the Department of Energy a National Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Program, before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    These hearings addressed proposed Bill S. 2104 to create a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that would provide them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and communication among the educational community, the Congress, and the Executive Agencies responsible for developing and…

  8. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in

  10. Albert Chalmers: Perpetual honours for a prominent tropical medicine career in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article starts with brief review of Albert Chalmers’ early career in tropical medicine until he was appointed Director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum (WTRLK) in 1913, succeeding Andrew Balfour. Then the article explores how Chalmers faced the challenges and managed to establish a solid research base under very harsh conditions. Most of his directorship was during the First World War, with shortage of staff and increased routine work load. In spite of these constraints, Chalmers managed to establish a base for research in tropical medicine in WTRK. Chalmers’ research concentrated on the taxonomy and pathogenicity of bacteria and fungi but he also worked on miscellaneous dermatological disorders and on sleeping sickness. His papers reflect a wide range of knowledge and deep understanding of the topics he was covering. His work on the classification of pathogenic fungi was widely recognized. He tried different preparations of vaccines for cerebrospinal meningitis but with the technology available at the time he could not produce a potent vaccine. Chalmers’ papers reflect the tremendous effort exerted in their production. Chamers resigned from WTRLK in 1920 and died of acute infective jaundice in the same year. In 1921 his widow, gave £500 to the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) in memory of her husband. The RSTMH Council decided to devote this money to the foundation of the Chalmers Memorial Medal. PMID:27493397

  11. Sexual Science and Sexual Forensics in 1920s Germany: Albert Moll as (S)Expert

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Using court records involving the expert testimony of the Berlin sexologist Albert Moll, my article demonstrates that during the early 1920s a shift in the ‘epistemologies of justice’ concerning the adjudication of sex crimes took place within German courtrooms. Namely, presiding judges considered a greater number of sexual acts as punishable, despite no change in the laws themselves. Central to my argument is the role of expert testimony in practice and its critical reception. By focusing upon the rhetorical strategies presented by attorneys, judges and expert witnesses (as well as defendants themselves and their relatives), it illustrates the functions of expert and tacit knowledge in court, which were often not mutually exclusive. Moll’s stature also enabled him to translate his scientific–medical expertise into state support for his testimonies, as well as the rebuilding of an international community of sexological authorities. It was only under Moll’s leadership that the First International Sexology Congress could take place in 1926, an event that marked the apex of his prestige. PMID:23002293

  12. The powers of suggestion: Albert Moll and the debate on hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2014-03-01

    The Berlin physician Albert Moll (1862-1939) was an advocate of hypnotic suggestion therapy and a prolific contributor to the medical, legal and public discussions on hypnotism from the 1880s to the 1920s. While his work in other areas, such as sexology, medical ethics and parapsychology, has recently attracted scholarly attention, this paper for the first time comprehensively examines Moll's numerous publications on hypnotism and places them in their contemporary context. It covers controversies over the therapeutic application of hypnosis, the reception of Moll's monograph Der Hypnotismus (1889), his research on the rapport between hypnotizer and subject, his role as an expert on 'hypnotic crime', and his views on the historical influence of hypnotism on the development of psychotherapy. My findings suggest that Moll rose to prominence due to the strong late-nineteenth-century public and medical interest in the phenomena of hypnosis, but that his work was soon overshadowed by new, non-hypnotic psychotherapeutic approaches, particularly Freud's psychoanalysis.

  13. Remembering Our Forebears: Albert Jan Kluyver and the Unity of Life.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Rivers; Singleton, David R

    2017-02-01

    The Dutch microbiologist/biochemist Albert Jan Kluyver (1888-1956) was an early proponent of the idea of biochemical unity, and how that concept might be demonstrated through the careful study of microbial life. The fundamental relatedness of living systems is an obvious correlate of the theory of evolution, and modern attempts to construct phylogenetic schemes support this relatedness through comparison of genomes. The approach of Kluyver and his scientific descendants predated the tools of modern molecular biology by decades. Kluyver himself is poorly recognized today, yet his influence at the time was profound. Through lens of today however, it has been argued that the focus by Kluyver and others to create taxonomic and phylogenetic schemes using morphology and biochemistry distorted and hindered progress of the discipline of microbiology, because of a perception that the older approaches focused too much on a reductionist worldview. This essay argues that in contrast the careful characterization of fundamental microbial metabolism and physiology by Kluyver made many of the advances of the latter part of the twentieth century possible, by offering a framework which in many respects anticipated our current view of phylogeny, and by directly and indirectly training a generation of scientists who became leaders in the explosive growth of biotechnology.

  14. Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children: Preliminary Study in Pediatric Hospital Albert Royer, Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mbaye; Gueye, Doudou; Wellé, Ibrahima Bocar; Lo, Faty Balla; Sagna, Aloise; Diop, Marie; Fall, Ibrahima

    2015-01-01

    Appendiceal pathology's management has benefited in recent years from the advent of laparoscopic surgery. This study is to make a preliminary assessment of laparoscopic management of acute and complicated appendicitis in children after a few months of practice at the University Hospital Albert Royer, Dakar. This is a retrospective study of 22 cases of patients, all operated on by the same surgeon. The parameters studied were age, sex, clinical data and laboratory features, radiological data, and results of surgical treatment. The mean age of patients was 9.5 years with a male predominance. The series includes 14 cases of acute appendicitis and 8 complicated cases. Appendectomy anterograde is practiced in 81% of cases. Appendectomy was associated with peritoneal wash in 17 patients including 9 cases of acute appendicitis. Drainage of Douglas pouch is performed in 2 patients with complicated appendicitis; the average production was 300 cc of turbid liquids and any complications were not founded. An abscess of Douglas pouch is noted in 2 patients with complicated appendicitis undrained. These Douglas abscesses were treated medically. No conversion of laparotomy was performed in the series. After an average of 8 months no other problems were noted. PMID:26448743

  15. Sexual science and sexual forensics in 1920s Germany: Albert Moll as (S)expert.

    PubMed

    Conn, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    Using court records involving the expert testimony of the Berlin sexologist Albert Moll, my article demonstrates that during the early 1920s a shift in the 'epistemologies of justice' concerning the adjudication of sex crimes took place within German courtrooms. Namely, presiding judges considered a greater number of sexual acts as punishable, despite no change in the laws themselves. Central to my argument is the role of expert testimony in practice and its critical reception. By focusing upon the rhetorical strategies presented by attorneys, judges and expert witnesses (as well as defendants themselves and their relatives), it illustrates the functions of expert and tacit knowledge in court, which were often not mutually exclusive. Moll's stature also enabled him to translate his scientific-medical expertise into state support for his testimonies, as well as the rebuilding of an international community of sexological authorities. It was only under Moll's leadership that the First International Sexology Congress could take place in 1926, an event that marked the apex of his prestige.

  16. Sexual modernity in the works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2012-04-01

    The modern notion of sexuality took shape at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in the works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll. This modernisation of sexuality was closely linked to the recognition of sexual diversity, as it was articulated in the medical-psychiatric understanding of what, at that time, was labelled as perversion. From around 1870, psychiatrists shifted the focus from immoral acts, a temporary deviation of the norm, to an innate morbid condition. In the late nineteenth century, several psychiatrists, collecting and publishing more and more case histories, classified and explained the wide range of deviant sexual behaviours they traced. The emergence of medical sexology meant that perversions could be diagnosed and discussed. Against this background both Krafft-Ebing and Moll articulated a new perspective, not only on perversion, but also on sexuality in general. Krafft-Ebing initiated and Moll elaborated a shift from a psychiatric perspective in which deviant sexuality was explained as a derived, episodic and more or less singular symptom of a more fundamental mental disorder, to a consideration of perversion as an integral part of a more general, autonomous and continuous sexual instinct. Before Sigmund Freud and others had expressed similar views, it was primarily through the writings of Krafft-Ebing and Moll that a new understanding of human sexuality emerged.

  17. ‘God’s Ethicist’: Albert Moll and His Medical Ethics in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2012-01-01

    In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll’s views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the ‘trade’ of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession’s reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors. PMID:23002294

  18. The Sexologist Albert Moll – between Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld

    PubMed Central

    Sigusch, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    Albert Moll was one of the most influential sexologists during the first three decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to his rivals Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld, his achievements have not yet been recognised adequately. The author gives a comparative account of the work of these three protagonists. This shows that Moll formed some ideas which are regarded as psychoanalytical today before Freud, and that he, in contrast to Hirschfeld, was able to reflect critically on contemporary discourses, such as the debates on racial improvement through eugenics. As scientific theories, Freud’s psychoanalysis represented the unconscious, fantasy, experience and latency, while Moll’s sexology represented consciousness, ontological reality, behaviour and manifestation. Moll’s major disagreement with Hirschfeld’s sexology was his advocacy of apolitical and impartial science, whereas Hirschfeld’s aim was to achieve sexual reforms politically. Added to these differences were strong personal animosities. Freud called Moll a ‘beast’ and ‘pettifogger’; and Moll complained about Hirschfeld’s ‘problematic’ character. When Hirschfeld escaped the Nazi terror and went to Paris, Moll denounced him in order to prevent him rebuilding a new existence in exile. PMID:23002292

  19. Albert Chalmers: Perpetual honours for a prominent tropical medicine career in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Adeel, Ahmed Awad A

    2014-01-01

    This article starts with brief review of Albert Chalmers' early career in tropical medicine until he was appointed Director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum (WTRLK) in 1913, succeeding Andrew Balfour. Then the article explores how Chalmers faced the challenges and managed to establish a solid research base under very harsh conditions. Most of his directorship was during the First World War, with shortage of staff and increased routine work load. In spite of these constraints, Chalmers managed to establish a base for research in tropical medicine in WTRK. Chalmers' research concentrated on the taxonomy and pathogenicity of bacteria and fungi but he also worked on miscellaneous dermatological disorders and on sleeping sickness. His papers reflect a wide range of knowledge and deep understanding of the topics he was covering. His work on the classification of pathogenic fungi was widely recognized. He tried different preparations of vaccines for cerebrospinal meningitis but with the technology available at the time he could not produce a potent vaccine. Chalmers' papers reflect the tremendous effort exerted in their production. Chamers resigned from WTRLK in 1920 and died of acute infective jaundice in the same year. In 1921 his widow, gave £500 to the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) in memory of her husband. The RSTMH Council decided to devote this money to the foundation of the Chalmers Memorial Medal.

  20. The sexologist Albert Moll--between Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld.

    PubMed

    Sigusch, Volkmar

    2012-04-01

    Albert Moll was one of the most influential sexologists during the first three decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to his rivals Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld, his achievements have not yet been recognised adequately. The author gives a comparative account of the work of these three protagonists. This shows that Moll formed some ideas which are regarded as psychoanalytical today before Freud, and that he, in contrast to Hirschfeld, was able to reflect critically on contemporary discourses, such as the debates on racial improvement through eugenics. As scientific theories, Freud's psychoanalysis represented the unconscious, fantasy, experience and latency, while Moll's sexology represented consciousness, ontological reality, behaviour and manifestation. Moll's major disagreement with Hirschfeld's sexology was his advocacy of apolitical and impartial science, whereas Hirschfeld's aim was to achieve sexual reforms politically. Added to these differences were strong personal animosities. Freud called Moll a 'beast' and 'pettifogger'; and Moll complained about Hirschfeld's 'problematic' character. When Hirschfeld escaped the Nazi terror and went to Paris, Moll denounced him in order to prevent him rebuilding a new existence in exile.

  1. Sexual Modernity in the Works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The modern notion of sexuality took shape at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in the works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll. This modernisation of sexuality was closely linked to the recognition of sexual diversity, as it was articulated in the medical–psychiatric understanding of what, at that time, was labelled as perversion. From around 1870, psychiatrists shifted the focus from immoral acts, a temporary deviation of the norm, to an innate morbid condition. In the late nineteenth century, several psychiatrists, collecting and publishing more and more case histories, classified and explained the wide range of deviant sexual behaviours they traced. The emergence of medical sexology meant that perversions could be diagnosed and discussed. Against this background both Krafft-Ebing and Moll articulated a new perspective, not only on perversion, but also on sexuality in general. Krafft-Ebing initiated and Moll elaborated a shift from a psychiatric perspective in which deviant sexuality was explained as a derived, episodic and more or less singular symptom of a more fundamental mental disorder, to a consideration of perversion as an integral part of a more general, autonomous and continuous sexual instinct. Before Sigmund Freud and others had expressed similar views, it was primarily through the writings of Krafft-Ebing and Moll that a new understanding of human sexuality emerged. PMID:23002290

  2. The powers of suggestion: Albert Moll and the debate on hypnosis

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2014-01-01

    The Berlin physician Albert Moll (1862–1939) was an advocate of hypnotic suggestion therapy and a prolific contributor to the medical, legal and public discussions on hypnotism from the 1880s to the 1920s. While his work in other areas, such as sexology, medical ethics and parapsychology, has recently attracted scholarly attention, this paper for the first time comprehensively examines Moll’s numerous publications on hypnotism and places them in their contemporary context. It covers controversies over the therapeutic application of hypnosis, the reception of Moll’s monograph Der Hypnotismus (1889), his research on the rapport between hypnotizer and subject, his role as an expert on ‘hypnotic crime’, and his views on the historical influence of hypnotism on the development of psychotherapy. My findings suggest that Moll rose to prominence due to the strong late-nineteenth-century public and medical interest in the phenomena of hypnosis, but that his work was soon overshadowed by new, non-hypnotic psychotherapeutic approaches, particularly Freud’s psychoanalysis. PMID:24594818

  3. 'God's ethicist': Albert Moll and his medical ethics in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2012-04-01

    In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll's views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the 'trade' of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession's reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors.

  4. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized.

  5. Loss of innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the invention of childhood sexuality around 1900.

    PubMed

    Sauerteig, Lutz D H

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child's 'normal' development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children's sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children's and adults' sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler.

  6. Loss of Innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the Invention of Childhood Sexuality Around 1900

    PubMed Central

    Sauerteig, Lutz D.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child’s ‘normal’ development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children’s sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children’s and adults’ sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler. PMID:23002291

  7. Mixed Algorithms in the Ising Model on Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model does not seem to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation follows an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decays exponentially with time. On these networks the magnetisation behaviour of the Ising model, with Glauber, HeatBath, Metropolis, Wolf or Swendsen-Wang algorithm competing against Kawasaki dynamics, is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the model exhibits the phenomenon of self-organisation (= stationary equilibrium) defined in Ref. 8 when Kawasaki dynamics is not dominant in its competition with Glauber, HeatBath and Swendsen-Wang algorithms. Only for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation, this phenomenon occurs after an exponentially decay of magnetisation with time. The Metropolis results are independent of competition. We also study the same process of competition described above but with Kawasaki dynamics at the same temperature as the other algorithms. The obtained results are similar for Wolff cluster flipping, Metropolis and Swendsen-Wang algorithms but different for HeatBath.

  8. Einstein, race, and the myth of the cultural icon.

    PubMed

    Jerome, Fred

    2004-12-01

    The most remarkable aspect of Einstein's 1946 address at Lincoln University is that it has vanished from Einstein's recorded history. Its disappearance into a historical black hole symbolizes what seems to happen in the creation of a cultural icon. It is but one of many political statements by Einstein to have met such a fate, though his civil rights activism is most glaringly missing. One explanation for this historical amnesia is that those who shape our official memories felt that Einstein's "controversial" friends like Paul Robeson and activities like co-chairing the anti-lynching crusade might tarnish Einstein as an icon. That icon, sanctified by Time magazine when it dubbed Einstein "Person of the Century" at the end of 1999, is a myth, albeit a marvelous one. Yet it is not so much the motive for the omission but the consequence of it that should concern us. Americans and the millions of Einstein fans around the world are left unaware that he was an outspoken, passionate, committed antiracist.

  9. Einstein, race, and the myth of the cultural icon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Fred

    2004-12-01

    The most remarkable aspect of Einstein's 1946 address at Lincoln University is that it has vanished from Einstein's recorded history. Its disappearance into a historical black hole symbolizes what seems to happen in the creation of a cultural icon. It is but one of many political statements by Einstein to have met such a fate, though his civil rights activism is most glaringly mission. One explanation for this historical amnesia is that those who shape our official memories felt that Einstein's "controversial" friends like Paul Robeson and activities like co-chairing the anti-lynching crusade might tarnish Einstein as an icon. That icon, sanctified by Time magazine when it dubbed Einstein "Person of the Century" at the end of 1999, is a myth, albeit a marvelous one. Yet it is not so much the motive for the omission but the consequence of it that should concern us. Americans and the millions of Einstein fans around the world are left unaware that he was an outspoken, passionate, committed antiracist.

  10. Effective Action for Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Takafumi

    2014-06-01

    We clarify basic properties of an effective action (i.e., self-consistent perturbation expansion) for interacting Bose-Einstein condensates, where field ψ itself acquires a finite thermodynamic average < ψ > besides two-point Green's function hat{G} to form an off-diagonal long-range order. It is shown that the action can be expressed concisely order by order in terms of the interaction vertex and a special combination of < ψ > and hat{G} so as to satisfy both Noether's theorem and Goldstone's theorem (I) corresponding to the first proof. The self-energy is predicted to have a one-particle-reducible structure due to < ψ > ≠ 0 to transform the Bogoliubov mode into a bubbling mode with a substantial decay rate.

  11. An Introduction to the Einstein Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilhão, Miguel; Löffler, Frank

    2013-09-01

    We give an introduction to the Einstein Toolkit, a mature, open-source computational infrastructure for numerical relativity based on the Cactus Framework, for the target group of new users. This toolkit is composed of several different modules, is developed by researchers from different institutions throughout the world and is in active continuous development. Documentation for the toolkit and its several modules is often scattered across different locations, a difficulty new users may at times have to struggle with. Scientific papers exist describing the toolkit and its methods in detail, but they might be overwhelming at first. With these lecture notes we hope to provide an initial overview for new users. We cover how to obtain, compile and run the toolkit, and give an overview of some of the tools and modules provided with it.

  12. Conformal regularization of Einstein's field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhr, Niklas; Uggla, Claes

    2005-09-01

    To study asymptotic structures, we regularize Einstein's field equations by means of conformal transformations. The conformal factor is chosen so that it carries a dimensional scale that captures crucial asymptotic features. By choosing a conformal orthonormal frame, we obtain a coupled system of differential equations for a set of dimensionless variables, associated with the conformal dimensionless metric, where the variables describe ratios with respect to the chosen asymptotic scale structure. As examples, we describe some explicit choices of conformal factors and coordinates appropriate for the situation of a timelike congruence approaching a singularity. One choice is shown to just slightly modify the so-called Hubble-normalized approach, and one leads to dimensionless first-order symmetric hyperbolic equations. We also discuss differences and similarities with other conformal approaches in the literature, as regards, e.g., isotropic singularities.

  13. Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Tacla, Alexandre B.; Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.

    2010-11-15

    We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.

  14. The Dark Universe Through Einstein's Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, Deborah

    2013-07-23

    Bard's talk explains the phenomenon known as gravitational lensing and how astrophysicists use it to explore the 95 percent of the universe that remains unseen: dark matter and dark energy. One of the most surprising predictions made by Einstein's theory of relativity is that light doesn't travel through the universe in a straight line. The gravitational field of massive objects will deflect the path of light traveling past, giving some very dramatic effects. We see multiple images of quasars, galaxies smeared into arcs and circles and magnified images of the most distant objects in the universe. This explains how gravitational lensing was first observed and discusses how scientists use this phenomenon to study everything from exoplanets to dark matter to the structure of the universe and the mysterious dark energy.

  15. Solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylutki, M.; Donadello, S.; Serafini, S.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Dalfovo, F.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.

    2015-04-01

    We analyse, theoretically and experimentally, the nature of solitonic vortices (SV) in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. In the experiment, such defects are created via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, when the temperature of a gas of sodium atoms is quenched across the BEC transition, and are imaged after a free expansion of the condensate. By using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we calculate the in-trap density and phase distributions characterizing a SV in the crossover from an elongated quasi-1D to a bulk 3D regime. The simulations show that the free expansion strongly amplifies the key features of a SV and produces a remarkable twist of the solitonic plane due to the quantized vorticity associated with the defect. Good agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  16. Groups, information theory, and Einstein's likelihood principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicuro, Gabriele; Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-04-01

    We propose a unifying picture where the notion of generalized entropy is related to information theory by means of a group-theoretical approach. The group structure comes from the requirement that an entropy be well defined with respect to the composition of independent systems, in the context of a recently proposed generalization of the Shannon-Khinchin axioms. We associate to each member of a large class of entropies a generalized information measure, satisfying the additivity property on a set of independent systems as a consequence of the underlying group law. At the same time, we also show that Einstein's likelihood function naturally emerges as a byproduct of our informational interpretation of (generally nonadditive) entropies. These results confirm the adequacy of composable entropies both in physical and social science contexts.

  17. Algebraically special Einstein-Maxwell fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bergh, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism is used to re-analyse algebraically special non-null Einstein-Maxwell fields, aligned as well as non-aligned, in the presence of a possible non-vanishing cosmological constant. A new invariant characterization is given of the García-Plebański and Plebański-Hacyan metrics within the family of aligned solutions and of the Griffiths metrics within the family of the non-aligned solutions. As a corollary also the double alignment of the Debever-McLenaghan `class D' metrics with non-vanishing cosmological constant is shown to be equivalent with the shear-free and geodesic behavior of their Debever-Penrose vectors.

  18. Einstein-Podolsky Correlation for Light Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Salomon S.; Moussa, Miled H. Y.

    Considering a classical source of light (macroscopic), we propose an experiment, based on the principles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm correlation, for which one expects to obtain the same polarization correlation coefficient as the one predicted by the quantum theory, when photons are counted in coincidence. The results of a numerical simulation give good ground to believe that the conjectured experiment is reasonable. So, one may argue that the property of light called polarization, that is manifest at any level — microscopic and macroscopic — and which has a precise description in both, the quantum and the classical theories, leads to coincident results under correspondingly similar experimental procedures. Therefore the EPRB correlation is a consequence of that property of light, independently whether it is viewed as constituted by photons or by electromagnetic waves.

  19. Groups, information theory, and Einstein's likelihood principle.

    PubMed

    Sicuro, Gabriele; Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2016-04-01

    We propose a unifying picture where the notion of generalized entropy is related to information theory by means of a group-theoretical approach. The group structure comes from the requirement that an entropy be well defined with respect to the composition of independent systems, in the context of a recently proposed generalization of the Shannon-Khinchin axioms. We associate to each member of a large class of entropies a generalized information measure, satisfying the additivity property on a set of independent systems as a consequence of the underlying group law. At the same time, we also show that Einstein's likelihood function naturally emerges as a byproduct of our informational interpretation of (generally nonadditive) entropies. These results confirm the adequacy of composable entropies both in physical and social science contexts.

  20. Solitons in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2003-05-01

    The stationary form, dynamical properties, and experimental criteria for creation of matter-wave bright and dark solitons, both singly and in trains, are studied numerically and analytically in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates [1]. The full set of stationary solutions in closed analytic form to the mean field model in the quasi-one-dimensional regime, which is a nonlinear Schrodinger equation equally relevant in nonlinear optics, is developed under periodic and box boundary conditions [2]. These solutions are extended numerically into the two and three dimensional regimes, where it is shown that dark solitons can be used to create vortex-anti-vortex pairs under realistic conditions. Specific experimental prescriptions for creating viable dark and bright solitons in the quasi-one-dimensional regime are provided. These analytic methods are then extended to treat the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a generalized lattice potential, which models a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in the potential generated by a standing light wave. A novel solution family is developed and stability criterion are presented. Experiments which successfully carried out these ideas are briefly discussed [3]. [1] Dissertation research completed at the University of Washington Physics Department under the advisorship of Prof. William P. Reinhardt. [2] L. D. Carr, C. W. Clark, and W. P. Reinhardt, Phys. Rev. A v. 62 p. 063610-1--10 and Phys. Rev. A v.62, p.063611-1--10 (2000). [3] L. Khaykovich, F. Schreck, T. Bourdel, J. Cubizolles, G. Ferrari, L. D. Carr, Y. Castin, and C. Salomon, Science v. 296, p.1290--1293 (2002).

  1. On the classical roots of the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lando, A.; Bringuier, E.

    2008-03-01

    The 1935 debate opposing Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen to Bohr elicited so many comments and developments, both theoretical and experimental, until this day, that the main point at stake at that time can be overlooked by modern readers, especially students. This paper draws the reader's attention to the historical background of Einstein's paper and Bohr's reply. We show that Einstein's definition of a complete physical theory is taken from Mach's criticism of atomic theory based upon classical-mechanical views. As for Bohr's definition of physical reality, it can be simply understood by reference to classical physics although it was embedded in the quantum-mechanical formalism.

  2. Competition between Bose-Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B; Brewczyk, M; Gajda, M; Gorceix, O; Maréchal, E; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B

    2016-10-28

    We study the impact of spin-exchange collisions on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation by rapidly cooling a chromium multicomponent Bose gas. Despite relatively strong spin-dependent interactions, the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached before the spin degrees of freedom fully thermalize. The increase in density due to Bose-Einstein condensation then triggers spin dynamics, hampering the formation of condensates in spin-excited states. Small metastable spinor condensates are, nevertheless, produced, and they manifest in strong spin fluctuations.

  3. Einstein's Approach to Statistical Mechanics: The 1902-04 Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliti, Luca; Rechtman, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    We summarize the papers published by Einstein in the Annalen der Physik in the years 1902-1904 on the derivation of the properties of thermal equilibrium on the basis of the mechanical equations of motion and of the calculus of probabilities. We point out the line of thought that led Einstein to an especially economical foundation of the discipline, and to focus on fluctuations of the energy as a possible tool for establishing the validity of this foundation. We also sketch a comparison of Einstein's approach with that of Gibbs, suggesting that although they obtained similar results, they had different motivations and interpreted them in very different ways.

  4. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  5. On static black holes solutions in Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with topology [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Dadhich, Naresh; Pons, Josep M

    We study static black hole solutions in Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the topology of the product of two spheres, [Formula: see text], in higher dimensions. There is an unusual new feature of the Gauss-Bonnet black hole: the avoidance of a non-central naked singularity prescribes a mass range for the black hole in terms of [Formula: see text]. For an Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black hole a limited window of negative values for [Formula: see text] is also permitted. This topology encompasses black strings, branes, and generalized Nariai metrics. We also give new solutions with the product of two spheres of constant curvature.

  6. New exact perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's equations. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uggla, Claes; Rosquist, Kjell

    1990-12-01

    A family of new spatially homogeneous Bianchi type VIh perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein equations is presented. The fluid flow is orthogonal to the spatially homogeneous hypersurfaces, and the pressure is proportional to the energy density.

  7. Interstellar Scattering and the Einstein Ring PKS 1830-211

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Preston, R. A.; Murphy, D. W.; Meier, D. L.; Jauncey, D. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Tziomis, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    High frequency (22 GHz) data have been used two resolve two compact components of the strong gravitational lens PKS 1830-211. The two bright components are at opposite sides of a one arcsecond diameter Einstein ring.

  8. From the Einstein-Szilard Patent to Modern Magnetohydrodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povh, I. L.; Barinberg, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Examines present-day and future prospects of the applications of modern magnetohydrodynamics in a number of countries. Explains how the electromagnetic pump, which was invented by Einstein and Leo Szilard, led to the development of applied magnetohydrodynamics. (HM)

  9. The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory.

    PubMed

    Andréasson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.

  10. Induced matter brane gravity and Einstein static universe

    SciTech Connect

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F. E-mail: f.darabi@azaruniv.edu

    2015-04-01

    We investigate stability of the Einstein static universe against the scalar, vector and tensor perturbations in the context of induced matter brane gravity. It is shown that in the framework of this model, the Einstein static universe has a positive spatial curvature. In contrast to the classical general relativity, it is found that a stable Einstein static universe against the scalar perturbations does exist provided that the variation of time dependent geometrical equation of state parameter is proportional to the minus of the variation of the scale factor, δ ω{sub g}(t) = −Cδ a(t). We obtain neutral stability against the vector perturbations, and the stability against the tensor perturbations is guaranteed due to the positivity of the spatial curvature of the Einstein static universe in induced matter brane gravity.

  11. Einstein Finsler metrics and killing vector fields on Riemannian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, XinYue; Shen, ZhongMin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use a Killing form on a Riemannian manifold to construct a class of Finsler metrics. We find equations that characterize Einstein metrics among this class. In particular, we construct a family of Einstein metrics on $S^3$ with ${\\rm Ric} = 2 F^2$, ${\\rm Ric}=0$ and ${\\rm Ric}=- 2 F^2$, respectively. This family of metrics provide an important class of Finsler metrics in dimension three, whose Ricci curvature is a constant, but the flag curvature is not.

  12. Bragg spectroscopy with an accelerating Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Geursen, R.; Thomas, N.R.; Wilson, A.C.

    2003-10-01

    We present the results of Bragg spectroscopy performed on an accelerating Bose-Einstein condensate. The Bose-Einstein condensate undergoes circular micromotion in a magnetic time-averaged orbiting potential trap and the effect of this motion on the Bragg spectrum is analyzed. A simple frequency modulation model is used to interpret the observed complex structure, and broadening effects are considered using numerical solutions to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  13. Rough Solutions of Einstein Vacuum Equations in CMCSH Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we consider very rough solutions to the Cauchy problem for the Einstein vacuum equations in CMC spatial harmonic gauge, and obtain the local well-posedness result in H s , s > 2. The novelty of our approach lies in that, without resorting to the standard paradifferential regularization over the rough, Einstein metric g, we manage to implement the commuting vector field approach to prove Strichartz estimate for geometric wave equation directly.

  14. A complete public archive for the Einstein IPC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents progress made in the period 24 Sept. 1993 - 23 Sept. 1995 on the project described in our proposal 'A Complete Public Archive for the Einstein IPC' which was approved under the Astrophysics Data Program in 1992. We have completed most of the principal objectives of the original proposal; a NFE was recently approved so that costs for publications in press can be covered and we can complete the public record for the Einstein IPC database.

  15. The Lake Albert Rift (uganda, East African Rift System): Deformation, Basin and Relief Evolution Since 17 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez

    2016-04-01

    This study is based on a coupled basin infilling study and a landforms analysis of the Lake Albert Rift located at the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift. The basin infilling study is based on both subsurface data and outcrops analysis. The objective was to (1) obtain an age model based on onshore mammals biozones, (2) to reconstruct the 3D architecture of the rift using sequence stratigraphy correlations and seismic data interpretation, (3) to characterize the deformation and its changes through times and (4) to quantify the accommodation for several time intervals. The infilling essentially consists of isopach fault-bounded units composed of lacustrine deposits wherein were characterized two major unconformities dated at 6.2 Ma (Uppermost Miocene) and 2.7 Ma (Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary), coeval with major subsidence and climatic changes. The landforms analysis is based on the characterization and relative dating (geometrical relationships with volcanism) of Ugandan landforms which consist of stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and peplians) and incised valleys. We here proposed a seven-steps reconstruction of the deformation-erosion-sedimentation relationships of the Lake Albert Basin and its catchments: - 55-45 Ma: formation of laterites corresponding to the African Surface during the very humid period of the Lower-Middle Eocene; - 45-22: stripping of the African Surface in response of the beginning of the East-African Dome uplift and formation of a pediplain which associated base level is the Atlantic Ocean; - 17-2.5 Ma: Initiation of the Lake Albert Basin around 17 Ma and creation of local base levels (Lake Albert, Edward and George) on which three pediplains tend to adapt; - 18 - 16 Ma to 6.2 Ma: "Flexural" stage (subsidence rate: 150-200 m/Ma; sedimentation rate 1.3 km3/Ma between 17 and 12 Ma and 0.6 km3/Ma from 12 to 6 Ma) - depocenters location (southern part of Lake Albert Basin) poorly controlled by fault; - 6.2 Ma to 2

  16. Ferroelectricity by Bose–Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, S.; Kakihata, K.; Sawada, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Hagiwara, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Bose–Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose–Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose–Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose–Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose–Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl3, leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose–Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets. PMID:27666875

  17. Ferroelectricity by Bose-Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Kakihata, K; Sawada, Y; Watanabe, K; Matsumoto, M; Hagiwara, M; Tanaka, H

    2016-09-26

    The Bose-Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose-Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose-Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl3, leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets.

  18. Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein with Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geveden, Rex D.; May, Todd

    2003-01-01

    Some 40 years in the making, NASA s historic Gravity Probe B (GP-B) mission is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta I1 in 2003. GP-B will test two extraordinary predictions from Einstein s General Relativity: geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect (frame-dragging). Employing tiny, ultra-precise gyroscopes, GP-B features a measurement accuracy of 0.5 milli-arc-seconds per year. The extraordinary measurement precision is made possible by a host of breakthrough technologies, including electro-statically suspended, super-conducting quartz gyroscopes; virtual elimination of magnetic flux; a solid quartz star- tracking telescope; helium microthrusters for drag-free control of the spacecraft; and a 2400 liter superfluid helium dewar. This paper will provide an overview of the science, key technologies, flight hardware, integration and test, and flight operations of the GP-B space vehicle. It will also examine some of the technical management challenges of a large-scale, technology-driven, Principal Investigator-led mission.

  19. Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein with Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geveden, Rex D.; May, Todd

    2003-01-01

    Some 40 years in the making, NASA' s historic Gravity Probe B (GP-B) mission is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta II in 2003. GP-B will test two extraordinary predictions from Einstein's General Relativity: geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect (frame-dragging). Employing tiny, ultra-precise gyroscopes, GP-B features a measurement accuracy of 0.5 milli-arc-seconds per year. The extraordinary measurement precision is made possible by a host of breakthrough technologies, including electro-statically suspended, super-conducting quartz gyroscopes; virtual elimination of magnetic flux; a solid quartz star tracking telescope; helium microthrusters for drag-free control of the spacecraft; and a 2400 liter superfluid helium dewar. This paper will provide an overview of the science, key technologies, flight hardware, integration and test, and flight operations of the GP-B space vehicle. It will also examine some of the technical management challenges of a large-scale, technology-driven, Principal Investigator-led mission.

  20. Bose-Einstein Condensation in low dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.

    2006-03-01

    Using path integral Monte Carlo simulation methods[1], we have studied properties of Bose-Einstein Condensates harmonically trapped in low dimemsion. Each boson has a hard-sphere potential whose core radius equals its corresponding scattering length. We have tightly confined the motion of trapped particles in one or more direction by increasing the trap anisotropy in order to simulate lower dimensional atomic gases. We have investigated the effect of both the temperature and the dimemsionality on the energetics and structural properties such as the total energy, the density profile, and the superfluid fraction. Our results show that the physics of low dimensional bosonic systems is very different from that of their three dimensional counterparts[2]. The superfluid fraction for a quasi-2D boson gas decreases faster than that for both a quasi-1D system[3] and a true 3D system with increasing temperature. The superfluid fraction decreases gradually as the two-body interaction strength increases although it shows no noticable dependence for both a quasi-1D system and a true 3D system. [1] K. Nho and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. A. 70, 53614 (2004).[2] N. D. Mermin and H. Wagner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1133 (1966);1.5inP. C. Hohenberg, Phys. Rev. 158, 383 (1967).[3] K. Nho and D. Blume, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 193601 (2005).

  1. Gravitational dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Girelli, F.; Liberati, S.; Sindoni, L.

    2008-10-15

    Analogue models for gravity intend to provide a framework where matter and gravity, as well as their intertwined dynamics, emerge from degrees of freedom that have a priori nothing to do with what we call gravity or matter. Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) are a natural example of an analogue model since one can identify matter propagating on a (pseudo-Riemannian) metric with collective excitations above the condensate of atoms. However, until now, a description of the 'analogue gravitational dynamics' for such model was missing. We show here that in a BEC system with massive quasiparticles, the gravitational dynamics can be encoded in a modified (semiclassical) Poisson equation. In particular, gravity is of extreme short range (characterized by the healing length) and the cosmological constant appears from the noncondensed fraction of atoms in the quasiparticle vacuum. While some of these features make the analogue gravitational dynamics of our BEC system quite different from standard Newtonian gravity, we nonetheless show that it can be used to draw some interesting lessons about 'emergent gravity' scenarios.

  2. Neutral Einstein metrics in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Peter R.

    1991-11-01

    In Matsushita [J. Math. Phys. 22, 979-982 (1981), ibid. 24, 36-40 (1983)], for curvature endomorphisms for the pseudo-Euclidean space R2,2, an analog of the Petrov classification as a basis for applications to neutral Einstein metrics on compact, orientable, four-dimensional manifolds is provided. This paper points out flaws in Matsushita's classification and, moreover, that an error in Chern's [``Pseudo-Riemannian geometry and the Gauss-Bonnet formula,'' Acad. Brasileira Ciencias 35, 17-26 (1963) and Shiing-Shen Chern: Selected Papers (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978)] Gauss-Bonnet formula for pseudo-Riemannian geometry was incorporated in Matsushita's subsequent analysis. A self-contained account of the subject of the title is presented to correct these errors, including a discussion of the validity of an appropriate analog of the Thorpe-Hitchin inequality of the Riemannian case. When the inequality obtains in the neutral case, the Euler characteristic is nonpositive, in contradistinction to Matsushita's deductions.

  3. Unification of Einstein's Gravity with Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfatti, Jack

    2010-02-01

    The four tetrad and six spin-connection Cartan 1-forms of Einstein's GeoMetroDynamic (GMD) field emerge from the eight virtual gluon macro-quantum coherent QCD post-inflation vacuum condensates that form in the inflationary phase transition. This joint emergence of gravity and the strong force is similar to the emergence of irrotational superflow with vortex defects in liquid helium below the Lambda Point. Repulsive dark energy is from the residual random virtual bosons that did not cohere in the moment of inflation. Similarly, attractive dark matter is from the residual random virtual fermion-antifermion pairs. Therefore, I predict that the LHC will not detect any on-mass-shell real particles that can explain φDM˜0.23. As first suggested by Abdus Salam (f-gravity) the low energy tail of the nuclear force can be explained as strong short-range Yukawa gravity. QCD's IR confinement and UV asymptotic freedom are elementary consequences in this simple model. )

  4. Nonlinear phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a medley of results from the last three years on nonlinear phenomena in BECs [1]. These include exact dynamics of multi-component condensates in optical lattices [2], vortices and ring solitons [3], macroscopic quantum tunneling [4], nonlinear band theory [5], and a pulsed atomic soliton laser [6]. 1. Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment, ed. P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag, 2008). 2. R. Mark Bradley, James E. Bernard, and L. D. Carr, e-print arXiv:0711.1896 (2007). 3. G. Herring, L. D. Carr, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, Phys. Rev. A in press, e-print arXiv:0709.2193 (2007); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. A v. 74, p.043613 (2006); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. Lett. v. 97, p.010403 (2006). 4. L. D. Carr, M. J. Holland, and B. A. Malomed, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., v.38, p.3217 (2005) 5. B. T. Seaman, L. D. Carr, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. A, v. 71, p.033622 (2005). 6. L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. A, v.70, p.033607 (2004); L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett., v.92, p.040401 (2004).

  5. Dynamical properties of Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael

    Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) provide a testbed for a wide array of coherent structures with complex dynamical properties. Of these structures, vortices and two-component BECs are at the forefront in understanding fundamental properties of BECs and have been under intense scrutiny in both experiments and theoretical studies. The behavior of these structures elucidates the mechanics of nonlinear processes that give rise to patterns in vortex lattices and patterns in binary BECs. This has lead to the integration of BECs into the new field of emergent phenomena that has unified many seemingly unrelated disciplines because at a fundamental level, the nonlinear processes provide a blueprint to give rise to coherence out of randomness. First, we study the interactions between two atomic species in a binary BEC to determine conditions for miscibility, oscillations between species, steady state solutions and their stability. Second, the two component system is extended to a quasi-2D systems for a pancake-shaped condensate. Third, the shape of the background atomic density as well as the background with a vortex is studied to determine the role of the phase and background on the precession of a vortex. Lastly, the dynamics of small clusters of same charge vortices in a trapped BEC is studied giving fixed point configurations that rotate at a constant speed.

  6. Eating Behaviors and Weight Development in Obesity-Prone Children and the Importance of the Research of Albert J. Stunkard.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E

    2016-03-01

    Albert J. Stunkard, MD, was an internationally recognized leader and pioneer in the field of obesity and eating disorders research. He was also among the first scientists to study eating phenotypes and early life risk factors for childhood obesity at a time when childhood obesity prevalence rates were still comparatively low. The aim of this review is to highlight select findings from the work of Albert J. Stunkard which significantly advanced our understanding of eating traits of children with a different familial predisposition to obesity and genetic and environmental influences on weight outcomes. Collectively, Stunkard's early work on childhood obesity had a significant impact on the field of ingestive behavior and obesity research in that he was one of the first investigators who pointed to genetic influences underlying behavioral eating traits and child weight status. His work also inspired numerous subsequent investigations on the relative contributions of specific genes (e.g., polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene) on individual differences in child eating traits (e.g., satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger) and body weight.

  7. ‘Trick’, ‘Manipulation’ and ‘Farce’: Albert Moll’s Critique of Occultism

    PubMed Central

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin’s most prominent occultists, the plaintiff – the medium’s husband – argued that Moll’s use of terms such as ‘trick’, ‘manipulation’ and ‘farce’ in reference to Vollhardt’s phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll’s putative affront to the medium – of which he was eventually acquitted – was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who – parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists – was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff–Moll trial as a means of examining Moll’s critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany’s occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll. PMID:23002297

  8. Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy: The Evolution of a Revolution: Interview With Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis, Work Partner and Wife of Dr. Albert Ellis, the Creator of REBT.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Debbie Joffe; Rovira, Montse

    2015-02-01

    Recognized as one of the most influential thinkers and psychologists, Albert Ellis PhD (1913-2007) revolutionized Psychology when he created the first cognitive psychotherapy, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy. After he passed away, Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis continues spreading his legacy around the world. Psychologist, lecturer, writer, trainer, she dedicates her life to disseminate REBT and extend it through different statements, from the social to the educational, from the academic to the clinical. In this interview, she goes through her own history and her husband's one, bringing us closer to understanding Albert Ellis as the leading figure in his field, and the oneness they experienced through their professional and personal relationship.

  9. Einstein@Home Finds an Elusive Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Since the release of the second Fermi-LAT catalog in 2012, astronomers have been hunting for 3FGL J1906.6+0720, a gamma-ray source whose association couldn't be identified. Now, personal-computer time volunteered through the Einstein@Home project has resulted in the discovery of a pulsar that has been hiding from observers for years. A Blind Search: Identifying sources detected by Fermi-LAT can be tricky: the instrument's sky resolution is limited, so the position of the source can be hard to pinpoint. The gamma-ray source 3FGL J1906.6+0720 appeared in both the second and third Fermi-LAT source catalogs, but even after years of searching, no associated radio or X-ray source had been found. A team of researchers, led by Colin Clark of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, suspected that the source might be a gamma-ray pulsar. To confirm this, however, they needed to detect pulsed emission — something inherently difficult given the low photon count and the uncertain position of the source. The team conducted a blind search for pulsations coming from the general direction of the gamma-ray source. Two things were needed for this search: clever data analysis and a lot of computing power. The data analysis algorithm was designed to be adaptive: it searched a 4-dimensional parameter space that included a safety margin, allowing the algorithm to wander if the source was at the edge of the parameter space. The computing power was contributed by tens of thousands of personal computers volunteered by participants in the Einstein@Home project, making much shorter work out of a search that would have required dozens of years on a single laptop. The sky region around the newly discovered pulsar. The dotted ellipse shows the 3FGL catalog 95% confidence region for the source. The data analysis algorithm was designed to search an area 50% larger (given by the dashed ellipse), but it was allowed to “walk away” within the gray shaded region if the source seemed to

  10. Studying planet populations with Einstein's blip.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Martin

    2010-08-13

    Although Einstein originally judged that 'there is no great chance of observing this phenomenon', the 'most curious effect' of the bending of starlight by the gravity of intervening foreground stars--now commonly referred to as 'gravitational microlensing'--has become one of the successfully applied techniques to detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun, while being quite unlike any other. With more than 400 extra-solar planets known altogether, the discovery of a true sibling of our home planet seems to have become simply a question of time. However, in order to properly understand the origin of Earth, carrying all its various life forms, models of planet formation and orbital evolution need to be brought into agreement with the statistics of the full variety of planets like Earth and unlike Earth. Given the complementarity of the currently applied planet detection techniques, a comprehensive picture will only arise from a combination of their respective findings. Gravitational microlensing favours a range of orbital separations that covers planets whose orbital periods are too long to allow detection by other indirect techniques, but which are still too close to their host star to be detected by means of their emitted or reflected light. Rather than being limited to the Solar neighbourhood, a unique opportunity is provided for inferring a census of planets orbiting stars belonging to two distinct populations within the Milky Way, with a sensitivity not only reaching down to Earth mass, but even below, with ground-based observations. The capabilities of gravitational microlensing extend even to obtaining evidence of a planet orbiting a star in another galaxy.

  11. Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.

    2008-03-01

    We present a medley of results from the last three years on nonlinear phenomena in BECs [1]. These include exact dynamics of multi-component condensates in optical lattices [2], vortices and ring solitons [3], macroscopic quantum tunneling [4], nonlinear band theory [5], and a pulsed atomic soliton laser [6]. 1. Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment, ed. P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag, to appear, 2008) -- see L. D. Carr and Joachim Brand, e-print arXiv:0705.1139 (2007); Joachim Brand, L. D. Carr, B. P. Anderson, e-print arXiv:0705.1341 (2007). 2. R. Mark Bradley, James E. Bernard, and L. D. Carr, e-print arXiv:0711.1896 (2007). 3. G. Herring, L. D. Carr, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, e-print arXiv:0709.2193 (2007); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. A v. 74, p.043613 (2006); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. Lett. v. 97, p.010403 (2006). 4. L. D. Carr, M. J. Holland, and B. A. Malomed, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., v.38, p.3217 (2005) 5. B. T. Seaman, L. D. Carr, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. A, v. 71, p.033622 (2005). 6. L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. A, v.70, p.033607 (2004); L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett., v.92, p.040401 (2004).

  12. The Einstein-Λ flow on product manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajman, David; Kröncke, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    We consider the vacuum Einstein flow with a positive cosmological constant {{Λ }} on spatial manifolds of product form M={M}1× {M}2. In dimensions n=\\dim M≥slant 4 we show the existence of continuous families of recollapsing models whenever at least one of the factors M 1 or M 2 admits a Riemannian Einstein metric with positive Einstein constant. We moreover show that these families belong to larger continuous families with models that have two complete time directions, i.e. do not recollapse. Complementarily, we show that whenever no factor has positive curvature, then any model in the product class expands in one time direction and collapses in the other. In particular, positive curvature of one factor is a necessary criterion for recollapse within this class. Finally, we relate our results to the instability of the Nariai solution in three spatial dimensions and point out why a similar construction of recollapsing models in that dimension fails. The present results imply that there exist different classes of initial data which exhibit fundamentally different types of long-time behavior under the Einstein-{{Λ }} flow whenever the spatial dimension is strictly larger than three. Moreover, this behavior is related to the spatial topology through the existence of Riemannian Einstein metrics of positive curvature.

  13. Linearized pseudo-Einstein equations on the Heisenberg group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Jacobowitz, Howard

    2017-02-01

    We study the pseudo-Einstein equation R11bar = 0 on the Heisenberg group H1 = C × R. We consider first order perturbations θɛ =θ0 + ɛ θ and linearize the pseudo-Einstein equation about θ0 (the canonical Tanaka-Webster flat contact form on H1 thought of as a strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold). If θ =e2uθ0 the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation is Δb u - 4 | Lu|2 = 0 where Δb is the sublaplacian of (H1 ,θ0) and L bar is the Lewy operator. We solve the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation on a bounded domain Ω ⊂H1 by applying subelliptic theory i.e. existence and regularity results for weak subelliptic harmonic maps. We determine a solution u to the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation, possessing Heisenberg spherical symmetry, and such that u(x) → - ∞ as | x | → + ∞.

  14. Basic Mean-Field Theory for Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Carretero-González, R.

    The phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation, initially predicted by Bose [1] and Einstein [2, 3] in 1924, refers to systems of particles obeying the Bose statistics. In particular, when a gas of bosonic particles is cooled below a critical transition temperature T c , the particles merge into the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), in which a macroscopic number of particles (typically 103 to 106) share the same quantum state. Bose-Einstein condensation is in fact a quantum phase transition, which is connected to the manifestation of fundamental physical phenomena, such as superfluidity in liquid helium and superconductivity in metals (see, e.g., [4] for a relevant discussion and references). Dilute weakly-interacting BECs were first realized experimentally in 1995 in atomic gases, and specifically in vapors of rubidium [5] and sodium [6]. In the same year, first signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation in vapors of lithium were also reported [7] and were later more systematically confirmed [8]. The significance and importance of the emergence of BECs has been recognized through the 2001 Nobel prize in Physics [9, 10]. During the last years there has been an explosion of interest in the physics of BECs. Today, over fifty experimental groups around the world can routinely produce BECs, while an enormous amount of theoretical work has ensued.

  15. Discovery of superluminal velocities of X-rays and Bharat Radiation challenging the validity of Einstein's formula E= mc2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. A. Padmanabha

    2013-09-01

    The current paper reports discovery of superluminal velocities of X-rays, and Bharat Radiation in 12.87 to 31 nm range from solar spectra. The discovery challenges the 100 year old Albert Einstein's assertion that nothing can go faster than velocity of light c in vacuum while formulating E = mc2 in his special theory of relativity reported in 1905 [1]. Several solar spectra recorded at various wavelengths by Woods et al in 2011 demonstrated GOES X-rays arriving earlier than 13.5 nm emission, which in turn arriving earlier than 33.5 nm emission [2]. Finally, the investigators faced difficulty in concluding that short wavelengths traveled fast because of lack of information whether all the three emissions originated from the same source and at the same time. Very recently the author has reported GOES X-rays (7.0 nm) cause 13.5 nm (Bharat Radiation), which in turn causes 33.5 nm Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from same excited atoms present in solar flare by Padmanabha Rao Effect [3, 4]. Based on these findings, the author succeeded in explaining how the solar spectral findings provide direct evidences on superluminal velocities of GOES X-ray and 13.5 nm Bharat Radiation emissions, when 33.5 nm EUV emission is considered travelling at velocity of light c. Among X-ray wavelengths, the short wavelength 7.0 nm X-rays traveled faster than 9.4 nm X-rays, while X-rays go at superluminal velocities. Among Bharat radiation wavelengths, short wavelengths showed fast travel, while Bharat Radiation goes at superluminal velocities as compared to 33.5 EUV emission.

  16. Decay of hydrodynamic modes in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gust, Erich; Reichl, Linda

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of Bogoliubov mean field theory applied to the hydrodynamic modes in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate. The condensate has six hydrodynamic modes, two of which are decaying shear modes related to the viscosity, and two pairs pairs of sound modes which undergo an avoided crossing as the equilibrium temperature is varied. The two pairs of sound modes decay at very different rates, except in the neighborhood of the avoided crossing, where the identity of the longest-lived mode switches. The predicted speed and lifetime of the longest-lived sound mode are consistent with recent experimental observations on sound in an 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. The strong depedence of the decay rates on temperature implies a possible new method for determining the temperature of Bose-Einstein condensates. The authors wish to thank the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1051 for support of this work.

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism in economic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts from modifying the kinetic exchange model and ends with making a parallel between economic crisis and the Bose-Einstein condensation. By introducing a parameter δ, we incorporate the time influence into the Bose-Einstein statistics. And δ is found to represent the technology level in an economy. δ's growth in time enlarges the rich and poor gap and induces economic crisis in free market despite the fact that average living standard is raised. Then we find the “δ-Te-Entropy” dilemma which features a strong implication of the second law of thermodynamics. The dilemma means when an economy is isolated the entropy grows and synergetically Te and δ grow inducing the Bose-Einstein condensation, i.e., economic crisis while for open economy the dilemma breaks. Then we raise the question: What would happen if the world economy as a whole became isolated with ultimately omnibearing globalization?

  18. General relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics with the Einstein Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moesta, Philipp; Mundim, Bruno; Faber, Joshua; Noble, Scott; Bode, Tanja; Haas, Roland; Loeffler, Frank; Ott, Christian; Reisswig, Christian; Schnetter, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The Einstein Toolkit Consortium is developing and supporting open software for relativistic astrophysics. Its aim is to provide the core computational tools that can enable new science, broaden our community, facilitate interdisciplinary research and take advantage of petascale computers and advanced cyberinfrastructure. The Einstein Toolkit currently consists of an open set of over 100 modules for the Cactus framework, primarily for computational relativity along with associated tools for simulation management and visualization. The toolkit includes solvers for vacuum spacetimes as well as relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. This talk will present the current capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit with a particular focus on recent improvements made to the general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics modeling and will point to information how to leverage it for future research.

  19. Bose-Einstein correlations in W-pair decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barate, R.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Graugés, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L. M.; Morawitz, P.; Pacheco, A.; Riu, I.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Boix, G.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Davies, G.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T. C.; Halley, A. W.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Leroy, O.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Valassi, A.; Wright, A. E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Chalmers, M.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raeven, B.; Smith, D.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Ward, J. J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Leibenguth, G.; Putzer, A.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Marinelli, N.; Martin, E. B.; Nash, J.; Nowell, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sciabà, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; Thomson, E.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Kröcker, M.; Müller, A.-S.; Nürnberger, H.-A.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Tilquin, A.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Ragusa, F.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; de Vivie de Régie, J.-B.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Coles, J.; Cowan, G.; Green, M. G.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Jones, L. T.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J. A.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Faïf, G.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Seager, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Loomis, C.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2000-04-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in semileptonic (WW-->qq¯lν) and fully hadronic (WW-->qq¯qq¯) W-pair decays with the ALEPH detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 172, 183 and 189 GeV. They are compared with those made at the Z peak after correction for the different flavour compositions. A Monte Carlo model of Bose-Einstein correlations based on the JETSET hadronization scheme was tuned to the Z data and reproduces the correlations in the WW-->qq¯lν events. The same Monte Carlo reproduces the correlations in the WW-->qq¯qq¯ channel assuming independent fragmentation of the two W's. A variant of this model with Bose-Einstein correlations between decay products of different W's is disfavoured.

  20. Vortex formation in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tarun Kanti

    2004-04-01

    We study rotational motion of an interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quadratic-plus-quartic potential. We calculate the lowest energy surface mode frequency and show that a symmetric trapped (harmonic and quartic) Bose-Einstein condensate breaks the rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian when rotational frequency is greater than one-half of the lowest energy surface mode frequency. We argue that the formation of a vortex is not possible in a noninteracting as well as in an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap due to the absence of the spontaneous shape deformation, but it can occur which leads to the vortex formation if we add an additional quartic potential. Moreover, the spontaneous shape deformation and consequently the formation of a vortex in an attractive system depends on the strengths of the two-body interaction and the quartic potential.

  1. A note on para-holomorphic Riemannian-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Cristian; Ionescu, Alexandru; Manea, Adelina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this note is the study of Einstein condition for para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics in the para-complex geometry framework. First, we make some general considerations about para-complex Riemannian manifolds (not necessarily para-holomorphic). Next, using a one-to-one correspondence between para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics and para-Kähler-Norden metrics, we study the Einstein condition for a para-holomorphic Riemannian metric and the associated real para-Kähler-Norden metric on a para-complex manifold. Finally, it is shown that every semi-simple para-complex Lie group inherits a natural para-Kählerian-Norden Einstein metric.

  2. Einstein's Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM), not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and its systematic import. Though it should be kept in mind that the argument is not the one Einstein intends, I show how it suggests itself and leads to a conflict between QM's completeness and a physical principle more fundamental than the separation principle, i.e. a principle saying that QM should deliver probabilities for physical systems possessing properties at definite times.

  3. Einstein-Weyl spaces and third-order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tod, K. P.

    2000-08-01

    The three-dimensional null-surface formalism of Tanimoto [M. Tanimoto, "On the null surface formalism," Report No. gr-qc/9703003 (1997)] and Forni et al. [Forni et al., "Null surfaces formation in 3D," J. Math Phys. (submitted)] are extended to describe Einstein-Weyl spaces, following Cartan [E. Cartan, "Les espaces généralisées et l'integration de certaines classes d'equations différentielles," C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1425-1429 (1938); "La geometria de las ecuaciones diferenciales de tercer order," Rev. Mat. Hispano-Am. 4, 1-31 (1941)]. In the resulting formalism, Einstein-Weyl spaces are obtained from a particular class of third-order differential equations. Some examples of the construction which include some new Einstein-Weyl spaces are given.

  4. The 1922 Einstein Film: Cinematic Innovation and Public Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazeck, Milena

    2010-06-01

    In 1922 Hanns Walter Kornblum produced a long and comprehensive educational film on Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity that made extensive use of trick shots. His film was considered to be a milestone in the history of film and also in the popularization of science. Although the original film has been lost, I have reconstructed its content and its reception by members of the German film industry and cultural sector, laymen, scientists and academics, and politically motivated opponents based upon the large collection of newspaper clippings that was assembled by the antirelativist physicist Ernst Gehrcke.

  5. The Stokes-Einstein relation at moderate Schmidt number.

    PubMed

    Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Xie, Xiaoyi; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Donev, Aleksandar

    2013-12-07

    The Stokes-Einstein relation for the self-diffusion coefficient of a spherical particle suspended in an incompressible fluid is an asymptotic result in the limit of large Schmidt number, that is, when momentum diffuses much faster than the particle. When the Schmidt number is moderate, which happens in most particle methods for hydrodynamics, deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction are expected. We study these corrections computationally using a recently developed minimally resolved method for coupling particles to an incompressible fluctuating fluid in both two and three dimensions. We find that for moderate Schmidt numbers the diffusion coefficient is reduced relative to the Stokes-Einstein prediction by an amount inversely proportional to the Schmidt number in both two and three dimensions. We find, however, that the Einstein formula is obeyed at all Schmidt numbers, consistent with linear response theory. The mismatch arises because thermal fluctuations affect the drag coefficient for a particle due to the nonlinear nature of the fluid-particle coupling. The numerical data are in good agreement with an approximate self-consistent theory, which can be used to estimate finite-Schmidt number corrections in a variety of methods. Our results indicate that the corrections to the Stokes-Einstein formula come primarily from the fact that the particle itself diffuses together with the momentum. Our study separates effects coming from corrections to no-slip hydrodynamics from those of finite separation of time scales, allowing for a better understanding of widely observed deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction in particle methods such as molecular dynamics.

  6. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laloë, F.; Mullin, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the “settings”), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the “sample bias loophole” (often also called “efficiency loophole”) can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into “measurement boxes.” We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with

  7. Einstein's Photoemission from Quantum Confined Superlattices.

    PubMed

    Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the 83th Birthday of Late Professor B. R. Nag, D.Sc., formerly Head of the Departments of Radio Physics and Electronics and Electronic Science of the University of Calcutta, a firm believer of the concept of theoretical minimum of Landau and an internationally well known semiconductor physicist, to whom the second author remains ever grateful as a student and research worker from 1974-2004. In this paper, an attempt is made to study, the Einstein's photoemission (EP) from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum well heavily doped superlattices (QWHDSLs) with graded interfaces in the presence of quantizing magnetic field on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion relations within the frame work of k · p formalism. The EP from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum wells of heavily doped effective mass superlattices respectively has been presented under magnetic quantization. Besides the said emissions, from the quantum dots of the aforementioned heavily doped SLs have further investigated for the purpose of comparison and complete investigation in the context of EP from quantum confined superlattices. Using appropriate SLs, it appears that the EP increases with increasing surface electron concentration and decreasing film thickness in spiky manners, which are the characteristic features of such quantized hetero structures. Under magnetic quantization, the EP oscillates with inverse quantizing magnetic field due to Shuvnikov-de Haas effect. The EP increases with increasing photo energy in a step-like manner and the numerical values of EP with all the physical variables are totally band structure dependent for all the cases. The most striking features are that the presence of poles in the dispersion relation of the materials in the absence of band tails create the complex energy spectra in the corresponding HD constituent materials of such quantum confined superlattices and effective electron

  8. Einstein-Cartan gravity with Holst term and fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierczak, Marcin

    2009-03-15

    We investigate the consequences of the ambiguity of the minimal coupling procedure for Einstein-Cartan gravity with the Holst term and fermions. A new insight is provided into the nature and physical relevance of coupling procedures considered hitherto in the context of Ashtekar-Barbero-Immirzi formalism with fermions. The issue of physical effects of the Immirzi parameter in semiclassical theory is reinvestigated. We argue that the conclusive answer to the question of its measurability will not be possible until the more fundamental problem of nonuniqueness of gravity-induced fermion interaction in Einstein-Cartan theory is solved.

  9. Quantum and thermal fluctuations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, V.I.; Collett, M.J.; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-09-15

    We quantize a semiclassical system defined by the Hamiltonian obtained from the asymptotic self-similar solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with a linear gain term. On the basis of a Schroedinger equation derived in a space of ellipsoidal parameters, we analytically calculate the quantum mechanical and thermal variance in the ellipsoidal parameters for Bose-Einstein condensates in various shapes of trap. We show that, except for temperatures close to zero, dimensionless dispersions do not depend on the frequencies of the trap and they have the same dependence on dimensionless temperatures.

  10. The Einstein field equation in a multidimensional universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekonen, Osmo

    1988-07-01

    String theory [4] predicts that the universe has 10 or 26 dimensions. A salient problem is how the Einstein field equation should be written in terms of these revivified Kaluza-Klein cosmologies. The answer is by now well-known, yet nobody seems to have rewritten the seminal computation in [6] where an unnecessarily involved Euler-Lagrange variational method is employed and, curiously enough, no allusion to the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem is made. We provide a more straightforward argument, which has been inspired by Hilbert's original derivation of the Einstein field equation [5].

  11. Ultrarelativistic Bose-Einstein gas on Lorentz symmetry violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sales, J. A.; Costa-Soares, T.; Vasquez Otoya, V. J.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of Lorentz Symmetry Breaking on the thermodynamic properties of ideal gases. Inspired by the dispersion relation coming from the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model for Electrodynamics with Lorentz and CPT violation term, we compute the thermodynamics quantities for a Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions. Two regimes are analyzed: the large and the small Lorentz violation. In the first case, we show that the topological mass induced by the Chern-Simons term behaves as a chemical potential. For Bose-Einstein gases, a condensation in both regimes can be found.

  12. Einstein, the Universe, and All That: An Introduction to Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Black holes) an expanding universe) space and time inextricably tied together) GPS ... What was this Einstein guy thinking?!? In this tutorial) I'll give an overview of Einstein's theories of relativity and the wild things they say about our Universe. What really happens when a particle crosses an event horizon? What is the future of the Universe? And how can we know it? Wh I'll try to touch on these questions and in so doing) give the talks in the Cosmology) Gravitation and Relativity sessions some context.

  13. Einstein-Ehrenfest's radiation theory and Compton-Debye's kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Antonio V.; França, Humberto M.

    1992-02-01

    Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory is modified in order to take into account the effects of the random zero-point fields, characteristic of classical stochastic electrodynamics, in a system of classical molecules interacting with thermal radiation. This is done by replacing the Einstein concept of “random spontaneous emission” by the concept of stimulated emission by the random zero-point fields. As a result, Compton and Debye's kinematic relations are obtained within the realm of a completely classical theory, that is, without having to consider the wave-particle duality for the molecules or the radiation.

  14. Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    2005-03-01

    Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.

  15. Probing a nonequilibrium einstein relation in an aging colloidal glass.

    PubMed

    Abou, Bérengère; Gallet, François

    2004-10-15

    We present a direct experimental measurement of an effective temperature in a colloidal glass of laponite, using a micrometric bead as a thermometer. The nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation, in the particular form of a modified Einstein relation, is investigated with diffusion and mobility measurements of the bead embedded in the glass. We observe an unusual nonmonotonic behavior of the effective temperature: starting from the bath temperature, it is found to increase up to a maximum value, and then decrease back, as the system ages. We show that the observed deviation from the Einstein relation is related to the relaxation times previously measured in dynamic light scattering experiments.

  16. Remarks on the Origin of Path Integration:. Einstein and Feynman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, T.

    2008-11-01

    I offer some historical comments about the origins of Feynman's path-integral approach, as an alternative approach to standard quantum mechanics. Looking at the interaction between Einstein and Feynman, which was mediated by Feynman's thesis supervisor John Wheeler, it is argued that, contrary to what one might expect, the significance of the interaction between Einstein and Feynman pertained to a critique of classical field theory, rather than to a direct critique of quantum mechanics itself. Nevertheless, the critical perspective on classical field theory became a motivation and point of departure for Feynman's space-time approach to non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  17. An Integration of the Visual Media Via "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids" into the Elementary School Curriculum as a Teaching Aid and Vehicle to Achieve Increased Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosby, William Henry, Jr.

    This study examines the failure of urban schools to meet the educational needs of minority children and explores the possibilities of using television as a tool for educational change. It discusses three television series ("Sesame Street,""The Electric Company," and "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids") with regard to their success as teaching/learning…

  18. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  19. EPR before EPR: A 1930 Einstein-Bohr thought Experiment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2012-01-01

    In 1930, Einstein argued against the consistency of the time-energy uncertainty relation by discussing a thought experiment involving a measurement of the mass of the box which emitted a photon. Bohr seemingly prevailed over Einstein by arguing that Einstein's own general theory of relativity saves the consistency of quantum mechanics. We revisit…

  20. Collaboration of Art and Science in Albert Edelfelt's Portrait of Louis Pasteur: The Making of an Enduring Medical Icon.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Richard E; Hansen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Historians of medicine--and even Louis Pasteur's biographers--have paid little attention to his close relationship with the Finnish artist Albert Edelfelt. A new look at Edelfelt's letters to his mother, written in Swedish and never quoted at length in English, reveals important aspects of Pasteur's working habits and personality. By understanding the active collaboration through which this very famous portrait was made, we also discover unnoticed things in the painting itself, gain a new appreciation of its original impact on the French public's image of science, and better understand its enduring influence on the portrayal of medicine in the art and the popular culture of many countries even to the present day.

  1. Direct physical formation of anatomical structures by cell traction forces. An interview with Albert Harris by Lev Beloussov.

    PubMed

    Harris, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Albert Harris was educated at The Norfolk Academy, Norfolk, Virginia, USA (1961). He then earned a Batchelor of Arts Degree in Biology from Swarthmore College, in Pennsylvania, USA (1965), followed by a Ph.D. in Biology (1971) from Yale University, where his Dissertation Advisor was the great John Phillip Trinkaus. He held a Damon-Runyon Postdoctoral Fellowship in Cancer Research in 1970-72, under Michael Abercrombie, FRS, at the Strangeways Research Laboratory of Cambridge University, England. Then he accepted a position as Assistant Professor in the Zoology Department of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, N.C. USA. In 1977, he was promoted to Associate Professor of Zoology, and in 1983 was promoted to Full Professor of Biology. In Oct.-Nov. 1991 he was honored to be Distinguished Visiting Professor of Zoology at the University of California at Davis.

  2. Sexological Deliberation and Social Engineering: Albert Moll and the Sterilisation Debate in Late Imperial and Weimar Germany

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll’s conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations – especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295

  3. Extreme drought causes distinct water acidification and eutrophication in the Lower Lakes (Lakes Alexandrina and Albert), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siyue; Bush, Richard T.; Mao, Rong; Xiong, Lihua; Ye, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Droughts are set to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change and water extraction, and understanding their influence on ecosystems is urgent in the Holocene. Low rainfall across the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) of Australia resulted in an unprecedented water level decline in the Lower Lakes (Lakes Alexandrina and Albert) at the downstream end of the river system. A comprehensive data covering pre-drought (2004-2006), drought (2007-2010) and post-drought (2010-2013) was firstly used to unravel drought effects on water quality in the contrasting main parts and margins of the two Lakes, particularly following water acidification resulting from acid sulfate soil oxidation. Salinity, nutrients and Chl-a significantly increased during the drought in the Lake main waterbody, while pH remained stable or showed minor shifts. In contrast to the Lake Alexandrina, total dissolved solid (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) during the post-drought more than doubled the pre-drought period in the Lake Albert as being a terminal lake system with narrow and shallow entrance. Rewetting of the exposed pyrite-containing sediment resulted in very low pH (below 3) in Lake margins, which positively contributed to salinity increases via SO42- release and limestone dissolution. Very acidic water (pH 2-3) was neutralised naturally by lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required for neutralisation of water acidity during the drought period. The Lower Lakes are characterized as hypereutrophic with much higher salinity, nutrient and algae concentrations than guideline levels for aquatic ecosystem. These results suggest that, in the Lower Lakes, drought could cause water quality deterioration through water acidification and increased nutrient and Chl-a concentrations, more effective water management in the lake catchment is thus crucial to prevent the similar water quality deterioration since the projected intensification of droughts. A comparative assessment on lake

  4. Wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.

    PubMed

    Kanti, Panagiota; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2011-12-30

    We construct traversable wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in four spacetime dimensions, without needing any form of exotic matter. We determine their domain of existence, and show that these wormholes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We demonstrate linear stability with respect to radial perturbations for a subset of these wormholes.

  5. Einstein's Riddle as a Tool for Profiling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özeke, Vildan; Akçapina, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    There are many computer games, learning environments, online tutoring systems or computerized tools which keeps the track of the user while learning or engaging in the activities. This paper presents results from an exploratory study and aims to group students regarding their behavior data while solving the Einstein's riddle. 45 undergraduate…

  6. How Einstein Discovered "E[subscript 0] = mc[squared]"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces Einstein's discovery of "the equivalence of mass [m] and energy ["E[subscript 0]"]." He came to that splendid insight in 1905 while employed by the Bern Patent Office, at which time he was not an especially ardent reader of physics journals. How then did the young savant, working outside of academia in semi-isolation, realize…

  7. NASA's Gravity Probe B Mission: Was Einstein Right?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Range, Shannon K.

    2006-12-01

    The most sophisticated and precise test of Einstein's theory of curved spacetime is finally complete after 46 years of development and study. What did we discover? THE MISSION: In 1960, NASA began developing the most sophisticated and precise test of Einstein's theory of general relativity -the Gravity Probe B mission based at Stanford University. Was Einstein right about the shape of curved spacetime around the Earth? Did Earth's rotation actually "twist" spacetime around with it? After four decades of physics and engineering innovations, Gravity Probe B was ready to go. In 2004, NASA launched the Earth-orbiting satellite containing four near-perfect spinning spheres (gyroscopes) designed to reveal the shape of spacetime curvature near the Earth and the presence of "frame-dragging." After 16 months of observations and a year-and-a-half of data analysis, we nearly have our answers. Stanford scientists and theorists are making the final verifications to our data and analysis in preparation for the release of the results. IN YOUR CLASSROOM: We have translated the sophisticated science and technology of this unique mission into a teacher's guide, demonstration activities, and a mission DVD/CD. Each of these items is available to all and will help you engage your students in Einstein's ideas of spacetime, our work with gyroscopes and the exciting work of conducting research in space.

  8. Productive Learning: Science, Art, and Einstein's Relativity in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Sarason, Seymour B.

    2006-01-01

    Why do people, college-bound or even in college, stay away in droves from courses in science, especially physics? Why do people know so little about the significance of Einstein's contributions which require dramatic changes in how we understand ourselves, our world, and the entire universe? Why have educational reforms failed? In this book, two…

  9. On Einstein, Light Quanta, Radiation, and Relativity in 1905

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur I.

    1976-01-01

    Analyzes section 8 of Einstein's relativity paper of 1905, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies," in its historical context. Relates this section to the rest of the relativity paper, to the genesis of relativity theory, and to contemporaneous work on radiation theory. (Author/MLH)

  10. "Beyond Einstein." A Case Study in Interactive Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the design principles for the development of an interactive media project in physics entitled "Beyond Einstein," which is based on the public television series, "The Creation of the Universe." Following a discussion of cognitive science concepts applicable to the development of interactive television, the…

  11. Topological aspects in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Masahito

    2014-12-01

    This article overviews topological excitations in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases. Various types of line defects, point defects and skyrmions are discussed. A brief review of homotopy theory is presented for use in the classification of possible topological excitations in individual quantum phases. Some recent experiments are also reviewed.

  12. Quantum Phase Diffusion of a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; You, L. |

    1996-10-01

    We discuss the quantum properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute gas of atoms in a trap. We show that the phase of the condensate undergoes quantum diffusion which can be detected in far off-resonant light scattering experiments. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Enhanced factoring with a bose-einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Sadgrove, Mark; Kumar, Sanjay; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi

    2008-10-31

    We present a novel method to realize analog sum computation with a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential subject to controlled phase jumps. We use the method to implement the Gauss sum algorithm for factoring numbers. By exploiting higher order quantum momentum states, we are able to improve the algorithm's accuracy beyond the limits of the usual classical implementation.

  14. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  15. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  16. A Conceptual Derivation of Einstein's Postulates of Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, Thomas E.

    This document presents a discussion and conceptual derivation of Einstein's postulates of special relativity. The perceptron approach appears to be a fundamentally new manner of regarding physical phenomena and it is hoped that physicists will interest themselves in the concept. (Author)

  17. Molecular Volumes and the Stokes-Einstein Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edward, John T.

    1970-01-01

    Examines the limitations of the Stokes-Einstein equation as it applies to small solute molecules. Discusses molecular volume determinations by atomic increments, molecular models, molar volumes of solids and liquids, and molal volumes. Presents an empirical correction factor for the equation which applies to molecular radii as small as 2 angstrom…

  18. Bose-Einstein correlation within the framework of hadronic mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Burande, Chandrakant S.

    2015-03-10

    The Bose-Einstein correlation is the phenomenon in which protons and antiprotons collide at extremely high energies; coalesce one into the other resulting into the fireball of finite dimension. They annihilate each other and produces large number of mesons that remain correlated at distances very large compared to the size of the fireball. It was believed that Einstein’s special relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics are the valid frameworks to represent this phenomenon. Although, these frameworks are incomplete and require arbitrary parameters (chaoticity) to fit the experimental data which are prohibited by the basic axioms of relativistic quantum mechanics, such as that for the vacuum expectation values. Moreover, correlated mesons can not be treated as a finite set of isolated point-like particles because it is non-local event due to overlapping of wavepackets. Therefore, the Bose-Einstein correlation is incompatible with the axiom of expectation values of quantum mechanics. In contrary, relativistic hadronic mechanics constructed by Santilli allows an exact representation of the experimental data of the Bose-Einstein correlation and restore the validity of the Lorentz and Poincare symmetries under nonlocal and non-Hamiltonian internal effects. Further, F. Cardone and R. Mignani observed that the Bose-Einstein two-point correlation function derived by Santilli is perfectly matched with experimental data at high energy.

  19. On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, D.

    2014-04-01

    The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit the large and small scale TT power spectrum, the scalar power index smaller than unity, and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion can account for small-scale-large-scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negative, and it can therefore provide partial cancellation of the large-scale power of the TT CMB spectrum. The observed violation of the isotropy appears as a natural ingredient of the Einstein-Cartan model caused by the spin densities of light Majorana neutrinos in the early stage of the evolution of the Universe and bound to the lepton CP violation and matter-antimatter asymmetry.

  20. Excision technique in constrained formulations of Einstein equations: collapse scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Carrión, I.; Vasset, N.; Novak, J.; Jaramillo, J. L.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new excision technique used in constrained formulations of Einstein equations to deal with black hole in numerical simulations. We show the applicability of this scheme in several scenarios. In particular, we present the dynamical evolution of the collapse of a neutron star to a black hole, using the CoCoNuT code and this excision technique.

  1. Bose-Einstein condensates from scalar field dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2010-12-07

    We review the properties of astrophysical and cosmological relevance that may arise from the bosonic nature of scalar field dark matter models. The key property is the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates, but we also consider the presence of non-empty excited states that may be relevant for the description of scalar field galaxy halos and the properties of rotation curves.

  2. The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Stanley

    1969-01-01

    Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…

  3. Concerning Einstein's, Podolsky's, and Rosen's Objection to Quantum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, C. A.

    1970-01-01

    Presents a critical review of a book which claims to resolve the paradox of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. ARgues that, although the book does exhibit a consistent quantum formalism for dealing with situations of the type involved in the original paradox, that formalism, so far from doing away with the paradox, serves only to highlight the…

  4. Perceptions of Genius: Einstein, Lesser Mortals and Shooting Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris D.; Wright, Lindsay

    2000-01-01

    In the first study of the term "genius", 349 undergraduates nominated three geniuses in 1984, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1997. Einstein was regarded as a stereotypical genius, while other nominees were subjective and transitory. In the second study, nominated geniuses were agreed to on only 26.2 percent of possible occasions. (Contains…

  5. Structural instability of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    García-Ripoll, J J; Molina-Terriza, G; Pérez-García, V M; Torner, L

    2001-10-01

    In this paper we study a gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate and show the following: (i) A minimum value of the interaction is needed for the existence of stable persistent currents. (ii) Vorticity is not a fundamental invariant of the system, as there exists a conservative mechanism which can destroy a vortex and change its sign. (iii) This mechanism is suppressed by strong interactions.

  6. Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    How did the Universe begin? Does time have a beginning and an end? Does space have edges? The questions are clear and simple. They are as old as human curiosity. But the answers have always seemed beyond the reach of science. Until now. In their attempts to understand how space, time, and matter are connected, Einstein and his successors made three predictions. First, space is expanding from a Big Bang; second, space and time can tie themselves into contorted knots called black holes where time actually comes to a halt; third, space itself contains some kind of energy that is pull- ing the Universe apart. Each of these three predictions seemed so fantastic when it was made that everyone, including Einstein himself, regarded them as unlikely. Incredibly, all three have turned out to be true. Yet Einstein's legacy is one of deep mystery, because his theories are silent on three questions raised by his fantastic predictions: (1) What powered the Big Bang? (2) What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? (3) What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The answers to these questions-which lie at the crux of where our current theories fail us-will lead to a profound, new understanding of the nature of time and space. To find answers, however, we must venture beyond Einstein. The answers require new theories, such as the inflationary Universe and new insights in high-energy particle theory. Like Einstein s theories, these make fantastic predictions that seem hard to believe: unseen dimensions and entire universes beyond our own. We must find facts to confront and guide these new theories. Powerful new technologies now make this possible. And NASA and its partners are developing an armada of space-based observatories to chart the path to discovery. Here is where the Beyond Einstein story begins. By exploring the three questions that are Einstein s legacy, we begin the next revolution in understanding our Universe. We plot our way

  7. What Is the Largest Einstein Radius in the Universe?

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Masamune; Blandford, Roger D.

    2008-08-05

    The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterizes the strength of gravitational lensing. In particular, the distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cutoff should probe the probability distribution of the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of Monte-Carlo realizations of all-sky catalogues of massive clusters. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to parameters characterizing the cosmological model, especially {sigma}{sub s}: for a source redshift of unity, they are 42{sub -7}{sup +9}, 35{sub -6}{sup +8}, and 54{sub -7}{sup +12} arcseconds (errors denote 1{sigma} cosmic variance), assuming best-fit cosmological parameters of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year (WMAP5), three-year (WMAP3) and one-year (WMAP1) data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. The mass of the largest lens cluster can be as small as {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}}. For the same source redshift, we expect in all-sky {approx} 35 (WMAP5), {approx} 15 (WMAP3), and {approx} 150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 2000. For a larger source redshift of 7, the largest Einstein radii grow approximately twice as large. While the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the level of the primordial non-Gaussianity currently of interest, the measurement of the abundance of moderately large lens clusters should probe non-Gaussianity competitively with cosmic microwave background experiments, but only if other cosmological parameters are well-measured. These semi-analytic predictions are based on a rather simple representation of clusters, and hence calibrating them with N-body simulations will help to improve the accuracy. We also find that these 'superlens

  8. Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    How did the Universe begin Does time have a beginning and an end Does space have edges The questions are clear and simple. They are as old as human curiosity. But the answers have always seemed beyond the reach of science. Until now. In their attempts to understand how space, time, and matter are connected, Einstein and his successors made three predictions. First, space is expanding from a Big Bang; second, space and time can tie themselves into contorted knots called black holes where time actually comes to a halt; third, space itself contains some kind of energy that is pull- ing the Universe apart. Each of these three predictions seemed so fantastic when it was made that everyone, including Einstein himself, regarded them as unlikely. Incredibly, all three have turned out to be true. Yet Einstein's legacy is one of deep mystery, because his theories are silent on three questions raised by his fantastic predictions: (1) What powered the Big Bang (2) What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole (3) What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart The answers to these questions-which lie at the crux of where our current theories fail us-will lead to a profound, new understanding of the nature of time and space. To find answers, however, we must venture beyond Einstein. The answers require new theories, such as the inflationary Universe and new insights in high-energy particle theory. Like Einstein s theories, these make fantastic predictions that seem hard to believe: unseen dimensions and entire universes beyond our own. We must find facts to confront and guide these new theories. Powerful new technologies now make this possible. And NASA and its partners are developing an armada of space-based observatories to chart the path to discovery. Here is where the Beyond Einstein story begins. By exploring the three questions that are Einstein s legacy, we begin the next revolution in understanding our Universe. We plot our way

  9. About the origins of the general theory of relativity: Einstein's search for the truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, Matthew

    2005-11-01

    On the 20th June 1933 Professor Einstein addressed a large and enthusiastic audience in the Victorian Gothic Bute Hall of the University of Glasgow. Einstein spoke 'About the Origins of the General Theory of Relativity'. In 1905 Einstein had changed the face of physics forever with the publication of his radical new ideas on special relativity. His general theory of relativity was introduced to the world in 1915. However in 1933, Einstein faced another challenge—survival in a world of change. This paper explores Einstein's fascinating address to the Glasgow audience in that year.

  10. Einstein*s witches* sabbath in Brussels: The legend and the facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Franklin J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is about the first Solvay Council on Physics, its surprising origin and its far reaching consequences. In spite of the various accounts that have been given by several authors - they include historians of science, but also outstanding scientists, such as Leon Rosenfeld, Niels Bohr and Eduardo Amaldi - it appears that only limited attention was paid so far to the more singular aspects of this legendary meeting, and to the peculiar circumstances which led to its convening. This fact may be due to the restricted availability of relevant documents, many of which are located in different archives. It also reflects the rather abstract character of Ernest Solvay*s Institute of Physics - an Institute without a permanent staff, governed by geographically separated bodies: a scientific committee with a chairman in Haarlem, a secretary in Copenhagen and an administrative committee in Brussels. One of the purposes of the paper is to fill this gap by revisiting the course of events which led to Solvay*s invitation of June 1911. Another aim is to present a brief, yet balanced, account of the deliberations which took place in October-November 1911, by pointing at some elements that may be regarded as highlights of the Council, and by focusing on the contrasting aspects of its main results: the contrast between the Council*s disappointing conclusions on the one hand, and its positive consequences on the other hand. Special attention in this context is given to the unexpected concern about the validity of Planck*s law, expressed by Emil Warburg, and to the apparent contradictions in Einstein*s private reactions to the outcome of the Brussels meeting. The paper also aims at restoring the truth about some facts regarding the Solvay reports and their discussion, by revealing the discrepancies between the official account - the Gauthier-Villars volume "La théorie du rayonnement et les quanta", published in 1912, and the actual proceedings of the conference, based on notes

  11. Einstein energy associated with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2010-03-01

    Following Einstein’s definition of Lagrangian density and gravitational field energy density (Einstein in Ann Phys Lpz 49:806, 1916, Einstein in Phys Z 19:115, 1918, Pauli in Theory of Relativity, B.I. Publications, Mumbai, 1963), Tolman derived a general formula for the total matter plus gravitational field energy ( P 0) of an arbitrary system (Tolman in Phys Rev 35:875, 1930, Tolman in Relativity, Thermodynamics & Cosmology, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1962, Xulu in hep-th/0308070, 2003). For a static isolated system, in quasi-Cartesian coordinates, this formula leads to the well known result {P_0 = int sqrt{-g} (T_0^0 - T_1^1 - T_2^2 - T_3^3) d^3 x,} where g is the determinant of the metric tensor and {T^a_b} is the energy momentum tensor of the matter. Though in the literature, this is known as “Tolman Mass”, it must be realized that this is essentially “Einstein Mass” because the underlying pseudo-tensor here is due to Einstein. In fact, Landau-Lifshitz obtained the same expression for the “inertial mass” of a static isolated system without using any pseudo-tensor at all and which points to physical significance and correctness of Einstein Mass (Landau, Lifshitz in The Classical Theory of Fields, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1962)! For the first time we apply this general formula to find an expression for P 0 for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric by using the same quasi-Cartesian basis. As we analyze this new result, it transpires that, physically, a spatially flat model having no cosmological constant is preferred. Eventually, it is seen that conservation of P 0 is honoured only in the static limit.

  12. Air-water CO2 outgassing in the Lower Lakes (Alexandrina and Albert, Australia) following a millennium drought.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Bush, Richard T; Ward, Nicholas J; Sullivan, Leigh A; Dong, Fangyong

    2016-01-15

    Lakes are an important source and sink of atmospheric CO2, and thus are a vital component of the global carbon cycle. However, with scarce data on potentially important subtropical and tropical areas for whole continents such as Australia, the magnitude of large-scale lake CO2 emissions is unclear. This study presents spatiotemporal changes of dissolved inorganic carbon and water - to - air interface CO2 flux in the two of Australia's largest connected, yet geomorphically different freshwater lakes (Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert, South Australia), during drought (2007 to September-2010) and post-drought (October 2010 to 2013). Lake levels in the extreme drought were on average approximately 1m lower than long-term average (0.71 m AHD). Drought was associated with an increase in the concentrations of dissolved inorganic species, organic carbon, nitrogen, Chl-a and major ions, as well as water acidification as a consequence of acid sulfate soil (ASS) exposure, and hence, had profound effects on lake pCO2 concentrations. Lakes Alexandrina and Albert were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the drought period, with efflux ranging from 0.3 to 7.0 mmol/m(2)/d. The lake air-water CO2 flux was negative in the post-drought, ranging between -16.4 and 0.9 mmol/m(2)/d. The average annual CO2 emission was estimated at 615.5×10(6) mol CO2/y during the drought period. These calculated emission rates are in the lower range for lakes, despite the potential for drought conditions that shift the lakes from sink to net source for atmospheric CO2. These observations have significant implications in the context of predicted increasing frequency and intensity of drought as a result of climate change. Further information on the spatial and temporal variability in CO2 flux from Australian lakes is urgently warranted to revise the global carbon budget for lakes.

  13. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135

  14. Bose-Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein-Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein-Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas-Fermi approximation is applied to the 3-dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space-time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation.

  15. X-ray studies of quasars with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.; Branduardi, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Feigelson, E.; Giacconi, R.; Henry, J. P.; Avni, Y.; Elvis, M.; Pye, J. P.; Soltan, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the X-ray properties of quasars conducted using the Einstein Observatory (HEAO 2) are reported. The positions, fluxes and luminosities of 35 known quasars were observed by the Einstein high-resolution imaging detector and the imaging proportional counter. Assuming optical redshifts as valid distance indicators, 0.5-4.5 keV X-ray luminosities ranging from 10 to the 43rd to 10 to the 47 ergs/sec are obtained, with evidence of very little cold gas absorption. Flux variability on a time scale of less than 10,000 sec is observed for the quasar OX 169, which implies a mass between 8 x 10 to the 5th and 2 x 10 to the 8th solar masses for the black hole assumed to be responsible for the emission. Preliminary results of the quasar survey also indicate that quasars contribute significantly to the diffuse X-ray background.

  16. Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?

    SciTech Connect

    Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Macías, Alfredo; Núñez, Darío E-mail: cescamilla@mctp.mx E-mail: nunez@nucleares.unam.mx

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole.

  17. Planck distribution of phonons in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Schley, R; Berkovitz, A; Rinott, S; Shammass, I; Blumkin, A; Steinhauer, J

    2013-08-02

    The Planck distribution of photons emitted by a blackbody led to the development of quantum theory. An analogous distribution of phonons should exist in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We observe this Planck distribution of thermal phonons in a 3D condensate. This observation provides an important confirmation of the basic nature of the condensate's quantized excitations. In contrast to the bunching effect, the density fluctuations are seen to increase with increasing temperature. This is due to the nonconservation of the number of phonons. In the case of rapid cooling, the phonon temperature is out of equilibrium with the surrounding thermal cloud. In this case, a Bose-Einstein condensate is not as cold as previously thought. These measurements are enabled by our in situ k-space technique.

  18. Bose–Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein–Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross–Pitaevskii equation for a Bose–Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein–Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas–Fermi approximation is applied to the 3–dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space–time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose–Einstein condensation.

  19. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    SciTech Connect

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Peltola, Ari; Louko, Jorma

    2010-01-15

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schroedinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  20. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-10-01

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.