Albert Einstein: The Violinist
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Peregrine
2005-05-01
To the press of his time Albert Einstein was two parts renowned scientist, one jigger pacifist and Zionist fundraiser, and a dash amateur musician. These proportions persisted during 1979, the 100th anniversary of his birth, as writers in all media jostled each other as they recounted his achievements. Relativity tended to hog the show. Relatively little space was given to Einstein the musician.
Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Physics Today, 1979
1979-01-01
Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)
Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunziker, Herbert
2015-03-01
For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.
Conversations With Albert Einstein. II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shankland, R. S.
1973-01-01
Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)
Albert Einstein, Cosmos and Religion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djokovic, V.; Grujic, P.
2007-06-01
We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect) and agnosticism (epistemological aspect). His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo-) Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects) and religious (intuitive aspects) thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics.
Albert Einstein - And the Frontiers of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Jeremy
1997-11-01
Albert Einstein did not impress his first teachers. They found him a dreamy child without an especially promising future. But some time in his early years he developed what he called "wonder" about the world. Later in life, he remembered two instances from his childhood--his fascination at age five with a compass and his introduction to the lucidity and certainty of geometry--that may have been the first signs of what was to come. From these ordinary beginnings, Einstein became one of the greatest scientific thinkers of all time. This illuminating biography describes in understandable language the experiments and revolutionary theories that flowed from Einstein's imagination and intellect--from his theory of relativity, which changed our conception of the universe and our place in it, to his search for a unified field theory that would explain all of the forces in the universe.
Albert Einstein and LD: An Evaluation of the Evidence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Marlin
2000-01-01
This article refutes claims that Albert Einstein had a learning disability and argues the claim derives its force not from evidence but from belief that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment and from desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including exceptional individuals. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lande, Alfred
1974-01-01
Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)
Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goenner, Hubert
In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.
The collected papers of Albert Einstein. Volume 2. The Swiss years: Writings, 1900-1909
Stachel, J.; Cassidy, D.C.; Renn, J.; Schulmann, R.
1989-01-01
This second volume of the papers of Albert Einstein chronologically presents published articles, unpublished papers, research and lecture notes, reviews, and patent applications for the period 1900-1909 during which time Einstein had a two-year period of short-term employment and a permanent position at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. There are 62 published documents reproduced. The writings of this period deal with seven general themes: molecular forces, the foundation of statistical physics, the quantum hypothesis, determining molecular dimensions, Brownian movement, the theory of relativity, and the electrodynamics of moving media. The book also presents all available letters written by Einstein along with all significant letters sent to him and many important third-party letters written about him. The editors have added substantial introduction and a set of eight editorial notes that place Einstein's writings within their immediate scientific context. Footnotes to Einstein texts designed to illuminate the sources of scientific problems that Einstein confronted and the ideas and techniques with which he addressed them have been added by the editors. A comprehensive index to Einstein's early writings is provided.
Paul Ehrenfest, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein: Colleagues and Friends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Martin J.
2010-09-01
In May 1918 Paul Ehrenfest received a monograph from Niels Bohr in which Bohr had used Ehrenfest's adiabatic principle as an essential assumption for understanding atomic structure. Ehrenfest responded by inviting Bohr, whom he had never met, to give a talk at a meeting in Leiden in late April 1919, which Bohr accepted; he lived with Ehrenfest, his mathematician wife Tatyana, and their young family for two weeks. Albert Einstein was unable to attend this meeting, but in October 1919 he visited his old friend Ehrenfest and his family in Leiden, where Ehrenfest told him how much he had enjoyed and profited from Bohr's visit. Einstein first met Bohr when Bohr gave a lecture in Berlin at the end of April 1920, and the two immediately proclaimed unbounded admiration for each other as physicists and as human beings. Ehrenfest hoped that he and they would meet at the Third Solvay Conference in Brussels in early April 1921, but his hope was unfulfilled. Einstein, the only physicist from Germany who was invited to it in this bitter postwar atmosphere, decided instead to accompany Chaim Weizmann on a trip to the United States to help raise money for the new Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Bohr became so overworked with the planning and construction of his new Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen that he could only draft the first part of his Solvay report and ask Ehrenfest to present it, which Ehrenfest agreed to do following the presentation of his own report. After recovering his strength, Bohr invited Ehrenfest to give a lecture in Copenhagen that fall, and Ehrenfest, battling his deep-seated self-doubts, spent three weeks in Copenhagen in December 1921 accompanied by his daughter Tanya and her future husband, the two Ehrenfests staying with the Bohrs in their apartment in Bohr's new Institute for Theoretical Physics. Immediately after leaving Copenhagen, Ehrenfest wrote to Einstein, telling him once again that Bohr was a prodigious physicist, and again
Albert Einstein - Chief Engineer of the Universe: 100 Authors for Einstein Essays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renn, Jürgen
2005-09-01
In 1905, Albert Einstein published five scientific articles that fundamentally changed the world-view of physics: The Special Theory of Reativity revolutionized our concept of space and time, E=mcÂ² became the best-known equation in physics. On the occasion of the 100th aniversary of his "annus mirabilis" 1905, the UNESCO declared the year 2005 the "World Year of Physics", in order to draw attention to the impact of physics. The Max Planck Institute for the history of science dedicates an exhibition in the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin to the probably most important scientist of the 20th century. In this book, 100 authors explain the historical background of Einstein's life and work, shed light on many different aspects of his biography, and on the scientific fields and topics that are connected to Einstein's work. The authors are some of the most renowned Einstein researchers in the world, such as Jürgen Ehlers, Peter Galison, Zeev Rosenkranz, John Stachel and Robert Schulmann. The essays form a bridge between scientific and cultural history, opening up a perspective on Einstein's biography which goes beyond the traditional picture of the exceptional science genius.
Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ne'eman, Yuval
1979-01-01
Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dongen, Jeroen
2012-06-01
Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dongen, Jeroen
2012-06-01
Albert Einstein accepted a 'special' visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolution was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.
Kapon, Shulamit
2014-11-01
This article presents an analysis of a scientific article written by Albert Einstein in 1946 for the general public that explains the equivalence of mass and energy and discusses the implications of this principle. It is argued that an intelligent popularization of many advanced ideas in physics requires more than the simple elimination of mathematical formalisms and complicated scientific conceptions. Rather, it is shown that Einstein developed an alternative argument for the general public that bypasses the core of the formal derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy to provide a sense of derivation based on the history of science and the nature of scientific inquiry. This alternative argument is supported and enhanced by variety of explanatory devices orchestrated to coherently support and promote the reader's understanding. The discussion centers on comparisons to other scientific expositions written by Einstein for the general public. PMID:23825279
The Gendering of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie in Children's Biographies: Some Tensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Rachel E.; Jarrard, Amber R.; Tippins, Deborah J.
2009-01-01
Few twentieth century scientists have generated as much interest as Albert Einstein and Marie Currie. Their lives are centrally depicted in numerous children's biographies of famous scientists. Yet their stories reflect interesting paradoxes and tacit sets of unexplored sociocultural assumptions about gender in science education and the larger…
Albert Einstein's Personal Papers: A Physics Teaching Resource.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Derman, Samuel
2000-01-01
Presents the concept of using Einstein the man as a way of generating interest in the study of physics among students. Finds that it provides an instantly recognizable face for science, thus a gateway to the subject through the discussion of the man. (Author/CCM)
What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.
2009-01-01
Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in…
The gendering of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie in children's biographies: some tensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Rachel E.; Jarrard, Amber R.; Tippins, Deborah J.
2009-12-01
Few twentieth century scientists have generated as much interest as Albert Einstein and Marie Currie. Their lives are centrally depicted in numerous children's biographies of famous scientists. Yet their stories reflect interesting paradoxes and tacit sets of unexplored sociocultural assumptions about gender in science education and the larger society. Trevor Owens' analysis of common Einstein and Currie biographies for children provides a context for us to consider a deeper reading of these scientists' stories in ways that can be both empowering and liberating. In the process, we consider some interesting tensions surrounding the gendered nature of their stories.
Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Kerrigan, Noreen; Akabas, Myles H.; Betzler, Thomas F.; Castaldi, Maria; Kelly, Mary S.; Levy, Adam S.; Reichgott, Michael J.; Ruberman, Louise; Dolan, Siobhan M.
2016-01-01
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a ‘holistic’ approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four ‘Admissions Competencies’ that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1) cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2) communication skills; 3) personal and professional development; and 4) knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process. PMID:26847852
Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
Kerrigan, Noreen; Akabas, Myles H; Betzler, Thomas F; Castaldi, Maria; Kelly, Mary S; Levy, Adam S; Reichgott, Michael J; Ruberman, Louise; Dolan, Siobhan M
2016-01-01
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a 'holistic' approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four 'Admissions Competencies' that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1) cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2) communication skills; 3) personal and professional development; and 4) knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process. PMID:26847852
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straumann, Norbert
2007-10-01
During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924 1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916 1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c—also for spontaneous emission—in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work—general relativity—there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dick, Wolfgang R.
This bibliography lists 15 publications which appeared in volumes 1 to 26 (1998 to 2005) in the series ``Acta Historica Astronomiae''. They concern life and work of Albert Einstein as well as the history of and modern developments in the theory of relativity and relativistic cosmology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
This document contains the text of the "Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994" (S. 2104) along with related analysis. The bill establishes a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that provides them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and communication…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterberg, Friedwardt
2008-04-01
It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundmann, Siegfried
Referring to the Straus-Herrmann correspondence, we deal only with one aspect of the ``political Einstein'': his attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin (who were in the past sometimes called the ``classics of Marxism-Leninism''). Einstein revered Marx, but condemned Stalin as a criminal. He also resisted attempts to be misused by representatives of ``dialectic materialism''.
Walter C. Williams with Brig. General Albert Boyd
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1950-01-01
Walter C. Williams, (behind airplane model) Head of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Research Station at Edwards Air Force Base in California is examining a Northrop X-4 research airplane with Brig. Gen. Albert Boyd, Commander of Edwards Air Force Base. At Edwards, the Air Force Air Material Command ran a brief program on the X-4 during the summer of 1950 before delivering it to the NACA. Data was collected on these 14 flights, so they were logged as NACA test flights. General Boyd made flight number 13. Air Force and NACA pilots completed a total of 82 flights on X-4 #2 (46-677) between August 1950 and September 1953. There are three things that made the Mojave Desert, where Edwards Air Force Base is located, so well suited for flight research. The first was the area's flying conditions--clear skies with great visibility almost every day of the year. The second was the 44-square-mile Rogers Dry Lake, a natural landing site that General Boyd referred to as 'God's gift to the Air Force.' The third was the unpopulated area surrounding the lakebed, which led to fewer complaints about aircraft noise (including sonic booms) than would have occurred in more populated areas. There was also less chance of injury to the surrounding population in the event of an aircraft accident.
Albert Ellis Revisited: Vague, General or Mild Religion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Floyd, William A.
1984-01-01
Discusses the writings of Albert Ellis dealing with religion and psychotherapy. Advocates a liberal form of theism in which (1) the use of symbolism and ritual are stressed; (2) faith is taken seriously but not as history or science; and (3) the importance of theology is affirmed. (JAC)
The Creative Power of Formal Analogies in Physics: The Case of Albert Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingras, Yves
2015-07-01
In order to show how formal analogies between different physical systems play an important conceptual work in physics, this paper analyzes the evolution of Einstein's thoughts on the structure of radiation from the point of view of the formal analogies he used as "lenses" to "see" through the "black box" of Planck's blackbody radiation law. A comparison is also made with his 1925 paper on the quantum gas where he used the same formal methods. Changes of formal points of view are most of the time taken for granted or passed over in silence in studies on the mathematization of physics as if they had no special significance. Revisiting Einstein's classic papers on the nature of light and matter from the angle of the various theoretical tools he used, namely entropy and energy fluctuation calculations, helps explain why he was in a unique position to make visible the particle structure of radiation and the dual (particle and wave) nature of light and matter. Finally, this case study calls attention to the more general question of the surprising creative power of formal analogies and their frequent use in theoretical physics. This aspect of intellectual creation can be useful in the teaching of physics.
Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.
2012-02-01
Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap, which Van Druten and Ketterle first showed had a two-step condensation: a GBEC into a band of states at a temperature T c and another "one-dimensional" transition at a lower temperature T 1 into the ground state. In a thermodynamic limit in which the ratio of the dimensions of the anisotropic harmonic trap is kept fixed, T 1 merges with the upper transition, which then becomes a normal BEC. However, in the thermodynamic limit of Beau and Zagrebnov, in which the ratio of the boundary lengths increases exponentially, T 1 becomes fixed at the temperature of a true Type I phase transition. The effects of interactions on GBEC are discussed and we show that there is evidence that Type III condensation may have been observed in the cigar trap.
Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando
2006-02-01
The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions. PMID:16453104
Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chandrasekhar, S.
1979-01-01
This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)
Mehra, J.
1987-05-01
In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schroedinger during 1920-1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925-1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory - formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan - Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in September 1927 and at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels the following month, Bohr publicly enunciated his complementarity principle, which had been developing in his mind for several years. The Bohr-Einstein discussions about the consistency and completeness of quantum mechanics and of physical theory as such - formally begun in October 1927 at the fifth Solvay Conference and carried on at the sixth Solvay Conference in October 1930 - were continued during the next decades. All these aspects are briefly summarized.
The Creative Power of Formal Analogies in Physics: The Case of Albert Einstein
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gingras, Yves
2015-01-01
In order to show how formal analogies between different physical systems play an important conceptual work in physics, this paper analyzes the evolution of Einstein's thoughts on the structure of radiation from the point of view of the formal analogies he used as "lenses" to "see" through the "black box" of Planck's…
Hypermass generalization of Einstein's gravitation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, J. D., Jr.
1973-01-01
The curvilinear invariant quaternion formalism is examined for curved space time. Einstein's gravitation equation is shown to have a simple and natural form in this notation. The hypermass generalization of particle mass, which was generated in our studies of the Dirac equation, is incorporated in gravitation by generalizing Einstein's equation. Covariance requires that the gravitational constant be generalized to an invariant quaternion when the mass is. The modification appears minor and of no importance cosmologically, unless one begins considering time and mass dependence of G.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando
2006-02-01
The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s “Annus Mirabilis.” The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein’s ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood’s very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky’s proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today’s perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein’s achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.
Lepore, Frederick E.; Noe, Adrianne
2013-01-01
Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein’s brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein’s entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein’s sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein’s brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein’s brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein’s parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein’s brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein’s brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci. PMID:23161163
Walther Nernst, Albert Einstein, Otto Stern, and the Specific Heat of Hydrogen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gearhart, Clayton
2007-04-01
In 1911, the German physical chemist Walther Nernst observed that the new quantum theory might both clarify unresolved problems in the specific heats of gases and shed new light on quantum theory itself. He noted that measurements of the specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures might be particularly informative. Arnold Euken, working in Nernst's laboratory in Berlin, published the first measurements in 1912. They showed a sharp drop, corresponding to the rotational degrees of freedom ``freezing out.'' Nernst also developed a theory in his 1911 paper, in which, remarkably, rotational energies were not quantized. Instead, the specific heat fell off because the gas was in equilibrium with quantized Planck oscillators. Nernst's theory was flawed But Einstein adopted an improved version at the 1911 Solvay Conference, and in 1913, he and Otto Stern published a more detailed treatment, in which they suggested tentatively that Planck's recently introduced zero-point energy might reduce or even eliminate the need to quantize physical systems. This episode points out just how mysterious quantum phenomena seemed early in the 20th century.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, Georg
Einstein's treatment of the cosmological problem as well as his unshakeable adherence to his own static solution of the complete field equations was throughout determined by Ernst Mach's idea of relativity of inertia. Friedmann, however, like Eddington, Weyl and others did not consider Mach's principle to be a part of general relativity, and so he regarded a time dependent developing spatial geometry as being consistent with world matter at relative rest. In his final statement to the controversy, Einstein acknowledged just formal correctness of Friedmann's results. Actually his criticism was not due ``to a miscalculation'', as he was ready to admit, but was owed to a fundamental fixed idea which continued to exist and which was the cause of his disavowal of physical significance of dynamical solutions.
Einstein for Schools and the General Public
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch
2006-01-01
In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erickson, Ann R.
2008-01-01
In this article, the author describes how she introduced a lesson called Albert's Alphabet to her kindergarten students. This lesson introduces the design thinking process to kindergartners in a developmentally appropriate way. She began the lesson by reading Leslie Tyron's book "Albert's Alphabet," which tells the story of Albert Goose, the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehra, Jagdish
1987-05-01
In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger during 1920 1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925 1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory—formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan—Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in September 1927 and at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels the following month, Bohr publicly enunciated his complementarity principle, which had been developing in his mind for several years. The Bohr-Einstein discussions about the consistency and completeness of qnautum mechanics and of physical theory as such—formally begun in October 1927 at the fifth Solvay Conference and carried on at the sixth Solvay Conference in October 1930—were continued during the next decades. All these aspects are briefly summarized.
Generalized Einstein-Aether theories and the Solar System
Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Zlosnik, Tom G.; Starkman, Glenn
2008-01-15
It has been shown that generalized Einstein-Aether theories may lead to significant modifications to the nonrelativistic limit of the Einstein equations. In this paper we study the effect of a general class of such theories on the Solar System. We consider corrections to the gravitational potential in negative and positive powers of distance from the source. Using measurements of the perihelion shift of Mercury and time delay of radar signals to Cassini, we place constraints on these corrections. We find that a subclass of generalized Einstein-Aether theories is compatible with these constraints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campanelli, M.; Rezzolla, L.
2007-06-01
Traditionally, frontiers represent a treacherous terrain to venture into, where hidden obstacles are present and uncharted territories lie ahead. At the same time, frontiers are also a place where new perspectives can be appreciated and have often been the cradle of new and thriving developments. With this in mind and inspired by this spirit, the Numerical Relativity Group at the Albert Einstein Institute (AEI) organized a `New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' meeting on 17 21 July 2006 at the AEI campus in Potsdam, Germany. It is an interesting historical remark that the suggestion of the meeting was first made in the late summer of 2005 and thus at a time that for many reasons has been a turning point in the recent history of numerical relativity. A few months earlier (April 2005) in fact, F Pretorius had announced the first multi-orbit simulations of binary black holes and computed the waveforms from the inspiral, merger and ring-down (`Numerical Relativity', Banff International Research Station, Banff, Canada, 16 21 April 2005). At that time, the work of Pretorius served as an important boost to the research in this field and although no other group has yet adopted the techniques he employed, his results provided the numerical relativity community with clear evidence that the binary black hole problem could be solved. A few months later (November 2005), equally striking results were presented by the NASA Goddard and Texas/Brownsville groups, who also reported, independently, multi-orbit evolutions of binary black holes using numerical techniques and formulations of the Einstein equations which were markedly distinct from those suggested by Pretorius (`Numerical Relativity 2005', Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD, USA, 2 4 November 2005). A few months later other groups were able to repeat the same simulations and obtain equivalent results, testifying that the community as a whole had reached comparable levels of maturity in both the numerical
Einstein: A Historical Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kormos-Buchwald, Diana
2015-04-01
In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.
Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petti, Richard
2016-03-01
This article presents a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity with no additional assumptions or parameters. The derivation begins with distributions of Kerr masses that converge to a continuum with constant densities of mass, momentum, and angular momentum. The limit includes torsion and the spin-torsion relationship of Einstein-Cartan theory. The construction of curvature and torsion is equivalent to definition of curvature with Cartan forms on fiber bundles. Advantages of Einstein-Cartan theory include accommodating exchange of classical intrinsic and orbital angular momentum and generation of inflation-like expansion in high density cosmological models.
Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Calmthout, Matijn
2016-01-01
A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.
General relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics with the Einstein Toolkit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moesta, Philipp; Mundim, Bruno; Faber, Joshua; Noble, Scott; Bode, Tanja; Haas, Roland; Loeffler, Frank; Ott, Christian; Reisswig, Christian; Schnetter, Erik
2013-04-01
The Einstein Toolkit Consortium is developing and supporting open software for relativistic astrophysics. Its aim is to provide the core computational tools that can enable new science, broaden our community, facilitate interdisciplinary research and take advantage of petascale computers and advanced cyberinfrastructure. The Einstein Toolkit currently consists of an open set of over 100 modules for the Cactus framework, primarily for computational relativity along with associated tools for simulation management and visualization. The toolkit includes solvers for vacuum spacetimes as well as relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. This talk will present the current capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit with a particular focus on recent improvements made to the general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics modeling and will point to information how to leverage it for future research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Scope, 2006
2006-01-01
This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…
General Relativity: an Einstein Centenary Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, Stephen; Israel, W.
2010-03-01
List of contributors; Preface; 1. An introductory survey S. W. Hawking and W. Israel; 2. The confrontation between gravitation theory and experiment C. M. Will; 3. Gravitational-radiation experiments D. H. Douglass and V. B. Braginsky; 4. The initial value problem and the dynamical formulation of general relativity A. E. Fischer and J. E. Marsden; 5. Global structure of spacetimes R. Geroch and G. T. Horowitz; 6. The general theory of the mechanical, electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of black holes B. Carter; 7. An introduction to the theory of the Kerr metric and its peturbations S. Chandrasekhar; 8. Black hole astrophysics R. D. Blandford and K. S. Thorne; 9. The big bang cosmology - enigmas and nostrums R. H. Dicke and P. J. E. Peebles; 10. Cosmology and the early universe Ya B. Zel'dovitch; 11. Anisotropic and inhomogeneous relativistic cosmologies M. A. H. MacCallum; 12. Singularities and time-asymmetry R. Penrose; 13. Quantum field theory in curved spacetime G. W. Gibbons; 14. Quantum gravity: the new synthesis B. S. DeWitt; 15. The path-integral approach to quantum gravity S. W. Hawking; 16. Ultraviolet divergences in quantum theories of gravitation S. Weinberg; References; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erwin, Charlotte
2005-03-01
Albert Einstein traveled to America by boat during the great depression to consult with scientists at the California Institute of Technology. He was a theoretical physicist, a Nobel Prize winner, and a 20th century folk hero. Few members of the general public understood his theories, but they idolized him all the same. The invitation came from physicist Robert Millikan, who had initiated a visiting-scholars program at Caltech shortly after he became head of the school in 1921. Einstein's visits to the campus in 1931, 1932, and 1933 capped Millikan's campaign to make Caltech one of the physics capitals of the world. Mount Wilson astronomer Edwin Hubble's discovery that redshifts are proportional to their distances from the observer challenged Einstein's cosmological picture of a static universe. The big question at Caltech in 1931 was whether Einstein would give up his cosmological constant and accept the idea of an expanding universe. By day, Einstein discussed his theory and its interpretation at length with Richard Tolman, Hubble, and the other scientists on the campus. By night, Einstein filled his travel diary with his personal impressions. During his third visit, Einstein sidestepped as long as possible the question of whether conditions in Germany might prevent his return there. After the January 30 announcement that Hitler had become chancellor of Germany, the question could no longer be evaded. He postponed his return trip for a few weeks and then went to Belgium for several months instead of to Berlin. In the fall of 1933, Albert Einstein returned to the United States as an emigre and became a charter member of Abraham Flexner's new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Why did Einstein go to Princeton and not Pasadena?
Improved gauge driver for the generalized harmonic Einstein system
Lindblom, Lee; Szilagyi, Bela
2009-10-15
A new gauge driver is introduced for the generalized harmonic (GH) representation of Einstein's equation. This new driver allows a rather general class of gauge conditions to be implemented in a way that maintains the hyperbolicity of the combined evolution system. This driver is more stable and effective and, unlike previous drivers, allows stable evolutions using the dual-frame evolution technique. Appropriate boundary conditions for this new gauge driver are constructed, and a new boundary condition for the 'gauge' components of the spacetime metric in the GH Einstein system is introduced. The stability and effectiveness of this new gauge driver are demonstrated through numerical tests, which impose a new damped-wave gauge condition on the evolutions of single black-hole spacetimes.
Krajniak, Wiktor
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is the analyses of discussion between Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg in the period 1925-1927. Their disputes, relating to the sources of scientific knowledge, its methods and the value of knowledge acquired in this way, are part of the characteristic for the European science discourse between rationalism and empirism. On the basis of some sources and literature on the subject, the epistemological positions of both scholars in the period were reconstructed. This episode, yet poorly known, is a unique example of scientific disputes, whose range covers a broad spectrum of methodological problems associated with the historical development of science. The conducted analysis sheds some light on the source of popularity of logical empirism in the first half of the 20th century. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the neopositivist ideas which reflect Heisenberg's research program, being the starting point for the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The main assumption of logical empirism, concerning acquisition of scientific knowledge only by means of empirical procedures and logical analysis of the language of science, in view of the voiced by Einstein arguments, bears little relationship with actual testing practices in the historical aspect of the development of science. The criticism of Heisenberg's program, carried out by Einstein, provided arguments for the main critics of the neopositivist ideal and contributed to the bankruptcy of the idea of logical empirism, thereby starting a period of critical rationalism prosperity, arising from criticism of neopositivism and alluding to Einstein's ideas. PMID:25675728
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caulley, Darrel N.
1982-01-01
Like any other person, Albert Einstein was an informal evaluator, engaged in placing value on various aspects of his life, work, and the world. Based on Einstein's own statements, this paper speculates about what Einstein would have been like as a connoisseur evaluator, a conceptual evaluator, or a responsive evaluator. (Author/BW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fine, Leonard
2005-01-01
A brief description on the work and life of the great physicist scientist Albert Einstein is presented. The photoelectric paper written by him in 1905 led him to the study of fluctuations in the energy density of radiation and from there to the incomplete nature of the equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, which failed to account for…
A Generalization of the Einstein-Maxwell Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotton, Fredrick
2016-03-01
The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions. http://sites.google.com/site/fwcotton/em-30.pdf
Generalized Einstein relation in tilted periodic potential: a semiclassical approach.
Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Banik, Suman Kumar; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2010-06-17
This paper concerns the investigation of the quantum motion of a system in a dissipative Ohmic heat bath in the presence of an external field using the traditional system-reservoir model. Using physically motivated initial conditions, we then obtain the c-number of the generalized quantum Langevin equation by which we calculate the quantum correction terms using a perturbation technique. As a result of this, one can apply a classical differential equation-based approach to consider quantum diffusion in a tilted periodic potential, and thus our approach is easy to use. We use our expression to calculate the Einstein relation for the quantum Brownian particle in a ratchet-type potential in a very simple closed analytical form using a suitable and convenient approximation. It is found that the diffusion rate is independent of the detailed form of the potential both in quantum and classical regimes, which is the main essence of this work. PMID:20481540
Oberheim, Eric
2016-06-01
Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend promote incommensurability as a central component of their conflicting accounts of the nature of science. This paper argues that in so doing, they both develop Albert Einstein's views, albeit in different directions. Einstein describes scientific revolutions as conceptual replacements, not mere revisions, endorsing 'Kant-on-wheels' metaphysics in light of 'world change'. Einstein emphasizes underdetermination of theory by evidence, rational disagreement in theory choice, and the non-neutrality of empirical evidence. Einstein even uses the term 'incommensurable' specifically to apply to challenges posed to comparatively evaluating scientific theories in 1949, more than a decade before Kuhn and Feyerabend. This analysis shows how Einstein anticipates substantial components of Kuhn and Feyerabend's views, and suggests that there are strong reasons to suspect that Kuhn and Feyerabend were directly inspired by Einstein's use of the term 'incommensurable', as well as his more general methodological and philosophical reflections. PMID:27269260
Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.
2000-01-01
Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)
Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.
Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao
2014-10-01
Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain. PMID:25382446
Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science, 1980
1980-01-01
The texts of four speeches, given at the 1979 Einstein Session of the Pontifical Academy held in Rome, are presented. Each address relates to some aspect of the life and times of Albert Einstein. (SA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisle, John
2016-01-01
Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Martin J.
2005-03-01
After Paul Ehrenfest's untimely death, Albert Einstein wrote about their first meeting more than twenty years earlier. ``Within a few hours we were true friends as though our dreams and aspirations were meant for each other.'' In fact, this warm friendship with a fellow theoretical physicist of his own age was unique in Einstein's life. I shall try to characterize it in this talk.
How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Alberto
2013-04-01
I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.
Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.
Hines, Terence
2014-07-01
The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. PMID:24836969
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mamola, Karl
2005-12-01
During the 22 years Albert Einstein lived and worked in the United States, he frequently took long summer vacations. Generally he chose quiet, out-of-the-way vacation spots, and because of his love of sailing, places close to bodies of water. Among other locations, he vacationed at Saranac Lake in upstate New York, the Rhode Island coast, and, during the summers of 1937-39, at Nassau Point on the North Fork of Long Island. Nassau Point is a part of the small town of Cutchogue and is located on Peconic Bay, about 90 miles from New York City. It was an ideal spot for Einstein both because it was off the beaten path and because of the outstanding sailing conditions on Peconic Bay. Einstein rented a cabin just a stone's throw from the bay. I myself have a special interest in Cutchogue because it's the place where I was born and where I spent the first few years of my life. Unfortunately, I came along five or six years too late to have actually seen Einstein there, but he did have encounters with some of my older friends and relatives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Kayll
2010-12-01
, Hoenselaers C and Herlt E 2003 Exact Solutions of Einstein's Field Equations (Second Edition) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [2] Pretorius F and Israel W 1998 Class. Quantum Grav.15 2289 [3] Wiltshire D, Visser M and Scott S (ed) 2008 The Kerr Spacetime: Rotating Black Holes in General Relativity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [4] Coley A, Hervik S and Pelavas N 2009 Class. Quantum Grav. 26 025013 [5] Plebański J and Krasiński A 2006 An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer
This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3) "The Gravity Probe B…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nishimoto, Warren
2007-01-01
This article presents an interview with Albert Nawahi Like, Hawai'i Department of Education teacher from 1927 to 1965. Albert Nawahi Like was born 1900 in Honolulu's Chinatown. When Like was eight years old, his family moved to Kalihi. After the death in 1912 of his father, Edward Like, who was editor of the Hawaiian-language newspaper "Ke Aloha…
Colliding-wave generalizations of the Nutku-Halil metric in the Einstein-Maxwell theory
Garcia Diaz, A.
1988-08-01
A class of nondiagonal cylindrically symmetric algebraically general solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations is given. These solutions are interpretable as gravitational colliding waves supporting an electromagnetic field; they are generalizations of the Nutku-Halil solution. The new metric, derived by a Harrison transformation, is endowed with four free parameters.
15. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October ...
15. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October 1, 1935. GENERAL VIEW, SOUTH ELEVATION - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Einstein-aether theory with a Maxwell field: General formalism
Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P.S.
2014-11-15
We extend the Einstein-aether theory to include the Maxwell field in a nontrivial manner by taking into account its interaction with the time-like unit vector field characterizing the aether. We also include a generic matter term. We present a model with a Lagrangian that includes cross-terms linear and quadratic in the Maxwell tensor, linear and quadratic in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector, linear in its second covariant derivative and in the Riemann tensor. We decompose these terms with respect to the irreducible parts of the covariant derivative of the aether velocity, namely, the acceleration four-vector, the shear and vorticity tensors, and the expansion scalar. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of an aether non-uniform motion on the polarization and magnetization of the matter in such an aether environment, as well as on its dielectric and magnetic properties. The total self-consistent system of equations for the electromagnetic and the gravitational fields, and the dynamic equations for the unit vector aether field are obtained. Possible applications of this system are discussed. Based on the principles of effective field theories, we display in an appendix all the terms up to fourth order in derivative operators that can be considered in a Lagrangian that includes the metric, the electromagnetic and the aether fields.
Einstein, Mach, and the Fortunes of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, David
2005-04-01
Early in his life, Albert Einstein considered himself a devoted student of the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. Mach's famous critiques of Newton's absolute space and time -- most notably Mach's explanation of Newton's bucket experiment -- held a strong sway over Einstein as he struggled to formulate general relativity. Einstein was convinced that his emerging theory of gravity should be consistent with Mach's principle, which states that local inertial effects arise due to gravitational interactions with distant matter. Once completed, Einstein's general relativity enjoyed two decades of worldwide attention, only to fall out of physicists' interest during the 1930s and 1940s, when topics like nuclear physics claimed center stage. Gravity began to return to the limelight during the 1950s and especially the 1960s, and once again Mach proved to be a major spur: Princeton physicists Carl Brans and Robert Dicke introduced a rival theory of gravity in 1961 which they argued satisfied Mach's principle better than Einstein's general relativity did. The Brans-Dicke theory, and the new generation of experiments designed to test its predictions against those of general relativity, played a major role in bringing Einstein's beloved topic back to the center of physics.
Einstein. Ein Genie und sein überfordertes Publikum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, E. P.
Dieses Buch ist keine herkömmliche Biographie von Albert Einstein - vielmehr untersucht der Autor anhand charakteristischer Stationen in Einsteins Leben, dessen Denken und die Reaktionen seiner Zeitgenossen.
Leibniz algebroids, generalized Bismut connections and Einstein-Hilbert actions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Vysoký, Jan
2015-11-01
Connection, torsion and curvature are introduced for general (local) Leibniz algebroids. Generalized Bismut connection on TM ⊕ΛpT∗ M is an example leading to a scalar curvature of the form R +H2 for a closed (p + 2) -form H.
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. PMID:20558713
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryder, L. H.
1987-01-01
Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)
Examining the Enigmatic Einstein
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoon, Koh Aik
2007-01-01
Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…
A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everitt, C. W. F.
1978-01-01
Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.
Cerebral cortex astroglia and the brain of a genius: a propos of A. Einstein's.
Colombo, Jorge A; Reisin, Hernán D; Miguel-Hidalgo, José J; Rajkowska, Grazyna
2006-09-01
The glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astroglial layout of the cerebral cortex from Albert Einstein and other four age-matched human cases lacking any known neurological disease was analyzed using quantification of geometrical features mathematically defined. Several parameters (parallelism, relative depth, tortuosity) describing the primate-specific interlaminar glial processes did not show individually distinctive characteristics in any of the samples analyzed. However, A. Einstein's astrocytic processes showed larger sizes and higher numbers of interlaminar terminal masses, reaching sizes of 15 microm in diameter. These bulbous endings are of unknown significance and they have been described occurring in Alzheimer's disease. These observations are placed in the context of the general discussion regarding the proposal--by other authors--that structural, postmortem characteristics of the aged brain of Albert Einstein may serve as markers of his cognitive performance, a proposal to which the authors of this paper do not subscribe, and argue against. PMID:16675021
Cerebral cortex astroglia and the brain of a genius: A propos of A. Einstein's
Colombo, Jorge A.; Reisin, Hernán D.; Miguel-Hidalgo, José J.; Rajkowska, Grazyna
2010-01-01
The glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astroglial layout of the cerebral cortex from Albert Einstein and other four age-matched human cases lacking any known neurological disease was analyzed using quantification of geometrical features mathematically defined. Several parameters (parallelism, relative depth, tortuosity) describing the primate-specific interlaminar glial processes did not show individually distinctive characteristics in any of the samples analyzed. However, A. Einstein's astrocytic processes showed larger sizes and higher numbers of interlaminar terminal masses, reaching sizes of 15 μm in diameter. These bulbous endings are of unknown significance and they have been described occurring in Alzheimer's disease. These observations are placed in the context of the general discussion regarding the proposal – by other authors – that structural, postmortem characteristics of the aged brain of Albert Einstein may serve as markers of his cognitive performance, a proposal to which the authors of this paper do not subscribe, and argue against. PMID:16675021
Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nussbaumer, Harry
2014-02-01
In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.
Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, Kim
2012-05-01
Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.
Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodle, Walter S.
1985-01-01
The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiner, Lois
1998-01-01
Albert Shanker made a significant mark on American political life and altered the politics of education and teacher unionism, though his politics often caused controversy and conflict. Through his long career as a teacher union leader, he helped revolutionize the nation's labor movement and its educational system, utilizing strategies from…
Unconventional Therapist: Albert Ellis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinrach, Stephen G.
1980-01-01
Albert Ellis is one of counseling's most prolific authors, mostly on the topic of Rational Emotive Therapy. He has been a moving force in the cognitive behavior movement. In this interview Ellis discusses his theory and its application, and aspects of his personal and family life. (Author)
Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model
Boer, J. de; Halpern, M.B.
1996-06-05
The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field $L^ab$ to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution $L_G^ab$, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of $G$-structures on manifolds with torsion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert
1979-01-01
Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)
[Albert Schwietzer's doctoral thesis].
Gorn, M F
1993-06-01
A review on Albert Schweitzer's doctoral thesis "The psychiatric study on Jesus" and his analysis of the delirium of persecution, megalomania and hallucination in order to refuse different authors hypothesis about the Jesus, psychosis or paranoia. The author highlights the symbolism of Schweitzer's decision for studying medicine and dedicating his life and efforts to the full of need men of Africa so the importance of his philosophic studies on the western culture. PMID:11640683
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich
2012-06-01
A principle of hierarchical entropy maximization is proposed for generalized superstatistical systems, which are characterized by the existence of three levels of dynamics. If a generalized superstatistical system comprises a set of superstatistical subsystems, each made up of a set of cells, then the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy should be maximized first for each cell, second for each subsystem, and finally for the whole system. Hierarchical entropy maximization naturally reflects the sufficient time-scale separation between different dynamical levels and allows one to find the distribution of both the intensive parameter and the control parameter for the corresponding superstatistics. The hierarchical maximum entropy principle is applied to fluctuations of the photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity. This principle provides an alternative to the master equation approach recently applied to this problem. The possibility of constructing generalized superstatistics based on a statistics different from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is pointed out.
On the stability of Einstein static universe in doubly general relativity scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodadi, M.; Heydarzade, Y.; Nozari, K.; Darabi, F.
2015-12-01
By presenting a relation between the average energy of the ensemble of probe photons and the energy density of the universe, in the context of gravity's rainbow or the doubly general relativity scenario, we introduce a rainbow FRW universe model. By analyzing the fixed points in the flat FRW model modified by two well-known rainbow functions, we find that the finite time singularity avoidance (i.e. Big Bang) may still remain as a problem. Then we follow the "emergent universe" scenario in which there is no beginning of time and consequently there is no Big-Bang singularity. Moreover, we study the impact of high energy quantum gravity modifications related to the gravity's rainbow on the stability conditions of an "Einstein static universe" (ESU). We find that independent of the particular rainbow function, the positive energy condition dictates a positive spatial curvature for the universe. In fact, without raising a nonphysical energy condition in the quantum gravity regimes, we can observe agreement between gravity's rainbow scenario and the basic assumption of the modern version of the "emergent universe". We show that in the absence and presence of an energy-dependent cosmological constant Λ (ɛ ), a stable Einstein static solution is available versus the homogeneous and linear scalar perturbations under the variety of the obtained conditions. Also, we explore the stability of ESU against the vector and tensor perturbations.
Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuewer, Roger H.
2005-05-01
The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoots, F. R.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.
1979-01-01
The classical Poisson equations of rotational motion are used to study the attitude motions of an earth orbiting, rapidly spinning gyroscope perturbed by the effects of general relativity (Einstein theory). The center of mass of the gyroscope is assumed to move about a rotating oblate earth in an evolving elliptic orbit which includes all first-order oblateness effects produced by the earth. A method of averaging is used to obtain a transformation of variables, for the nonresonance case, which significantly simplifies the Poisson differential equations of motion of the gyroscope. Long-term solutions are obtained by an exact analytical integration of the simplified transformed equations. These solutions may be used to predict both the orientation of the gyroscope and the motion of its rotational angular momentum vector as viewed from its center of mass. The results are valid for all eccentricities and all inclinations not near the critical inclination.
Generalized Misner-Sharp quasilocal mass in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Hideki; Nozawa, Masato
2008-03-15
We investigate properties of a quasilocal mass in a higher-dimensional spacetime having symmetries corresponding to the isomertries of an (n-2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant. We assume that the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant is non-negative. The quasilocal mass was recently defined by one of the authors as a counterpart of the Misner-Sharp quasilocal mass in general relativity. The quasilocal mass is found to be a quasilocal conserved charge associated with a locally conserved current constructed from the generalized Kodama vector and exhibits the unified first law corresponding to the energy-balance law. In the asymptotically flat case, it converges to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass at spacelike infinity, while it converges to the Deser-Tekin and Padilla mass at infinity in the case of asymptotically anti-de Sitter. Under the dominant energy condition, we show the monotonicity of the quasilocal mass for any k, while the positivity on an untrapped hypersurface with a regular center is shown for k=1 and for k=0 with an additional condition, where k={+-}1, 0 is the constant sectional curvature of each spatial section of equipotential surfaces. Under a special relation between coupling constants, positivity of the quasilocal mass is shown for any k without assumptions above. We also classify all the vacuum solutions by utilizing the generalized Kodama vector. Lastly, several conjectures on further generalization of the quasilocal mass in Lovelock gravity are proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modi, Kavan
2008-03-01
Pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed an autopsy on Einstein after his death in 1955. During the autopsy Harvey removed Einstein's brain, took pictures of it and then cut it into several pieces. A lot of scientific attention has been devoted to Einstein' brain, and it still comes up once in a while. We've all heard something or other about Einstein's brain, as it has become somewhat of a folk lore. What is less known is that Harvey in actuality did not have the permission to remove the brain. Only later Harvey convinced Einstein's Hans Albert Einstein son that this was for a good purpose. The brain would only be used for scientific purpose, which will be published reputable journals. I will try to describe in some detail the long journey this brain has taken in last fifty two years.
Topics in general relativity: Binary black holes and hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvi, Kashif
2002-09-01
This thesis consists of three projects in general relativity on topics related to binary black holes and the gravitational waves they emit. The first project involves calculating a four-metric that is an approximate solution to Einstein's equations representing two widely separated nonrotating black holes in a circular orbit. This metric is constructed by matching a post-Newtonian metric to two tidally distorted Schwarzschild metrics using the framework of matched asymptotic expansions. The four-metric presented here provides physically realistic initial data that are tied to the binary's inspiral phase and can be evolved numerically to determine the gravitational wave output during the late stages of inspiral as well as the merger. The second project is on the tidal interaction of binary black holes during the inspiral phase. The holes' tidal distortion results in the flow of energy and angular momentum into or out of the holes in a process analogous to Newtonian tidal friction in a planet-moon system. The changes in the black holes' masses, spins, and horizon areas during inspiral are calculated for a circular binary with holes of possibly comparable masses. The absorption or emission of energy and angular momentum by the holes is shown to have a negligible influence on the binary's orbital evolution when the holes have comparable masses. The tidal-interaction analysis presented in this thesis is applicable to a black hole in a binary with any companion body (e.g., a neutron star) that is well separated from the hole. The final project is on first-order hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations, which are promising as a basis for numerical simulation of binary black holes. This thesis presents two first-order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems that include the lapse and shift as dynamical fields and have only physical characteristic speeds. The first system may be useful in numerical work; the second system allows one to show that any solution to Einstein
BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's General Theory of Relativity—with Modern Applications in Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrabès, C.
2008-09-01
The increasing prominence of general relativity in astrophysics and cosmology is reflected in the growing number of texts, particularly at the undergraduate level. A natural attitude before opening a new one is to ask i) what makes this different from those already published? And ii) does it follow the 'physics-first approach' as for instance the book by Hartle where the basic physical concepts are introduced first with as little formalism as possible, or does it follow the more traditional 'math-first approach' for which the mathematical formalism comes first and is then applied to phyics? As announced in the title, a distinctive feature of the book by Gron and Hervik is the space (almost half the book) devoted to cosmology and in particular to some of the most recent developments in this rapidly evolving field. It is also apparent that the authors have chosen, like the majority of current books on general relativity, the 'math-first approach'. The book is divided into six parts, each of them subdivided into chapters with part VI containing a few short technical appendices. The first part of the book briefly presents in chapter I the principles of relativity, Newtonian mechanics and the Newtonian theory of gravity. In chapter II, a short introduction to special relativity is given. It seems at first surprising that the four-dimensional structure of space-time is not more fully exploited so that the reader would gain familiarity early on with notions like 4-velocity, 4-momentum and the stress energy tensor. This is in fact postponed to part II as an illustration of the mathematical formalism. The second part is devoted to those elements of differential geometry needed in this kind of course. The authors' presentation is somewhat similar to that of the books by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and by Straumann (2nd edition). Vectors and forms are treated separately and the formalism of differential forms is introduced in detail. The various kinds of differentiation on
[Albert Bandura and his work].
Guerrin, Brigitte
2012-03-01
The Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1925) author of the concept of self-efficacy is still not much known of nurses. This article offers an outline of his biography and his work. Theories of Albert Bandura provide a positive, dynamic relationship with the agentivity human control over events that affect their existence. The concept of vicarious learning, self-efficacy and agency can enrich nursing research. PMID:22616370
Generalized quantum measurements on a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphree, Joseph D.; Hansen, Azure; Schultz, Justin T.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.
2016-05-01
We investigate two applications of generalized measurements on a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The first involves preparing the BEC in one of two non-orthogonal states constructed from a superposition of two atomic spin states. A positive-operator valued measure (POVM) for this system can be defined by three vectors in the 2D spin space. A two-photon Raman process rotates these vectors into a higher-dimensional space associating each with its own spin state, whose relative populations are measured using Stern-Gerlach imaging. This allows the possibility of unambiguously determining in which state the system was prepared. For the second application, a superposition of two spin states is used to put the BEC into one of three non-orthogonal states in the trine state configuration and measured using a POVM as before. Here an unambiguous measurement is impossible, but the POVM minimizes the error probability, improving upon the error probability associated with a traditional projective von Neumann measurement. Finally, incorporating orbital angular momentum states of the BEC allows for the possibility of extending these techniques into higher dimensions.
Gravitational lenses in generalized Einstein-aether theory: The bullet cluster
Dai, D.-C.; Matsuo, Reijiro; Starkman, Glenn
2008-11-15
We study the lensing properties of an asymmetric mass distribution and vector field in generalized Einstein-aether (GEA) theory. As vector-field fluctuations are responsible in GEA for seeding baryonic structure formation, vector-field concentrations can exist independently of baryonic matter. Such concentrations would not be expected to be tied to baryonic matter except gravitationally, and so, like dark matter halos, would become separated from baryonic matter in interacting systems such as the bullet cluster. These vector-field concentrations cause metric deviations that affect weak lensing. Therefore, the distribution of weak lensing deviates from that which would be inferred from the luminous mass distribution, in a way that numerical calculations demonstrate can be consistent with observations. This suggests that MOND-inspired theories can reproduce weak lensing observations, but makes clear the price: the existence of a coherent large-scale fluctuation of a field(s) weakly tied to the baryonic matter, not completely dissimilar to a dark matter halo.
Einstein's Years in Switzerland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plendl, Hans S.
2005-11-01
Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.
Einstein's Revolutionary Light--Quantum Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuewer, R. H.
2006-03-01
Albert Einstein's light-quantum paper was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself called ``very revolutionary''. I sketch his arguments for light quanta, his analysis of the photoelectric effect, and his introduction of the wave-particle duality into physics in 1909. I show that Robert Andrews Millikan, in common with almost all physicists at the time, rejected Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis as an interpretation of his photoelectric-effect experiments of 1915. I then trace the complex experimental and theoretical route that Arthur Holly Compton followed between 1916 and 1922 that led to his discovery of the Compton effect, a discovery that Peter Debye also made virtually simultaneously and independently. Compton's discovery, however, was challenged on experimental grounds by William Duane and on theoretical grounds by Niels Bohr in the Bohr--Kramers--Slater theory of 1924, and only after that theory was disproved experimentally the following year by Walther Bothe and Hans Geiger in Berlin and by Compton and Alfred W. Simon in Chicago was Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists.
Einstein Meets Hilbert: At the Crossroads of Physics and Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowe, David E.
One of the most famous episodes in the early history of general relativity involves the ``race'' in November 1915 between Albert Einstein and David Hilbert to uncover the ``correct'' form for the ten gravitational field equations. In light of recent archival findings, however, this story now has become a topic of renewed interest and controversy among historians of physics and mathematics. Drawing on recent studies and newly found sources, the present essay takes up this familiar tale from a new perspective, one that has seldom received due attention in the standard literature, namely, the mathematical issues at the heart of Einstein's theory. Told from this angle, the leading actors are Einstein's collaborator Marcel Grossmann, his critic Tullio Levi-Civita, his competitor David Hilbert, and several other mathematicians, many of them connected with Hilbert's Göttingen colleagues such as Hermann Weyl, Felix Klein, and Emmy Noether. As Einstein was the first to admit, Göttingen was far more important than Berlin as an active center for research in general relativity. Any account which, like this one, tries to understand both the actions and motives of the leading players must confront the problem of interpreting the rather sparse documentary evidence available. The interpretation offered herein, whatever its merits, aims first and foremost to show how mathematical issues deeply permeated the early history of general relativity.
From the Classroom to Washington: Einsteins on Education Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Kent H., Ed.; Byers, Elizabeth A., Ed.
2010-01-01
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was delighted to host a group of current and former Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as they celebrated the 20th anniversary of the fellowship program. Outstanding math and science teachers in America's K-12 schools, the Einstein Fellows spend a year (or sometimes two) working on…
Brustein, Ram; Hadad, Merav
2009-09-01
We show that the equations of motion of generalized theories of gravity are equivalent to the thermodynamic relation deltaQ=TdeltaS. Our proof relies on extending previous arguments by using a more general definition of the Noether charge entropy. We have thus completed the implementation of Jacobson's proposal to express Einstein's equations as a thermodynamic equation of state. Additionally, we find that the Noether charge entropy obeys the second law of thermodynamics if the energy-momentum tensor obeys the null energy condition. Our results support the idea that gravitation on a macroscopic scale is a manifestation of the thermodynamics of the vacuum. PMID:19792292
Commentary on Albert Ellis' Article
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kleiner, Frederic B.
1977-01-01
In a response to Albert Ellis' feature article, the author agrees with Ellis but feels that less time should be spent proving which counseling method is better than the next, and more time spent in comparative research as per clients' gains. (HMV)
Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary
2009-01-01
In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manthey, George
2005-01-01
The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive…
Einstein's Real "biggest Blunder"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Homer G.
2012-10-01
Albert Einstein's real "biggest blunder" was not the 1917 introduction into his gravitational field equations of a cosmological constant term Λ, rather was his failure in 1916 to distinguish between the entirely different concepts of active gravitational mass and passive gravitational mass. Had he made the distinction, and followed David Hilbert's lead in deriving field equations from a variational principle, he might have discovered a true (not a cut and paste) Einstein-Rosen bridge and a cosmological model that would have allowed him to predict, long before such phenomena were imagined by others, inflation, a big bounce (not a big bang), an accelerating expansion of the universe, dark matter, and the existence of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Michel
2012-08-01
In publications in 1914 and 1918, Einstein claimed that his new theory of gravity in some sense relativizes the rotation of a body with respect to the distant stars (a stripped-down version of Newton's rotating bucket experiment) and the acceleration of the traveler with respect to the stay-at-home in the twin paradox. What he showed was that phenomena seen as inertial effects in a space-time coordinate system in which the non-accelerating body is at rest can be seen as a combination of inertial and gravitational effects in a (suitably chosen) space-time coordinate system in which the accelerating body is at rest. Two different relativity principles play a role in these accounts: (a) the relativity of non-uniform motion, in the weak sense that the laws of physics are the same in the two space-time coordinate systems involved; (b) what Einstein in 1920 called the relativity of the gravitational field, the notion that there is a unified inertio-gravitational field that splits differently into inertial and gravitational components in different coordinate systems. I provide a detailed reconstruction of Einstein's rather sketchy accounts of the twins and the bucket and examine the role of these two relativity principles. I argue that we can hold on to (b) but that (a) is either false or trivial.
Test of time: what if little Albert had escaped?
Field, Andy P; Nightingale, Zoë C
2009-04-01
Watson and Rayner's (1920) ;Little Albert' experiment has become one of the most famous studies in psychology. It is a staple of many general psychology textbooks and is part of the very fabric of the discipline's folklore. Despite this fame, the study has been widely criticized in the nearly 90 years since it was published for its lack of methodological rigour. This article attempts to evaluate the contribution of the ;little Albert' study to modern clinical psychology by speculating on what theories and treatments of child anxiety would look like in a parallel universe in which the study never took place because ;little Albert' escaped from the hospital in which Watson tested him. PMID:19293325
The Continuing Saga of Little Albert in Introductory Psychology Textbooks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griggs, Richard A.
2014-01-01
Inaccuracies, especially concerning the stimulus generalization findings, in textbook descriptions of the Little Albert study have been well documented since the 1970s. However, there has not been a systematic examination of introductory psychology textbooks since the 1980s to determine whether such inaccuracies still persist. This study filled…
Multiple Intelligences and the Artistic Imagination: A Case Study of Einstein and Picasso.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newbold, Clair T.
1999-01-01
Argues that Albert Einstein and Pablo Picasso possessed similar artistic thought processes, maintaining that their influential discoveries (relativity theory and cubist painting), which launched 20th-century modernism, were amazingly similar in concept. (SR)
Professor Joel Primack
2007-10-08
The National Academy of Sciences was commissioned in 2006 to report on how to restart the Beyond Einstein program, which includes missions to understand dark energy, test general relativity, and observe gravity waves from merging supermassive black holes. This colloquium by one of the members of the recently released Academy study will explain the research strategy that the report proposes and its implications for continued U.S. participation in the exploration of the universe.
Qualitative analysis of a generalized Maxwell-Einstein system - Application for a cosmological model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tossa, Joel; Fabris, Julo C.; Romero, Carlos
1992-02-01
A methodology for studying dynamical systems is employed to qualitatively analyze the relationship between a Maxwellian field coupled to gravity and Einstein equations. The Maxwellian-type field is assumed to have n even dimensions to develop variables describing the expansion factor of the 4D universe and the variation of the gravitational constant. The resulting phase diagram is analyzed and found to have trajectories expanding from a singularity at infinity and tending toward equilibrium. This description of Minkowskian space-time is complemented by nonphysical regions in which trajectories originating from a 'big-bang' singularity tend toward an unstable singularity at infinity.
Finding Little Albert: a journey to John B. Watson's infant laboratory.
Beck, Hall P; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary
2009-10-01
In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article summarizes the authors' efforts to determine Albert's identity and fate. Examinations of Watson's personal correspondence, scientific production (books, journal articles, film), and public documents (national census data, state birth and death records) suggested that an employee at the Harriet Lane Home was Albert's mother. Contact with the woman's descendents led the authors to the individual they believe to be "Little Albert." PMID:19824748
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadhich, Naresh; Pons, Josep M.
2012-09-01
In the framework of the Einstein-Palatini formalism, even though the projective transformation connecting the arbitrary connection with the Levi-Civita connection has been floating in the literature for a long time and perhaps the result was implicitly known in the affine gravity community, yet as far as we know Julia and Silva were the first to realise its gauge character. We rederive this result by using the Rosenfeld-Dirac-Bergmann approach to constrained Hamiltonian systems and do a comprehensive self contained analysis establishing the equivalence of the Einstein-Palatini and the metric formulations without having to impose the gauge choice that the connection is symmetric. We also make contact with the the Einstein-Cartan theory when the matter Lagrangian has fermions.
Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.
Bennett, Charles L
2005-02-11
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics. PMID:15705841
Decoherence effects in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry I. General theory
Dalton, B.J.
2011-03-15
Research Highlights: > Theory of dephasing, decoherence effects for Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry. > Applies to single component, two mode condensate in double potential well. > Phase space theory using Wigner, positive P representations for condensate, non-condensate fields. > Stochastic condensate, non-condensate field equations and properties of noise fields derived. > Based on mean field theory with condensate modes given by generalised Gross-Pitaevskii equations. - Abstract: The present paper outlines a basic theoretical treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in interferometry based on single component Bose-Einstein condensates in double potential wells, where two condensate modes may be involved. Results for both two mode condensates and the simpler single mode condensate case are presented. The approach involves a hybrid phase space distribution functional method where the condensate modes are described via a truncated Wigner representation, whilst the basically unoccupied non-condensate modes are described via a positive P representation. The Hamiltonian for the system is described in terms of quantum field operators for the condensate and non-condensate modes. The functional Fokker-Planck equation for the double phase space distribution functional is derived. Equivalent Ito stochastic equations for the condensate and non-condensate fields that replace the field operators are obtained, and stochastic averages of products of these fields give the quantum correlation functions that can be used to interpret interferometry experiments. The stochastic field equations are the sum of a deterministic term obtained from the drift vector in the functional Fokker-Planck equation, and a noise field whose stochastic properties are determined from the diffusion matrix in the functional Fokker-Planck equation. The stochastic properties of the noise field terms are similar to those for Gaussian-Markov processes in that the stochastic averages of odd
Witthaut, D.; Graefe, E. M.; Korsch, H. J.
2006-06-15
We consider the Landau-Zener problem for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a linearly varying two-level system, for the full many-particle system as well as in the mean-field approximation. Novel nonlinear eigenstates emerge in the mean-field description, which leads to a breakdown of adiabaticity: The Landau-Zener transition probability does not vanish even in the adiabatic limit. It is shown that the emergence of nonlinear eigenstates and thus the breakdown of adiabaticity corresponds to quasi-degenerate avoided crossings of the many-particle levels. The many-particle problem can be solved approximately within an independent crossings approximation, which yields an explicit generalized Landau-Zener formula. A comparison to numerical results for the many-particle system and the mean-field approximation shows an excellent agreement.
Tribute: Remembering Albert Greve (1938-2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baars, Jaap
2012-02-01
With the sudden death of Albert Greve on 13 June 2011, caused by a massive heart attack, the radio astronomy community lost a remarkable member, and many of us a very good friend. The career of Albert was characterized by a broad array of activities, all performed at a high level of professionalism and an enduring wit.
Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.
2005-12-01
Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
German-American physicist, invented the Michelson-Morley interferometer to detect, with MORLEY, the motion of the Earth through the ether, but found that irrespective of the orientation of the interferometer, no motion could be detected. This was explained by the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction, and was a foundation for Einstein's theory of special relativity. Michelson went on to apply interf...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2015-07-01
Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a λ |φ |4 potential. We study the evolution of the spatially homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding Universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrödinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c →+∞. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while perturbations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the perturbations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of perturbations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.
Powell, Russell A; Digdon, Nancy; Harris, Ben; Smithson, Christopher
2014-09-01
In 1920, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner attempted to condition a phobia in a young infant named "Albert B." In 2009, Beck, Levinson, and Irons proposed that Little Albert, as he is now known, was actually an infant named Douglas Merritte. More recently, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) claimed that Little Albert (Douglas) was neurologically impaired at the time of the experiment. They also alleged that Watson, in a severe breach of ethics, probably knew of Little Albert's condition when selecting him for the study and then fraudulently hid this fact in his published accounts of the case. In this article, we present the discovery of another individual, Albert Barger, who appears to match the characteristics of Little Albert better than Douglas Merritte does. We examine the evidence for Albert Barger as having been Little Albert and, where relevant, contrast it with the evidence for Douglas Merritte. As for the allegations of fraudulent activity by Watson, we offer comments at the end of this article. We also present evidence concerning whether Little Albert (Albert Barger) grew up with the fear of furry animals, as Watson and Rayner speculated he might. PMID:25197838
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dongen, Jeroen
2007-06-01
Two important and unpleasant events occurred in Albert Einstein's life in 1920: That August an antirelativity rally was held in the large auditorium of the Berlin Philharmonic, and a few weeks later Einstein was drawn into a tense and highly publicized debate with Philipp Lenard on the merits of relativity at a meeting in Bad Nauheim, Germany. I review these events and discuss how they affected Einstein in light of new documentary evidence that has become available through the publication of Volume 10 of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braginsky, Vladimir B.
2005-06-01
As part of the celebration of the World Year of Physics, the Conference "Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity" was held in Golm, near Potsdam, Germany, on April 5-8, 2005. The Conference was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (also known as the Albert Einstein Institute), which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2005. Conference participants discussed progress made in theoretical and experimental research during the 100 years since the publication of Einstein's famous papers in 1905, the year which has gone down in history as 'Albert Einstein's ANNUS MIRABILIS'.
Little Albert: A neurologically impaired child.
Fridlund, Alan J; Beck, Hall P; Goldie, William D; Irons, Gary
2012-11-01
Evidence collected by Beck, Levinson, and Irons (2009) indicates that Albert B., the "lost" infant subject of John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner's (1920) famous conditioning study, was Douglas Merritte (1919-1925). Following the finding that Merritte died early with hydrocephalus, questions arose as to whether Douglas's condition was congenital, rather than acquired in 1922, as cited on his death certificate. This etiology would imply that "Little Albert" was not the "healthy" and "normal" infant described by Watson and numerous secondary sources. Detailed analyses of Watson's (1923) film footage of Albert suggested substantial behavioral and neurological deficits. The anomalies we observed on film of Albert B. are insufficiently explained by his hospital upbringing but are consistent with findings from newly discovered medical records of Douglas Merritte. These documents revealed that the infant suffered from congenital obstructive hydrocephalus, iatrogenic streptococcal meningitis/ventriculitis, and retinal and optic nerve atrophy. The medical history also indicates that Albert's sessions with Watson occurred during periods when Douglas's clinical course was relatively stable. Further inquiries found ample sources of information available to Watson that would have made him aware of Douglas/Albert's medical condition at the times he tested the baby. Experimental ethics, Watson's legacy, and the Albert study are discussed in light of these new findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397921
Teaching Einstein: from epicycles to the equivalence principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bromley, Ben; Cranor, Maria
2006-04-01
In Fall 2005, under the auspices of the University of Utah's Office of Undergraduate Studies, we launched a new physics course on the life and work of Albert Einstein. A condition imposed on the new class was that it be taught completely free of mathematical content. In this talk we discuss our goals for the course, and present our conclusions about its effectiveness. We propose further innovations, such as structuring our history-based curriculum to admit students of varied mathematical abilities, from incoming freshmen to physics graduate students who are largely ignorant of the historical development of their science. This course has made us converts to the idea that an historical approach can greatly increase the appeal of science to the general student population.
Rothe, M; Gruber, T; Gröger, S; Balbach, J; Saalwächter, K; Roos, M
2016-07-21
The effect of high concentration, also referred to as crowding conditions, on Brownian motion is of central relevance for the understanding of the physical, chemical and biological properties of proteins in their native environment. Specifically, the simple inverse relationship between the translational diffusion coefficient and the macroscopic solution viscosity as predicted by the generalized Stokes-Einstein (GSE) relation has been the subject of many studies, yet a consensus on its applicability has not been reached. Here, we use isotope-filtered pulsed-field gradient NMR to separately assess the μm-scale diffusivity of two proteins, BSA and an SH3 domain, in mixtures as well as single-protein solutions, and demonstrate that transient binding can account for an apparent violation of the GSE relation. Whereas GSE behavior applies for the single-protein solutions, it does not hold for the protein mixtures. Transient binding behavior in the concentrated mixtures is evidenced by calorimetric experiments and by a significantly increased apparent activation energy of diffusion. In contrast, the temperature dependence of the viscosity, as well as of the diffusivity in single-component solutions, is always dominated by the flow activation energy of pure water. As a practically relevant second result, we further show that, for high protein concentrations, the diffusion of small molecules such as dioxane or water is not generally a suitable probe for the viscosity experienced by the diffusing proteins. PMID:27326536
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romer, Robert H.
2005-03-01
"So you're studying at Princeton. Would you like to meet Einstein?" That question, during a brief two-body collision at a cocktail party, a collision that was over before I could think of an appropriate response, led—over a year later—to one of the more memorable half hours of my life. It was an elastic collision, we drifted apart, and I thought it had simply been a casual remark until a few days later when the mail brought me a carbon copy [sic] of a letter (dated "25.XII.52") from the speaker, Dr. Tilly Edinger, to Albert Einstein. Accompanying the letter to Einstein was a card that Dr. Edinger advised me to send around to Einstein's home on Mercer Street to request a meeting. (What is perhaps most truly astonishing in connection with this event is that not only do I still have that carbon copy—and the eventual letter from Mercer Street that invited me to Einstein's home—but that I was able to find both documents in my attic!)
Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.
2005-12-01
Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors
Albert Ellis: An Efficient and Passionate Life.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dryden, Windy
1989-01-01
Presents interview of psychotherapist Albert Ellis who discusses his early days, the women in his life, and his personal characteristics and offers personal reflections on his professional career. (Author)
Secrets of the Old One: Einstein, 1905
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Jeremy
Beginning on the 18th of March, 1905,at approximately eight week intervals, the noted German physics journal Annalen der Physik received three hand-written manuscripts from a relatively unknown patent examiner in Bern. The patent examiner was the twenty-six year old Albert Einstein and the three papers would set the agenda for twentieth century physics. A fourth short paper was received by the journal on the 27th of September. It contained Einstein's derivation of the formula E=mc2. These papers with their many technological ramifications changed our lives in the twentieth century and beyond.
A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, Carol C.
This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role
Einstein on Race and Racism, presented by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger
2007-10-01
It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balashov, Yuri; Vizgin, Vladimir
This volume presents a selection of the best contributions by Russian scholars - historians and philosophers of science - to the Einstein Studies industry, broadly construed. Many of the papers were first published in Russian, in the Einshteinovskiy Sbornik series (Einstein Studies) initiated by I. Tamm in 1966. This book explores the historical and foundational issues in general relativity and relativistic cosmology, Einstein's contributions to quantum theory of radiation, and the rise of Dirac's quantum electrodynamics. It also includes a detailed description of the physics colloquium Einstein established and coordinated in 1912- 1914 in Zürich. The contributors draw extensively on documentation previously unavailable to most scholars. Materials from various Russian archives shed new light on the famous exchange (regarding the first evolutionary cosmological models) between Einstein and Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920's and on the role of Boris Podolsky and Vladimir Fock in the emergence of quantum electrodynamics. The little-known correspondence between Einstein and a famous German pilot Paul Erhardt suggests that during World War I, the former was involved with aero- and hydrodynamics research and ways of improving airplane design. Other articles introduce new approaches to important foundational questions in general relativity and cosmology. Historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science will find much new and unexpected material in this engaging volume presenting the best of recent Russian scholarship in the field. The book is also very accessible to the general reader.
Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collaborative Effort
2011-02-01
The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.
None
2011-04-25
Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)
Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rife, Patricia
2005-03-01
Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).
Parker, B.
1986-01-01
This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein.
Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darlington, Sonja
1998-01-01
Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)
Albert Shanker's Legacy: A Critical Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiner, Lois
Albert Shanker headed the American Federation of Teachers for 22 years and was president of the New York City teachers union. Both organizations were transformed by his presence. Shanker altered the politics of education and teacher unionism. During his tenure, American political life encountered the birth of social movements challenging the…
Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on theWorld
Sessler, A.
2005-07-30
The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas
2013-04-01
The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.
Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2015-09-01
We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.
...und Einstein hatte doch recht
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Clifford M.; Leuchs, Anne; Leuchs, Gerd
Keine wissenschaftliche Theorie ist auf solche Faszination auch außerhalb der Wissenschaft gestoßen wie die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie von Albert Einstein, und keine wurde so nachdrücklich mit den Mitteln der modernen Physik überprüft. Wie hat sie diesen Test mit Raumsonden, Radioastronomie, Atomuhren und Supercomputern standgehalten? Hatte Einstein recht? Mit der Autorität des Fachmanns und dem Flair des unvoreingenommenen Erzählers schildert Clifford Will die Menschen, Ideen und Maschinen hinter den Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Ohne Formeln und Fachjargon wird der leser mit Einsteins Gedanken vertraut und erfährt von der Bestätigung seiner Vorhersagen, angefangen bei der Lichtablenkung im Schwerefeld der Sonne 1919 bis zu den ausgefeilten Kreiselexperimenten auf dem Space Shuttle. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie hat nich nur alle diese Tests bestanden, sie hat darüber hinaus wesentlich beigetragen zu unserem Verständnis von Phänomenen wie Pulsaren, Quasaren, Schwarzen Löchern und Gravitationslinsen. Dieses Buch erzählt lebendig und spannend die Geschichte einer der größten geistigen Leistungen unserer Zeit.
Einstein Ring in Distant Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-06-01
population. The far away lensed galaxy, however, is extremely active, having recently experienced bursts of star formation. It is a compact galaxy, 7,000 light-years across. "Because the gravitational pull of matter bends the path of light rays, astronomical objects - stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters - can act like lenses, which magnify and severely distort the images of galaxies behind them, producing weird pictures as in a hall of mirrors", explains Chris Lidman (ESO), co-discover of the new cosmic mirage. In the most extreme case, where the foreground lensing galaxy and the background galaxy are perfectly lined up, the image of the background galaxy is stretched into a ring. Such an image is known as an Einstein ring, because the formula for the bending of light, first described in the early twentieth century by Chwolson and Link, uses Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Gravitational lensing provides a very useful tool with which to study the Universe. As "weighing scales", it provides a measure of the mass within the lensing body, and as a "magnifying glass", it allows us to see details in objects which would otherwise be beyond the reach of current telescopes. From the image, co-worker David Valls-Gabaud (CFHT), using state-of-the-art modelling algorithms, could deduce the mass of the galaxy acting as a lens - it is almost one million million suns. More information The paper describing this research has been published as a Letter to the Editor in Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 436, L21-L25 ("Discovery of a high-redshift Einstein ring", by R.A. Cabanac, D. Valls-Gabaud, A.O. Jaunsen, C. Lidman, and H. Jerjen). The paper is available for download in PDF format from the A&A web site.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zheng; Yu, Hui-You; Ao, Sheng-Mei; Yan, Jia-Ren
2010-07-01
We study the formation of a dynamically-stabilized dissipation-managed bright soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate by including an imaginary three-body recombination loss term and an imaginary linear feeding one in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, trapped in a shallow optical-lattice potential. Based on the direct approach of perturbation theory for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we demonstrate that the height (as well as width) of bright soliton may have little change through selecting experimental parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parra-Murillo, Carlos A.; Santos, Marcelo F.; Monken, Carlos H.; Jorio, Ado
2016-03-01
The Stokes and anti-Stokes components in the inelastic scattering of light are related to phonon statistics and have been broadly used to measure temperature and phonon lifetimes in different materials. However, correlation between the components is expected to change the Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratio, imposing corrections to the broadly used Bose-Einstein statistics. In this work the excitation power dependence of these scattering processes is theoretically described by an effective Hamiltonian that includes correlation between the Stokes and the anti-Stokes events. The model is used to fit available experimental results in three-dimensional diamond and two-dimensional graphene, showing that the phenomenon can significantly increase in the low-dimensional system under specific resonance conditions. By setting the scientific basis for the Stokes-anti-Stokes correlated phenomenon, the use of the Bose-Einstein population function to determine the inelastic scattering is generalized, providing a model to predict the conversion of optical phonons into heat or light, according to coupling constants and decay rates. The model applies to inelastic scattering in general.
Einstein: The Gourmet of Creativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenberg, Joel
1979-01-01
Reports a psychiatrist's analysis of Einstein's personal account of how he developed the theory of relativity. The psychiatrist cites Janusian thinking, actively conceiving two or more opposite concepts simultaneously, as a characteristic of much creative thought in general. (MA)
Could we now convince Einstein?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accardi, Luigi
2006-01-01
The present conference takes place in the same year that celebrates the centenary of Albert Einstein. Hence it is a good occasion to reflect on those problems which have been at the core of Einstein's intellectual activity. Undoubtedly the foundation of quantum mechanics (QM) is one of these problems. It is known that Einstein was never convinced by the interpretation of quantum mechanics accepted, in his times and still now, by the majority of physicists. The fact that he was sharing this skepticism with people like Schrödinger and, most of all, the fact that no convincing answer, to the doubts of these people, had emerged in a more than half a century old debate, helped in keeping alive the attention of a growing number of people on this problem. The crucial issue is that the standard interpretation of QM has some physical implications which are experimentally verifiable and which, for several years, have been thought to be incompatible with relativity theory (the so-called "quantum nonlocality"). On the other hand alternative, more intuitive, interpretations (such as the ensemble interpretation) seemed to be ruled out from very well confirmed experimental data. The way out from this impasse has required a deep analysis of the connections between mathematics and physics as well as the emergence of new ideas both in mathematics (non-Kolmogorovian probabilities) and in physics (the theory of adaptive systems). The Einstein centenary is a good occasion for a short survey of these developments with the goal of answering the intriguing question posed in the title of the present paper.
Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meschkowski, H.
Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-01-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…
20. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
20. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MAIN ENTRANCE - SOUTH FACADE - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
27. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
27. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. PLASTER CORNICE - MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
17. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
17. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
7. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. ...
7. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. 1934, 1935. CREEK SIDE DURING RESTORATION - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
13. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. ...
13. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. 1934 - 1935 WHEEL PIT UNDER RESTORATION - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Going to School with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: Gender Roles in Children's Science Biographies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Owens, Trevor
2009-01-01
One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-10-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertz, P.
2003-03-01
The Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) theme within NASA's Office of Space Science seeks to explore and understand the dynamic transformations of energy in the Universe - the entire web of biological and physical interactions that determine the evolution of our cosmic habitat. This search for understanding will enrich the human spirit and inspire a new generation of explorers, scientists, and engineers. To that end, NASA's strategic planning process has generated a new Roadmap to enable those goals. Called "Beyond Einstein", this Roadmap identifies three science objectives for the SEU theme: (1) Find out what powered the Big Bang; (2) Observe how black holes manipulate space, time, and matter; and (3) Identify the mysterious dark energy pullingthe Universe apart. These objectives can be realized through a combination of large observatories (Constellation-X, LISA), moderate sized, PI-led missions (the Einstein Probes), and a contuinuing program of technology development, research and analysis, and education/public outreach. In this presentation, NASA's proposed Beyond Einstein Program will be described. The full Roadmap is available at http://universe.nasa.gov/.
[The last days of Albert Schweitzer].
Wjst, Matthias
2015-12-01
Schweitzer was one of the leading physicians of the last century. He overcame not only the boundaries of humanities and natural sciences, but also the boundaries of Europe and Africa. He has become a symbol of humanity. But the person of Albert Schweitzer was almost in danger of disappearing behind it. "My hair starts to turn gray. My body begins to feel the exertions I have undertaken, and the burden of the years". This is how the 56-year-old Schweitzer ended his autobiography "Out of my life and thought" in 1931. Even 50 years after Schweitzer's death in 1965, there is still no coherent scientific reappraisal of his work. Part of the posthumous manuscripts was published in recent years in a critical edition, including first biographies that are no longer considered as hagiography, as they would have been in the contemporary literature. The legacy, however, is scattered. Much of the correspondence and the library are located in Schweitzer's former house in Gunsbach in Alsace. The manuscripts are mainly stored in the Central Library Zurich, but also in the Syracuse University New York, while the personal bequest is in the hands of his family or collectors. This presentation is part of a biographical approach and depicts the last weeks in the life of Albert Schweitzer. PMID:26676475
Obituary: Albert Gray Mowbray, 1916-2002
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hockey, Thomas
2009-01-01
Albert G. Mowbray was born on 23 June 1916. He was the son of Albert Henry Mowbray, a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley [UCB], and Elizabeth Gray Mowbray. He had one sister, Mary Elizabeth. Mowbray did undergraduate and graduate work at UCB. His 1943 PhD. dissertation had to do with the apparent sizes of globular clusters. Mowbray became an observing assistant at Lick Observatory in about 1942; later that year he went to the Perkins Observatory, operated for Ohio Wesleyan University by the Ohio State University [OSU]. Due to the wartime shortage of instructors, he also taught physics at OSU. In 1946 Mowbray joined the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. By 1948 he lived in Pasadena California, and was a volunteer observer at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Later, until 1956, he was employed by UCB professor Leland Cunningham, a solar-system dynamicist. Mowbray did computations and measured plates for Cunningham. Mowbray joined the physics faculty at San Jose State College (now California State University, San Jose) in 1957. In addition to the AAS, Mowbray was a member of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He died in San Francisco, California, on 21 August 2002. The kind assistance of George Herbig, Virginia Trimble, and Elizabeth Roemer is acknowledged.
Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeUnes, Arnold
1983-01-01
Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)
Dr. Albert Carr--Science Educator 1930-2000
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lopez, Leslie
2013-01-01
The very first issue of "Educational Perspectives" was published in October of 1962. Dr. Albert Carr wrote one of the inaugural essays on the topic of current developments in science education, and he went on to write several other articles for the journal. This article shares why Dr. Albert Carr's colleagues remember him for his…
Albert and Erwin: decline and fall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaire, Denis
2015-04-01
More than a century has passed since quantum theory began to pose teasing questions about how we interpret our world. Books abound that offer alternative views of the problems the theory raises, and Einstein's Dice and SchrÃ¶dinger's Cat is another.
Policing epistemic deviance: Albert Von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll(1).
Sommer, Andreas
2012-04-01
Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862-1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862-1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an 'occult complex'. Moll's analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll's treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll. PMID:23002296
Mallory, Kristina; Van Gorder, Robert A
2015-07-01
Stationary solutions for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation modeling Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in three spatial dimensions by general forms of a potential are studied through a perturbation method and also numerically. Note that we study both repulsive and attractive BECs under similar frameworks in order to deduce the effects of the potentials in each case. After outlining the general framework, solutions for a collection of specific confining potentials of physical relevance to experiments on BECs are provided in order to demonstrate the approach. We make several observations regarding the influence of the particular potentials on the behavior of the BECs in these cases, comparing and contrasting the qualitative behavior of the attractive and repulsive BECs for potentials of various strengths and forms. Finally, we consider the nonperturbative where the potential or the amplitude of the solutions is large, obtaining various qualitative results. When the kinetic energy term is small (relative to the nonlinearity and the confining potential), we recover the expected Thomas-Fermi approximation for the stationary solutions. Naturally, this also occurs in the large mass limit. Through all of these results, we are able to understand the qualitative behavior of spherical three-dimensional BECs in weak, intermediate, or strong confining potentials. PMID:26274295
Kengne, E.; Lakhssassi, A.; Vaillancourt, R.; Liu, Wu-Ming
2012-12-15
We present a double-mapping method (D-MM), a natural combination of a similarity with F-expansion methods, for obtaining general solvable nonlinear evolution equations. We focus on variable-coefficients complex Ginzburg-Landau equations (VCCGLE) with multi-body interactions. We show that it is easy by this method to find a large class of exact solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii and Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg equations. We apply the D-MM to investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation with two- and three-body interactions. As a surprising result, we obtained that it is very easy to use the built D-MM to obtain a large class of exact solutions of VCCGLE with two-body interactions via a generalized VCCGLE with two- and three-body interactions containing cubic-derivative terms. The results show that the proposed method is direct, concise, elementary, and effective, and can be a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving many other nonlinear evolution equations in physics.
The NASA Beyond Einstein Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Nicholas E.
2006-01-01
Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizoguchi, Takuya; Biyajima, Minoru
2010-12-01
Using the negative binomial distribution (NBD) and the generalized Glauber-Lachs (GGL) formula, we analyze the data on charged multiplicity distributions with pseudo-rapidity cutoffs η c at 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV by ALICE Collaboration and at 0.2, 0.54, and 0.9 TeV by UA5 Collaboration. We confirm that the KNO scaling holds among the multiplicity distributions with η c =0.5 at sqrt{s} = 0.2-2.36 TeV and estimate the energy dependence of a parameter 1/ k in NBD and parameters 1/ k and γ (the ratio of the average value of the coherent hadrons to that of the chaotic hadrons) in the GGL formula. Using empirical formulas for the parameters 1/ k and γ in the GGL formula, we predict the multiplicity distributions with η c =0.5 at 7 and 14 TeV. Data on the second order Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) at 0.9 TeV by ALICE Collaboration and 0.9 and 2.36 TeV by CMS Collaboration are also analyzed based on the GGL formula. Prediction for the third order BEC at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV are presented. Moreover, the information entropy is discussed.
Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This is a false-color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit. The area is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). The image was produced by using only the L-band. The three polarization channels HH, HV and VV are illustrated by red, green and blue respectively. The changes in the intensity of each color are related to various surface conditions such as variations in forest stands, frozen or thawed condition of the surface, disturbances (fire and deforestation), and areas of regrowth. Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the white Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are also shown by dark areas in the image. Since most of the logging practice at the Prince Albert area is around the major highways, the deforested areas can be easily detected as small geometrically shaped dark regions along the roads. At the time of the SIR-C/X-SAR overpass a major part of the forest is either frozen or undergoing the spring thaw. The L-band HH shows a high return in the jack pine forest. The reddish areas in the image are old jack pine forest, 12 to 17 meters (40to 55 feet) in height and 60 to 75 years old. The orange
Albert Gallatin and the Movement for Peace with Mexico
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mannix, Richard
1969-01-01
An account of Albert Gallatin's efforts at promoting peace during the Mexican American war in 1847: In particular, the pamphlet Gallatin authored as an appeal for peace is discussed in terms of its distribution and impact. (AP)
19. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
19. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER, COURT YARD - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
26. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
26. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. FRAGMENTS OF PLASTER CEILING ROSETTE - MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
18. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October ...
18. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October 1, 1935. DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION AT COURT WALL. - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
25. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
25. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. CEILING AND CHANDELIER IN MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
29. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
29. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MANTEL, SOUTHWEST BEDROOM - 2d FLOOR - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
28. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...
28. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MANTEL, SECOND FLOOR LIVING ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Perseverance Pays Off: Albert Bowie, Doctor of Pharmacy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wakshul, Barbra
1997-01-01
Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. (TD)
17. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
17. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. THE OLD STILES HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
16. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
16. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. STILES RESIDENCE, THORNHILL FARM. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
9. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
9. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
1. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
1. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
12. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
12. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. THORNHILL STORE. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
14. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
14. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. MOUNT FARM OIL COMPANY. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
5. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
5. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1880. VOLCANO TOWN HALL. BLACKLIN HOUSE AT LEFT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
7. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
7. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1880's. VOLCANO LITTLE THEATRE GUILD. SOME CAST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
19. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
19. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. THE OLD STILES HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
4. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns Photographer c. ...
4. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns Photographer c. 1934-35 PIERCE MILL (Before restoration) - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
14. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES (RIGHT) AND YOUTHFUL HELPER (WALLY ...
14. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES (RIGHT) AND YOUTHFUL HELPER (WALLY HALES), HANDLING HUGE 'KEY' TO WIND OPEN THE CENTER SWING SPAN. - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ
EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2005-12-01
With this special issue, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contributes to the celebration of the World Year of Physics held in recognition of five brilliant papers written by Albert Einstein in 1905. There is no need to explain to the readers of this journal the content and importance of these papers, which are cornerstones of modern physics. The 51 contributions in this special issue represent current trends in quantum optics —100 years after the concept of light quanta was introduced. At first glance, in his famous papers of 1905, Einstein treated quite independent subjects—special relativity, the nature and statistical properties of light, electrodynamics of moving bodies and Brownian motion. We now know that all these phenomena are deeply related, and these relations are clearly shown in many papers in this issue. Most of the papers are based on the talks and poster contributions from participants of the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'05), which took place in Besançon, France, 2-6 May, 2005. This was the continuation of a series of meetings, originating with the first workshops organized by Professor Y S Kim at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in 1991 and by Professor V I Man'ko at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow in 1992. One of the main topics of ICSSUR'05 and this special issue is the theory and applications of squeezed states and their generalizations. At first glance, one could think that this subject has no relation to Einstein's papers. However, this is not true: the theory of squeezed states is deeply related to special relativity, as far as it is based on the representations of the Lorentz group (see the paper by Kim Y S and Noz M E, S458-S467), which also links the current concepts of entanglement and decoherence with Lorentz-covariance. Besides, studies of the different quantum states of light imply, after all, the study of photon (or photo
Policing Epistemic Deviance: Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll1
Sommer, Andreas
2012-01-01
Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862–1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862–1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an ‘occult complex’. Moll’s analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll’s treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll. PMID:23002296
Einstein's Radiation Formula and Modifications to the Einstein Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, C. Y.
1995-12-01
Einstein's radiation formula is supported by the Taylor-Hulse experiment, but its derivation is not self-consistent. Furthermore, as discovered by Einstein, his radiation formula is not compatible with his field equation. As suggested by Einstein's own remark, modifications to the source tensor are necessary. Based on the Taylor-Hulse experiment, in this paper a theory is developed within the theoretical framework of general relativity within which the radiation formula remains the same for binary stars. Concurrently, it is determined that, because of radiation, the source tensor is not zero in a vacuum. Antigravity coupling, suggested by Pauli as a possibility, is a necessary feature. In addition, it is shown that the current theory of linearized gravity is not valid for radiation.
The creativity of Einstein and astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeldovich, Y. B.
1980-01-01
A discussion of Einstein's scientific achievements for the 100th anniversary of his birth is presented. His works dealing with thermodynamics are described, along with his quantum theory of radiation. Most of the article discusses his general theory of relativity.
Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, Alberto
2015-03-01
Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.
New Self-Dual Einstein Metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casteill, P. Y.; Valent, G.
A new family of euclidean Einstein metrics with self-dual Weyl tensor have been obtained using ideas from extended supersymmetries1,2. The basic supersymmetric formalism3, known as harmonic superspace, was adapted to the computation of self-dual Einstein metrics in 4. The resulting metric depends on 4 parameters besides the Einstein constant and has for isometry group U(1) × U(1), with hypersurface generating Killing vectors. In the limit of vanishing Einstein constant we recover a family of hyperkähler metrics within the Multicentre family 5 (in fact the most general one with two centres). Our results include the metrics of Plebanski and Demianski6 when these ones are restricted to be self-dual Weyl. From Flaherty's equivalence 7 these metrics can also be interpreted as a solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell field equations, for which we have given the Maxwell field strength forms2.
Echoing Citizen Einstein in the East: Andrei Sakharov
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhéaume, Charles
2006-11-01
As if a handing of the torch, Andrei Sakharov saw his dissidence acquire initial impetus from nuclear tests that it was clear were becoming out of control in the hands of an unscrupulous regime in 1955, the very year Einstein died. He had of course drawn from the latter's science for the realization of the Soviet H-bomb. From then on, however, it would be the humanistic views of Einstein that would lead his way. Not only was he not an anti-Semite like many in official circles in the Soviet Union at the time but through experiences in his young age and later in his work on the bomb where he had many Jewish colleagues, Sakharov had come to admire Jewish culture and particularly its inclination towards intellectual life. It was with a fully open mind then that he got acquainted with Einstein's ideas on how the great man saw the world. Sakharov would divulge his own vision of the world in an essay titled "Progress, Peaceful Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom" in 1968. The Albert Einstein Peace Prize he would be awarded in 1988 for his relentless advocacy of peace would come as a confirmation of the spiritual linkage between the two men. This paper scrutinizes traces of Einstein's thinking in Sakharov's own. It focuses particularly on their convergent understanding of the notion of world government.
Falk, Dean
2016-06-20
Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking. The delay in ancestral babies' physical development eventually precipitated an evolutionary reversal in which they became increasing unable to cling independently to their mothers. For the first time in prehistory, babies were, thus, periodically deprived of direct physical contact with their mothers. This prompted the emergence of a second evo-devo trend in which infants sought contact comfort from caregivers using evolved signals, including new ways of crying that are conserved in modern babies. Such signaling stimulated intense reciprocal interactions between prehistoric mothers and infants that seeded the eventual emergence of motherese and, subsequently, protolanguage. The third trend was for an extreme acceleration in brain growth that began prior to the last trimester of gestation and continued through infants' first postnatal year (early "brain spurt"). Conservation of this trend in modern babies explains why human brains reach adult sizes that are over three times those of chimpanzees. The fossil record of hominin cranial capacities together with comparative neuroanatomical data suggest that, around 3 million years ago, early brain spurts began to facilitate an evolutionary trajectory for increasingly large adult brains in association with neurological reorganization. The prehistoric increase in brain size eventually caused parturition to become exceedingly difficult, and this difficulty, known as the "obstetrical dilemma", is likely to constrain the future evolution of brain size and, thus, privilege ongoing evolution in neurological reorganization. In modern babies, the brain spurt is accompanied by formation and tuning (pruning) of neurological connections, and development of dynamic higher-order networks that facilitate acquisition of grammatical language and, later in development, other advanced computational abilities such as musical or mathematical perception and performance. The cumulative evidence suggests that the emergence and refinement of grammatical language was a prime mover of hominin brain evolution. PMID:26894688
Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinclair, R.
2013-04-01
Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.
Einstein's Cosmos (German Title: Einsteins Kosmos)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Dick, Wolfgang R.
The different contributions of the present volume illuminate the interaction between Einstein and his colleagues when the foundations of modern cosmology were laid: First, the relativistic effects in the solar system, the gravitational redshift in the solar spectrum, and Einstein's relations with Freundlich and Eddington. Second, the cosmological models of Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, and Lemaître, which were discussed controversely till the end of the 1920s. Other scientists have also widened or critically questioned Einstein's insight and knowledge: Schwarzschild, Selety, Silberstein, and Mandl, whose life and work is discussed in separate articles. In those days, politics more than ever in history had influenced the lifes of scientists. Therefore, some comments on the ``political cosmos'' that has influenced decisively Einstein's life are also given. A special role in popularizing Einstein's world view was played by Archenhold Observatory in Berlin. A list of Einstein memorial places and a bibliographic list conclude the present book. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.
Einstein's jacket: evidence for long-term perceptual specificity in mental imagery.
Pearson, David G; Hollings, James
2013-03-01
To what extent are visual fantasies constrained by our perceptual experience of the real world? Our study exploits the fact that people's knowledge of the appearance of individuals from the early 20th Century (e.g., Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill) derives predominantly from viewing black-and-white media images. An initial experiment shows that mental imagery for individuals from this period are experienced as significantly less colourful than imagery for individuals from the era of colour media. A second experiment manipulated whether participants were instructed to explicitly imagine using colour or not (i.e., "imagine Albert Einstein wearing a green jacket" vs. "imagine Albert Einstein wearing a jacket"). Results show that colour manipulation only influences imagery for black-and-white era individuals, with no comparable effect on imagery for colour era individuals. This finding is replicated in a third experiment that includes an additional control condition of imagining generic characters (i.e., "Imagine a knight wearing a cloak" vs. "imagine a knight wearing a red cloak"). Again, only imagery for black-and-white era individuals is affected by the colour manipulation. Overall these results provide evidence for long-term perceptual specificity effects in mental imagery. We argue that visual fantasies can be constrained by surface features of underlying representations in memory, even when imagining something we have never directly perceived. PMID:23280307
Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Design analysis of the Einstein refrigeration cycle
Shelton, S.V.; Delano, A.; Schaefer, L.A.
1999-07-01
After developing the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein spent several years working with Leo Szilard on absorption refrigeration cycles. In 1930, they obtained a US patent for a unique single pressure absorption cycle. The single pressure eliminates the need for a solution pump. Their cycle has only recently been rediscovered. The cycle utilizes butane as its refrigerant, ammonia as a pressure equalizing fluid, and water as an absorbing fluid. This cycle is dramatically different in both concept and detail than the better-known ammonia-water-hydrogen cycle. In this study, thermodynamic and mixture property models of the Einstein cycle were created to gain insight into the cycle's operating characteristics and to calculate its performance. A conceptual demonstration model was built and successfully operated, showing for the first time the viability of the cycle. The model results found that the system pressure is an important design parameter, with the COP having an optimum when the system pressure is equal to the saturation pressure of the butane refrigerant. It was also found that for a given system pressure, there is a maximum condenser-absorber temperature and a minimum evaporator temperature.
2. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. ...
2. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer C. 1934, 1935 COPY OF PRINT LOANED BY MR. POLLEN JEWETT, NYACK, N.Y. TAKEN ABOUT 1900 VIEW ACROSS ROCK CREEK - Pierce Mill, Tilden Street & Beach Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Peter
2008-01-01
Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…
11. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
11. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. JOHN SHAFFER'S STORE AND JOHN WILSON'S BOWLING ALLEY AND SALOON IN FOREGROUND. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
3. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
3. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV. LOOKING DOWN THE CREEK, WEST BACK OF THE STORES, BEFORE THE FIRE (n.d.). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
20. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
20. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. RESIDENCE OF E.W. STAPLES AND DR. W.H. SHARP. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
4. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
4. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. CORNER OF THORNHILL STORE AND TOWN HALL. MRS. GATES AND JOHN SCHAFFER. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
10. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
10. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV. EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND GATES RESIDENCE AT LEFT (n.d.). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
6. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
6. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. STAGE, VOLCANO TOWN HALL. OLD GLORY, GETTING THE WORST OF IT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
2. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
2. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1898. LARGE TANK, VOLOCANO STATION AND BAND HOUSE, AFTER THE RR WAS DISMANTLED. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
24. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
24. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. JIM RIDGE'S CARPENTER SHOP, LOOKING UP THE CREEK, EAST. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
21. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
21. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV. 'JOHN NOON L(*(. SAYS HE DROVE THE FIRST SPIKE AND I SAW HIM PULL THE LAST ONE AT VOLCANO JUNCTION' SBS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
18. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
18. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1998. THIS ENGINE HAD CAB KNOCKED OFF AND TIRES USED ON OTHER ENGINE, SO JOHN NOON AND PAT O'BRIEN WERE SCRAPING IT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
8. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
8. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. INTERIOR VOLCANO TOWN HALL FROM STAGE SHOWING RAISED SEATS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
15. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
15. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, UP THE HILL, SOUTH OF THE TOWN (n.d.). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
23. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
23. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1897. TAKEN AT WATER TANKS NEAR THE HIGH TRESTLE. BOB FLEMING-ENGINEER, WILSH (?) ROLLINS-FIREMAN, OTH (?) COLLINS-PASSENGER (WITH CANE). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
13. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
13. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1907. VOLCANO SCHOOL HOUSE, ME. CHURCH IN WOODS AT LEFT. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
22. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, ...
22. Photocopied 1973 from original owned by Albert M. Stiles, Jr., Parkersburg, WV, 1898. TANK, VOLCANO PUMPING STATION, AND BARNE HOUSE STILL STANDING AND IN USE. THIS SHOWS THE OLD RR LINE. (1934 CAPTION). - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV
Albert Shanker and the Future of Teacher Unions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahlenberg, Richard D.
2008-01-01
"Tough Liberal," a book penned by the author of this article, traces the life of Albert Shanker (1928-1997) chronologically from birth to death. Shanker was the longtime head of the United Federation of Teachers (UFT) in New York City (1964-1986) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) nationally (1974-1997). "Tough Liberal" recounts the…
Albert Ellis's Theoretical Ark: Reactions of a Reader.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginter, Earl J.
1997-01-01
Provides a brief reaction to Albert Ellis's "Postmodern Ethics for Active-Directive Counseling and Psychotherapy," which appears in this issue. Offers a condensed review of what has led up to Ellis's article. Pays special attention to the phrase "and/also" in relation to its implication for theory building and practice. (RJM)
15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...
15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ
Let's Nuke the Transpersonalists: A Response to Albert Ellis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilber, Ken
1989-01-01
Responds to Albert Ellis' 1986 article which proposed to use rational-emotive therapy (RET) to save the world from religious and psychological fanatics and nuclear war. Attempts to provide a more balanced view of religion, RET, non-RET therapies, and the role of psychology in averting nuclear war. (Author/ABL)
Reconstructing Social Constructionism: A Response to Albert Ellis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guterman, Jeffrey T.
1996-01-01
Offers a response to Albert Ellis' critique of social constructionist models in mental health counseling. Focuses on views of reality and on the distinctions between content and process, and examines formal and informal content. Likewise clarifies viewpoints on diagnosis and the client/counselor relationship. (EMK)
Affect, Albert Ellis, and Rational-Emotive Therapy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, G. Barry
1989-01-01
Contends affect is integral component of Rational Emotive Therapy model. Reviews affective aspect of the model in terms of theoretical constructs and therapeutic techniques. Makes references to author-observed interactions of Albert Ellis and describes his life-style to permit inferences regarding the role of affect. Includes commentary by Ellis…
Must the Rational Emotive Therapist Be like Albert Ellis?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Norbert
1980-01-01
Some counselors may avoid using Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) because they feel they cannot deal with clients in the active-directive manner of Albert Ellis, originator of RET. Some of the ways in which less actively directive counselors may use RET techniques are discussed. (Author)
View northeast, overview of Albert Thacker building group: chicken house ...
View northeast, overview of Albert Thacker building group: chicken house (HABS No. WV-267-D), wash house (267-C), privy (HABS No. WV-268-B), and house (267-A) (left to right in photograph) - 3249 Cyrus Road (House), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV
Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graves, Scott L., Jr.
2009-01-01
Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…
Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products ...
Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products Building at left, looking northeast from Heinz Street. Heinz Lofts archway added ca. 2005. The bridge in the rear connects to the Bean Building. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Karen C.; Keck, Aries
2004-07-01
Einstein was the twentieth century's most celebrated scientist - a man who developed the theory of relativity, revolutionised physics and became an iconic genius in the popular imagination. Essays range from the reasonably scientific including the theory of relativity, to the odd and engaging, such as Einstein's brain, his favourite jokes and films. Einstein A to Z provides a vibrant overview of the man and his achievements.
Covariant Conformal Decomposition of Einstein Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gourgoulhon, E.; Novak, J.
It has been shown1,2 that the usual 3+1 form of Einstein's equations may be ill-posed. This result has been previously observed in numerical simulations3,4. We present a 3+1 type formalism inspired by these works to decompose Einstein's equations. This decomposition is motivated by the aim of stable numerical implementation and resolution of the equations. We introduce the conformal 3-``metric'' (scaled by the determinant of the usual 3-metric) which is a tensor density of weight -2/3. The Einstein equations are then derived in terms of this ``metric'', of the conformal extrinsic curvature and in terms of the associated derivative. We also introduce a flat 3-metric (the asymptotic metric for isolated systems) and the associated derivative. Finally, the generalized Dirac gauge (introduced by Smarr and York5) is used in this formalism and some examples of formulation of Einstein's equations are shown.
Piccioni, Robert
2014-06-25
Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.
Piccioni, Robert
2010-10-05
Young Einstein was a rebel who seemed doomed to fail. How did he overcome rejection to become the most famous scientist in history? We will discuss and explain all his theories in plain English and without math, and we will discover how Einstein's achievements impact our lives through DVDs, GPS, iPods, computers and green energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.
2006-12-01
This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses
Einstein-Rosen solutions from Kaluza-Klein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, L. A.; Bretón, N.; Ramírez, B. V.
2013-01-01
From a time-dependent boost-rotational symmetric vacuum solution of the Einstein Equations in five dimensions, through the Kaluza-Klein reduction the corresponding Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton solutions are obtained. The four dimensional counterpart turns out to be generalized Einstein-Rosen spacetimes representing unpolarized gravitational waves traveling in an inhomogeneous cosmology. Restricting the parameters we are able to obtain different 4D time-dependent solutions equipped with scalar and electromagnetic fields.
Extended Horava gravity and Einstein-aether theory
Jacobson, Ted
2010-05-15
Einstein-aether theory is general relativity coupled to a dynamical, unit timelike vector. If this vector is restricted in the action to be hypersurface orthogonal, the theory is identical to the IR limit of the extension of Horava gravity proposed by Blas, Pujolas and Sibiryakov. Hypersurface orthogonal solutions of Einstein-aether theory are solutions to the IR limit of this theory, hence numerous results already obtained for Einstein-aether theory carry over.
Was Einstein Right? A Centennial Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Will, Clifford M.
2016-01-01
Einstein formulated general relativity 100 years ago. Although it is generally considered a great triumph, the theory's early years were characterized by conceptual confusion, empirical uncertainties and a lack of relevance to ordinary physics. But in recent decades, a remarkably diverse set of precision experiments has established it as the "standard model" for gravitational physics. Yet it might not be the final word. We review a century of measurements that have verified general relativity, and describe some of the opportunities and challenges involved in testing Einstein's great theory in strong-field regimes and in gravitational waves.
Parameterized Beyond-Einstein Growth
Linder, Eric; Linder, Eric V.; Cahn, Robert N.
2007-09-17
A single parameter, the gravitational growth index gamma, succeeds in characterizing the growth of density perturbations in the linear regime separately from the effects of the cosmic expansion. The parameter is restricted to a very narrow range for models of dark energy obeying the laws of general relativity but can take on distinctly different values in models of beyond-Einstein gravity. Motivated by the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism for testing gravity, we analytically derive and extend the gravitational growth index, or Minimal Modified Gravity, approach to parameterizing beyond-Einstein cosmology. The analytic formalism demonstrates how to apply the growth index parameter to early dark energy, time-varying gravity, DGP braneworld gravity, and some scalar-tensor gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goradia, Shantilal
2012-10-01
When Rutherford discovered the nuclear force in 1919, he felt the force he discovered reflected some deviation of Newtonian gravity. Einstein too in his 1919 paper published the failure of the general relativity and Newtonian gravity to explain nuclear force and, in his concluding remarks, he retracted his earlier introduction of the cosmological constant. Consistent with his genius, we modify Newtonian gravity as probabilistic gravity using natural Planck units for a realistic study of nature. The result is capable of expressing both (1) nuclear force [strong coupling], and (2) Newtonian gravity in one equation, implying in general, in layman's words, that gravity is the cumulative effect of all quantum mechanical forces which are impossible to measure at long distances. Non discovery of graviton and quantum gravity silently support our findings. Continuing to climb on the shoulders of the giants enables us to see horizons otherwise unseen, as reflected in our book: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality,'' and physics/0210040, where we derive the fine structure constant as a function of the age of the universe in Planck times consistent with Gamow's hint, using natural logarithm consistent with Feynman's hint.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heilbron, John
2005-03-01
As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .
Flux compactifications in Einstein-Born-Infeld theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramadhan, Handhika S.; Cahyo, Brian A.; Iqbal, Muhammad
2015-07-01
We investigate the flux compactification mechanism in simple toy models of Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. These are the direct generalizations of the Einstein-Maxwell flux compactifications that recently gained fame as a toy model for tunneling in the landscape. Our investigation reveals that the Born-Infeld form does not significantly modify the qualitative result of the Einstein-Maxwell theory. For the case of Einstein-Higgs theory, however, we found that the effect of Born-Infeld nonlinearity is to render all q >1 extradimensional compactification unstable against semiclassical tunneling to nothing.
BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannetto, E.
2007-07-01
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigden, John
2005-05-01
From March 17 to September 29, 1905, just over six months, Einstein wrote five papers that shifted the tectonic foundations of physics and changed the face of Nature. Three of these papers, the March paper presenting the particle of light, the May paper on Brownian motion, and the June paper on the Special Theory of Relativity are universally recognized as fundamental; however, the Brownian motion paper cannot be divorced from Einstein's April paper, A New Determination of the Dimensions of Molecules, and the September paper that gave the world its most famous equation, E = mc^2, cannot be separated from the June paper. These five papers reveal characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics.
Using worksheets to solve the Einstein equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Thomas A.
2016-05-01
This article describes how one can use worksheets to guide undergraduate students through the process of finding solutions to specific cases of the Einstein equation of general relativity. The worksheets provide expressions for a metric's Christoffel symbols and Ricci tensor components for fairly general metrics. Students can use a worksheet to adapt these expressions to specific cases where symmetry or other considerations constrain the metric components' dependencies, and then use the worksheet's results to reduce the Einstein equation to a set of simpler differential equations that they can solve. This article illustrates the process for both a diagonal metric and a metric with one off-diagonal element.
Exact Faraday rotation in the cylindrical Einstein-Maxwell waves
Arafah, M.R.; Fakioglu, S.; Halilsoy, M. )
1990-07-15
We obtain the exact behavior of the cross-polarized cylindrical Einstein-Maxwell waves that generalizes the well-known Einstein-Rosen waves. In the presence of the second mode of polarization the outgoing waves interact with the incoming ones to exhibit an analogous effect of the Faraday rotation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elliot, Ian
1996-01-01
Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)
Einstein equation at singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoica, Ovidiu-Cristinel
2014-02-01
Einstein's equation is rewritten in an equivalent form, which remains valid at the singularities in some major cases. These cases include the Schwarzschild singularity, the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularity, isotropic singularities, and a class of warped product singularities. This equation is constructed in terms of the Ricci part of the Riemann curvature (as the Kulkarni-Nomizu product between Einstein's equation and the metric tensor).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-02-01
NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html
EPR before EPR: A 1930 Einstein-Bohr thought Experiment Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nikolic, Hrvoje
2012-01-01
In 1930, Einstein argued against the consistency of the time-energy uncertainty relation by discussing a thought experiment involving a measurement of the mass of the box which emitted a photon. Bohr seemingly prevailed over Einstein by arguing that Einstein's own general theory of relativity saves the consistency of quantum mechanics. We revisit…
The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy
Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Nosanchuk, Murphy D.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos; Weiss, Louis M.; Spray, David C.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.
2015-01-01
Abstract A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries. PMID:26691452
The Media of Relativity: Einstein and Telecommunications Technologies.
Canales, Jimena
2015-07-01
How are fundamental constants, such as "c" for the speed of light, related to the technological environments that produce them? Relativistic cosmology, developed first by Albert Einstein, depended on military and commercial innovations in telecommunications. Prominent physicists (Hans Reichenbach, Max Born, Paul Langevin, Louis de Broglie, and Léon Brillouin, among others) worked in radio units during WWI and incorporated battlefield lessons into their research. Relativity physicists, working at the intersection of physics and optics by investigating light and electricity, responded to new challenges by developing a novel scientific framework. Ideas about lengths and solid bodies were overhauled because the old Newtonian mechanics assumed the possibility of "instantaneous signaling at a distance." Einstein's universe, where time and space dilated, where the shortest path between two points was often curved and non-Euclidean, followed the rules of electromagnetic "signal" transmission. For these scientists, light's constant speed in the absence of a gravitational field-a fundamental tenet of Einstein's theory-was a lesson derived from communication technologies. PMID:26387524
Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lustig, Harry
2009-05-01
Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.
Albert Gockel, a pioneer in atmospheric electricity and cosmic radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacki, Jan
2014-01-01
At the beginning of the 20th century, the community of investigators of atmospheric electricity included scholars from most (Western) European countries and even beyond. If Victor Hess is deservedly remembered as the discoverer of cosmic rays, his achievements was made possible by the work of close predecessors whose contributions went with time almost forgotten. One of the most noteworthy was Albert Gockel (1860-1927) from Freiburg (CH) University. I want to discuss Gockel's achievements in atmospheric electricity and in particular his substantial contribution to the study of ionizing radiation which led to the discovery of its cosmic origin.
Finite-size effects in Barabási-Albert growing networks.
Waclaw, B; Sokolov, I M
2007-05-01
We investigate the influence of the network's size on the degree distribution pi k in Barabási-Albert model of growing network with initial attractiveness. Our approach based on moments of pi k allows us to treat analytically several variants of the model and to calculate the cutoff function, giving finite-size corrections to pi k. We study the effect of initial configuration as well as of addition of more than one link per time step. The results indicate that asymptotic properties of the cutoff depend only on the exponent gamma in the power-law describing the tail of the degree distribution. The method presented in this paper is very general and can be applied to other growing networks. PMID:17677140
Evolution of ethnocentrism on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, F. W. S.; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Stauffer, Dietrich
2009-12-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of contingent cooperation and ethnocentrism in the one-shot game. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We first replicate the Hammond-Axelrod model of in-group favoritism on a square lattice and then generalize this model on undirected and directed BA networks for both asexual and sexual reproduction cases. Our simulations demonstrate that irrespective of the mode of reproduction, the ethnocentric strategy becomes common even though cooperation is individually costly and mechanisms such as reciprocity or conformity are absent. Moreover, our results indicate that the spread of favoritism towards similar others highly depends on the network topology and the associated heterogeneity of the studied population.
Quantum metrology with Bose-Einstein condensates
Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Davis, Matthew J.; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.
2009-04-13
We show how a generalized quantum metrology protocol can be implemented in a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate of n atoms, achieving a sensitivity that scales better than 1/n and approaches 1/n{sup 3/2} for appropriate design of the condensate.
Skyrme-Einstein closed cosmic chiral strings
Rybakov, Yu. P. Ivanova, I. S.
2007-07-15
Within the theory of general relativity, the configuration of a closed string (vortex) characterized by a topological charge of the degree type is described for the Skyrme-Einstein SU (2) chiral model. In the approximation of a large vortex-closure radius (a), a solution to equations of motion is obtained, along with estimates for the vortex energy and radius.
Chromohydrodynamics in Einstein-Cartan theory
Amorim, R.
1986-05-15
The complete dynamical system for a classical fluid endowed with non-Abelian charge density is obtained by using variational techniques. Spin density appears in a natural way, as a consequence of a usual gauge construction. Einstein-Cartan, Yang-Mills, and generalized Wong equations are explicitly shown.
Bose-Einstein condensation. Twenty years after
Bagnato, V. S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, B. A.; Mihalache, D.
2015-02-23
The aim of this introductory article is two-fold. First, we aim to offer a general introduction to the theme of Bose-Einstein condensates, and briefly discuss the evolution of a number of relevant research directions during the last two decades. Second, we introduce and present the articles that appear in this Special Volume of Romanian Reports in Physics celebrating the conclusion of the second decade since the experimental creation of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms.
[Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].
Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich
2006-01-01
It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light. PMID:17338401
False-color composite image of Prince Albert, Canada
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
This is a false color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of Highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake
Three frequency false-color image of Prince Albert, Canada
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
This is a three-frequency, false color image of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. It was produced using data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars that comprise the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). SIR-C/X-SAR acquired this image on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. Most of the dark blue areas in the image are the ice covered lakes. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are shown by light
'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.
Wolffram, Heather
2012-04-01
In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll. PMID:23002297
Psychology's Lost Boy: Will the Real Little Albert Please Stand Up?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griggs, Richard A.
2015-01-01
This article is concerned with the recent debate about the identity of psychology's lost boy-Little Albert, the infant subject in Watson and Rayner's classic experiment on fear conditioning. For decades, psychologists and psychology students have been intrigued by the mystery of Albert's fate. Now two evidentiary-based solutions to…
Differing Visions: Administering Indian Residential Schooling in Prince Albert, 1867-1995.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyck, Noel
This book details the history of Indian residential schooling in the Prince Albert region of Saskatchewan from the early 19th century to 1995. Following a foreword by Grand Chief Alphonse Bird of the Prince Albert Grand Council, the book overviews the five distinct institutional periods of Indian residential schooling in Saskatchewan: (1)…
Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-07-01
Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin
Gravitational Lensing: Einstein's unfinished symphony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treu, Tommaso; Ellis, Richard S.
2015-01-01
Gravitational lensing - the deflection of light rays by gravitating matter - has become a major tool in the armoury of the modern cosmologist. Proposed nearly a hundred years ago as a key feature of Einstein's theory of general relativity, we trace the historical development since its verification at a solar eclipse in 1919. Einstein was apparently cautious about its practical utility and the subject lay dormant observationally for nearly 60 years. Nonetheless there has been rapid progress over the past twenty years. The technique allows astronomers to chart the distribution of dark matter on large and small scales thereby testing predictions of the standard cosmological model which assumes dark matter comprises a massive weakly-interacting particle. By measuring the distances and tracing the growth of dark matter structure over cosmic time, gravitational lensing also holds great promise in determining whether the dark energy, postulated to explain the accelerated cosmic expansion, is a vacuum energy density or a failure of general relativity on large scales. We illustrate the wide range of applications which harness the power of gravitational lensing, from searches for the earliest galaxies magnified by massive clusters to those for extrasolar planets which temporarily brighten a background star. We summarise the future prospects with dedicated ground and space-based facilities designed to exploit this remarkable physical phenomenon.
EINSTEIN-ÆTHER Gravity:. Theory and Observational Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Ted
2008-03-01
Einstein-æther theory is general relativity coupled to a dynamical unit timelike vector field. A brief review of current theoretical understanding and observational constraints on the four coupling parameters of the theory is given.
Einstein's other gravity and the acceleration of the Universe
Linder, Eric V.
2010-06-15
Spacetime curvature plays the primary role in general relativity but Einstein later considered a theory where torsion was the central quantity. Just as the Einstein-Hilbert action in the Ricci curvature scalar R can be generalized to f(R) gravity, we consider extensions of teleparallel, or torsion scalar T, gravity to f(T) theories. The field equations are naturally second order, avoiding pathologies, and can give rise to cosmic acceleration with unique features.
Bohr's Electron was Problematic for Einstein: String Theory Solved the Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, William
2013-04-01
Neils Bohr's 1913 model of the hydrogen electron was problematic for Albert Einstein. Bohr's electron rotates with positive kinetic energies +K but has addition negative potential energies - 2K. The total net energy is thus always negative with value - K. Einstein's special relativity requires energies to be positive. There's a Bohr negative energy conflict with Einstein's positive energy requirement. The two men debated the problem. Both would have preferred a different electron model having only positive energies. Bohr and Einstein couldn't find such a model. But Murray Gell-Mann did! In the 1960's, Gell-Mann introduced his loop-shaped string-like electron. Now, analysis with string theory shows that the hydrogen electron is a loop of string-like material with a length equal to the circumference of the circular orbit it occupies. It rotates like a lariat around its centered proton. This loop-shape has no negative potential energies: only positive +K relativistic kinetic energies. Waves induced on loop-shaped electrons propagate their energy at a speed matching the tangential speed of rotation. With matching wave speed and only positive kinetic energies, this loop-shaped electron model is uniquely suited to be governed by the Einstein relativistic equation for total mass-energy. Its calculated photon emissions are all in excellent agreement with experimental data and, of course, in agreement with those -K calculations by Neils Bohr 100 years ago. Problem solved!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löffler, Frank
2012-03-01
The Einstein Toolkit Consortium is developing and supporting open software for relativistic astrophysics. Its aim is to provide the core computational tools that can enable new science, broaden our community, facilitate interdisciplinary research and take advantage of petascale computers and advanced cyberinfrastructure. The Einstein Toolkit currently consists of an open set of over 100 modules for the Cactus framework, primarily for computational relativity along with associated tools for simulation management and visualization. The toolkit includes solvers for vacuum spacetimes as well as relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics, along with modules for initial data, analysis and computational infrastructure. These modules have been developed and improved over many years by many different researchers. The Einstein Toolkit is supported by a distributed model, combining core support of software, tools, and documentation in its own repositories and through partnerships with other developers who contribute open software and coordinate together on development. As of January 2012 it has 68 registered members from 30 research groups world-wide. This talk will present the current capabilities of the Einstein Toolkit and will point to information how to leverage it for future research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2011-03-01
ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frenkel, Viktor
The focus of the present article is Friedman's 1922 letter to Einstein accompanied by additional evidence throwing light on their debate, and the great roles played by Yuri Krutkov and Paul Ehrenfest, both of whom Einstein knew very well (see Frenkel 1970). The debate began soon after the appearance of Friedman's first article showing the possibility of a nonstationary solution of the cosmological problem (thus laying the foundation for the theory of an expanding universe). Einstein replied to Friedman with a note in which, as aptly observed by Fock, "he said, somewhat condescendingly, that Friedman's results seemed suspicious to him, and that he had found a mistake in them which, when corrected, reduced Friedman's solution to a stationary one" (Friedman 1966). Great people's delusions are always instructive, especially when dealing with fundamental problems. The honesty of great men can also be exemplary: the debate came to an end after the publication of Einstein's second note, in which he stressed the importance of Friedman's work.
Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-08-01
Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.
Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon.
Mowbrey, Kevin
2013-01-01
The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley's work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada's most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day. PMID:24431953
Wealth condensation in a Barabasi-Albert network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez-Montejo, J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.
2010-04-01
We study the flow of money among agents in a Barabasi-Albert (BA) scale free network, where each network node represents an agent and money exchange interactions are established through links. The system allows money trade between two agents at a time, betting a fraction f of the poorer’s agent wealth. We also allow for the bet to be biased, giving the poorer agent a winning probability p. In the no network case there is a phase transition involving a relationship between p and f. In the networked case, we also found a condensation interface, however, this is not a complete condensation due to the presence of clusters in the network and its topology. As can be expected, the winner is always a well-connected agent, but we also found that the mean wealth decreases with the agents’ connectivity.
[Albert-Jean-Louis Brun, pharmacist of Geneva and vulcanologist].
Chaigneau, M
1996-01-01
Albert-Jean-Louis Brun (1851-1929), was chemist of the University of Bern (Switzerland) and "licencié ès sciences" of the University of Sorbonne (France). In Paris he was a faithful follower of Charles Friedel. In Coutance (Genève), where he was working in his own chemistry, he realised all his researchs. After a trip to Stromboli in 1901, he studied the volcanic phenomena as a chemist, as a mineralogist and as a geophysicist. His researchs brought him till the mediterranean volcanos--Vesuve, Etna, Santorin--, till Java and Krakatoa, then Canarian islands, and the lava lake of Kilauea, etc. The results of his works are collected in a big book called "Recherches sur l'exhalaison volcanique": he presents a theory which was the subject of a polemic with the professor Henri Gautier of the professor Henri Gautier of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. PMID:11624861
Going to school with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: gender roles in children's science biographies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Trevor
2009-12-01
One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this paper taps this unutilized resource to cultivate a unique perspective on the history of gender and authority in science and science education. Through analysis of explicit discussions of womanhood and science and implicit gendering of Curie and Einstein's school experiences within these books, this study demonstrates that while much has changed in how these stories are framed the gender of the scientist is still central to how they are represented in children's literature.
Einstein and a century of time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raine, D. J.
2005-09-01
this pivotal insight into the role of theory when it came to quantum mechanics. Much has been written about this and we do not add to it in this collection. Quantum theory is a consistent description of nature whatever Einstein may think of 'god' for making it so. Many of us would side with Einstein in hoping it will yet turn out not to be a complete description. This will not happen, as Einstein hoped throughout his later work, from a return to classical field theory. But quantum behaviour is a universal property of matter and may therefore be expected, according to Einstein's way of thought, to have a geometrical origin. The advent of non-commutative quantum geometries may turn out to be a step in this direction. My own introduction to Einstein's physics was through what has come to be known as Mach's principle. My research supervisor, Dennis Sciama, in what he always claimed was probably Einstein's last significant scientific conversation, talked with him on this subject, during which Einstein explained that he had abandoned the idea of Mach's principle. This principle had been a guiding thought in the development of general relativity, but superfluous to its final exposition. It can be interpreted variously as the determination of the local compass of inertia by the distant stars, the non-rotation of the Universe or, more restrictedly, as requiring a critical density universe (to generate the right amount of inertia). This last formulation amounts to Gρτ2 approx 1, where ρ is the density of the Universe at time τ. This appears to be a classical expression, which would probably be sufficient to relegate Mach's principle to mere historical interest along with the classical unified field theories. It is also usually considered to be accounted for by inflation, which drives the Universe to Ω=1. However, we can also think of the expression as saying that the Universe has a Planck mass in a Planck volume at the Planck time: G=(hc / G)1/2(c3 / Gh)3/2(Gh / c5)=1. This
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Patten, R. A.; Everitt, C. W. F.
1976-01-01
In 1918, Lense and Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect by means of two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar orbit about the earth. For a 2-1/2 year experiment, the measurement should approach an accuracy of 1%. An independent measurement of the geodetic precession of the orbit plane due to the motion about the sun may also be possible to about 10% accuracy. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler data are taken at points of passing near the poles to yield an accurate measurement of the separation distance between the two satellites. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in this polar ranging data.
El-Sherbini, Th.M.
2005-03-17
This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.
Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, M. A.
In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know
Official portrait of Albert Sacco, Jr., STS-50 backup payload specialist
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
Official portrait of Albert Sacco, Jr, STS-50 United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) backup payload specialist, wearing navy blue flight suit with US flag and space shuttle model in the background.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norton, John D.
2016-08-01
What powered Einstein's discoveries? Was it asking naïve questions, stubbornly? Was it a mischievous urge to break rules? Was it the destructive power of operational thinking? It was none of these. Rather, Einstein made his discoveries through lengthy, mundane investigations, pursued with tenacity and discipline. We have been led to think otherwise in part through Einstein's brilliance at recounting in beguilingly simple terms a few brief moments of transcendent insight, and in part through our need to find a simple trick underlying his achievements. These ideas are illustrated with the examples of Einstein's 1905 discoveries of special relativity and the light quantum.
Sexual Modernity in the Works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll
Oosterhuis, Harry
2012-01-01
The modern notion of sexuality took shape at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in the works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll. This modernisation of sexuality was closely linked to the recognition of sexual diversity, as it was articulated in the medical–psychiatric understanding of what, at that time, was labelled as perversion. From around 1870, psychiatrists shifted the focus from immoral acts, a temporary deviation of the norm, to an innate morbid condition. In the late nineteenth century, several psychiatrists, collecting and publishing more and more case histories, classified and explained the wide range of deviant sexual behaviours they traced. The emergence of medical sexology meant that perversions could be diagnosed and discussed. Against this background both Krafft-Ebing and Moll articulated a new perspective, not only on perversion, but also on sexuality in general. Krafft-Ebing initiated and Moll elaborated a shift from a psychiatric perspective in which deviant sexuality was explained as a derived, episodic and more or less singular symptom of a more fundamental mental disorder, to a consideration of perversion as an integral part of a more general, autonomous and continuous sexual instinct. Before Sigmund Freud and others had expressed similar views, it was primarily through the writings of Krafft-Ebing and Moll that a new understanding of human sexuality emerged. PMID:23002290
Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon
Mowbrey, Kevin
2013-01-01
The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the ‘Guinea Pig Club’. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley’s work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada’s most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day. PMID:24431953
Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2014-09-01
We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundmann, Siegfried
In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouneiher, J.
2015-07-01
The recent evolution of the observational technics and the development of new tools in cosmology and gravitation have a significant impact on the study of the cosmological models. In particular, the qualitative and numerical methods used in dynamical system and elsewhere, enable the resolution of some difficult problems and allow the analysis of different cosmological models even with a limited number of symmetries. On the other hand, following Einstein point of view the manifold ℳ and the metric should be built simultaneously when solving Einstein’s equation Rμν -1 2Rgμν = Tμν. From this point of view, the only kinematic condition imposed is that at each point of space-time, the tangent space is endowed with a metric (which is a Minkowski metric in the physical case of pseudo-Riemannian manifolds and an Euclidean one in the Riemannian analogous problem). Then the field (gμν) describes the way these metrics depend on the point in a smooth way and the Einstein equation is the “dynamical” constraint on gμν. So, we have to imagine an infinite continuous family of copies of the same Minkowski or Euclidean space and to find a way to sew together these infinitesimal pieces into a manifold, by respecting Einstein’s equation. Thus, Einstein field equations do not fix once and for all the global topology. 34 Given this freedom in the topology of the space-time manifold, a question arises as to how free the choice of these topologies may be and how one may hope to determine them, which in turn is intimately related to the observational consequences of the space-time possessing nontrivial topologies. Therefore, in this paper we will use a different qualitative dynamical methods to determine the actual topology of the space-time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilkes, Belinda J.
1988-01-01
The results of the initial stage of the CfA survey of quasar energy distributions are reviewed. Einstein imaging proportional counter spectra of 33 quasars have been studied by fitting a single power law slope and absorption by an equivalent column density of neutral hydrogen. Comparison with the higher energy HEAO-A2 data leads to a two-component model for the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray column density is systematically lower than the 21-cm measured Galactic column density along the same line of sight.
Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-04-01
Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They
Noncommutative Einstein-Proca spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Angélica; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco; Sánchez-Santos, Oscar
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present a deformed model of Einstein-Proca spacetime based on the replacement of pointlike sources by noncommutative smeared distributions. We discuss the solutions to the set of noncommutative Einstein-Proca equations thus obtained, with emphasis on the issue of singularities and horizons.
Einstein and the "Crucial" Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holton, Gerald
1969-01-01
Examines the widespread view that it was the crucial Michelson-Morley experiment that led Einstein to formulate the special relativity theory. From Einstein's writings, evidence is presented that no such direct genetic connection exists. The author suggests that the historian of science must resist the experimenticist's fallacy of imposing a…
Acting Surgeon General Audrey Manley Named New President of Spelman.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Towns, Gail Hagans
1997-01-01
Spelman College has chosen one of its own alumnae, Audrey Manley, acting Surgeon General of the United States, as its eighth president. Some controversy accompanies the appointment. Manley is the widow of former Spelman President Albert Manley. (MSE)
Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinshaw, Gary
2004-01-01
I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.
‘God’s Ethicist’: Albert Moll and His Medical Ethics in Theory and Practice
Maehle, Andreas-Holger
2012-01-01
In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll’s views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the ‘trade’ of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession’s reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors. PMID:23002294
'God's ethicist': Albert Moll and his medical ethics in theory and practice.
Maehle, Andreas-Holger
2012-04-01
In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll's views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the 'trade' of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession's reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors. PMID:23002294
Taming the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation.
Harte, Abraham I
2014-12-31
Many of the technical complications associated with the general theory of relativity ultimately stem from the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation. It is shown here that an appropriate choice of dynamical variables may be used to eliminate all such nonlinearities beyond a particular order: Both Landau-Lifshitz and tetrad formulations of Einstein's equation are obtained that involve only finite products of the unknowns and their derivatives. Considerable additional simplifications arise in physically interesting cases where metrics become approximately Kerr or, e.g., plane waves, suggesting that the variables described here can be used to efficiently reformulate perturbation theory in a variety of contexts. In all cases, these variables are shown to have simple geometrical interpretations that directly relate the local causal structure associated with the metric of interest to the causal structure associated with a prescribed background. A new method to search for exact solutions is outlined as well. PMID:25615299
One month in the history of the discovery of general relativity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehra, Jagdish
1998-02-01
Albert Einstein had initiated his work on the formulation of a general theory of relativity soon after completing the special theory. From 1907 to summer 1915 he worked hard on the problem of ‘generalizing’ the relativity theory. His efforts bore fruit during November 1915, and he presented the new theory in four communications to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin in that month; he obtained the correct expression and value for the advance of the perihelion motion of Mercury and motivated the existence of the final form of the field equations of gravitation. After his second communication to the Academy on 11 November, he had the expression and value for the advance of the perihelion of Mercury by 18 November, and the final form of the field equations by 25 November. He noted down both of these major results in an autograph manuscript, the English translation of which is presented here for the first time since Einstein wrote it, and the background of this fundamental work is discussed.
Einstein and a century of time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raine, D. J.
2005-09-01
this pivotal insight into the role of theory when it came to quantum mechanics. Much has been written about this and we do not add to it in this collection. Quantum theory is a consistent description of nature whatever Einstein may think of 'god' for making it so. Many of us would side with Einstein in hoping it will yet turn out not to be a complete description. This will not happen, as Einstein hoped throughout his later work, from a return to classical field theory. But quantum behaviour is a universal property of matter and may therefore be expected, according to Einstein's way of thought, to have a geometrical origin. The advent of non-commutative quantum geometries may turn out to be a step in this direction. My own introduction to Einstein's physics was through what has come to be known as Mach's principle. My research supervisor, Dennis Sciama, in what he always claimed was probably Einstein's last significant scientific conversation, talked with him on this subject, during which Einstein explained that he had abandoned the idea of Mach's principle. This principle had been a guiding thought in the development of general relativity, but superfluous to its final exposition. It can be interpreted variously as the determination of the local compass of inertia by the distant stars, the non-rotation of the Universe or, more restrictedly, as requiring a critical density universe (to generate the right amount of inertia). This last formulation amounts to Gρτ2 approx 1, where ρ is the density of the Universe at time τ. This appears to be a classical expression, which would probably be sufficient to relegate Mach's principle to mere historical interest along with the classical unified field theories. It is also usually considered to be accounted for by inflation, which drives the Universe to Ω=1. However, we can also think of the expression as saying that the Universe has a Planck mass in a Planck volume at the Planck time: G=(hc / G)1/2(c3 / Gh)3/2(Gh / c5)=1. This
Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation
Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.
2006-08-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.
Uniqueness and nonuniqueness in the Einstein constraints.
Pfeiffer, Harald P; York, James W
2005-08-26
The conformal thin-sandwich (CTS) equations are a set of four of the Einstein equations, which generalize the Laplace-Poisson equation of Newton's theory. We examine numerically solutions of the CTS equations describing perturbed Minkowski space, and find only one solution. However, we find two distinct solutions, one even containing a black hole, when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation through specification of the mean curvature. While the relationship of the two systems and their solutions is a fundamental property of general relativity, this fairly simple example of an elliptic system with nonunique solutions is also of broader interest. PMID:16197202
Einstein's investigations of Galilean covariant electrodynamics prior to 1905
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norton, John D.
2004-11-01
Einstein learned from the magnet and conductor thought experiment how to use field transformation laws to extend the covariance of Maxwells electrodynamics. If he persisted in his use of this device, he would have found that the theory cleaves into two Galilean covariant parts, each with different field transformation laws. The tension between the two parts reflects a failure not mentioned by Einstein: that the relativity of motion manifested by observables in the magnet and conductor thought experiment does not extend to all observables in electrodynamics. An examination of Ritz's work shows that Einstein's early view could not have coincided with Ritz's on an emission theory of light, but only with that of a conveniently reconstructed Ritz. One Ritz-like emission theory, attributed by Pauli to Ritz, proves to be a natural extension of the Galilean covariant part of Maxwell's theory that happens also to accommodate the magnet and conductor thought experiment. Einstein's famous chasing a light beam thought experiment fails as an objection to an ether-based, electrodynamical theory of light. However it would allow Einstein to formulate his general objections to all emission theories of light in a very sharp form. Einstein found two well known experimental results of 18th and 19th century optics compelling (Fizeau's experiment, stellar aberration), while the accomplished Michelson-Morley experiment played no memorable role. I suggest they owe their importance to their providing a direct experimental grounding for Lorentz' local time, the precursor of Einstein's relativity of simultaneity, and doing it essentially independently of electrodynamical theory. I attribute Einstein's success to his determination to implement a principle of relativity in electrodynamics, but I urge that we not invest this stubbornness with any mystical prescience.
On static Poincaré-Einstein metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galloway, Gregory J.; Woolgar, Eric
2015-06-01
The classification of solutions of the static vacuum Einstein equations, on a given closed manifold or an asymptotically flat one, is a long-standing and much-studied problem. Solutions are characterized by a complete Riemannian n-manifold ( M, g) and a positive function N, called the lapse. We study this problem on Asymptotically Poincaré-Einstein n-manifolds, n ≥ 3, when the conformal boundary-at-infinity is either a round sphere, a flat torus or smooth quotient thereof, or a compact hyperbolic manifold. Such manifolds have well-defined Wang mass, and are time-symmetric slices of static, vacuum, asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. By integrating a mildly generalized form of an identity used by Lindblom, Shen, Wang, and others, we give a mass formula for such manifolds. There are no solutions with positive mass. In consequence, we observe that either the lapse is trivial and ( M, g) is Poincaré-Einstein or the Wang mass is negative, as in the case of time symmetric slices of the AdS soliton. As an application, we use the mass formula to compute the renormalized volume of the warped product ( X, γ) ≃ ( M 3 , g) × N 2 ( S 1 , dt 2).
The Happiest thought of Einstein's Life
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heller, Michael
Finally, let us have a closer look at the place of the equivalence principle in the logical scheme of Einstein's general relativity theory. First, Einstein new well, from Minkowski's geometric formulation of his own special relativity, that accelerated motions should be represented as curved lines in a flat space-time. Second, the Galileo principle asserts that all bodies are accelerated in the same way in a given gravitational field, and consequently their motions are represented in the flat space-time by curved lines, all exactly in the same way. Third, since all lines representing free motions are curved exactly in the same way in the flat space-time, one can say that the lines remain straight (as far as possible) but the space-time itself becomes curved. Fourth, and last, since acceleration is (locally) equivalent to a gravitational field (here we have the equivalence principle), one is entitled to assert that it is the gravitational field (and not acceleration) that is represented as the curvature of space-time. This looks almost like an Aristotelian syllogism. However, to put all the pieces of evidence into the logical chain took Einstein a few years of hard thinking. The result has been incorporated into the field equations which quantitatively show how the curvature of space-time and gravity are linked together.
Bryant, Thomas
2012-04-01
The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll's conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations--especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295
Bryant, Thomas
2012-01-01
The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll’s conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations – especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295
Levitz, Sarah; Standley, Claire J; Adriko, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell
2013-11-01
Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be hyper-endemic in the fishing community of Bugoigo located on the eastern shore of Lake Albert, Uganda. Our study aimed to identify the factors that determine the local distribution and abundance of Biomphalaria, as well as infection(s) with Schistosoma mansoni inclusive of their genetic diversity. In addition, a DNA barcoding approach was taken to genotype schistosome cercariae, exploring the micro-epidemiology of infections. Over a 3-week period in June-July 2010, several hundred Biomphalaria spp. were collected, together with environmental information, from 10 selected sites, representative of both putative wave-exposed (n=5) and wave-sheltered shorelines (n=5). A Mann-Whitney U-test and a generalized linear model were used to assess associations with snail abundance and parasite infections across the shoreline. Levels of local wave action were recorded over the 19-day period using digital accelerometers. The general absence of wave action on the sheltered shoreline likely helped to raise and focalize other environmental parameters, such as water conductivity by lack of mixing, that foster transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis. Over the study period, a total of 10 infected snails were encountered and a selection of schistosome cercariae from each infected snail was harvested for analysis by DNA barcoding. In total, 91 DNA barcodes were generated with 15 unique barcode types identified. Of these, 4 barcodes had been found previously in Lake Albert and (or) Victoria, the remaining 11 were newly encountered here and described. The distribution of DNA barcodes across infected snails and sampled locations revealed a complicated spatial sub-structuring. By shedding new light on the fine-scale patterning of infections, DNA barcoding has revealed a rather heterogeneous landscape of cercariae, likely inclusive of multi-miracidial infections within the snail, which will in turn interplay with human water contact activities to
Einstein Energy-Momentum Complex for a Phantom Black Hole Metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
K. Sahoo, P.; L. Mahanta, K.; Goit, D.; K. Sinha, A.; S. Xulu, S.; R. Das, U.; Prasad, A.; Prasad, R.
2015-02-01
We calculate the energy distribution associated with a static spherically symmetric non-singular phantom black hole metric in Einstein's prescription in general relativity. As required for the Einstein energy-momentum complex, we perform the calculations in quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We also calculate the momentum components and obtain a zero value, as expected from the geometry of the metric.
Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
This is a comparison of images over Prince Albert, produced by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on April 10, 1994, and again on orbit 20 of the second flight of Endeavour on October 1, 1994. The area is centered at 53.91 degrees north latitude and 104.69 degrees west longitude and is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of Candle Lake, between the gravel highway of 120 and west of highway 106. The area imaged is near the southern limit of the boreal forest. The boreal forest of North America is a continuous vegetation belt at high latitudes stretching across the continent from the Atlantic shoreline of central Labrador and then westward across Canada to the interior mountains and central coastal plains of Alaska. The forest is also part of a larger northern hemisphere circumpolar boreal forest belt. Coniferous trees dominate the entire forest but deciduous trees are also present. During the month of April, the forest experiences seasonal changes from a frozen condition to a thawed condition. The trees are completely frozen over the winter season and the forest floor is covered by snow. As the average temperature rises in the spring, the trees are thawed and the snow melts. This transition has an impact on the rate of moisture evaporation and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In late September and early October, the boreal forest experiences a relatively different seasonal change. At this time, the leaves on deciduous trees start changing color and dropping off. The soil and trees are quite often moist due to frequent rainfall and cloud cover. The evaporation of moisture and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere also diminishes at this time. SIR-C/X-SAR is sensitive to the moisture of soil and vegetation and can sense this freeze
Space Radar Image of Prince Albert, Canada, seasonal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
This is a comparison of images over Prince Albert, produced by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on April 10, 1994, and again on orbit 20 of the second flight of Endeavour on October 1, 1994. The area is centered at 53.91 degrees north latitude and 104.69 degrees west longitude and is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of Candle Lake, between the gravel highway of 120 and west of highway 106. The area imaged is near the southern limit of the boreal forest. The boreal forest of North America is a continuous vegetation belt at high latitudes stretching across the continent from the Atlantic shoreline of central Labrador and then westward across Canada to the interior mountains and central coastal plains of Alaska. The forest is also part of a larger northern hemisphere circumpolar boreal forest belt. Coniferous trees dominate the entire forest but deciduous trees are also present. During the month of April, the forest experiences seasonal changes from a frozen condition to a thawed condition. The trees are completely frozen over the winter season and the forest floor is covered by snow. As the average temperature rises in the spring, the trees are thawed and the snow melts. This transition has an impact on the rate of moisture evaporation and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In late September and early October, the boreal forest experiences a relatively different seasonal change. At this time, the leaves on deciduous trees start changing color and dropping off. The soil and trees are quite often moist due to frequent rainfall and cloud cover. The evaporation of moisture and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere also diminishes at this time. SIR-C/X-SAR is sensitive to the moisture of soil and vegetation and can sense this freeze
A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan
2011-12-01
Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an
Some notes on Einstein relationships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Michael P.; Masters, Andrew J.
Transport coefficients are often expressed in the form of an Einstein relationship. In this report we point out some possibly surprising properties of the correlation functions appearing in such expressions and we discuss under what conditions the relationships are true. We further consider the Einstein relationship for the shear viscosity proposed by McQuarrie [in Statistical Mechanics (Harper and Row), 1976]. On the basis both of theoretical analysis and computer simulation, we conclude that this expression is incorrect.
The NASA Beyond Einstein Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Nicholas E.
2004-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is part of NASA s Beyond Einstein program. This program seeks to answer the questions What Powered the Big Bang?, What happens at the edge of a Black Hole?, and What is Dark Energy?. LISA IS the first mission to be launched in this new program. This paper will give an overview of the Beyond Einstein program, its current status and where LISA fits in.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Michel
2013-12-01
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Tobias
2011-08-01
In 1922, Fridman was the first to present non-static world models, based on Einstein's general theory of relativity. Thus, he abandoned the idea of a static world model, the principle of the universes of Einstein and de Sitter. In a short "Comment" Einstein accused Fridman of an alleged arithmetic error and interpreted his work as prove of the constancy of the world radius in cosmic time. However, it was not Fridman but Einstein who had made a mistake in calculating the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. Krutkov, a friend of Fridman's, succeeded finally in convincing Einstein to admit his error and to revise his Comment by a brief "Note". While no longer doubting Fridman's calculation, he still remained sceptic with regard to the physical interpretation and importance of Fridman's non-static world models. However, this view turned out to be a mistake as well, only a few years later.
Recommendations for Broader Impacts in K-12: Advice from Einstein Educator Fellows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pacheco, H. A.; LaDue, N.; Moore, J. D.; Whitsett, S.
2011-12-01
Since 1994, the Albert Einstein Distinguished Science Educator Fellowship Act has brought Master K-12 STEM educators to Washington D.C. and Virginia for 11-month appointments in STEM-related Federal agencies and Congressional Offices. These top educators are leaders in their communities and often have years of experience working with government-funded researchers reaching out to the K-12 community. During their fellowship year, Einstein Fellows use their years of experience and expertise in to inform efforts and initiatives in the federal departments, directorates and offices to which they are assigned. The collaborative efforts of a group of NSF Einstein Fellows has led to the development of "Broader Impacts in the K-12 Community", a suite of experience-based recommendations and ideas designed to leverage grant resources and maximize effective partnerships between the research and K-12 communities. The goal of this presentation is to communicate best practices for researchers engaging in the realm of K-12 education from the perspective of educators. Challenges are highlighted and mapped to realistic solutions. Written originally as a panel talk to help NSF panel members consider feasible, high-quality K-12 broader impacts, this presentation has become an invaluable resource for principle investigators as they consider engaging with the K-12 community. While this presentation specifically addresses merit review components of NSF solicitations, these recommendations are relevant for any STEM initiatives that involve partnerships between scientists and teachers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.
1992-01-01
A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.
Metric redefinitions in Einstein-Aether theory
Foster, Brendan Z.
2005-08-15
'Einstein-Aether' theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field, provides a means for studying Lorentz violation in a generally covariant setting. Demonstrated here is the effect of a redefinition of the metric and 'aether' fields in terms of the original fields and two free parameters. The net effect is a change of the coupling constants appearing in the action. Using such a redefinition, one of the coupling constants can be set to zero, simplifying studies of solutions of the theory.
Einstein, Bohm, and Leggett-Garg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacciagaluppi, Guido
In a recent paper, I have analysed and criticised Leggett and Garg's argument to the effect that oscopic realism contradicts quantum mechanics, by contrasting their assumptions to the example of Bell's stochastic pilot-wave theories, and have applied Dzhafarov and Kujala's analysis of contextuality in the presence of signalling to the case of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. In this chapter, I discuss more in general the motivations for oscopic realism, taking a cue from Einstein's criticism of the Bohm theory, then go on to summarise my previous results, with a few additional comments on other recent work on Leggett and Garg.
Groups, information theory, and Einstein's likelihood principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sicuro, Gabriele; Tempesta, Piergiulio
2016-04-01
We propose a unifying picture where the notion of generalized entropy is related to information theory by means of a group-theoretical approach. The group structure comes from the requirement that an entropy be well defined with respect to the composition of independent systems, in the context of a recently proposed generalization of the Shannon-Khinchin axioms. We associate to each member of a large class of entropies a generalized information measure, satisfying the additivity property on a set of independent systems as a consequence of the underlying group law. At the same time, we also show that Einstein's likelihood function naturally emerges as a byproduct of our informational interpretation of (generally nonadditive) entropies. These results confirm the adequacy of composable entropies both in physical and social science contexts.
Groups, information theory, and Einstein's likelihood principle.
Sicuro, Gabriele; Tempesta, Piergiulio
2016-04-01
We propose a unifying picture where the notion of generalized entropy is related to information theory by means of a group-theoretical approach. The group structure comes from the requirement that an entropy be well defined with respect to the composition of independent systems, in the context of a recently proposed generalization of the Shannon-Khinchin axioms. We associate to each member of a large class of entropies a generalized information measure, satisfying the additivity property on a set of independent systems as a consequence of the underlying group law. At the same time, we also show that Einstein's likelihood function naturally emerges as a byproduct of our informational interpretation of (generally nonadditive) entropies. These results confirm the adequacy of composable entropies both in physical and social science contexts. PMID:27176234
In the Beginning--Albert McKinley and the Founding of "The Social Studies"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keels, Oliver M.
2009-01-01
This article discusses the founding of "The Social Studies" by Albert E. McKinley. The author briefly introduces McKinley's life and examines the evolution of the magazine. He identifies the conflicts and struggles between the historians and social studies educators for the magazine. The author concludes that the magazine has served both history…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chenoweth, Eric
2013-01-01
Albert Shanker (1928-1997) is known mainly for his successful struggle to obtain collective bargaining for teachers, his leadership of teacher unions, and his championship of education reform. Shanker built large and powerful city, state, and national unions of teachers and other public employees that still stand as models both for union democracy…
In the Beginning: Albert McKinley and the Founding of "The Social Studies."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keels, Oliver M.
1994-01-01
Describes the founding and evolution of "The Social Studies," by Albert E. McKinley in 1909. Identifies the struggle between historians and social studies educators for the "soul" of the magazine during the 1930s. Concludes that the magazine has served both history education and social studies education well. (CFR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph
This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…
Rational Emotive Therapy--A Study of Initial Therapy Sessions of Albert Ellis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Irving M.; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.
1976-01-01
The purpose of this research was to see which specific techniques Albert Ellis, the founder of the school of therapy known as Rational Emotive Therapy, uses during an initial therapy session and also to see what percentage of time each technique was utilized. (Author)
Carl Albert State College Drug-Free School and Community Policy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carl Albert State Coll., Poteau, OK.
This pamphlet, designed for distribution to students and employees of Carl Albert State College, Oklahoma, reviews the risks associated with alcohol and drug use and establishes standards of conduct relating to drug use. The section detailing health risks covers overdoses, chemical dependency, ill health, and the accidents which can result from…
Distorting the Historical Record: One Detailed Example from the Albert Shanker Institute's Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Educator, 2012
2012-01-01
This article presents a detailed example from the Albert Shanker Institute's report that shows the error of U.S. history textbooks and how it is distorting the historical record. One of the most glaring errors in textbooks is the treatment of the role that unions and labor activists played as key participants in the civil rights movement. The…
The Albert Shanker Institute Five-Year Report, 2003-2008
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albert Shanker Institute, 2008
2008-01-01
This report describes the Albert Shanker Institute's activities over the past five years in the areas of education, labor, and democracy. In the area of education, the Institute has sponsored a wide range of forums, seminars, reports, and other activities that highlight the best thinking and solid research on the most effective ways to improve…
Bose-Einstein condensates: BECs from the fridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Bretislav
2009-10-01
Large ensembles of atoms can be buffer-gas loaded into a magnetic trap and further evaporatively cooled all the way down to quantum degeneracy. The approach has now been shown to provide an alternative - and potentially general - route to Bose-Einstein condensation.
Metric redefinition and UV divergences in quantum Einstein gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2016-03-01
I formulate several statements demonstrating that the local metric redefinition can be used to reduce the UV divergences present in the quantum action for the Einstein gravity in d = 4 dimensions. In its most general form, the proposal is that any UV divergences in the quantum action can be removed by an appropriate field re-definition and a renormalization of cosmological constant.
Space-time curvature signatures in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matos, Tonatiuh; Gomez, Eduardo
2015-05-01
We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevski (GP) equation for a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) immersed in a weak gravitational field starting from the covariant Complex Klein-Gordon field in a curved space-time. We compare it with the traditional GP equation where the gravitational field is added by hand as an external potential. We show that there is a small difference of order gz/c2 between them that could be measured in the future using Bose-Einstein Condensates. This represents the next order correction to the Newtonian gravity in a curved space-time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, A. T.
1973-01-01
Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)
Arthur Beer and his relations with Einstein and the Warburg Institute
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter
2006-06-01
We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Albert Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding Editor of the series Vistas in Astronomy.
Radiating black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Dominguez, Alfredo E.; Gallo, Emanuel
2006-03-15
In this paper, we find some new exact solutions to the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet equations. First, we prove a theorem which allows us to find a large family of solutions to the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in n-dimensions. This family of solutions represents dynamic black holes and contains, as particular cases, not only the recently found Vaidya-Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black hole, but also other physical solutions that we think are new, such as the Gauss-Bonnet versions of the Bonnor-Vaidya (de Sitter/anti-de Sitter) solution, a global monopole, and the Husain black holes. We also present a more general version of this theorem in which less restrictive conditions on the energy-momentum tensor are imposed. As an application of this theorem, we present the exact solution describing a black hole radiating a charged null fluid in a Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics.
The Geometry of Newton's and Einstein's Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Graham S.
The aim of this paper is to present a simple, brief, mathematical discussion of the interplay between geometry and physics in the theories of Newton and Einstein. The reader will be assumed to have some familiarity with classical Newtonian theory, the ideas of special and general relativity theory (and differential geometry), and the axiomatic formulation of Euclidean geometry. An attempt will be made to describe the relationship between Galileo's law of inertia (Newton's first law) and Euclid's geometry, which is based on the idea of Newtonian absolute time. Newton's second law and classical gravitation theory will then be introduced through the elegant idea of Cartan and his space-time connection and space metric. This space metric will then be used to introduce Minkowski's metric in special relativity and its subsequent generalization, by Einstein, to incorporate relativistic gravitational theory. The role of the principles of equivalence and covariance will also be discussed. Finally, a brief discussion of cosmology will be given. Stress will be laid on the (geometrical) concepts involved rather than the details of the mathematics, in so far as this is possible.
Radiation damping in Einstein-aether theory
Foster, Brendan Z.
2006-05-15
This work concerns the loss of energy of a material system due to gravitational radiation in Einstein-aether theory - an alternative theory of gravity in which the metric couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field. Derived to lowest post-Newtonian order are wave forms for the metric and vector fields far from a nearly Newtonian system and the rate of energy radiated by the system. The expressions depend on the quadrupole moment of the source, as in standard general relativity, but also contain monopolar and dipolar terms. There exists a one-parameter family of Einstein-aether theories for which only the quadrupolar contribution is present, and for which the expression for the damping rate is identical to that of general relativity to the order worked to here. This family cannot yet be declared observationally viable, since effects due to the strong internal fields of bodies in the actual systems used to test the damping rate have not yet been determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Michel
2013-12-01
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in
Neutron stars in Einstein-aether theory
Eling, Christopher; Jacobson, Ted; Miller, M. Coleman
2007-08-15
As current and future experiments probe strong gravitational regimes around neutron stars and black holes, it is desirable to have theoretically sound alternatives to general relativity against which to test observations. Here we study the consequences of one such generalization, Einstein-aether theory, for the properties of nonrotating neutron stars. This theory has a parameter range that satisfies all current weak-field tests. We find that within this range it leads to lower maximum neutron star masses, as well as larger surface redshifts at a particular mass, for a given nuclear equation of state. For nonrotating black holes and neutron stars, the innermost stable circular orbit is only slightly modified in this theory.
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin--inventor of the oral polio vaccine.
Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A
2005-01-01
Over ten years after his death, the Sabin oral vaccine continues its profound influence on public health throughout the world. The annual incidence of polio has fallen dramatically since its introduction, with more than 300,000 lives being spared each year and an annual global saving in excess of 1 billion US dollars. In many ways, the development of an effective oral vaccine and its subsequent regulation by the World Health Organization can serve as a model for medical researchers. Our review describes the contribution of Albert Sabin as a medical researcher, and how his vaccine had a profound impact on the global reduction of polio infections. As many different factors influenced health-care last century, we describe Sabin's involvement with respect to prevailing scientific paradigms and public health issues of the time. Our paper also outlines the basic epidemiology of poliovirus and the historical development of an effective vaccine, both with and without Albert Sabin. PMID:16422178
Albert J. Stunkard: His Research on Obesity and Its Psychological Impact.
Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Wadden, Thomas A
2016-03-01
Albert J. ("Mickey") Stunkard, MD, was a leader in the field of obesity research, with his work spanning more than five decades. He published several groundbreaking findings on the psychosocial influences of obesity, the genetics of obesity, and the relationship between obesity and factors such as socioeconomic status, stigma, and mood. He also helped establish two eating disorders associated with obesity-binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome. This paper highlights his work and its implications for the field. PMID:26820621
No-go theorem for ergodicity and an Einstein relation.
Froemberg, D; Barkai, E
2013-08-01
We provide a simple no-go theorem for ergodicity and the generalized Einstein relation for anomalous diffusion processes. The theorem states that either ergodicity in the sense of equal time and ensemble averaged mean squared displacements (MSD) is broken, and/or the generalized Einstein relation for time averaged diffusivity and mobility is invalid, which is in complete contrast to normal diffusion processes. We also give a general relation for the time averages of drift and MSD for ergodic (in the MSD sense) anomalous diffusion processes, showing that the ratio of these quantities depends on the measurement time. The Lévy walk model is used to exemplify the no-go theorem. PMID:24032966
Ludwik Silberstein - Einstein's antagonist (German Title: Ludwik Silberstein - Einsteins Antagonist)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Flin, Piotr
We consider the life and work of the physicist Ludwik Silberstein, who corresponded with Einstein, Sommerfeld and other famous physicists and astronomers, and became known by his contributions to relativity and cosmology, among them a treatise on relativity. Silberstein, who had obtained his PhD in Berlin, became assistant in Lemberg, lecturer in mathematical physics in Bologna and Rome, and industrial physicist in London (1913) and with the Eastman Kodak Co. in Rochester, New York (1920). Although he always felt sympathetic with Einstein and his theory of relativity, he often voiced scepticism concerning its results and verification, and did not hesitate to make his doubts public, thereby losing much sympathy among his colleagues. His cosmological studies are also marked by wrong insights and a certain ignorance of astronomical facts; nevertheless his attacks against established opinions show sometimes an astonishing far-sightedness. In the appendix we publish two Silberstein letters: one to Sommerfeld on the discussion of the results of the solar eclipse expeditions of 1919, and another very personal one to Einstein, in which he reveals some details of his life.
Weak measurements beyond the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman formalism
Wu Shengjun; Li Yang
2011-05-15
We extend the idea of weak measurements to the general case, provide a complete treatment, and obtain results for both the regime when the preselected and postselected states (PPS) are almost orthogonal and the regime when they are exactly orthogonal. We surprisingly find that for a fixed interaction strength, there may exist a maximum signal amplification and a corresponding optimum overlap of PPS to achieve it. For weak measurements in the orthogonal regime, we find interesting quantities that play the same role that weak values play in the nonorthogonal regime.
Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities
Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi
2011-02-15
We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g{sub {mu}{nu}=}C(R)g{sub {mu}{nu}} with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.
Einstein spaces modeling nonminimal modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elizalde, Emilio; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2015-06-01
Off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum configurations in the Einstein gravity can mimic physical effects of modified gravitational theories of f( R, T, R μν T μν ) type. To prove this statement, exact and approximate solutions are constructed in the paper, which encode certain models of covariant Hořava-type gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. The corresponding FLRW cosmological dynamics with possible nonholonomic deformations and the reconstruction procedure of certain actions closely related with the standard ΛCDM universe are studied. Off-diagonal generalizations of de Sitter universes are constructed which are generated through nonlinear gravitational polarization of fundamental physical constants and which model interactions with nonconstant exotic fluids and effective matter. The problem of possible matter instability for such off-diagonal deformations in (modified) gravity theories is briefly discussed.
A repulsive force in the Einstein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorkavyi, Nick; Vasilkov, Alexander
2016-09-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detection of gravitational waves that take away 5 per cent of the total mass of two merging black holes points out on the importance of considering varying gravitational mass of a system in the framework of the Einstein general theory of relativity. We calculate the acceleration of a particle in the non-stationary field of a quasi-spherical system composed of a large number of objects emitting gravitational waves. It is shown that reduction of the gravitational mass of the system due to emitting gravitational waves leads to a repulsive gravitational force that diminishes with time but never disappears. This repulsive force may be related to the observed expansion of the Universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Patricia M.
2009-05-01
``There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remember your humanity, and forget the rest.'' Days before his death, Albert Einstein joined Bertrand Russell and other notable scientists and philosophers in issuing a statement calling for the abolition of war and for governments to ``find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them." As a first step, they called for the renunciation of nuclear weapons. The initiative led to the establishment of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, which bring together influential scholars and public figures concerned with reducing the danger of armed conflict and seeking cooperative solutions for global problems. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto has had a major impact on the way in which people discuss the issues of peace and war. The paper traces the growing awareness of the meaning of war, ways in which violent conflict can be prevented, particularly in the nuclear age, and the humanitarian imperative for so doing. From the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, London, 9 July 1955, signed also by Max Born, Percy W. Bridgman, Leopold Infeld, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Herman J. Muller, Linus Pauling, Cecil F. Powell, Joseph Rotblat and Hideki Yukawa
Einstein Gyrogroup as a B-loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suksumran, Teerapong; Wiboonton, Keng
2015-08-01
Using the Clifford algebra formalism, we give an algebraic proof that the open unit ball B = v ∈Rn : ‖ v ‖ < 1 } of Rn equipped with Einstein addition ⊕E forms a B-loop or, equivalently, a uniquely 2-divisible gyrocommutative gyrogroup. We obtain a compact formula for Einstein addition in terms of Möbius addition. We then give a characterization of associativity and commutativity of vectors in B with respect to Einstein addition.
Einstein as a Missionary of Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renn, Jürgen
2013-10-01
The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed studies, Einstein's travels and their impact on the dissemination of relativity theory are examined. These activities as well as Einstein's own popular writings are interpreted in the context of his understanding of science as part of human culture.
Class of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion space-times
Matos, Tonatiuh; Miranda, Galaxia; Sanchez-Sanchez, Ruben; Wiederhold, Petra
2009-06-15
We use the harmonic maps ansatz to find exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) equations. The solutions are harmonic maps invariant to the symplectic real group in four dimensions Sp(4,R){approx}O(5). We find solutions of the EMDA field equations for the one- and two-dimensional subspaces of the symplectic group. Specially, for illustration of the method, we find space-times that generalize the Schwarzschild solution with dilaton, axion, and electromagnetic fields.
Heterotic reduction of Courant algebroid connections and Einstein-Hilbert actions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Vysoký, Jan
2016-08-01
We discuss Levi-Civita connections on Courant algebroids. We define an appropriate generalization of the curvature tensor and compute the corresponding scalar curvatures in the exact and heterotic case, leading to generalized (bosonic) Einstein-Hilbert type of actions known from supergravity. In particular, we carefully analyze the process of the reduction for the generalized metric, connection, curvature tensor and the scalar curvature.
Biohistorical materials and contemporary privacy concerns-the forensic case of King Albert I.
Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Bekaert, Bram; Baumers, Maarten; Wenseleers, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; Borry, Pascal; Decorte, Ronny
2016-09-01
The rapid advancement of technology in genomic analysis increasingly allows researchers to study human biohistorical materials. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the privacy of the donor's living relatives and the negative impact they might experience from the (public) availability of genetic results, even in cases of scientific, forensic or historical relevance. This issue has become clear during a cold case investigation of a relic attributed to Belgian King and World War I-hero Albert I who died, according to the official version, in a solo climbing accident in 1934. Authentication of the relic with blood stains assigned to the King and collected on the place where his body was discovered is recognised as one of the final opportunities to test the plausibility of various conspiracy theories on the King's demise. While the historical value and current technological developments allow the genomic analysis of this relic, publication of genetic data would immediately lead to privacy concerns for living descendants and relatives of the King, including the Belgian and British royal families, even after more than 80 years. Therefore, the authentication study of the relic of King Albert I has been a difficult exercise towards balancing public research interests and privacy interests. The identification of the relic was realised by using a strict genetic genealogical approach including Y-chromosome and mitochondrial genome comparison with living relatives, thereby limiting the analysis to genomic regions relevant for identification. The genetic results combined with all available historical elements concerning the relic, provide strong evidence that King Albert I was indeed the donor of the blood stains, which is in line with the official climbing accident hypothesis and contradicts widespread 'mise-en-scène' scenarios. Since publication of the haploid data of the blood stains has the potential to violate the privacy of living relatives, we opted for
On the Emergence of Mental Space in Psychology: Interview With Lucas Albert Charles Derks.
Derks, Lucas Albert Charles; Manea, Alexandru Ioan
2016-05-01
In this interview we have the chance to talk with Lucas Albert Charles Derks, founder of the International Laboratory for Mental Space Research and of the Society for Mental Space Psychology and the creator of the Social Panorama approach, about the paradigm that evolved in the last 25 years, entitled Mental Space Psychology, with roots from Cognitive Linguistics, Spatial Cognition and Neuroscience. Today we shall explore the psychotherapeutic approaches which use the Mental Space Psychology, their applicability and their limitations, with a special focus on his own approach, entitled Social Panorama. PMID:27298638
Evolution of egoism on semi-directed and undirected Barabási-Albert networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, F. W. S.
2015-05-01
Through Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of the four strategies: Ethnocentric, altruistic, egoistic and cosmopolitan in one community of individuals. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and semi-directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We study the Hammond-Axelrod (HA) model on undirected and semi-directed BA networks for the asexual reproduction case. With a small modification in the traditional HA model, our simulations showed that egoism wins, differently from other results found in the literature where ethnocentric strategy is common. Here, mechanisms such as reciprocity are absent.
Albert Siepert Points Out Highlights of Apollo 10 Liftoff to Belgium King and Queen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.
On the Emergence of Mental Space in Psychology: Interview With Lucas Albert Charles Derks
Derks, Lucas Albert Charles; Manea, Alexandru Ioan
2016-01-01
In this interview we have the chance to talk with Lucas Albert Charles Derks, founder of the International Laboratory for Mental Space Research and of the Society for Mental Space Psychology and the creator of the Social Panorama approach, about the paradigm that evolved in the last 25 years, entitled Mental Space Psychology, with roots from Cognitive Linguistics, Spatial Cognition and Neuroscience. Today we shall explore the psychotherapeutic approaches which use the Mental Space Psychology, their applicability and their limitations, with a special focus on his own approach, entitled Social Panorama. PMID:27298638
What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayes, Denis
2007-01-01
People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is…
Einstein as a Missionary of Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renn, Jürgen
2013-01-01
The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…
Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian
2009-01-01
A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…
People Interview: Continuing Einstein's great work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-09-01
INTERVIEW Continuing Einstein's great work Dr Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, bestselling author and popularizer of science. He is the co-founder of string field theory (a branch of string theory) and continues Einstein's search to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into one unified theory. David Smith speaks to him about inspiration and education.
Quasispherical gravitational collapse in 5D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Ghosh, Sushant G.; Jhingan, S.
2010-07-15
We obtain a general five-dimensional quasispherical collapsing solutions of irrotational dust in Einstein gravity with the Gauss-Bonnet combination of quadratic curvature terms. These solutions are a generalization, to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, of the five-dimensional quasispherical Szkeres like collapsing solutions in general relativity. It is found that the collapse proceeds in the same way as in the analogous spherical collapse, i.e., there exists regular initial data such that the collapse proceed to form naked singularities violating cosmic censorship conjecture. The effect of Gauss-Bonnet quadratic curvature terms on the formation and locations of the apparent horizon is deduced.
Slowly rotating black holes in Einstein-æther theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barausse, Enrico; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Vega, Ian
2016-02-01
We study slowly rotating, asymptotically flat black holes in Einstein-æther theory and show that solutions that are free from naked finite area singularities form a two-parameter family. These parameters can be thought of as the mass and angular momentum of the black hole, while there are no independent æ ther charges. We also show that the æ ther has nonvanishing vorticity throughout the spacetime, as a result of which there is no hypersurface that resembles the universal horizon found in static, spherically symmetric solutions. Moreover, for experimentally viable choices of the coupling constants, the frame-dragging potential of our solutions only shows percent-level deviations from the corresponding quantities in General Relativity and Hořava gravity. Finally, we uncover and discuss several subtleties in the correspondence between Einstein-æther theory and Hořava gravity solutions in the cω→∞ limit.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.
Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity. PMID:23496709
Second post-Newtonian approximation of Einstein-aether theory
Xie Yi; Huang Tianyi
2008-06-15
In this paper, second post-Newtonian approximation of Einstein-aether theory is obtained by Chandrasekhar's approach. Five parametrized post-Newtonian parameters in first post-Newtonian approximation are presented after a time transformation and they are identical with previous works, in which {gamma}=1, {beta}=1, and two preferred-frame parameters remain. Meanwhile, in second post-Newtonian approximation, a parameter, which represents third order nonlinearity for gravity, is zero--the same as in general relativity. For an application for future deep space laser ranging missions, we reduce the metric coefficients for light propagation in a case of N point masses as a simplified model of the Solar System. The resulting light deflection angle in second post-Newtonian approximation poses another constraint on the Einstein-aether theory.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müntinga, H.; Ahlers, H.; Krutzik, M.; Wenzlawski, A.; Arnold, S.; Becker, D.; Bongs, K.; Dittus, H.; Duncker, H.; Gaaloul, N.; Gherasim, C.; Giese, E.; Grzeschik, C.; Hänsch, T. W.; Hellmig, O.; Herr, W.; Herrmann, S.; Kajari, E.; Kleinert, S.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Malcolm, J.; Meyer, N.; Nolte, R.; Peters, A.; Popp, M.; Reichel, J.; Roura, A.; Rudolph, J.; Schiemangk, M.; Schneider, M.; Seidel, S. T.; Sengstock, K.; Tamma, V.; Valenzuela, T.; Vogel, A.; Walser, R.; Wendrich, T.; Windpassinger, P.; Zeller, W.; van Zoest, T.; Ertmer, W.; Schleich, W. P.; Rasel, E. M.
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Einstein Relation for Electrons in an Electric Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, F. J.; Velasco, R. M.
2016-01-01
We study the diffusion of electrons moving through a monatomic gas. The two-term Legendre approximation for solving the Boltzmann equation is used to obtain an analytical expression for the isotropic part of the distribution function for hard spheres. We then obtain explicit expressions for the drift velocity, transversal diffusion coefficient, and mean kinetic energy in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function U. The longitudinal diffusion coefficient is obtained by direct numerical integration and the results are used to obtain generalized Einstein relations. The Langevin approach is analyzed and shown to be consistent with the results from the kinetic theory of gases if anisotropic friction is used. An example of the work fluctuation theorem is considered and the differences of the work fluctuation theorem obtained by using the Nernst-Townsend (Einstein) relation and the more accurate results from kinetic theory are calculated.
The Canarias Einstein ring: a newly discovered optical Einstein ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettinelli, M.; Simioni, M.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Cassisi, S.; Walker, A. R.; Piotto, G.; Valdes, F.
2016-09-01
We report the discovery of an optical Einstein ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. It is an almost complete ring (˜300°) with a diameter of ˜4.5 arcsec. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of z = 0.581, while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of z = 1.165. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be Mtot = (1.86 ± 0.23) × 1012 M⊙.
PREFACE: Atoms, quanta and relativity—a century after Einstein's miraculous year
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänsch, T. W.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Walther, H.
2005-05-01
In 2005 we celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the publication of five seminal papers by Albert Einstein establishing the basis of three fundamental fields of physics: the theory of relativity, quantum theory and the theory of Brownian motion. This happened at a time when the reality of atoms and molecules was still far from certain. The microscopic view Einstein took of molecular motion led to the calculation of Avogadro's number and the size of molecules by studying the motion of small particles in liquids. Combining kinetic theory and classical thermodynamics finally led Einstein to the conclusion that the displacement of a microparticle under Brownian motion varies as the square root of time. The experimental demonstration of this law three years later was considered as the striking proof that atoms and molecules are physically real. Today single atoms are probed directly in experiments, and we are able to observe the individual paths of colliding or dissociating particles. These new techniques are described in some of the papers of this issue in a very impressive way. An even more exciting development was initiated with the demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases of ultracold atoms, a phenomenon first predicted by Einstein in papers published between 1916 and 1924. The first paper of Einstein's famous series of 1905, 'On an heuristic point of view about the creation and conversion of light', was an explanation of the photoelectric effect, demonstrated in several experiments over the previous few years. The explanation was based on the quantum hypothesis introduced by Max Planck five years earlier, and was considered as an additional and important proof of Planck's hypothesis. Today quantum theory and photons are the basis for much of modern science and technology. We have learned to experiment with single photons, and we have demonstrated the advantages of information transfer by single photons. Photons permit new and incredibly precise
Superfluidity and Critical Velocities in Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wouters, Michiel; Carusotto, Iacopo
2010-07-01
We theoretically study the superfluidity properties of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity under incoherent pumping. The dynamics of the condensate is described at mean-field level in terms of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The drag force on a small moving object and the onset of fringes in the density profile are shown to have a sharp threshold as a function of the velocity; a generalized Landau criterion is developed to explain this behavior in terms of the dispersion of elementary excitations. Metastability of supercurrents in multiply-connected geometries is shown to persist up to higher flow speeds.
Superfluidity and Critical Velocities in Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensates
Wouters, Michiel; Carusotto, Iacopo
2010-07-09
We theoretically study the superfluidity properties of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity under incoherent pumping. The dynamics of the condensate is described at mean-field level in terms of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The drag force on a small moving object and the onset of fringes in the density profile are shown to have a sharp threshold as a function of the velocity; a generalized Landau criterion is developed to explain this behavior in terms of the dispersion of elementary excitations. Metastability of supercurrents in multiply-connected geometries is shown to persist up to higher flow speeds.
Bogoliubov theory of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the particle representation
Dziarmaga, Jacek; Sacha, Krzysztof
2003-03-01
In the number-conserving Bogoliubov theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate, the Bogoliubov transformation between quasiparticles and particles is nonlinear. We invert this nonlinear transformation and give a general expression for eigenstates of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian in particle representation. The particle representation unveils the structure of a condensate multiparticle wave function. We give several examples to illustrate a general formalism.
The Beyond Einstein Outreach Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnamurthi, Anita
2006-09-01
We are currently in the beginning stages of designing an education and public outreach effort for the Beyond Einstein (BE) program. This presentation will discuss opportunities for scientists involved in the BE program to work with us on engaging a variety of audiences on outreach efforts of various scales. These range from being part of a speaker's bureau to promote the science to working with museums, community groups, teachers and school classrooms, etc. We would like to offer our help to scientists who have ROSES awards related to BE science (such as the BEFS grantees) to apply for EPO funding so that we can leverage efforts and build a coherent and vibrant EPO program. Additionally, we have initiated a few efforts that might allow BE scientists to leverage our ongoing programs and take advantage of established infrastructure.
Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Ted
2016-05-01
A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.
Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.
Jacobson, Ted
2016-05-20
A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy. PMID:27258860
Gravitation. [Book on general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.
1973-01-01
This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.
Energy decomposition within Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Jonas P.; Rueda, Jorge A.
2015-03-01
We analyze the consequences of the recently found generalization of the Christodoulou-Ruffini black hole mass decomposition for Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes [characterized by the parameters (Q ,M ,b ), where M =M (Mirr,Q ,b ) , b scale field, Q charge, Mirr "irreducible mass," physically meaning the energy of a black hole when its charge is null] and their interactions. We show in this context that their description is largely simplified and can basically be split into two families depending upon the parameter b |Q |. If b |Q |≤1 /2 , then black holes could have even zero irreducible masses and they always exhibit single nondegenerated horizons. If b |Q |>1 /2 , then an associated black hole must have a minimum irreducible mass (related to its minimum energy) and has two horizons up to a transitional irreducible mass. For larger irreducible masses, single horizon structures raise again. By assuming that black holes emit thermal uncharged scalar particles, we further show in light of the black hole mass decomposition that one satisfying b |Q |>1 /2 takes an infinite amount of time to reach the zero temperature, settling down exactly at its minimum energy. Finally, we argue that depending on the fundamental parameter b , the radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational) coming from Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes could differ significantly from Einstein-Maxwell ones. Hence, it could be used to assess such a parameter.
Focus: The elusive icon: Einstein, 1905-2005 - Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galison, Peter
2004-12-01
As Einstein's portrait comes increasingly to resemble an icon, we lose more than detail - his writings and actions lose all reference. This is as true for his physics as it is for his philosophy and his politics; the best of recent work aims to remove Einstein's interventions from the abstract sphere of Delphic pronouncements and to insert them in the stream of real events, real arguments. Politically, this means attending to McCarthyism, Paul Robeson, the Arab-Israeli conflict. Philosophically, it means tying his concerns, for example, to late nineteenth-century neo-Kantian debates and to his own struggles inside science. And where physics is concerned, it means attending both in the narrow to his reponses to others' work and his reactions to this own sometimes misfired early work on, for example, general relativity and to the wider context of technological developments. Einstein remains and will remain a magnet for historians, philosophers, and scientists; the essays assembled here represent a strong sampling - but only a sampling - of a fascinating new generation of work on this perennial figure.
Implications of Einstein-Weyl Causality on Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bendaniel, David
A fundamental physical principle that has consequences for the topology of space-time is the principle of Einstein-Weyl causality. This also has quantum mechanical manifestations. Borchers and Sen have rigorously investigated the mathematical implications of Einstein-Weyl causality and shown the denumerable space-time Q2 would be implied. They were left with important philosophical paradoxes regarding the nature of the physical real line E, e.g., whether E = R, the real line of mathematics. In order to remove these paradoxes an investigation into a constructible foundation is suggested. We have pursued such a program and find it indeed provides a dense, denumerable space-time and, moreover, an interesting connection with quantum mechanics. We first show that this constructible theory contains polynomial functions which are locally homeomorphic with a dense, denumerable metric space R* and are inherently quantized. Eigenfunctions governing fields can then be effectively obtained by computational iteration. Postulating a Lagrangian for fields in a compactified space-time, we get a general description of which the Schrodinger equation is a special case. From these results we can then also show that this denumerable space-time is relational (in the sense that space is not infinitesimally small if and only if it contains a quantized field) and, since Q2 is imbedded in R*2, it directly fulfills the strict topological requirements for Einstein-Weyl causality. Therefore, the theory predicts that E = R*.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Barton L.
2007-01-01
There has been a growing interest in understanding the computations involved in the processes underlying visual segmentation and interpolation in conditions of occlusion. P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, T. F. Shipley, and B. P. Keane and M. K. Albert defended the view that identical contour interpolation mechanisms underlie modal and amodal…
Prince Albert Four Agency Cooperative Speech Program. S.S.T.A. Research Centre Report No. 53.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cowan, William J.
Three Prince Albert school districts and the Community Health Region cooperated to deliver speech therapy services to rural areas; the cooperative program provided services that could not have been funded by the agencies acting independently. The agencies shared responsibility for funding, administration, and implementation of the program. Goals…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Labov, Jay B.
2005-01-01
This column, "From the National Academies," was Bruce Alberts' idea, one of so many for improving education. As a long-standing member of the American Society for Cell Biology, the namesake for the prize that is awarded annually to cell biologists for excellence in science education, and one of the founding editors of this journal, Alberts…
Stability of the Einstein static universe in Einstein-Cartan theory
Atazadeh, K.
2014-06-01
The existence and stability of the Einstein static solution have been built in the Einstein-Cartan gravity. We show that this solution in the presence of perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is cyclically stable around a center equilibrium point. Thus, study of this solution is interesting because it supports non-singular emergent cosmological models in which the early universe oscillates indeterminately about an initial Einstein static solution and is thus past eternal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehan, William
2016-01-01
The discovery of the outer planet Neptune in 1846, based on the calculated position published by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier, has been hailed as the "zenith of Newtonian mechanics." An attempt by Le Verrier to further extend the dominion of Newton's gravitational theory to the innermost known planet of the Solar System, Mercury, seemingly came to grief with the discovery of a small unexplained discrepancy in the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, whose value was later calculated as 43".0 per century. Le Verrier proposed that it could be explained on the basis of Newtonian theory by assuming the existence of an intra-mercurial planet ("Vulcan") or ring of debris. Efforts to confirm this hypothesis, culminating in high drama on the plains of the western United States at the great North American solar eclipse of July 1878, proved futile; by 1908, W. W. Campbell and C.D. Perrine of Lick Observatory, who had carried out exhaustive photographic searches at three eclipses (1901, 1905, and 1908) could declare that Vulcan did not exist. The theoretical problem it was invoked to explain remained until November 1915, when Albert Einstein used the recently discovered generally covariant gravitational equations to put the problem to rest. "Perihelion motions explained quantitatively … you will be astonished," he wrote to his friend Michael Besso.
Stability of the Einstein static universe in f(R) gravity
Boehmer, Christian G.; Hollenstein, Lukas; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2007-10-15
We analyze the stability of the Einstein static universe by considering homogeneous scalar perturbations in the context of f(R) modified theories of gravity. By considering specific forms of f(R), the stability regions of the solutions are parametrized by a linear equation of state parameter w=p/{rho}. Contrary to classical general relativity, it is found that in f(R) gravity a stable Einstein cosmos with a positive cosmological constant does indeed exist. Thus, we are lead to conclude that, in principle, modifications in f(R) gravity stabilize solutions which are unstable in general relativity.
Albert Sabin and the Coalition to Eliminate Polio From the Americas
2009-01-01
Albert B. Sabin, MD, developer of the oral polio vaccine, was also a major proponent of its use in annual vaccination campaigns aimed at the elimination of polio. Sabin argued that administering his vaccine simultaneously to every child in a country would break polio's chains of transmission. Although he was already promoting mass vaccination by the 1960s, Sabin's efforts expanded considerably when he became an adviser to groups fighting polio in the Americas in the 1980s. Sabin's experiences provide a window into both the formation of the coalition that eliminated poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere and what can happen when biomedical researchers become public health policy advisers. Although the polio elimination coalition succeeded in part because member groups often accommodated each other's priorities, Sabin was often limited by his indifference to the interests of those he was advising and to the shortcomings of his vaccine. PMID:19008524
Albert H. Munsell: A sense of color at the interface of art and science
Landa, E.R.
2004-01-01
The color theory conceived and commercialized by Albert H. Munsell (1858-1918) has become a universal part of the lexicon of soil science. An American painter noted for his seascapes and portraits, he had a long-standing interest in the description of color. Munsell began studies aimed at standardizing color description, using hue, value, and chroma scales, around 1898. His landmark treatise, "A Color Notation," was published in 1905. Munsell died about 30 years before his color charts came into wide-spread use in soil survey programs in the United States. Dorothy Nickerson, who began her career as secretary and laboratory assistant to Munsell's son, and later spent 37 years at USDA as a color-science specialist, did much to adapt the Munsell Color System to soil-color usage. The legacy of color research pioneered by A.H. Munsell is honored today by the Munsell Color Science Laboratory established in 1983 at the Rochester Institute of Technology.
Stochastic Resonance in the Ising Model on a BARABÁSI-ALBERT Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawiecki, A.
Stochastic resonance is investigated in the Ising model with ferromagnetic coupling on a Barabási-Albert network, subjected to weak periodic magnetic field. Spectral power amplification as a function of temperature shows strong dependence on the number of nodes, which is related to the dependence of the critical temperature for the ferromagnetic phase transition, and on the frequency of the periodic signal. Double maxima of the spectral power amplification evaluated from the time-dependent magnetization are observed for intermediate frequencies of the periodic signal, which are also dependent on the number of nodes. In the thermodynamic limit, the height of the maxima decreases to zero and stochastic resonance disappears. Results of numerical simulations are in qualitative agreement with predictions of the linear response theory in the mean-field approximation.
Fordism in the hospital: Albert Kahn and the design of Old Main, 1917-25.
Ahuja, Nitin K
2012-07-01
The 1917-25 planning and construction at the University of Michigan of a new University Hospital, later dubbed Old Main, offers a noteworthy case study of the formal convergence of hospital and factory in early twentieth-century America. Designed by Albert Kahn, the architect responsible for Ford Motor Company's archetypal automobile plants, and located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, less than forty miles from Detroit's burgeoning factory landscape, Old Main was well positioned to reflect the values of industry in both appearance and operation. The building's outer surface represents a striking departure from the historicism that characterized several other hospitals of this period, while plans for the building's novel diagnostic unit demonstrate unique operational parallels to the assembly line model of production. Ultimately, Old Main's industrial design similarities cast it as a precociously modernist hospital, relating streamlined form to function more explicitly than many of its contemporary institutions. PMID:21724644
On algebraic endomorphisms of the Einstein gyrogroup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molnár, Lajos; Virosztek, Dániel
2015-08-01
We describe the structure of all continuous algebraic endomorphisms of the open unit ball B of ℝ3 equipped with the Einstein velocity addition. We show that any nonzero such transformation originates from an orthogonal linear transformation on ℝ3.
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
The happiest thought of Einstein's life.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heller, M.
It is a commonly told story that Einstein formulated his famous principle of equivalence when thinking about what happens in a freely falling elevator, and that it was an original idea of his genius distinguished by the rare capability to see deep problems in the most ordinary things. In the reading of Einstein's and Ernst Mach's works the author has discovered that it was not a physicist in an elevator which led to the principle of equivalence but rather somebody falling from a roof; moreover, the idea behind the principle was not invented by Einstein himself but rather read by him from the book by Mach entitled The Science of Mechanics. The influence this book had on young Einstein is very well known.
On homogeneous Einstein (α , β) -metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zaili; Deng, Shaoqiang
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study homogeneous Einstein (α , β) -metrics. First, we deduce a formula for Ricci curvature of a homogeneous (α , β) -metric. Based on this formula, we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for a compact homogeneous (α , β) -metric to be Einstein and with vanishing S-curvature. Moreover, we prove that any homogeneous Ricci flat (α , β) space with vanishing S-curvature must be a Minkowski space. Finally, we consider left invariant Einstein (α , β) -metrics on Lie groups with negative Ricci constant. Under some appropriate conditions, we show that the underlying Lie groups must be two step solvable. We also present a more convenient sufficient and necessary condition for the metric to be Einstein in this special case.
Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein with Gyroscopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geveden, Rex D.; May, Todd
2003-01-01
Some 40 years in the making, NASA' s historic Gravity Probe B (GP-B) mission is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta II in 2003. GP-B will test two extraordinary predictions from Einstein's General Relativity: geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect (frame-dragging). Employing tiny, ultra-precise gyroscopes, GP-B features a measurement accuracy of 0.5 milli-arc-seconds per year. The extraordinary measurement precision is made possible by a host of breakthrough technologies, including electro-statically suspended, super-conducting quartz gyroscopes; virtual elimination of magnetic flux; a solid quartz star tracking telescope; helium microthrusters for drag-free control of the spacecraft; and a 2400 liter superfluid helium dewar. This paper will provide an overview of the science, key technologies, flight hardware, integration and test, and flight operations of the GP-B space vehicle. It will also examine some of the technical management challenges of a large-scale, technology-driven, Principal Investigator-led mission.
Gravity Probe B: Testing Einstein with Gyroscopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geveden, Rex D.; May, Todd
2003-01-01
Some 40 years in the making, NASA s historic Gravity Probe B (GP-B) mission is scheduled to launch aboard a Delta I1 in 2003. GP-B will test two extraordinary predictions from Einstein s General Relativity: geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect (frame-dragging). Employing tiny, ultra-precise gyroscopes, GP-B features a measurement accuracy of 0.5 milli-arc-seconds per year. The extraordinary measurement precision is made possible by a host of breakthrough technologies, including electro-statically suspended, super-conducting quartz gyroscopes; virtual elimination of magnetic flux; a solid quartz star- tracking telescope; helium microthrusters for drag-free control of the spacecraft; and a 2400 liter superfluid helium dewar. This paper will provide an overview of the science, key technologies, flight hardware, integration and test, and flight operations of the GP-B space vehicle. It will also examine some of the technical management challenges of a large-scale, technology-driven, Principal Investigator-led mission.
Results from an extensive Einstein stellar survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaiana, G. S.; Fabbiano, G.; Giacconi, R.; Golub, L.; Gorenstein, P.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Haisch, B. M.; Johnson, H. M.; Linsky, J. L.
1981-01-01
The preliminary results of the Einstein Observatory stellar X-ray survey are presented. To date, 143 soft X-ray sources have been identified with stellar counterparts, leaving no doubt that stars in general constitute a pervasive class of low-luminosity galactic X-ray sources. Stars along the entire main sequence, of all luminosity classes, pre-main sequence stars as well as very evolved stars have been detected. Early type OB stars have X-ray luminosities in the range 10 to the 31st to 10 to the 34th ergs/s; late type stars show a somewhat lower range of X-ray emission levels, from 10 to the 26th to 10 to the 31st ergs/s. Late type main-sequence stars show little dependence of X-ray emission levels upon stellar effective temperature; similarly, the observations suggest weak, if any, dependence of X-ray luminosity upon effective gravity. Instead, the data show a broad range of emission levels (about three orders of magnitude) throughout the main sequence later than F0.
BOOK REVIEW: Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaksch, D.
2003-09-01
L Pitaevskii and S Stringari Oxford: Oxford University Press (2003) £55.50 (hardback), ISBN 0-19-850719-4 The Gross--Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose--Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid ^{4}He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state,\
The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics: Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cros, Vincent; Fert, Albert; Sénéor, Pierre; Petroff, Frédéric
GMR and spintronics take their roots in the pioneering work of Albert Fert around 1970 on the influence of the spin on the mobility of electrons in ferromagnetic materials [1]. After having experimentally demonstrated that, in a ferromagnetic metal, the electrons of opposite spin directions (spin up and spin down along the magnetization axis) carry different currents (as originally suggested by Mott), Fert worked out the well known two current model of the electrical conduction in ferromagnetic metals. He also showed that very large spin asymmetries of the conduction can be obtained by doping the ferromagnetic metal with impurities selected to scatter very differently the spin up and spin down electrons (iron or cobalt impurities in nickel, for example, scatter the spin down electrons 20 times more strongly than the spin up electrons). Moreover, some experiments of Fert on ternary alloys were already introducing the idea that he will exploit later to produce the GMR effects. He showed that the resistivity of a ternary alloy, for example N 1-x (A x-y ,B y ), is strongly enhanced if the scattering by the impurities A and B have inverse spin asymmetries. Replacing the impurities A and B by magnetic layers A and B, one equally expects a large enhancement of the resistivity when their magnetizations are in opposite directions, which the basic concept of the GMR. However, this concept can work only if the thickness of the layers is in the nanometer range. The fabrication of multilayers with thicknesses in this range became technologically possible in the mid-eighties and, in particular, the growth of magnetic multilayers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) was developed in the groups of Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg.
Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story
Krauss, Lawrence
2010-09-01
The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.
Bose-Einstein condensation at constant temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erhard, M.; Schmaljohann, H.; Kronjäger, J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.
2004-09-01
We present an experimental approach to Bose-Einstein condensation by increasing the particle number of the system at almost constant temperature. In particular, the emergence of a new condensate is observed in multicomponent F=1 spinor condensates of Rb87 . Furthermore, we develop a simple rate-equation model for multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate thermodynamics at finite temperature which well reproduces the measured effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buick, Otto; Falcon, Pat; Alexander, G.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2013-03-01
Einstein[Dover(03)] critical-slowing-down(CSD)[Pais, Subtle in The Lord; Life & Sci. of Albert Einstein(81)] is Siegel CyberWar denial-of-access(DOA) operations-research queuing theory/pinning/jamming/.../Read [Aikido, Aikibojitsu & Natural-Law(90)]/Aikido(!!!) phase-transition critical-phenomenon via Siegel DIGIT-Physics (Newcomb[Am.J.Math. 4,39(1881)]-{Planck[(1901)]-Einstein[(1905)])-Poincare[Calcul Probabilités(12)-p.313]-Weyl [Goett.Nachr.(14); Math.Ann.77,313 (16)]-{Bose[(24)-Einstein[(25)]-Fermi[(27)]-Dirac[(1927)]}-``Benford''[Proc.Am.Phil.Soc. 78,4,551 (38)]-Kac[Maths.Stat.-Reasoning(55)]-Raimi[Sci.Am. 221,109 (69)...]-Jech[preprint, PSU(95)]-Hill[Proc.AMS 123,3,887(95)]-Browne[NYT(8/98)]-Antonoff-Smith-Siegel[AMS Joint-Mtg.,S.-D.(02)] algebraic-inversion to yield ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-statistics (BEQS) with ZERO-digit Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION(BEC) ``INTERSECTION''-BECOME-UNION to Barabasi[PRL 876,5632(01); Rev.Mod.Phys.74,47(02)...] Network /Net/GRAPH(!!!)-physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh(1881)-Polya(21)-``Anderson''(58)-Siegel[J.Non-crystalline-Sol.40,453(80)
Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Robert
2004-05-01
Einstein Online: A Web-based Course for K-12 Teachers from the American Museum of Natural History Robert V. Steiner, Ph.D. Project Director, Seminars on Science American Museum of Natural History The American Museum of Natural History, in collaboration with Hebrew University and the Skirball Cultural Center, has created a major exhibit on Albert Einstein, including extensive coverage of his contributions to relativity, quantum mechanics and unified field theories as well as the social and political dimensions of his life. Leveraging the assets of this exhibit as well as the expertise of the Museum's Department of Astrophysics and its Education Department, a six-week online professional development course for K-12 teachers has been created, providing inquires into some of the frontiers of physics through rich media resources, facilitated discussion forums and assignments. The course, which requires only minimal Web access, offers a unique opportunity for teachers across the United States to explore modern physics guided by a working scientist and a skilled online facilitator. The course includes original essays by Museum scientists, images, video, simulations, web links and digital resources for classroom use. The course design, development, implementation and evaluation are reviewed.
The Einstein/CFA stellar survey - Overview of the data and interpretation of results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaiana, G. S.
1981-01-01
Results are presented from an extensive survey of stellar X-ray emission, using the Einstein Observatory. Over 140 stars have been detected to date, throughout the H-R diagram, thus showing that soft X-ray emission is the norm rather than the exception for stars in general. This finding is strongly at odds with pre-Einstein expectations based on standard acoustic theories of coronal heating. Typical examples of stellar X-ray detections and an overview of the survey data are presented. In combination with recent results from solar X-ray observations, the new Einstein data argue for the general applicability of magnetic field-related coronal heating mechanisms.
Republication of: Contributions to Einstein's theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flamm, Ludwig
2015-06-01
This is the English translation by Jörg Frauendiener of a paper by Ludwig Flamm, first published in 1916, in which the author aims to render the conclusions of Einstein's paper on the perihelion shift of Mercury and Schwarzschild's (1916) papers clearer, more transparent and, in particular those relating to photon orbits, more accurate. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Gary W. Gibbons, and by a brief biography of L. Flamm, written by Hubert Goenner and Malcolm A.H. MacCallum.
Analytic vortex dynamics in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toikka, L. A.; Suominen, K.-A.
2016-05-01
We consider analytically the dynamics of an arbitrary number and configuration of vortices in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate obtaining expressions for the free energy and vortex precession rates to logarithmic accuracy. We also obtain lower bounds for the lifetime of a single vortex in the annulus. Our results enable a closed-form analytic treatment of vortex-vortex interactions in the annulus that is exact in the incompressible limit. The incompressible hydrodynamics that is developed here paves the way for more general analytical treatments of vortex dynamics in non-simply-connected geometries.
Effective Einstein cosmological spaces for non-minimal modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elizalde, Emilio; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2015-06-01
Certain off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum configurations in Einstein gravity can mimic physical effects of modified gravitational theories of type. We prove this statement by constructing exact and approximate solutions which encode certain models of covariant Hořava type gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. Off-diagonal generalizations of de Sitter and nonholonomic CDM universes are constructed which are generated through nonlinear gravitational polarization of fundamental physical constants and which model interactions with non-constant exotic fluids and effective matter. The problem of possible matter instability for such off-diagonal deformations in (modified) gravity theories is discussed.
Probing quantized Einstein-Rosen waves with massless scalar matter
Fernando Barbero, J. G.; Garay, Inaki; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.
2006-08-15
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in detail the use of scalar matter coupled to linearly polarized Einstein-Rosen waves as a probe to study quantum gravity in the restricted setting provided by this symmetry reduction of general relativity. We will obtain the relevant Hamiltonian and quantize it with the techniques already used for the purely gravitational case. Finally, we will discuss the use of particlelike modes of the quantized fields to operationally explore some of the features of quantum gravity within this framework. Specifically, we will study two-point functions, the Newton-Wigner propagator, and radial wave functions for one-particle states.
Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finazzi, Stefano
2012-08-01
Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.
Inflation in Einstein-Cartan theory with energy-momentum tensor with spin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennelly, A. J.; Bradas, James C.; Smalley, Larry L.
1988-01-01
Generalized, or power-law, inflation is shown to necessarily exist for a simple, anisotropic (Bianchi Type I) cosmology in the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the Ray-Smalley (RS) improved energy-momentum tensor with spin. Formal solution of the EC field equations with the fluid equations of motion explicitly shows inflation caused by the RS spin angular kinetic energy density.
An Exact Solution of Einstein-Maxwell Gravity Coupled to a Scalar Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turyshev, S. G.
1995-01-01
The general solution to low-energy string theory representing static spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity with a massless scalar field has been found. Some of the partial cases appear to coincide with known solutions to black holes, naked singularities, and gravity and electromagnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, R. B. S.; Prasad, U.
1993-05-01
The nonstatic conformally flat spherically symmetric perfect fluid distribution in Einstein-Cartan theory is considered, and the field equations and their general solution are obtained using Hehl's approach (1974). Particular attention is given to the solution in co-moving coordinates and the explicit expressions for pressure, density, expansion, rotation, and shear and nonzero components of flow vector.
Einstein versus the Simple Pendulum Formula: Does Gravity Slow All Clocks?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Puri, Avinash
2015-01-01
According to the Newtonian formula for a simple pendulum, the period of a pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of "g", the gravitational field strength. Einstein's theory of general relativity leads to the result that time slows down where gravity is intense. The two claims look contradictory and can muddle student and…
BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehlers, Jürgen
2007-10-01
'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as
On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.
Weiner, Kevin S
2015-03-01
Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419
General Relativity and Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm
2015-07-01
Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.
Gödel-type metrics in Einstein-Aether theory II: nonflat background in arbitrary dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gürses, Metin; Şentürk, Çetin
2016-05-01
It was previously proved that the Gödel-type metrics with flat three-dimensional background metric solve exactly the field equations of the Einstein-Aether theory in four dimensions. We generalize this result by showing that the stationary Gödel-type metrics with nonflat background in D dimensions solve exactly the field equations of the Einstein-Aether theory. The reduced field equations are the (D-1)-dimensional Euclidean Ricci-flat and the (D-1)-dimensional source-free Maxwell equations, and the parameters of the theory are left free except c1-c3=1. We give a method to produce exact solutions of the Einstein-Aether theory from the Gödel-type metrics in D dimensions. By using this method, we present explicit exact solutions to the theory by considering the particular cases: (D-1)-dimensional Euclidean flat, conformally flat, and Tangherlini backgrounds.
Noether charges and black hole mechanics in Einstein-aether theory
Foster, Brendan Z.
2006-01-15
The Noether charge method for defining the Hamiltonian of a diffeomorphism-invariant field theory is applied to 'Einstein-aether' theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field. Using the method, expressions are obtained for the total energy, momentum, and angular momentum of an Einstein-aether space-time. The method is also used to discuss the mechanics of Einstein-aether black holes. The derivation of Wald, and Iyer and Wald, of the first law of black hole thermodynamics fails for this theory because the unit-vector is necessarily singular at the bifurcation surface of the Killing horizon. A general identity relating variations of energy and angular momentum to a surface integral at the horizon is obtained, but a thermodynamic interpretation, including a definitive expression for the black hole entropy, is not found.
Misconceptions about Einstein: His Work and His Views.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Resnick, Robert
1980-01-01
Discusses eight misconceptions concerning Einstein's work and views, as part of a presentation at the Einstein Symposium held at the 178th National American Chemical Society Meetings in Washington, D.C., in September, 1979. (CS)
Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children: Preliminary Study in Pediatric Hospital Albert Royer, Dakar
Fall, Mbaye; Gueye, Doudou; Wellé, Ibrahima Bocar; Lo, Faty Balla; Sagna, Aloise; Diop, Marie; Fall, Ibrahima
2015-01-01
Appendiceal pathology's management has benefited in recent years from the advent of laparoscopic surgery. This study is to make a preliminary assessment of laparoscopic management of acute and complicated appendicitis in children after a few months of practice at the University Hospital Albert Royer, Dakar. This is a retrospective study of 22 cases of patients, all operated on by the same surgeon. The parameters studied were age, sex, clinical data and laboratory features, radiological data, and results of surgical treatment. The mean age of patients was 9.5 years with a male predominance. The series includes 14 cases of acute appendicitis and 8 complicated cases. Appendectomy anterograde is practiced in 81% of cases. Appendectomy was associated with peritoneal wash in 17 patients including 9 cases of acute appendicitis. Drainage of Douglas pouch is performed in 2 patients with complicated appendicitis; the average production was 300 cc of turbid liquids and any complications were not founded. An abscess of Douglas pouch is noted in 2 patients with complicated appendicitis undrained. These Douglas abscesses were treated medically. No conversion of laparotomy was performed in the series. After an average of 8 months no other problems were noted. PMID:26448743
Albert Chalmers: Perpetual honours for a prominent tropical medicine career in the Sudan
2014-01-01
This article starts with brief review of Albert Chalmers’ early career in tropical medicine until he was appointed Director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum (WTRLK) in 1913, succeeding Andrew Balfour. Then the article explores how Chalmers faced the challenges and managed to establish a solid research base under very harsh conditions. Most of his directorship was during the First World War, with shortage of staff and increased routine work load. In spite of these constraints, Chalmers managed to establish a base for research in tropical medicine in WTRK. Chalmers’ research concentrated on the taxonomy and pathogenicity of bacteria and fungi but he also worked on miscellaneous dermatological disorders and on sleeping sickness. His papers reflect a wide range of knowledge and deep understanding of the topics he was covering. His work on the classification of pathogenic fungi was widely recognized. He tried different preparations of vaccines for cerebrospinal meningitis but with the technology available at the time he could not produce a potent vaccine. Chalmers’ papers reflect the tremendous effort exerted in their production. Chamers resigned from WTRLK in 1920 and died of acute infective jaundice in the same year. In 1921 his widow, gave £500 to the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) in memory of her husband. The RSTMH Council decided to devote this money to the foundation of the Chalmers Memorial Medal. PMID:27493397
Sexual Science and Sexual Forensics in 1920s Germany: Albert Moll as (S)Expert
Conn, Matthew
2012-01-01
Using court records involving the expert testimony of the Berlin sexologist Albert Moll, my article demonstrates that during the early 1920s a shift in the ‘epistemologies of justice’ concerning the adjudication of sex crimes took place within German courtrooms. Namely, presiding judges considered a greater number of sexual acts as punishable, despite no change in the laws themselves. Central to my argument is the role of expert testimony in practice and its critical reception. By focusing upon the rhetorical strategies presented by attorneys, judges and expert witnesses (as well as defendants themselves and their relatives), it illustrates the functions of expert and tacit knowledge in court, which were often not mutually exclusive. Moll’s stature also enabled him to translate his scientific–medical expertise into state support for his testimonies, as well as the rebuilding of an international community of sexological authorities. It was only under Moll’s leadership that the First International Sexology Congress could take place in 1926, an event that marked the apex of his prestige. PMID:23002293
The powers of suggestion: Albert Moll and the debate on hypnosis.
Maehle, Andreas-Holger
2014-03-01
The Berlin physician Albert Moll (1862-1939) was an advocate of hypnotic suggestion therapy and a prolific contributor to the medical, legal and public discussions on hypnotism from the 1880s to the 1920s. While his work in other areas, such as sexology, medical ethics and parapsychology, has recently attracted scholarly attention, this paper for the first time comprehensively examines Moll's numerous publications on hypnotism and places them in their contemporary context. It covers controversies over the therapeutic application of hypnosis, the reception of Moll's monograph Der Hypnotismus (1889), his research on the rapport between hypnotizer and subject, his role as an expert on 'hypnotic crime', and his views on the historical influence of hypnotism on the development of psychotherapy. My findings suggest that Moll rose to prominence due to the strong late-nineteenth-century public and medical interest in the phenomena of hypnosis, but that his work was soon overshadowed by new, non-hypnotic psychotherapeutic approaches, particularly Freud's psychoanalysis. PMID:24594818
Loss of Innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the Invention of Childhood Sexuality Around 1900
Sauerteig, Lutz D.H.
2012-01-01
This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child’s ‘normal’ development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children’s sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children’s and adults’ sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler. PMID:23002291
Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.
Teo, Thomas
2002-01-01
Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized. PMID:12115788
Sexual science and sexual forensics in 1920s Germany: Albert Moll as (S)expert.
Conn, Matthew
2012-04-01
Using court records involving the expert testimony of the Berlin sexologist Albert Moll, my article demonstrates that during the early 1920s a shift in the 'epistemologies of justice' concerning the adjudication of sex crimes took place within German courtrooms. Namely, presiding judges considered a greater number of sexual acts as punishable, despite no change in the laws themselves. Central to my argument is the role of expert testimony in practice and its critical reception. By focusing upon the rhetorical strategies presented by attorneys, judges and expert witnesses (as well as defendants themselves and their relatives), it illustrates the functions of expert and tacit knowledge in court, which were often not mutually exclusive. Moll's stature also enabled him to translate his scientific-medical expertise into state support for his testimonies, as well as the rebuilding of an international community of sexological authorities. It was only under Moll's leadership that the First International Sexology Congress could take place in 1926, an event that marked the apex of his prestige. PMID:23002293
The powers of suggestion: Albert Moll and the debate on hypnosis
Maehle, Andreas-Holger
2014-01-01
The Berlin physician Albert Moll (1862–1939) was an advocate of hypnotic suggestion therapy and a prolific contributor to the medical, legal and public discussions on hypnotism from the 1880s to the 1920s. While his work in other areas, such as sexology, medical ethics and parapsychology, has recently attracted scholarly attention, this paper for the first time comprehensively examines Moll’s numerous publications on hypnotism and places them in their contemporary context. It covers controversies over the therapeutic application of hypnosis, the reception of Moll’s monograph Der Hypnotismus (1889), his research on the rapport between hypnotizer and subject, his role as an expert on ‘hypnotic crime’, and his views on the historical influence of hypnotism on the development of psychotherapy. My findings suggest that Moll rose to prominence due to the strong late-nineteenth-century public and medical interest in the phenomena of hypnosis, but that his work was soon overshadowed by new, non-hypnotic psychotherapeutic approaches, particularly Freud’s psychoanalysis. PMID:24594818
The Sexologist Albert Moll – between Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld
Sigusch, Volkmar
2012-01-01
Albert Moll was one of the most influential sexologists during the first three decades of the twentieth century. In contrast to his rivals Sigmund Freud and Magnus Hirschfeld, his achievements have not yet been recognised adequately. The author gives a comparative account of the work of these three protagonists. This shows that Moll formed some ideas which are regarded as psychoanalytical today before Freud, and that he, in contrast to Hirschfeld, was able to reflect critically on contemporary discourses, such as the debates on racial improvement through eugenics. As scientific theories, Freud’s psychoanalysis represented the unconscious, fantasy, experience and latency, while Moll’s sexology represented consciousness, ontological reality, behaviour and manifestation. Moll’s major disagreement with Hirschfeld’s sexology was his advocacy of apolitical and impartial science, whereas Hirschfeld’s aim was to achieve sexual reforms politically. Added to these differences were strong personal animosities. Freud called Moll a ‘beast’ and ‘pettifogger’; and Moll complained about Hirschfeld’s ‘problematic’ character. When Hirschfeld escaped the Nazi terror and went to Paris, Moll denounced him in order to prevent him rebuilding a new existence in exile. PMID:23002292
Albert Chalmers: Perpetual honours for a prominent tropical medicine career in the Sudan.
Adeel, Ahmed Awad A
2014-01-01
This article starts with brief review of Albert Chalmers' early career in tropical medicine until he was appointed Director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum (WTRLK) in 1913, succeeding Andrew Balfour. Then the article explores how Chalmers faced the challenges and managed to establish a solid research base under very harsh conditions. Most of his directorship was during the First World War, with shortage of staff and increased routine work load. In spite of these constraints, Chalmers managed to establish a base for research in tropical medicine in WTRK. Chalmers' research concentrated on the taxonomy and pathogenicity of bacteria and fungi but he also worked on miscellaneous dermatological disorders and on sleeping sickness. His papers reflect a wide range of knowledge and deep understanding of the topics he was covering. His work on the classification of pathogenic fungi was widely recognized. He tried different preparations of vaccines for cerebrospinal meningitis but with the technology available at the time he could not produce a potent vaccine. Chalmers' papers reflect the tremendous effort exerted in their production. Chamers resigned from WTRLK in 1920 and died of acute infective jaundice in the same year. In 1921 his widow, gave £500 to the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) in memory of her husband. The RSTMH Council decided to devote this money to the foundation of the Chalmers Memorial Medal. PMID:27493397
Loss of innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the invention of childhood sexuality around 1900.
Sauerteig, Lutz D H
2012-04-01
This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child's 'normal' development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children's sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children's and adults' sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler. PMID:23002291
Proof of the entropy principle in Einstein-Maxwell theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Sijie
We consider a self-gravitating charged perfect fluid in a static spacetime. We assume that the Einstein constraint equation is satisfied. Then we prove that the extrema of the total entropy of fluid implies other components of Einstein's equation. Conversely, if Einstein's equation is satisfied, we show that the total entropy achieves an extremum. This work suggests that the maximum entropy principle is consistent with Einstein's equation when an electrostatic field is taken into account.
Einstein billiards and spatially homogeneous cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Buyl, Sophie; Pinardi, Gaïa; Schomblond, Christiane
2003-12-01
In this paper, we analyse the Einstein and Einstein Maxwell billiards for all spatially homogeneous cosmological models corresponding to three- and four-dimensional real unimodular Lie algebras and provide a list of those models which are chaotic in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifschitz (BKL) limit. Through the billiard picture, we confirm that, in D = 5 spacetime dimensions, chaos is present if off-diagonal metric elements are kept: the finite volume billiards can be identified with the fundamental Weyl chambers of hyperbolic Kac Moody algebras. The most generic cases bring in the same algebras as in the inhomogeneous case, but other algebras appear through special initial conditions.
Propagating torsion in the Einstein frame
Poplawski, Nikodem J.
2006-11-15
The Einstein-Cartan-Saa theory of torsion modifies the spacetime volume element so that it is compatible with the connection. The condition of connection compatibility gives constraints on torsion, which are also necessary for the consistence of torsion, minimal coupling, and electromagnetic gauge invariance. To solve the problem of positivity of energy associated with the torsionic scalar, we reformulate this theory in the Einstein conformal frame. In the presence of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the Hojman-Rosenbaum-Ryan-Shepley theory of propagating torsion with a different factor in the torsionic kinetic term.
Beyond Einstein: Exploring the Extreme Universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbier, Louis M.
2005-01-01
This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate some of the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will carry and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.
Einstein - Peace Now!: Visions and Ideas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Reiner; Krieger, David
2005-09-01
Einstein was not only an extraordinary scientist, but also a person who faced his social responsibilities determinedly. The main focus of this book is put on topical articles by Scientific and Peace Nobel Prize laureates, prominent scientists and those committed to peace issues and justice, as well as citizens engagement for peace. Among the contributors are more than 10 Nobel Prize laureates, such as Mikhail Gorbachev, Walter Kohn, Joseph Rotblat, Alexander Ginzburg or Hans Bethe. This unique collection of intellectual thoughts on Einstein's vision of peace addresses a thoughtful, concerned and courageous audience, and was compiled to encourage and envision ways towards a more peaceful society.
Einstein's Math Errors Profoundly Affects Mathematical and Physical Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pressler, David
2007-05-01
Einstein treats time as a vector, however time is a scalar. Vectors possess both magnitude and direction. To mathematically equate time with direction is a Fallacy of Ambiguity. It is physically impossible to have space with more than three directions. Any theory where time is represented as a forth direction does not represent reality, i.e., (x, y, z, t). The entire math used in the Special and General Theories of Relativity is meaningless, unreasonable and ambiguous. Second. Einstein defines the speed of light as a constant, in the equation c = d (distance)/t (time). In this direct proportion, c being the constant, change one factor and the other must change as well. Einstein changes the time factor in this formula when time slows down but he does not change the distance factor. In reality, time slows down when space contracts in all three directions or in the system of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z,) being length, width, and height. The author defines this contraction as C-Space. Pressler's Law of C-Space: The speed of light will always be measured as a constant, c, in all three directions, in ones own inertial reference frame and the speed of light will always be measured to be different in all other inertial reference frames which are at a different gravity or kinetic energy levels. Time is defined as the rate of physical process; how fast things take place. Gravity is the distortion of space in all three directions, c-space. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.D2.2
Einstein 1905-1955: His Approach to Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
We review Einstein's epistemological conceptions, and indicate their philosophical roots. The particular importance of the ideas of Hume, Kant, Mach, and Poincaré is highlighted. The specific characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics are underlined. Lastly, we consider the practical application of Einstein's methodological principles to the two theories of relativity, and to quantum theory. We emphasize a Kantian approach to quantum theory.
Conceptual Development of Einstein's Mass-Energy Relationship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Chee Leong; Yap, Kueh Chin
2005-01-01
Einstein's special theory of relativity was published in 1905. It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements in the history of human thought. Einstein described the equivalence of mass and energy as "the most important upshot of the special theory of relativity" (Einstein, 1919). In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of the…
Einstein@Home Finds an Elusive Pulsar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-08-01
Since the release of the second Fermi-LAT catalog in 2012, astronomers have been hunting for 3FGL J1906.6+0720, a gamma-ray source whose association couldn't be identified. Now, personal-computer time volunteered through the Einstein@Home project has resulted in the discovery of a pulsar that has been hiding from observers for years. A Blind Search: Identifying sources detected by Fermi-LAT can be tricky: the instrument's sky resolution is limited, so the position of the source can be hard to pinpoint. The gamma-ray source 3FGL J1906.6+0720 appeared in both the second and third Fermi-LAT source catalogs, but even after years of searching, no associated radio or X-ray source had been found. A team of researchers, led by Colin Clark of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, suspected that the source might be a gamma-ray pulsar. To confirm this, however, they needed to detect pulsed emission — something inherently difficult given the low photon count and the uncertain position of the source. The team conducted a blind search for pulsations coming from the general direction of the gamma-ray source. Two things were needed for this search: clever data analysis and a lot of computing power. The data analysis algorithm was designed to be adaptive: it searched a 4-dimensional parameter space that included a safety margin, allowing the algorithm to wander if the source was at the edge of the parameter space. The computing power was contributed by tens of thousands of personal computers volunteered by participants in the Einstein@Home project, making much shorter work out of a search that would have required dozens of years on a single laptop. The sky region around the newly discovered pulsar. The dotted ellipse shows the 3FGL catalog 95% confidence region for the source. The data analysis algorithm was designed to search an area 50% larger (given by the dashed ellipse), but it was allowed to “walk away” within the gray shaded region if the source seemed to
PREFACE: Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2014): almost 100 years after Einstein's revolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerdá-Durán, P.; Font, J. A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Lledó, M. A.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Olmo, G. J.
2015-04-01
This volume presents the proceedings of the international scientific conference ''Spanish Relativity Meeting (ERE 2014): almost 100 years after Einstein's revolution''. The conference was devoted to discussing the current state-of-the-art of a wide variety of topics of research in the fields of Gravitation and General Relativity in the ''pre-centennial'' year of General Relativity. The name of the conference was chosen to highlight the importance of the upcoming one hundredth anniversary of Einstein's theory of General Relativity, officially established by the Internal Society on General Relativity and Gravitation in November 25th, 2015. In particular, the conference was organized along three main lines of present-day research and applications of the theory, namely, Relativistic Astrophysics, Mathematical Relativity, and the interface between Gravitation and Quantum Field Theory.
Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions of Einstein's field equation: An Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinicke, Christian; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2015-12-01
Starting from Newton's gravitational theory, we give a general introduction into the spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's vacuum field equation, the Schwarzschild(-Droste) solution, and into one specific stationary axially symmetric solution, the Kerr solution. The Schwarzschild solution is unique and its metric can be interpreted as the exterior gravitational field of a spherically symmetric mass. The Kerr solution is only unique if the multipole moments of its mass and its angular momentum take on prescribed values. Its metric can be interpreted as the exterior gravitational field of a suitably rotating mass distribution. Both solutions describe objects exhibiting an event horizon, a frontier of no return. The corresponding notion of a black hole is explained to some extent. Eventually, we present some generalizations of the Kerr solution.
Family of electrovac colliding wave solutions of Einstein's equations
Li, W.; Ernst, F.J.
1989-03-01
Beginning with any colliding wave solution of the vacuum Einstein equations, a corresponding electrified colliding wave solution can be generated through the use of a transformation due to Harrison (J. Math. Phys. 9, 1744 (1968)). The method, long employed in the context of stationary axisymmetric fields, is equally applicable to colliding wave solutions. Here it is applied to a large family of vacuum metrics derived by applying a generalized Ehlers transformation to solutions published recently by Ernst, Garcia, and Hauser (EGH) (J. Math. Phys. 28, 2155, 2951 (1987); 29, 681 (1988)). Those EGH solutions were themselves a generalization of solutions first derived by Ferrari, Ibanez, and Bruni (Phys. Rev. D 36, 1053 (1987)). Among the electrovac solutions that are obtained is a charged version of the Nutku--Halil (Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1379 (1977)) metric that possesses an arbitrary complex charge parameter.
A family of electrovac colliding wave solutions of Einstein's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Ernst, Frederick J.
1989-03-01
Beginning with any colliding wave solution of the vacuum Einstein equations, a corresponding electrified colliding wave solution can be generated through the use of a transformation due to Harrison [J. Math. Phys. 9, 1744 (1968)]. The method, long employed in the context of stationary axisymmetric fields, is equally applicable to colliding wave solutions. Here it is applied to a large family of vacuum metrics derived by applying a generalized Ehlers transformation to solutions published recently by Ernst, García, and Hauser (EGH) [J. Math. Phys. 28, 2155, 2951 (1987); 29, 681 (1988)]. Those EGH solutions were themselves a generalization of solutions first derived by Ferrari, Ibañez, and Bruni [Phys. Rev. D 36, 1053 (1987)]. Among the electrovac solutions that are obtained is a charged version of the Nutku-Halil [Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1379 (1977)] metric that possesses an arbitrary complex charge parameter.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement Strategies in Two-Well Bose-Einstein Condensates
He, Q. Y.; Vaughan, T. G.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Gross, C.; Oberthaler, M.
2011-03-25
Criteria suitable for measuring entanglement between two different potential wells in a Bose-Einstein condensation are evaluated. We show how to generate the required entanglement, utilizing either an adiabatic two-mode or a dynamic four-mode interaction strategy, with techniques that take advantage of s-wave scattering interactions to provide the nonlinear coupling. The dynamic entanglement method results in an entanglement signature with spatially separated detectors, as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.
Einstein Slew Survey: Data analysis innovations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elvis, Martin S.; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan F.; Fabbiano, G.
1992-01-01
Several new methods were needed in order to make the Einstein Slew X-ray Sky Survey. The innovations which enabled the Slew Survey to be done are summarized. These methods included experimental approach to large projects, parallel processing on a LAN, percolation source detection, minimum action identifications, and rapid dissemination of the whole data base.
Einstein-Yang-Mills theory: Asymptotic symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnich, Glenn; Lambert, Pierre-Henry
2013-11-01
Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four-dimensional asymptotically flat case.
Can you do quantum mechanics without Einstein?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
2007-02-01
The present form of quantum mechanics is based on the Copenhagen school of interpretation. Einstein did not belong to the Copenhagen school, because he did not believe in probabilistic interpretation of fundamental physical laws. This is the reason why we are still debating whether there is a more deterministic theory. One cause of this separation between Einstein and the Copenhagen school could have been that the Copenhagen physicists thoroughly ignored Einstein's main concern: the principle of relativity. Paul A. M. Dirac was the first one to realize this problem. Indeed, from 1927 to 1963, Paul A. M. Dirac published at least four papers to study the problem of making the uncertainty relation consistent with Einstein's Lorentz covariance. It is interesting to combine those papers by Dirac to make the uncertainty relation consistent with relativity. It is shown that the mathematics of two coupled oscillators enables us to carry out this job. We are then led to the question of whether the concept of localized probability distribution is consistent with Lorentz covariance.
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elvis, Martin S.
1992-01-01
The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.
Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seward, Frederick D.
1990-01-01
This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.
The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dirac, P. A. M.
1979-01-01
This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)
How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pais, Abraham
1982-01-01
Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)
Bose-Einstein distribution of money in a free-market economy. II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kürten, K. E.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2011-01-01
We argue about the application of methods of statistical mechanics to free economy (Kusmartsev F. V., Phys. Lett. A, 375 (2011) 966) and find that the most general distribution of money or income in a free-market economy has a general Bose-Einstein distribution form. Therewith the market is described by three parameters: temperature, chemical potential and the space dimensionality. Numerical simulations and a detailed analysis of a generic model confirm this finding.
Piecewise linear manifolds: Einstein metrics and Ricci flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schrader, Robert
2016-05-01
This article provides an attempt to extend concepts from the theory of Riemannian manifolds to piecewise linear (p.l.) spaces. In particular we propose an analogue of the Ricci tensor, which we give the name of an Einstein vector field. On a given set of p.l. spaces we define and discuss (normalized) Einstein flows. p.l. Einstein metrics are defined and examples are provided. Criteria for flows to approach Einstein metrics are formulated. Second variations of the total scalar curvature at a specific Einstein space are calculated. Dedicated to Ludwig Faddeev on the occasion of his 80th birthday.
The Adolescence of Relativity: Einstein, Minkowski, and the Philosophy of Space and Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieks, Dennis
An often repeated account of the genesis of special relativity tells us that relativity theory was to a considerable extent the fruit of an operationalist philosophy of science. Indeed, Einstein's 1905 paper stresses the importance of rods and clocks for giving concrete physical content to spatial and temporal notions. I argue, however, that it would be a mistake to read too much into this. Einstein's operationalist remarks should be seen as serving rhetoric purposes rather than as attempts to promulgate a particular philosophical position - in fact, Einstein never came close to operationalism in any of his philosophical writings. By focussing on what could actually be measured with rods and clocks Einstein shed doubt on the empirical status of a number of pre-relativistic concepts, with the intention to persuade his readers that the applicability of these concepts was not obvious. This rhetoric manoeuvre has not always been rightly appreciated in the philosophy of physics. Thus, the influence of operationalist misinterpretations, according to which associated operations strictly define what a concept means, can still be felt in present-day discussions about the conventionality of simultaneity.The standard story continues by pointing out that Minkowski in 1908 supplanted Einstein's approach with a realist spacetime account that has no room for a foundational role of rods and clocks: relativity theory became a description of a four-dimensional "absolute world." As it turns out, however, it is not at all clear that Minkowski was proposing a substantivalist position with respect to spacetime. On the contrary, it seems that from a philosophical point of view Minkowski's general position was not very unlike the one in the back of Einstein's mind. However, in Minkowski's formulation of special relativity it becomes more explicit that the content of spatiotemporal concepts relates to considerations about the form of physical laws. If accepted, this position has important
Multimatrix models and tri-Sasaki Einstein spaces
Herzog, Christopher P.; Pufu, Silviu S.; Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Klebanov, Igor R.
2011-02-15
Localization methods reduce the path integrals in N{>=}2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons gauge theories on S{sup 3} to multimatrix integrals. A recent evaluation of such a two-matrix integral for the N=6 superconformal U(N)xU(N) Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory produced detailed agreement with the AdS/CFT correspondence, explaining, in particular, the N{sup 3/2} scaling of the free energy. We study a class of p-matrix integrals describing N=3 superconformal U(N){sup p} Chern-Simons gauge theories. We present a simple method that allows us to evaluate the eigenvalue densities and the free energies in the large N limit keeping the Chern-Simons levels k{sub i} fixed. The dual M-theory backgrounds are AdS{sub 4}xY, where Y are seven-dimensional tri-Sasaki Einstein spaces specified by the k{sub i}. The gravitational free energy scales inversely with the square root of the volume of Y. We find a general formula for the p-matrix free energies that agrees with the available results for volumes of the tri-Sasaki Einstein spaces Y, thus providing a thorough test of the corresponding AdS{sub 4}/CFT{sub 3} dualities. This formula is consistent with the Seiberg duality conjectured for Chern-Simons gauge theories.
The Einstein Toolkit: a community computational infrastructure for relativistic astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löffler, Frank; Faber, Joshua; Bentivegna, Eloisa; Bode, Tanja; Diener, Peter; Haas, Roland; Hinder, Ian; Mundim, Bruno C.; Ott, Christian D.; Schnetter, Erik; Allen, Gabrielle; Campanelli, Manuela; Laguna, Pablo
2012-06-01
We describe the Einstein Toolkit, a community-driven, freely accessible computational infrastructure intended for use in numerical relativity, relativistic astrophysics, and other applications. The toolkit, developed by a collaboration involving researchers from multiple institutions around the world, combines a core set of components needed to simulate astrophysical objects such as black holes, compact objects, and collapsing stars, as well as a full suite of analysis tools. The Einstein Toolkit is currently based on the Cactus framework for high-performance computing and the Carpet adaptive mesh refinement driver. It implements spacetime evolution via the BSSN evolution system and general relativistic hydrodynamics in a finite-volume discretization. The toolkit is under continuous development and contains many new code components that have been publicly released for the first time and are described in this paper. We discuss the motivation behind the release of the toolkit, the philosophy underlying its development, and the goals of the project. A summary of the implemented numerical techniques is included, as are results of numerical test covering a variety of sample astrophysical problems.
The Einstein equations on the 3-brane world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Sasaki, Misao
2000-07-01
We carefully investigate the gravitational equations of the brane world, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane in a 5-dimensional spacetime with Z2 symmetry. We derive the effective gravitational equations on the brane, which reduce to the conventional Einstein equations in the low energy limit. From our general argument we conclude that the first Randall-Sundrum-type theory predicts that the brane with a negative tension is an antigravity world and hence should be excluded from the physical point of view. Their second-type theory where the brane has a positive tension provides the correct signature of gravity. In this latter case, if the bulk spacetime is exactly anti-de Sitter spacetime, generically the matter on the brane is required to be spatially homogeneous because of the Bianchi identities. By allowing deviations from anti-de Sitter spacetime in the bulk, the situation will be relaxed and the Bianchi identities give just the relation between the Weyl tensor and the energy momentum tensor. In the present brane world scenario, the effective Einstein equations cease to be valid during an era when the cosmological constant on the brane is not well defined, such as in the case of the matter dominated by the potential energy of the scalar field.
Einstein Universe Revisited and End of Dark ERA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurgaliev, Ildus S.
2015-01-01
Historically the earliest general relativistic cosmological solution was received by Einstein himself as homogenous, isotropic one. In accordance with European cosmology it was expected static. The Eternal Universe as scientific model is conflicting with the existed theological model of the Universe created by God, therefore, of the limited age. Christianity, younger Islam, older Judaism are based on creationism. Much older oriental traditions such us Hinduism and Buddhism are based on conceptions of eternal and cyclic Universe which are closer to scientific worldview. To have static universe Einstein needed a factor to counteract gravity and postulated cosmological term and considered it as a disadvantage of the theory. This aesthetic dissatisfaction was amplified by interpretation distance-redshift relationship as a cosmological expansion effect. Emerged scientific cosmological community (excluding Hubble himself - almost always) endorsed the concept of expanding Universe. At the same time, as it is shown in this report, a natural well known factors do exist to counteract gravity. They are inertial centrifugal and Coriolis forces finding their geometrical presentation in the relativity theory.
Quasilocal Hamiltonians in general relativity
Anderson, Michael T.
2010-10-15
We analyze the definition of quasilocal energy in general relativity based on a Hamiltonian analysis of the Einstein-Hilbert action initiated by Brown-York. The role of the constraint equations, in particular, the Hamiltonian constraint on the timelike boundary, neglected in previous studies, is emphasized here. We argue that a consistent definition of quasilocal energy in general relativity requires, at a minimum, a framework based on the (currently unknown) geometric well-posedness of the initial boundary value problem for the Einstein equations.
Mesh and measure in early general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darrigol, Olivier
2015-11-01
In the early days of general relativity, several of Einstein's readers misunderstood the role of coordinates or "mesh-system" in ways that threatened the basic predictions of the theory. This confusion largely derived from intrinsic defects of Einstein's first systematic exposition of his theory. A few of Einstein's followers, including Arthur Eddington, Hermann Weyl, and Max von Laue, identified the interpretive difficulties and solved them by combining a deeply geometrical understanding of the theory with detailed attention to the concrete conditions of measurement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
These hearings addressed proposed Bill S. 2104 to create a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that would provide them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and communication among the educational community, the Congress, and the Executive Agencies responsible for developing and…
Cadoni, Mariano; Serra, Matteo; Mignemi, Salvatore
2011-10-15
We propose a general method for solving exactly the static field equations of Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field. Our method starts from an ansatz for the scalar field profile, and determines, together with the metric functions, the corresponding form of the scalar self-interaction potential. Using this method we prove a new no-hair theorem about the existence of hairy black-hole and black-brane solutions and derive broad classes of static solutions with radial symmetry of the theory, which may play an important role in applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter and strongly coupled QFTs. These solutions include: (1) four- or generic (d+2)-dimensional solutions with planar, spherical or hyperbolic horizon topology; (2) solutions with anti-de Sitter, domain wall and Lifshitz asymptotics; (3) solutions interpolating between an anti-de Sitter spacetime in the asymptotic region and a domain wall or conformal Lifshitz spacetime in the near-horizon region.
Einstein's Photoemission from Quantum Confined Superlattices.
Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P
2016-01-01
This paper is dedicated to the 83th Birthday of Late Professor B. R. Nag, D.Sc., formerly Head of the Departments of Radio Physics and Electronics and Electronic Science of the University of Calcutta, a firm believer of the concept of theoretical minimum of Landau and an internationally well known semiconductor physicist, to whom the second author remains ever grateful as a student and research worker from 1974-2004. In this paper, an attempt is made to study, the Einstein's photoemission (EP) from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum well heavily doped superlattices (QWHDSLs) with graded interfaces in the presence of quantizing magnetic field on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion relations within the frame work of k · p formalism. The EP from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, HgTe/CdTe and strained layer quantum wells of heavily doped effective mass superlattices respectively has been presented under magnetic quantization. Besides the said emissions, from the quantum dots of the aforementioned heavily doped SLs have further investigated for the purpose of comparison and complete investigation in the context of EP from quantum confined superlattices. Using appropriate SLs, it appears that the EP increases with increasing surface electron concentration and decreasing film thickness in spiky manners, which are the characteristic features of such quantized hetero structures. Under magnetic quantization, the EP oscillates with inverse quantizing magnetic field due to Shuvnikov-de Haas effect. The EP increases with increasing photo energy in a step-like manner and the numerical values of EP with all the physical variables are totally band structure dependent for all the cases. The most striking features are that the presence of poles in the dispersion relation of the materials in the absence of band tails create the complex energy spectra in the corresponding HD constituent materials of such quantum confined superlattices and effective electron
Particle Correlations in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhang
The impact of interparticle correlations on the behavior of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) is discussed using two approaches. In the first approach, the wavefunction of a BEC is encoded in the N-particle sector of an extended "catalytic state". Going to a time-dependent interaction picture, we can organize the effective Hamiltonian by powers of N -1/2 . Requiring the terms of order N 1/2 to vanish, we get the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation. Going to the next order, N0, we obtain the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation. Our approach allows one to stay in the Schrodinger picture and to apply many techniques from quantum optics. Moreover, it is easier to track different orders in the Hamiltonian and to generalize to the multi-component case. In the second approach, I consider a state of N = l x n bosons that is derived by symmetrizing the n-fold tensor product of an arbitrary l-boson state. Particularly, we are interested in the pure state case for l = 2, which we call the Pair-Correlated State (PCS). I show that PCS reproduces the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation; moreover, it also works in the strong interaction regime where the Bogoliubov approximation fails. For the two-site Bose-Hubbard model, I find numerically that the error (measured by trace distance of the two-particle RDMs) of PCS is less than two percent over the entire parameter space, thus making PCS a bridge between the super uid and Mott insulating phases. Amazingly, the error of PCS does not increase, in the time-dependent case, as the system evolves for longer times. I derive both time-dependent and -independent equations for the ground state and the time evolution of the PCS ansatz. The time complexity of simulating PCS does not depend on N and is linear in the number of orbitals in use. Compared to other methods, e.g, the Jastrow wavefunction, the Gutzwiller wavefunction, and the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, our approach does not require quantum Monte Carlo nor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, Virginia Iris
2005-03-01
Perhaps motivated by an admiration for Einstein and a desire to identify with him, combined with a majority world-view in opposition to pacifism, skeptics may often question whether Einstein was really a pacifist. They might point to the fact that his dramatic contributions to the field of physics at the beginning of the twentieth century made nuclear weapons possible, as well as his 1939 letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging him to develop such weapons before the Nazis would, as examples of at least an inconsistent stance on pacifism across time on Einstein's part. However, as this paper will show, Einstein's pacifism began early in his life, was a deep-seated conviction that he expressed repeatedly across the years, and was an independent pacifism that flowed from his own responses to events around him and contained some original and impressively forward-thinking elements. Moreover, in calling himself a pacifist, as Einstein did, he defined pacifism in his own terms, not according to the standards of others, and this self-defined pacifism included the flexibility to designate the Nazis as a special case that had to be opposed through the use of military violence, in his view. As early as during his childhood, Einstein already disliked competitive games, because of the necessity of winners and losers, and disliked military discipline. In his late thirties, living in Germany during the First World War with a prestigious academic position in Berlin, yet retaining his identity as a Swiss citizen, Einstein joined a small group of four intellectuals who signed the pacifist ``Appeal to the Europeans'' in response to the militarist ``Manifesto to the Civilized World'' signed by 93 German intellectuals. In private, throughout that War, Einstein repeatedly expressed his disgust and sense of alienation at the ``war-enthusiasm'' sentiment of the majority. In the aftermath of the War, Einstein was involved in a German private commission to investigate German war
An efficient numerical method for computing dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates
Wang Hanquan
2011-07-01
In this paper, we extend the efficient time-splitting Fourier pseudospectral method to solve the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which model the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates at extremely low temperature. Using the time-splitting technique, we split the generalized GP equations into one linear part and two nonlinear parts: the linear part is solved with the Fourier pseudospectral method; one of nonlinear parts is solved analytically while the other one is reformulated into a matrix formulation and solved by diagonalization. We show that the method keeps well the conservation laws related to generalized GP equations in 1D and 2D. We also show that the method is of second-order in time and spectrally accurate in space through a one-dimensional numerical test. We apply the method to investigate the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a uniform/nonuniform magnetic field.
On Einstein's Path, essays in honor of Engelbert Schucking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, Alex
This collection of essays in honor of Engelbert Schucking spans the gamut of research in general relativity and presents a lively and personal account of current work in the field. Contributions include: E.L. Schucking: Jordan, Pauli, Politics, Brecht... and a Variable Gravitational Constant J.L. Anderson: Thomson Scattering in an Expanding Universe A. Ashtekar & T.A. Schilling: Geometrical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics J. Baugh, D.R. Finkelstein, H. Saller, and Zhong Tang: General Covariance is Bose-Einstein Statistics S.L. Bazanski: The Split and Propagation of Light Rays in Relativity L. Bel: How to Define a Unique Vacuum in Cosmology P.G. Bergmann: EIH Theory and Noether's Theorem W.B. Bonnor: The Static Cylinder in General Relativity C.H. Brahns: Gravity and the Tenacious Scalar Field D. Brill: The Cavendish Experiment in General Relativity Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Wave Maps in General Relativity T. Damour: General Relativty and Experiment J. Ehlers: Some Developments in Newtonian Cosmology G.F.R. Ellis & H. van Elst: Deviation of Geodesics in FLRW Spacetime Geometries S. Frittelli & E.T. Newman: Poincar Pseudo-symmetries in Asymptotically Flat Spacetimes E.N. Glass: Taub Numbers and Asymptotic Invariants J.N. Goldberg: Second Class Constraints F.W. Hehl, A. Macias, E.W. Mielke, & Yu.N. Obukhov: On the Structure of the Energy-momentum and the Spin Currents in Dirac's Electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez
2016-04-01
This study is based on a coupled basin infilling study and a landforms analysis of the Lake Albert Rift located at the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift. The basin infilling study is based on both subsurface data and outcrops analysis. The objective was to (1) obtain an age model based on onshore mammals biozones, (2) to reconstruct the 3D architecture of the rift using sequence stratigraphy correlations and seismic data interpretation, (3) to characterize the deformation and its changes through times and (4) to quantify the accommodation for several time intervals. The infilling essentially consists of isopach fault-bounded units composed of lacustrine deposits wherein were characterized two major unconformities dated at 6.2 Ma (Uppermost Miocene) and 2.7 Ma (Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary), coeval with major subsidence and climatic changes. The landforms analysis is based on the characterization and relative dating (geometrical relationships with volcanism) of Ugandan landforms which consist of stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and peplians) and incised valleys. We here proposed a seven-steps reconstruction of the deformation-erosion-sedimentation relationships of the Lake Albert Basin and its catchments: - 55-45 Ma: formation of laterites corresponding to the African Surface during the very humid period of the Lower-Middle Eocene; - 45-22: stripping of the African Surface in response of the beginning of the East-African Dome uplift and formation of a pediplain which associated base level is the Atlantic Ocean; - 17-2.5 Ma: Initiation of the Lake Albert Basin around 17 Ma and creation of local base levels (Lake Albert, Edward and George) on which three pediplains tend to adapt; - 18 - 16 Ma to 6.2 Ma: "Flexural" stage (subsidence rate: 150-200 m/Ma; sedimentation rate 1.3 km3/Ma between 17 and 12 Ma and 0.6 km3/Ma from 12 to 6 Ma) - depocenters location (southern part of Lake Albert Basin) poorly controlled by fault; - 6.2 Ma to 2
Nahm, Michael
2016-01-01
Swiss geologist Albert Heim is well known for his pioneering contributions to several aspects of geology, and for his role in establishing the breeding of different kinds of Swiss mountain dogs. In the field of near-death research, it is also recognized that he performed a pioneering study into near-death states of falling mountaineers. It seems hardly known, however, that Heim also influenced suggestion therapy significantly-in particular, the treatment of warts by suggestion. This article provides an overview of Heim's contribution in the latter field of study. PMID:27209240
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.; Bascompte, Jordi; Jordano, Pedro; Dos Reis, Sérgio Furtado
2005-03-01
Barabasi-Albert networks are constructed by adding nodes via preferential attachment to an initial core of nodes. We study the topology of small scale-free networks as a function of the size and average connectivity of their initial random core. We show that these two parameters may strongly affect the tail of the degree distribution, by consistently leading to broad-scale or single-scale networks. In particular, we argue that the size of the initial network core and its density of connections may be the main responsible for the exponential truncation of the power-law behavior observed in some small scale-free networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, D. E.; Grant, C. S.; Andernach, H.
The Einstein On-Line Service (EOLS) is a simple menu-driven system which provides an intuitive method of querying over one hundred database catalogs. In addition, the EOLS contains over 30 CD-ROMs of images from the Einstein X-ray Observatory which are available for downloading. The EOLS provides all of our databases to the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and our documents which describe each table are written in the ADS format. In conjunction with the IAU working group on Radioastronomical Databases, the EOLS serves as an experimental platform for on-line access to radio source catalogs. The number of entries in these catalogs exceeds half a million.
Quantum Einstein-de Haas effect
Ganzhorn, Marc; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
The classical Einstein-de Haas experiment demonstrates that a change of magnetization in a macroscopic magnetic object results in a mechanical rotation of this magnet. This experiment can therefore be considered as a macroscopic manifestation of the conservation of total angular momentum and energy of electronic spins. Since the conservation of angular momentum is a consequence of a system's rotational invariance, it is valid for an ensemble of spins in a macroscopic ferromaget as well as for single spins. Here we propose an experimental realization of an Einstein-de Haas experiment at the single-spin level based on a single-molecule magnet coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We demonstrate that the spin associated with the single-molecule magnet is then subject to conservation of total angular momentum and energy, which results in a total suppression of the molecule's quantum tunnelling of magnetization. PMID:27126449
Quantum Einstein-de Haas effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganzhorn, Marc; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
The classical Einstein-de Haas experiment demonstrates that a change of magnetization in a macroscopic magnetic object results in a mechanical rotation of this magnet. This experiment can therefore be considered as a macroscopic manifestation of the conservation of total angular momentum and energy of electronic spins. Since the conservation of angular momentum is a consequence of a system's rotational invariance, it is valid for an ensemble of spins in a macroscopic ferromaget as well as for single spins. Here we propose an experimental realization of an Einstein-de Haas experiment at the single-spin level based on a single-molecule magnet coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We demonstrate that the spin associated with the single-molecule magnet is then subject to conservation of total angular momentum and energy, which results in a total suppression of the molecule's quantum tunnelling of magnetization.
Quantum Einstein-de Haas effect.
Ganzhorn, Marc; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
The classical Einstein-de Haas experiment demonstrates that a change of magnetization in a macroscopic magnetic object results in a mechanical rotation of this magnet. This experiment can therefore be considered as a macroscopic manifestation of the conservation of total angular momentum and energy of electronic spins. Since the conservation of angular momentum is a consequence of a system's rotational invariance, it is valid for an ensemble of spins in a macroscopic ferromaget as well as for single spins. Here we propose an experimental realization of an Einstein-de Haas experiment at the single-spin level based on a single-molecule magnet coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We demonstrate that the spin associated with the single-molecule magnet is then subject to conservation of total angular momentum and energy, which results in a total suppression of the molecule's quantum tunnelling of magnetization. PMID:27126449
Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Sacha
2015-05-01
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.
Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields
Marques, S.
1988-01-01
It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs.
Bose-Einstein correlations from 'within'
Utyuzh, O. V.; Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.
2006-04-11
We describe an attempt to model numerically Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) from 'within', i.e., by using them as the most fundamental ingredient of some Monte Carlo event generator (MC) rather than considering them as a kind of (more or less important, depending on the actual situation) 'afterburner', which inevitably changes original physical content of the MC code used to model multiparticle production process.
The Einstein Relation for the KPZ Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton
2015-03-01
We compute the non-universal constants in the KPZ equation in one dimension, in terms of the thermodynamical quantities associated to the underlying microscopic dynamics. In particular, we derive the second-order Einstein relation for the transport coefficient of the KPZ equation, in terms of the conserved quantity , the diffusion coefficient , the strength of the asymmetry and the static compressibility of the system.
Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.
2008-03-01
We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.
Bose-Einstein condensation of 84Sr.
Martinez de Escobar, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Yan, M; DeSalvo, B J; Nagel, S B; Killian, T C
2009-11-13
We report Bose-Einstein condensation of (84)Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow the creation of large condensates (N(0) approximately 3 x 10(5)) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images. PMID:20365965
Effective temperatures and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for particle suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, Carlos; Santamaría-Holek, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín
The short- and long-time breakdown of the classical Stokes-Einstein relation for colloidal suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions is explained here by examining the role that confinement and attractive interactions play in the intra- and inter-cage dynamics executed by the colloidal particles. We show that the short-time diffusion coefficient is larger than the one predicted by the classical Stokes-Einstein relation due to a non-equilibrated energy transfer between kinetic and configuration degrees of freedom. This transfer can be incorporated in an effective temperature that replaces the bath temperature in a Generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER). This relation then allows to obtain the diffusion coefficient once the viscosity is known. On the other hand, the temporary cluster formation induced by confinement and attractive interactions of hydrodynamic nature, makes the long-time diffusion coefficient to be smaller than the corresponding one obtained from the classical Stokes-Einstein relation. Additionally, we provide a simple expression based on a differential effective medium theory (DEMT) that allows to calculate the diffusion coefficient at short and long times. Comparison of our results with experiments and simulations for suspensions of hard and porous spheres shows an excellent agreement in all cases. Unam DGAPA IN-110613.
Effective temperatures and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for particle suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, Carlos I.; Santamaría-Holek, I.; Pérez-Madrid, A.
2015-09-01
The short- and long-time breakdown of the classical Stokes-Einstein relation for colloidal suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions is explained here by examining the role that confinement and attractive interactions play in the intra- and inter-cage dynamics executed by the colloidal particles. We show that the measured short-time diffusion coefficient is larger than the one predicted by the classical Stokes-Einstein relation due to a non-equilibrated energy transfer between kinetic and configuration degrees of freedom. This transfer can be incorporated in an effective kinetic temperature that is higher than the temperature of the heat bath. We propose a Generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) in which the effective temperature replaces the temperature of the heat bath. This relation then allows to obtain the diffusion coefficient once the viscosity and the effective temperature are known. On the other hand, the temporary cluster formation induced by confinement and attractive interactions of hydrodynamic nature makes the long-time diffusion coefficient to be smaller than the corresponding one obtained from the classical Stokes-Einstein relation. Then, the use of the GSER allows to obtain an effective temperature that is smaller than the temperature of the heat bath. Additionally, we provide a simple expression based on a differential effective medium theory that allows to calculate the diffusion coefficient at short and long times. Comparison of our results with experiments and simulations for suspensions of hard and porous spheres shows an excellent agreement in all cases.
On perturbative instability of Pope-Warner solutions on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilch, Krzysztof; Yoo, Isaiah
2013-09-01
Given a Sasaki-Einstein manifold, M 7, there is the supersymmetric AdS 4 × M 7 Freund-Rubin solution of eleven-dimensional supergravity and the corresponding non-supersymmetric solutions: the perturbatively stable skew-whiffed solution, the perturbatively unstable Englert solution, and the Pope-Warner solution, which is known to be perturbatively unstable when M 7 is the seven-sphere or, more generally, a tri-Sasakian manifold. We show that similar perturbative instability of the Pope-Warner solution will arise for any regular Sasaki-Einstein manifold, M 7, admitting a basic, primitive, transverse (1,1)-eigenform of the Hodge-de Rham Laplacian with the eigenvalue in the range between and . Existence of such (1,1)-forms on all homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein manifolds can be shown explicitly using the Kähler quotient construction or the standard harmonic expansion. The latter shows that the instability arises from the coupling between the Pope-Warner background and Kaluza-Klein scalar modes that at the supersymmetric point lie in a long Z-vector supermultiplet. We also verify that the instability persists for the orbifolds of homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein manifolds that have been discussed recently.
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation and Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogel-Salazar, J.
2013-03-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) is discussed at the level of an advanced course on statistical physics. In the standard literature the GPE is usually obtained in the framework of the second quantization formalism, which in many cases goes beyond the material covered in many advanced undergraduate courses. In this paper, we motivate the derivation of the GPE in relationship to concepts from statistical physics, highlighting a number of applications from the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate to the excitations of the gas cloud. This paper may be helpful for encouraging the discussion of modern developments in a statistical mechanics course, and can also be of use in other contexts such as mathematical physics and modelling. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for general physicists.
Dynamics of nonautonomous rogue waves in Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhao, Li-Chen
2013-02-15
We study rogue waves of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) analytically in a time-dependent harmonic trap with a complex potential. Properties of the nonautonomous rogue waves are investigated analytically. It is reported that there are possibilities to 'catch' rogue waves through manipulating nonlinear interaction properly. The results provide many possibilities to manipulate rogue waves experimentally in a BEC system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One more generalized rogue wave solutions are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present one possible way to catch a rouge wave. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties of rogue waves are investigated analytically for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provide many possibilities to manipulate rogue waves in BEC.
Momentum-space engineering of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates
Edwards, Mark; Benton, Brandon; Heward, Jeffrey; Clark, Charles W.
2010-12-15
We show how the momentum distribution of gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates can be shaped by applying a sequence of standing-wave laser pulses. We present a theory, whose validity was demonstrated in an earlier experiment [L. Deng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5407 (1999)], of the effect of a two-pulse sequence on the condensate wavefunction in momentum space. We generalize the previous result to the case of N pulses of arbitrary intensity separated by arbitrary intervals and show how these parameters can be engineered to produce a desired final momentum distribution. We find that several momentum distributions, important in atom-interferometry applications, can be engineered with high fidelity with two or three pulses.
Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2016-03-01
Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.
Einstein Observatory coronal temperatures of late-type stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.
1990-01-01
The results are presented of a survey of the coronal temperatures of late-type stars using the Einstein Observatory IPC. The spectral analysis shows that the frequently found one- and two-temperature descriptions are mainly influenced by the SNR of the data and that models using continuous emission measure distributions can provide equally adequate and physically more meaningful and more plausible descriptions. Intrinsic differences in differential emission measure distributions are found for four groups of stars. M dwarfs generally show evidence for high-temperature gas in conjunction with lower-temperature material, while main-sequence stars of types F and G have the high-temperature component either absent or very weak. Very hot coronae without the lower-temperature component appearing in dwarf stars are evident in most of the giant stars studied. RS CVn systems show evidence for extremely hot coronae, sometimes with no accompanying lower-temperature material.
Static solutions in Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisóstomo, J.; Gomez, F.; Mella, P.; Quinzacara, C.; Salgado, P.
2016-06-01
In this paper we study static solutions with more general symmetries than the spherical symmetry of the five-dimensional Einstein-Chern-Simons gravity. In this context, we study the coupling of the extra bosonic field ha with ordinary matter which is quantified by the introduction of an energy-momentum tensor field associated with ha. It is found that exist (i) a negative tangential pressure zone around low-mass distributions (μ < μ1) when the coupling constant α is greater than zero; (ii) a maximum in the tangential pressure, which can be observed in the outer region of a field distribution that satisfies μ < μ2 (iii) solutions that behave like those obtained from models with negative cosmological constant. In such a situation, the field ha plays the role of a cosmological constant.
Gauges and functional measures in quantum gravity I: Einstein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, N.; Percacci, R.; Pereira, A. D.
2016-06-01
We perform a general computation of the off-shell one-loop divergences in Einstein gravity, in a two-parameter family of path integral measures, corresponding to different ways of parametrizing the graviton field, and a two-parameter family of gauges. Trying to reduce the gauge- and measure-dependence selects certain classes of measures and gauges respectively. There is a choice of two parameters (corresponding to the exponential parametrization and the partial gauge condition that the quantum field be traceless) that automatically eliminates the dependence on the remaining two parameters and on the cosmological constant. We observe that the divergences are invariant under a Z 2 "duality" transformation that (in a particularly important special case) involves the replacement of the densitized metric by a densitized inverse metric as the fundamental quantum variable. This singles out a formulation of unimodular gravity as the unique "self-dual" theory in this class.
Generic features of Einstein-Aether black holes
Tamaki, Takashi; Miyamoto, Umpei
2008-01-15
We reconsider spherically symmetric black hole solutions in Einstein-Aether theory with the condition that this theory has identical parametrized post-Newtonian parameters as those for general relativity, which is the main difference from the previous research. In contrast with previous study, we allow superluminal propagation of a spin-0 Aether-gravity wave mode. As a result, we obtain black holes having a spin-0 'horizon' inside an event horizon. We allow a singularity at a spin-0 horizon since it is concealed by the event horizon. If we allow such a configuration, the kinetic term of the Aether field can be large enough for black holes to be significantly different from Schwarzschild black holes with respect to Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass, innermost stable circular orbit, Hawking temperature, and so on. We also discuss whether or not the above features can be seen in more generic vector-tensor theories.