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Sample records for alberta british columbia

  1. British Columbia/Alberta Transfer System Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this agreement is to provide assurance to students that they will receive transfer credit for courses or programs they have successfully completed where the content/outcomes are demonstrably equivalent to those offered at the institution to which they transfer. This protocol is undertaken by the British Columbia Council on…

  2. From Community College to University: Institutionalization and Neoliberalism in British Columbia and Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Aliyeva, Aida; Walker, Laurencia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation of higher education institutional development addresses new universities that were former community colleges in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Stemming from an original study conducted nearly two decades earlier, this investigation's data were collected from the same institutions and from similar…

  3. Deaths from exposure to paramethoxymethamphetamine in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Yarema, Mark C.; Jones, Graham R.; Martz, Walter; Purssell, Roy A.; MacDonald, Judy C.; Wishart, Ian; Durigon, Monica; Tzemis, Despina; Buxton, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine similar in structure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”), but substantially more toxic. We describe the clinical features of fatal exposures in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series on deaths in Alberta and BC between June 2011 and April 2012 for which forensic toxicologic analysis was positive for PMMA and the drug was implicated as the primary toxic agent. Data collected included patient demographics, exposure history, clinical features, investigations, therapy provided and postmortem toxicologic findings. Results A total of 27 PMMA-associated deaths (20 in Alberta, 7 in BC) were reported in the 11-month period. The median age was 24 (range 14–52) years, and 22 (81%) were male. Ten patients were pronounced dead at the scene, and 17 died in hospital. The median time from exposure to death was 17 (range 5–264) hours. The median first-recorded vital signs (and ranges) were: heart rate 160 (86–201) beats/min, blood pressure 89/43 (69/30–162/83) mm Hg, respiratory rate 40 (26–48) breaths/min, oxygen saturation 81% (68%–100%) and temperature 39.4°C (34–43.8°C). Sixteen of the 17 people who died in hospital presented with clinical features consistent with serotonin syndrome. End-organ dysfunction included hepatic (30%) and acute kidney injury (85%), rhabdomyolysis (54%), coagulopathy (61%) and cardiac ischemia (15%). Other drugs identified on toxicologic analysis were MDMA (n = 27), cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine (n = 14) and methamphetamine (n = 12). Interpretation Exposure to PMMA was characterized by multiorgan dysfunction and serotonin syndrome, followed by cardiovascular collapse. In addition to PMMA, multiple synthetic amphetamines were present on toxicologic analysis. When evaluating patients suspected of exposure to sympathomimetic drugs of abuse, clinicians must

  4. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  5. Trace element signature of Late Jurassic siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary strata from western Montana, southeastern British Columbia and southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sablock, J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    A trace element signature, a characteristic pattern of enrichment and depletion of trace elements, was determined for a group of siliciclastic-carbonate Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian sedimentary strata, collected from outcrops in western Montana, southeastern British Columbia and southern Alberta. The average values, by petrofacies, of 10 major and 18 trace elements were measured for 40 samples. These data were normalized to Upper Continental Crust (UCC), and plotted against averaged published values of graywackes from the same facies. The rare earth elements (REEs), as well as Ti, Zr, Nb and Y are considered immobile even through diagenesis, and at least low level metamorphism. So these elements should form a reliable part of the geochemical signature. Compared to UCC and average graywacke, Jurassic samples are very depleted in Zr, Nb and Y. Oxfordian samples have slightly higher rare earth element values, i.e. La, Ce and Nd, than either other Jurassic samples or average graywacke. The most likely source of REE values are garnets and tourmaline which occur as inclusions in monocrystalline quartz grains. This pattern, and petrological study, point to a sedimentary source area, deficient in feldspar, heavy minerals and rock fragments. The consistency of the signature throughout this time may indicate slow uplift of a widespread sedimentary source area, or could be an effect of greater mixing and shorter residence time of dissolved materials in an epeiric sea.

  6. British Columbia Transfer TIPS. Second Edition Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Finola, Ed.; Karlinski, Jean, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    BCTransfer TIPS is a user friendly document outlining how transfer between British Columbia (BC) post-secondary institutions works. It includes tips, student quotes, scenarios, a personal plan and checklist. Information in this document can only be reproduced with permission from the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT.)

  7. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  8. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  9. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  10. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  11. British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

  12. Deprivatizing Private Education: The British Columbia Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Jean

    1991-01-01

    The experience of British Columbia in deprivatizing private schools by requiring their registration and providing financial support is reviewed. It is argued that family choice and state control have grown dialectically. Government funding has created higher enrollments and new schools, but resultant public oversight ultimately constrains choice.…

  13. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia.

  14. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  15. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  16. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  17. Prospects for Adult Literacy Policy in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Intended to assist in the formulation of effective policies for adult literacy in British Columbia, this paper reviews the current discussion of adult literacy policy and programming across Canada. It also reviews existing policies in Canada and in British Columbia, in education ministries, and in other ministries with interests and activities…

  18. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  19. Towards Diversification of Secondary Special Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is the trend in British Columbia, Canada, towards diversification of secondary special education programs, which in the past were restricted to occupational programs that became "dumping grounds" for all types of problem students. (DLS)

  20. Transforming family practice in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Cavers, William J.R.; Tregillus, Valerie H.F.; Micco, Angela; Hollander, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe a new approach to primary care reform developed in British Columbia (BC) under the leadership of the General Practice Services Committee (GPSC). COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE The GPSC is a joint committee of the BC Ministry of Health Services, the BC Medical Association, and the Society of General Practitioners of BC. Representatives of BC’s health authorities also attend as guests. METHOD This paper is based on the 2008–2009 annual report of the GPSC. It summarizes the history and main activities of the GPSC. REPORT The GPSC is currently supporting a number of key activities to transform primary care in BC. These activities include the Full Service Family Practice Incentive Program, which provides incentive payments to promote enhanced primary care; the Practice Support Program, which provides family physicians and their medical office assistants with various practical evidence-based strategies and tools for managing practice enhancement; the Family Physicians for BC Program to develop family practices in areas of identified need; the Shared Care Committee, which supports and enables the determination of appropriate scopes of practice among GPs, specialists, and other health care professionals; the Divisions of Family Practice, which are designed to facilitate interactions among family doctors and between doctors and their respective health authorities; and the Community Healthcare and Resource Directory, a Web-based resource to help health care providers find appropriate mental health resources. CONCLUSION Early results indicate that the GPSC’s initiatives are enhancing the delivery of primary care services in BC. PMID:21156899

  1. British Columbia: improving retention and recruitment in smaller communities.

    PubMed

    Healey-Ogden, Marion; Wejr, Patricia; Farrow, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    This pilot project involved the application, in Canada, of the innovative 80/20 staffing model to a hospital in a small rural setting. The model provides the voluntary participants with 20% of their salaried time off from direct patient care in order to pursue various types of professional development activities. The project, overseen by a steering committee, lasted from June 2009 to February 2010 and involved 14 nurses on the pediatric unit of Royal Inland Hospital in Kamloops, British Columbia. It entailed a collaborative partnership of the British Columbia Nurses' Union, Interior Health Authority, Thompson Rivers University and the British Columbia Ministry of Health, and aimed to demonstrate how professional development opportunities can improve recruitment and retention of nurses, quality of work life and quality of patient care.

  2. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  3. Comment: The People's Law School of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprowls, David

    1980-01-01

    The People's Law School of British Columbia is a nonprofit organization informing laymen of their legal rights and responsibilities. The program features free evening courses cosponsored by community groups in 60 centers around the province. (Journal availability: Canada-United States Law Journal, 11075 East Blvd., Cleveland, OH 44106.) (MSE)

  4. A Brief History of the Transfer System in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber, Devron

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a brief history of important events in the development and maintenance of the post-secondary transfer system in British Columbia (BC) over the last six decades. Information is presented in point form and in chronological order. Several points related to the expansion of the post-secondary system are included, and hence the…

  5. A Review of Special Education in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Linda; Ladyman, Stewart

    This report presents findings of a special team to review special education policy, its implementation, accountability, and program effectiveness in British Columbia. The team identified a set of issues to address including: inclusion/integration, parental involvement, assessment, Individual Education Plans, evaluation, transitions, employees who…

  6. The 1990 British Columbia Mathematics Assessment: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitaille, David F., Ed.

    This book presents the results of the fourth British Columbia Mathematics Assessment conducted in the spring of 1990. Students in Grades 4, 7, and 10 (approximately 120,000) were asked to provide information about themselves, to express their opinions about school-related experiences, and to demonstrate their ability to do the mathematics…

  7. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  8. The Discursive Framing of International Education Programs in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how international education programs in British Columbia have been discursively framed by government and media sources. Over the past two decades, international education programs have expanded in number and scale in the province, a phenomenon that has been interpreted by some education researchers and media sources as…

  9. The British Columbia Literature 12 Curriculum and I: A Soliloquy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouritzin, Sandra G.

    2004-01-01

    A critique of the prescribed Literature 12 curriculum for British Columbia teachers, this article is a life-history narrative juxtaposed against my own literary education, examining how my lived experiences were reflected and reinforced in the Literature 12 curriculum, and in the literary canons of both high school and university English teaching…

  10. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  11. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  12. Educator Preparedness to Teach Health Education in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Sandra; Zhou, Mingming

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date, few studies have been conducted to investigate the preparedness of health educators in Canadian school systems. Purpose: This study assessed practicing and pre-service teachers' self-perceptions of preparedness to teach health education in British Columbia K-12 classrooms. It also investigated factors related to their…

  13. Medicare financing and redistribution in british columbia, 1992 and 2002.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2007-05-01

    Equity in healthcare in British Columbia is defined as the provision of services based on need rather than ability to pay and a separation of contributions to financing from the use of services. Physician and hospital services in Canada are financed mainly through general tax revenues, and there is a perception that this financing is progressive. This paper uses Gini coefficients, concentration indexes and Kakwani indexes of progressivity to assess the progressivity of medicare financing in British Columbia in 1992 and 2002. It also measures the overall redistributive effect of medicare services, considering both contributions to financing and use of hospital and physician services. The conclusion is that medicare does redistribute across income groups, but this redistribution is the result solely of the positive correlation between health status and income; financing is nearly proportionate across income groups, but use is higher among lower-income groups. Informed public debate requires a better understanding of these concepts of equity.

  14. West Nile virus range expansion into British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Roth, David; Henry, Bonnie; Mak, Sunny; Fraser, Mieke; Taylor, Marsha; Li, Min; Cooper, Ken; Furnell, Allen; Wong, Quantine; Morshed, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    In 2009, an expansion of West Nile virus (WNV) into the Canadian province of British Columbia was detected. Two locally acquired cases of infection in humans and 3 cases of infection in horses were detected by ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Ten positive mosquito pools were detected by reverse transcription PCR. Most WNV activity in British Columbia in 2009 occurred in the hot and dry southern Okanagan Valley. Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer. Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. tarsalis mosquito abundance may be limiting factors for WNV transmission in this portion of the Pacific Northwest.

  15. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  16. Remote sensing education at the University of British Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development, current status, and organization of the University of British Columbia's interdisciplinary graduate program in remote sensing are described. Specialized programs are tailored to meet student's needs and interest and can range from the theoretical development of technology (sensor development, modelling, and computer analysis) to specialized application of remote sensing in resource analysis such as the determination of vegetation damage, land classification, and land use. The courses and faculty members are listed.

  17. Extensional duplex in the Purcell Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1990-05-01

    An extensional duplex consisting of fault-bounded blocks (horses) located between how-angle normal faults is exposed in Proterozoic strata in the Purcell Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. This is one of the first documented extensional duplexes, and it is geometrically and kinematically analogous to duplexes developed in contractional and strike-slip fault systems. The duplex formed within an extensional fault with a ramp and flat geometry when horses were sliced from the ramp and transported within the fault system.

  18. Challenges of Investigating Community Outbreaks of Cyclosporiasis, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lena; Ellis, Andrea; Ong, Corinne; Shyng, Sion; LeBlanc, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of community outbreaks of cyclosporiasis are challenged by case-patients’ poor recall of exposure resulting from lags in detection and the stealthy nature of food vehicles. We combined multiple techniques, including early consultation with food regulators, traceback of suspected items, and grocery store loyalty card records, to identify a single vehicle for a cyclosporiasis outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, in 2007. PMID:19751593

  19. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  20. Earthquake hazard mapping for lifeline engineering Coquitlam, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Gohl, W.B.; Hawson, H.H.; Dou, H.; Nyberg, N.; Lee, R.; Wong, H.

    1995-12-31

    A series of maps plotted at a 1:15,000 scale were prepared to illustrate geotechnical aspects of seismic hazard for the 475 year return period earthquake event within the City of Coquitlam located in the Vancouver Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The maps were prepared to facilitate evaluation of lifeline damage potential within the City of Coquitlam (e.g. roads, sewers, water supply lines, oil/gas pipelines, power lines, compressor/pumping stations, water reservoirs, bridges, and rail lines) and to assist in evaluation of the impact of seismic ground shaking on new infrastructure.

  1. Integrated geoscientific exploration at Meager Creek British Columbia (1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, C.C.; Leach, T.M.; Macdonald, W.J.P.

    1983-09-01

    The application of an integrated geoscientific approach to the exploration stage of the Meager Creek geothermal project in British Columbia is discussed. The approach has provided a preliminary assessment of the resource potential of the area. The work has included geological reconnaissance, geophysics, and an extensive geochemical sampling program. The surveys have indicated that a geothermal resource exists on the south side of the Meager Complex an outflows down the Meager Valley. Geophysical surveys and drilling operations failed to identify evidence of an outflow from an active high-temperature geothermal system on the north side of the Meager complex.

  2. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  3. Transfer in British Columbia: What Does the Research Tell Us? Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Findings from the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) sponsored research describing the British Columbia (BC) transfer system over the past decade are summarized. The overall assessment is that the transfer system has performed well: many students have transferred, they have done so with relative ease, and they have…

  4. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaske, Bart; Smith, Derald G.; Berendsen, Henk J. A.; de Boer, Arjan G.; van Nielen-Kiezebrink, Marinka F.; Locking, Tracey

    2009-10-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology — multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins — and lateral channel stability. We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River is caused by sediment (bedload) transport inefficiency, in combination with very limited potential for lateral bank erosion because of very low specific stream power (≤ 2.3 W/m 2) and cohesive silty banks. In a diagram of channel type in relation to flow energy and median grain size of the bed material, data points for the straight upper Columbia River channels cluster separately from the data points for braided and meandering channels. Measurements and calculations indicate that bedload transport in the anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River decreases downstream. Because of lateral channel stability no lateral storage capacity for bedload is created. Therefore, the surplus of bedload leads to channel bed aggradation, which outpaces levee accretion and causes avulsions because of loss of channel flow capacity. This avulsion mechanism applies only to the main channel of the system, which transports 87% of the water and > 90% of the sediment in the cross-valley transect studied. Because of very low sediment transport capacity, the morphological evolution of most secondary channels is slow. Measurements and calculations indicate that much more bedload is sequestered in the relatively steep upper anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River than in the relatively gentle lower anastomosing reach. With anastomosing morphology and related processes (e.g., crevassing) being best developed in the upper reach, this confirms the notion of upstream rather than downstream control of upper Columbia River anastomosis.

  5. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries.

    PubMed

    Robb, Carolyn K

    2014-01-01

    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  6. Perceived Learning Needs of Family Physicians in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    To determine family physicians' preferences for time, location, instructional format, and topics, the Division of Continuing Medical Education at the University of British Columbia conducted a survey, in which 1200 questionnaires were mailed to a stratified, proportional random sample of the 3270 general practitioners in the province, the stratifications being urban or rural and decade of graduation. A return rate of 61% yielded 648 usable questionnaires, which exceeds the sample required for analysis with no stratifications. Most popular days for involvement in continuing medical education were Fridays and Saturdays in the months of February, March, October, and November. Common skin disorders and hypertension headed the list of most relevant topics for the whole group and for the urban stratification. Hypertension was superseded by eye emergencies in the rural stratification. PMID:21234037

  7. Intestinal parasites of raccoons (Procyon lotor) from southwest British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, H L; Leighton, B J; Stephen, C

    2000-01-01

    This is the first extensive survey of metazoan parasites (particularly of the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis) from the intestines of raccoons in British Columbia. The sample collected in 1997-1998 consisted of 82 raccoons that had been sick or had been killed accidentally by automobiles. Fifteen parasite taxa were found: 3 nematodes, 9 digenetic trematodes, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 cestode. Ten of these parasites constitute new host records for raccoons, including 4 digenetic trematodes that have been reported in marine birds and mammals on the Pacific Coast of North America. Baylisascaris procyonis infected 61% of the raccoons with a mean intensity of 27. The high rate of infection indicates a large potential for environmental contamination and, thus, human and animal exposure to infectious eggs. Prevention of larva migrans is discussed, particularly for people in contact with raccoons in wildlife rehabilitation centers. PMID:10805249

  8. A decade of experience: Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Karen H; Cheng, Po-Yan; Duncan, Colleen; Galanis, Eleni; Hoang, Linda; Kidd, Sarah; Lee, Min-Kuang; Lester, Sally; MacDougall, Laura; Mak, Sunny; Morshed, Muhammad; Taylor, Marsha; Kronstad, James

    2012-06-01

    It has been over a decade since Cryptococcus gattii was first recognized as the causative organism of an outbreak of cryptococcosis on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A number of novel observations have been associated with the study of this emergent pathogen. A novel genotype of C. gattii, VGIIa was described as the major genotype associated with clinical disease. Minor genotypes, VGIIb and VGI, are also responsible for disease in British Columbians, in both human and animal populations. The clinical major genotype VGIIa and minor genotype VGIIb are identical to C. gattii isolated from the environment of Vancouver Island. There is more heterogeneity in VGI, and a clear association with the environment is not apparent. Between 1999 and 2010, there have been 281 cases of C. gattii cryptococcosis. Risk factors for infection are reported to be age greater than 50 years, history of smoking, corticosteroid use, HIV infection, and history of cancer or chronic lung disease. The major C. gattii genotype VGIIa is as virulent in mice as the model Cryptococcus, H99 C. neoformans, although the outbreak strain produces a less protective inflammatory response in C57BL/6 mice. The minor genotype VGIIb is significantly less virulent in mouse models. Cryptococcus gattii is found associated with native trees and soil on Vancouver Island. Transiently positive isolations have been made from air and water. An ecological niche for this organism is associated within a limited biogeoclimatic zone characterized by daily average winter temperatures above freezing.

  9. Significance of Jurassic radiolarians from the Cache Creek terrane, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordey, Fabrice; Mortimer, N.; Dewever, Patrick; Monger, J. W. H.

    1987-12-01

    The discovery of new radiolarian localities in the western belt of the Cache Creek terrane in southern British Columbia possibly changes its upper age limit from Late Triassic to Early or Middle Jurassic. It favors a Middle Jurassic, rather than a Late Triassic, age of amalgamation for the Cache Creek terrane and Quesnellia (parts of superterrane I) in southern British Columbia. The new Jurassic ages also mean that the western Cache Creek terrane could be equivalent in age to the Bridge River Hozameen terrane in British Columbia and to terranes containing the Tethyan fusulinid Yabeina in northwest Washington and the Klamath Mountains of California.

  10. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TWO CYCLOSPORIASIS OUTBREAKS IN VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two cyclosporiasis outbreaks in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) were investigated using molegular epidemiology. The cause of the 1999 outbreak has not been identiifed whereas the 2001 oubreak has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Thai basil. The internal tran...

  11. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  12. The University of British Columbia model of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Charles, Grant; Bainbridge, Lesley; Gilbert, John

    2010-01-01

    The College of Health Disciplines, at the University of British Columbia (UBC) has a long history of developing interprofessional learning opportunities for students and practitioners. Historically, many of the courses and programmes were developed because they intuitively made sense or because certain streams of funding were available at particular times. While each of them fit generally within our understanding of interprofessional education in the health and human service education programs, they were not systematically developed within an educational or theoretical framework. This paper discusses the model we have subsequently developed at the College for conceptualizing the various types of interprofessional experiences offered at UBC. It has been developed so that we can offer the broadest range of courses and most effective learning experiences for our students. Our model is based on the premise that there are optimal learning times for health and human services students (and practitioners) depending upon their stage of development as professionals in their respective disciplines and their readiness to learn and develop new perspectives on professional interaction.

  13. Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenagan, J. Donald

    2013-05-01

    The upland-lowland pattern in the plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada forms an extremely large anastomosing channel network, with the uplands representing interfluves between channels. The study area landscape is remarkably similar in form to water-produced channel systems and qualitatively resembles flood landscapes from the Channelled Scablands and the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Numerical shape analysis of the area erosional residuals gives similar results as those derived from known flood landscapes; the length-to-width ratios of the uplands (L/W = 2.38, R2 = 0.89) are similar to those reported for braid bars and erosional residuals formed by glacial outburst floods. Thus, the study area landscape records a megaflood or floods that almost completely immersed the landscape. Drumlins with, in places, ubiquitous hairpin furrows, locations downstream from steep slopes facing into the flow, and eroded into till and bedrock similarly reflect regional-scale meltwater flow that immersed the landscape. The regional flow submerged the anastomosing channels at the time of drumlin formation. Drumlins likely formed as the anastomosing network developed; divergent drumlin orientations probably reflect either late flow or separate drumlin-forming events that did not appreciably alter the anastomosing system.

  14. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  15. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryan R.; Rahs, Engel Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent ( n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations ( p≤0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  16. Satellite chlorophyll off the British Columbia Coast, 1997-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jennifer M.; Thomson, Richard E.; Brown, Leslie N.; Willis, Peter G.; Borstad, Gary A.

    2015-07-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal variability of satellite-sensed sea surface chlorophyll off the west coast of North America from 1997 to 2010, with focus on coastal British Columbia. The variability in surface chlorophyll is complex. Whereas the spring bloom generates the highest phytoplankton concentration for coastal Alaska, the north and east coasts of Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Sound, the Strait of Georgia, and coastal Oregon and California, it is the fall bloom that normally generates the highest concentration for the west coast of Vancouver Island, Juan de Fuca Strait, and the west coast of Washington. The highest satellite-sensed chlorophyll concentrations occur in the Strait of Georgia, where mean values are at least 2 times higher than elsewhere in the northeast Pacific. Moreover, the annual average surface chlorophyll concentration increased significantly in the Strait of Georgia during this period, with highest concentration observed during the near neutral ENSO conditions of the spring of 2007. The next highest concentrations occur off southwest Vancouver Island but have no statistically significant trend. The lowest average peak chlorophyll concentration is observed off Southern California. The timing of the highest chlorophyll concentration is latest off the coast of Washington and earliest off the coast of Southern California. Small increasing concentration trends are observed off the Washington and California coasts.

  17. Expo '86, Vancouver: impact on British Columbia's Children's Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Hlady, L J; Macnab, A J; Smith, D F; Wensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    Over 22 million visitors attended the 1986 world exposition in Vancouver, and this had a significant impact on the local pediatric facility. A total of 559 children visited the emergency department of British Columbia's Children's Hospital with injuries or illnesses resulting from the fair. Of these, 193 (34%) had come directly from the site. The children's ages ranged from 1 1/2 months to 18 years, 4 months (mean 6.99 years). Of the 559 children 31% were not covered by medical insurance. Twenty-four of the children were admitted to the hospital, and one died at the Expo site. Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis. The proportion of visits for trauma was 50%, compared with the yearly average of 25%. There was a 6% increase in the workload in the emergency department during the fair; the percentage was even higher during July and August, particularly after 1800 hours. Recommendations are made to aid with the planning of medical care for similar events. PMID:3676971

  18. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  19. Community-based stream conservation initiatives in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N

    2002-01-01

    British Columbia is a diverse province, with ecosystems ranging from semi-arid deserts to valley glaciers and vast ice fields. By world standards, BC has an abundance of fresh water in its lakes and rivers. However, rivers have been exploited for social and industrial purposes, often to the detriment of the natural values. Community groups and non-government organizations have been active in rehabilitating and restoring waterways. The Outdoor Recreation Council of BC is a provincial non-government organization that has been instrumental in river conservation issues in BC. Three key initiatives have been established by the Council since its formation in 1975. BC Rivers Day has grown into the largest river celebration of its kind in North America, and there is a move to establish a national Rivers Day in Canada based on the model established in BC. Second is the annual Endangered Rivers List compiled by the Council and released each spring. The third initiative is the River Recovery Project in which dams and impoundment structures were evaluated against a set of criteria. A short list of candidates was generated by the project that will be further studied to determine what actions should be taken to alter the management of the structures to restore ecological values of the rivers and streams on which they are built. The three initiatives described rely on local community support. The Outdoor Recreation Council of BC provides coordination, promotion, and publicity as well as some resource materials while local groups and communities take on stewardship roles for their local streams. This model may be useful for other jurisdictions.

  20. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  1. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  2. Cretaceous and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Selena Y; Currah, Randolph S; Stockey, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    Two fossil poroid hymenophore fragments, one from the Cretaceous Period and the other from the Eocene Epoch, are described. The permineralized specimens were obtained from marine calcareous concretions on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Size and distribution of pores in the hymenophores, as well as the hyphal anatomy of the dissepiments and some hymenial elements, were examined. In the Cretaceous specimen, Quatsinoporites cranhamii sp. nov., pores are round to elliptical, three per mm, and 130-540 μm diam. Dissepiments consist of narrow, simple septate, hyphae. Neither basidia nor basidiospores are present, but acuminate hymenial cystidia, up to 54 μm in length, are common. The Eocene specimen, Appianoporites vancouverensis sp. nov., has a pore density of six per mm and pores are 130-163 μm in diam. Dissepiments consist of narrow, simple septate, thin-walled hyphae. Neither basidia nor basidiospores are present, but acuminate, thick-walled hymenial cystidia, up to 32 μm in length, are common. The poroid hymenophore is a characteristic of a number of extant basidiomycete taxa, including the Boletales, Polyporales and Hymenochaetales. It is unlikely that the fleshy, ephemeral, terrestrial basidiomata of the Boletales would be preserved in a marine environment, and thus the specimens are interpreted as belonging to basidiomycete lineages, with persistent, leathery or corky basidiomata. The simple septate hyphae, the minute pores and presence of cystidia most closely resemble taxa of the Hymenochaetales. These fossils unequivocally push back the minimum age of homobasidiomycetes and extend their paleogeographical range.

  3. Deep electrical conductivity structure of the Cascadia subduction zone in Southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyer, W.; Unsworth, M. J.; Xiao, W.; Kovacs, G. J.; Samson, C.; Fernberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    Long period magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were made in southwestern British Columbia in 2003 to investigate the electrical structure of the Cascadia subduction zone as part of the POLARIS project. Data were recorded in the period range 1 to 25000 seconds at 36 field sites using long-period MT systems with fluxgate magnetometers. The instruments used were the Geological Survey of Canada LIMS systems and University of Alberta NIMS systems. MT data were collected at many locations in the Canadian Cordillera during the Lithoprobe project, but the new MT data are the first to give the long period data needed for imaging deep structure. The stations were concentrated on a profile that extended from Port Renfrew on Vancouver Island to Shuswap Lake. Some MT stations were located in Washington State to investigate the 3-D effects of the low resistivity salt water in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound. The MT impedance data have been analyzed with 2-D inversions and the models reveal the following features: (1) The data on Vancouver Island detect low resistivities above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, similar to previous results on a profile to the northwest. This anomaly corresponds to an area of high seismic reflectivity ('E-reflector') and low seismicity, and may be related to fluids originating from the oceanic plate. (2) A zone of low resistivity is present beneath the volcanic arc at a depth of 15-20 km below the surface. (3) The Intermontane and Omineca Belts are characterized by high resistivities in the upper crust and low resistivity in the lower crust, similar to models of previous studies such as Lithoprobe. The lower crustal resistivity decreases to the east, as also indicated by vertical magnetic transfer functions. Further analysis of these data are in progress to determine the resistivity of the underlying upper mantle and to evaluate the depth of the astenosphere. A second deployment of the NIMS instruments in summer 2004 will extend the line

  4. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  5. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot's model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia's five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer.

  6. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  7. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  8. Hidden Fragility: Closure among Licensed Child-Care Services in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Paul; Forer, Barry; Goelman, Hillel

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that stability is one component of quality child care. We investigate the understudied phenomenon of the stability of child-care facilities over time, focusing on the province of British Columbia, Canada. Although net figures show growth in the number of providers between 1997 and 2001, they obfuscate a dramatic level of closure…

  9. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  10. First Nations, Consultation, and the Rule of Law: Salmon Farming and Colonialism in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2006-01-01

    Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…

  11. Colliding Rights in the Schools: Trinity Western University v. The British Columbia College of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brummelen, Harro; Sawatsky, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses British Columbia College of Teachers' (BCCT) denial of Trinity Western University's (TWU) teacher education programs and teacher certification due to TWU's prohibition of homosexuality. Reports that TWU filed suit, and the Supreme Court of Canada determined that BCCT's action interfered with TWU's right to religious freedom. (Contains 32…

  12. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  13. Multiculturalism and Human Rights in Civic Education: The Case of British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper considers how textbooks resolve the tension between contradictory goals of promoting a cohesive national identity while teaching respect and equality among diverse social groups in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Purpose: The article presents preliminary results of a larger study examining the content of required civic…

  14. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  15. Performance Logic in Simulation Research at the University of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Marcia A.

    Advantages of the performance simulation setting are considered, along with what can be studied or developed within this setting. Experiences at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and views on future development and research opportunities in the performance simulation setting are also discussed. The benefits of simulating the clinical…

  16. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2000 British Columbia (BC) College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey. It addresses a number of issues related to the admissions and transfer experiences of former students from BC's college and institute system, from the students' perspective. Twenty-one…

  17. Connections '96. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (2nd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Sakari, Mary, Ed.; Miller, Carole S., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 19 papers presented at the second annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines, including preschool education, classroom communication, mathematics instruction, theater, attention deficit disorders, distance learning by rural home schoolers,…

  18. Infestation of apricot by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state and British Columbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Tephritidae), is native to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and British Columbia in Canada and is known to attack and develop in the fruit of 12 plant species in nature. Here we report that R. indifferens in nature infests yet another plant,...

  19. Giving Voice: Autobiographical/Testimonial Literature by First Nations Women of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Laura J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various definitions of the "testimonial" and characteristics that distinguish it from related literary genres. Examines autobiographical and testimonial literature by Native women of British Columbia, focusing on first-hand accounts of student experiences in Indian residential schools. Contains 29 references. (SV)

  20. The State of Educators' Professional Learning in British Columbia: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherri; Hales, Anne; Kuehn, Larry; Steffensen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Coinciding with the 2016 Annual Conference in Vancouver, British Columbia, Learning Forward commissioned and supported a study of professional learning across the nation of Canada entitled "The State of Educators' Professional Learning in Canada." A research team led by Carol Campbell, Associate Professor of Leadership and Educational…

  1. British Columbia Council on Admissions & Transfer Annual Report, 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The role of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements in the BC post-secondary system. BCCAT carries out this work in various ways; for example, engaging in research on admissions and student transitions, evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer system…

  2. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  3. The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia. Annual Report, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native Courtworker and Counseling Association of British Columbia, Vancouver.

    The Native Courtworker and Counselling Association of British Columbia, with objectives of providing courtworker services for Native Indians charged with offenses; supplying information on legal rights, responsibilities, and operation of the justice system; and reducing the number of Native people in conflict with the law, handled 4,860 Native…

  4. Nonspecific Mental Retardation in British Columbia as Ascertained through a Registry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Diana S.; Baird, Patricia A.

    1983-01-01

    Findings from the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry revealed information about the age specific prevalence of mental retardation with no known etiology; association of mild and profound retardation with microcephalus, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy; and survival rates. (Author/CL)

  5. Do British Columbia's Recent Education Policy Changes Enhance Professionalism among Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimmett, Peter P.; D'Amico, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the Sullivan Royal Commission on Education in 1988, British Columbia (BC) teachers experienced a policy context that led to a decade of intense professional learning around innovative instructional strategies and curriculum. From 2001 on, the policy context changed considerably. There has been a flurry of changes designed to bring…

  6. Preschools for Science: The Child Study Centre at the University of British Columbia, 1960-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Penney; Gleason, Mona; Petrina, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Child Study Centre (CSC) at University of British Columbia (UBC) provides a unique perspective on the complex and often contradictory relationship between child study and preschool education in postwar Canada. In this article, the authors detail the development and eventual closure of the CSC at UBC, focusing on the uneasy…

  7. Tall among the Trees: Organizing against Globalist Forestry in Rural British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudham, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In January of 2001, the TimberWest Corporation permanently closed its Youbou sawmill facility near Duncan, British Columbia, Canada laying off 220 workers. On the surface, the Youbou mill closure reinforced a pervasive sense that workers and communities in the province are increasingly vulnerable to an ever more globally integrated and footloose…

  8. Recreating the University from within: Collaborative Reflections on the University of British Columbia's Engagement with Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Janet; Pagani, Freda; Quayle, Moura; Robinson, John; Sawada, Brenda; Spiegelman, George; Van Wynsberghe, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--In 1997, the University of British Columbia (UBC) adopted a sustainable development policy stating that the campus should adhere to sustainable practices in all of its actions and mandates and that all students who attend UBC will be educated about sustainability. The purpose of the paper is to consider how far UBC has moved in the last…

  9. Farmer Contacts with District Agriculturists in Three Areas in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Isaac A.; Dorling, M. J.

    This study analyzed data gathered in a Canada Land Inventory project in British Columbia; the purpose was to measure the degree of communication between farmers and the agricultural extension service by analyzing the nature and extent of contacts, and the relationship of the contacts to socioeconomic characteristics. The farmers tended to be an…

  10. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, Judy R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  11. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  12. Perceptions of Present and Future Capability among a Sample of Rural British Columbia Youth Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapil, Meg E.; Shepard, Blythe C.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey explored 96 rural adolescents' perceptions of their rural context and how their self-concept is related to perceptions of capability regarding hopes and fears for the future. The youth surveyed, from the Kootenay Boundary region of British Columbia, indicated ambivalence about staying in their communities after leaving…

  13. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  14. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1977/1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    The 1977-78 annual report on continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia is presented. The provision of continuing education by the university is decentralized. Several administrative units are responsible for credit and noncredit, general and professional continuing education, and professional development. The following…

  15. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Center for Continuing Education.

    Continuing education opportunities offered by the University of British Columbia (UBC) are summarized in this third comprehensive annual report for the year September 1978 to August 1979. The university administers a decentralized program encompassing several university offices, community resource centers, and individual faculty members. Evening,…

  16. ADULT EDUCATION AND THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS BY ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLERD, FRANK W.; VERNER, COOLIE

    THIS STUDY ANALYZED THE GENERAL BEHAVIOR OF ORCHARDISTS IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND THE FACTORS RELATED TO ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS IN THIS SETTING. FIVE PERCENT SAMPLES WERE DRAWN FROM 19 DISTRICTS CONSISTING OF 2,721 ORCHARDS, AND DATA WERE GATHERED BY RESIDENT AGRICULTURISTS. THE DATA WERE ANALYZED BY STAGE IN THE ADOPTION…

  17. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  18. Connections '99. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (5th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner W., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1999 annual conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria (British Columbia). The papers are: (1) "Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art" (Bill Zuk, Robert Dalton); (2) "Finding the Fund$ in Fun Run: Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Physical Activity…

  19. Connections '97. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (3rd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 17 papers presented at the third annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines and topics, including student teaching, athletics, researcher-teacher collaboration, hands-on science instruction, violence prevention, youth violence, counseling,…

  20. Private Funding for Elementary and Secondary Public Education in British Columbia for 1983/84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Kirk

    This study examines major issues in, and effective practices for, private funding for elementary and secondary public education in British Columbia. The sources and allocation of funds for school districts and schools were investigated, along with their funding practices. Using data on funds obtained from a representative sampling of 13 districts…

  1. Catalogue Support Systems Study. Final Report for British Columbia Library Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, R. W.; And Others

    To determine the need for additional bibliographic resources in the libraries of British Columbia, Canada, an evaluation was undertaken which included visits to libraries and existing operational catalog support systems, and meetings with advisory committees. Recommendations included: (1) implementation of a province-wide, on-line catalog system;…

  2. Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in British Columbia School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewchuk, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High profile sexual assault cases by British Columbia elementary school teachers in 2010 revealed BC school boards had "disturbingly inconsistent" child protection policies. As a result of the intense media scrutiny, the BC Ministry of Education required all school boards to reassess and update their policies on reporting suspected child…

  3. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia’s five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer. PMID:26078624

  4. Arts and the Perceived Quality of Life in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…

  5. The quick and the dead: "managing" inpatient care in British Columbia hospitals, 1969-1995/96.

    PubMed Central

    McGrail, K M; Evans, R G; Barer, M L; Sheps, S B; Hertzman, C; Kazanjian, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in hospital use in British Columbia during a decade of capacity reductions. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The data used are all separation records for British Columbia hospitals for the years 1969, 1978, 1985/86, 1993/94, and 1995/96. Separation records include acute care, rehabilitation, extended care, and surgical day care hospital encounters in British Columbia that were concluded during the years of interest. STUDY DESIGN: Analyses were based on per capita use of services for five-year age groups of the population to ages 90+; the emphasis was on looking at changes in the use of specific types of hospital services over the 26 years of study, with a particular focus on the most recent decade. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were extracted from hospital separations files owned by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and housed at the Centre for Health Services and Policy Research. All separation records for the years of interest were included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Acute care use continued to fall over the last decade. The rate of decline increased during the last time period of study and affected seniors to the same degree as younger patients. At the same time, use of extended care decreased, compared to steady increases in earlier years. The result was that by 1995/96 nearly 40 percent of inpatient days were used by people who died in hospital, compared to 9 percent in 1969. These people, however, still represent a small proportion of separations. CONCLUSIONS: The "bed blocker" problem common to many hospital systems appears to have been largely alleviated in British Columbia over the decade 1985-95. The concurrent decrease in extended care use, however, makes it difficult to say where and how these people are now being cared for. Care for the dying has become a bigger issue for hospitals, but whether this is because of heroic interventions at the end of life is not clear. A "top-down," capacity

  6. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  7. Isolation of Sphaerophorus necrophorus from Bovine Hepatic Abscesses in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Simon, P. C.; Stovell, P. L.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predominant microflora in hepatic abscesses of cattle slaughtered in British Columbia. Samples of approximately 400 livers were examined by direct smear and culture. Sphaerophorus necrophorus was present in 97% of the 431 abscesses and in 67% it was present in pure culture. In 30% it was present in combination with other organisms such as coryne-bacterium and streptococcus. PMID:4253458

  8. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of marine anemia in seapen-reared salmon in southern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, C; Ribble, C S; Kent, M L

    1996-07-01

    Marine anemia, also known as plasmacytoid leukemia, is a recently described disease of farmed Pacific salmon in British Columbia. Most of what is known about the disease has been generated through laboratory studies or field investigations of severely affected farms. The goals of this study were to determine the range of the spatial and temporal distribution of naturally occurring marine anemia, identify potential risk factors, and provide an initial description of the impact of the disease on commercial salmon farms in British Columbia. Data were obtained from mail surveys, farm visits, and reviews of clinical and laboratory records. An attempt was made to evaluate negative, as well as mildly, moderately, and severely affected sites. The results showed marine anemia to be widely distributed throughout the major salmon farming regions in British Columbia. The disease was most commonly diagnosed in August and September, when water temperatures were at their seasonal peaks. A wide variety of lineage's and fish sources were associated with the disease. The average mortality rate attributed to marine anemia was 6% (range 2.5% to 11%). The peak occurrence of the disease was associated with a peak in the occurrence of other infectious and inflammatory diseases. The broad demographic distribution of marine anemia, coupled with its endemic nature, indicated that the disease is unlikely to be due to the recent introduction of a new pathogen and that causal factors are widespread in southern British Columbia. It is concluded that the significance of diagnosing marine anemia is not that it is predictive of an impending epidemic of mortality, but that it is an indicator of the general pattern of disease on a farm.

  10. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  11. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Annie L. Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-04-15

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  12. Magnitude and frequency of landslides triggered by a storm event, Loughborough Inlet, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, R. H.; Evans, S. G.

    2004-08-01

    One hundred and one landslides were documented across 370km2 following a rainstorm that swept the British Columbia coastline on 18 November 2001. Despite the regional nature of the storm, the landslides were spaced close together, even within the study area. Landslide clustering is attributed to high intensity storm cells too small to be recorded by the general hydrometric network. The evidence nicely corroborates previous historical studies that reached similar conclusions, but against which there was no modern analog analyzed for coastal British Columbia. Magnitude-cumulative frequency data plotted well on a power law curve for landslides greater than 10000m2, however, below that size several curves would fit. The rollover effect, a point where the data is no longer represented by the power law, therefore occurs at about 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than the smallest landslide. Additional work on Vancouver Island has provided evidence for rollovers at similar values. We propose that the rollover is a manifestation of the physical conditions of landslide occurrence and process uniformity. The data was fit to a double Pareto distribution and P-P plots were generated for several data sets to examine the fit of that model. The double Pareto model describes the bulk of the data well, however, less well at the tails. For small landslides (<650m2) this may still be a product of censoring. Landscape denudation from the storm was averaged over the study area and equal to 2mm of erosion. This is more than an order of magnitude larger than the annual rate of denudation reported by other authors for coastal British Columbia, but substantially less than New Zealand. The number is somewhat affected by the rather arbitrary choice of a study area boundary.

  13. Understanding Extreme Precipitation Behaviour in British Columbia's Lower Mainland Using Historical and Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, Christina

    In British Columbia, Pineapple Express storms can lead to flooding, slope failures and negative impacts to water quality. Mitigating the impacts of extreme weather events in a changing climate requires an understanding of how local climate responds to regional-toglobal climate forcing patterns. In this study, I use historical and proxy data to identify the distinguishing characteristics of Pineapple Express storms and to develop a tree ring oxygen isotope record (1960--1995) of local climate conditions in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. I found that high magnitude Pineapple Express storms have significantly higher precipitation and streamflow than other storms types, which result in relatively high contributions of Pineapple Express storms to the annual water budget. As well, Pineapple Express precipitation is characterized by an enriched delta18O isotopic signature when compared to precipitation originating from the North Pacific Ocean. However, differences in source water do not appear to be driving the variability in tree ring delta18O ratios. Instead, tree ring isotopic values exhibit a regional climate pattern that is strongly driven by latitudinal temperature gradients and the Rayleigh distillation effect. Therefore, future warmer conditions may decrease the temperature gradient between the equator and the poles, which can be recorded in the tree ring isotope record. The results also suggest that warmer temperatures due to climate change could result in more active Pineapple Express storm seasons, with multiple PE storms happening over a short period of time. Concurrent storms significantly increase the risk to society because the resulting antecedent saturated soil conditions can trigger precipitationinduced natural hazards. Keywords: extreme weather; stable isotopes; Pineapple Express; British Columbia; climate change; tree rings.

  14. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: knowledge and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are largely preventable and can be successfully treated when diagnosed at an early stage. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their knowledge and opinions about oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia. A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%) only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Most dentists correctly identified tobacco use (99.4%) and alcohol use (90.4%) as risk factors, but fewer correctly identified factors such as the use of spicy foods (57.0%) and poor oral hygiene (46.3%) as not being risk factors. Only 42.5% identified both erythroplakia and leukoplakia, in that order, as the conditions most likely associated with oral cancer. Indices of risk and diagnostic knowledge were constructed by summing the number of correct responses to items in each domain. On 16 risk factors the mean correct score was 9.2, and on 14 diagnostic procedures the mean correct score was 10.0. Only 38.5% of dentists had consistent levels of knowledge on both indices. Differences between the provinces were statistically significant (p < 0.01) for only 2 knowledge items. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of risk and diagnostic factors for oral cancer.

  15. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: practices and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are associated with high mortality rates, a situation usually attributed to late-stage diagnosis. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their practices and opinions related to oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested, 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia (n = 817) and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia (N = 423). A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%), only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Of 8 health history items, dentists assessed 5 on average, with most (88.0%) asking about the patients' current use of tobacco. A total of 72.7% of the responding dentists performed an oral cancer examination for all edentulous patients at every appointment, but 10.9% never did so. Similarly, 70.7% of the dentists always provided an oral cancer examination at the initial appointment for patients 40 years of age and older, but 9.8% never did so. Undergraduate training related to oral cancer examination was reported as good by only 52.2% of the dentists. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses on this subject. Differences between the 2 provinces were not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of health history assessment, examination for oral and pharyngeal cancers, and risk reduction strategies, such as counselling about tobacco cessation.

  16. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R.; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007– July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013–May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (P<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3–6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. Neospora caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  17. An overview of recent large landslides in northern British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geertsema, M.; Clague, J. J.; Schwab, J. W.; Evans, S. G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the last few decades, at least twenty-four, long-runout rapid landslides, each in excess of 1 million m^3, have occurred in northern British Columbia. Fifteen of the landslides have happened within the last 10 years alone. The landslides include low- gradient rapid flowslides in cohesive sediments, rock avalanches, and complex rock slide - flowslides and rock slide - debris flows. The flowslides have occurred in a variety of sediments, including glaciolacustrine deposits, clay-rich tills, and clay-rich colluvium. The rock failures have involved weak shales overlain by sandstone, and volcanic rocks. We are cataloguing these landslides in a compendium of natural hazards for northern British Columbia. Pre- and post-landslide aerial photographs have been obtained for fifteen of the landslides, and detailed topographic maps have been generated from these photographs. In addition we have determined soil properties, including Atterberg tests for six of the flowslides. The rock avalanches occur in three types of settings: (1) dip slopes in sedimentary rocks in the Rocky Mountain foothills; (2) escarpments of flat-lying sedimentary rocks where spreading is happening; and (3) unstable cirque walls. Infrastructure and resources at risk from these types of large landslides include settlements, forest roads and highways, pipelines, fish habitat, forests, and farmland. One rock avalanche terminated within 2 km of the Alaska Highway, and a rock slide came within a few kilometres of a farm house. Most of these landslides have impounded streams or rivers, thus the hazard associated with upstream inundation and catastrophic dam failure must also be considered. There appears to be an increase in the frequency of large landslides in northern British Columbia. Is this due to climate change? Can we expect this trend to continue?

  18. Taxonomic synopsis of invasive and native Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Oregon), including the first report of Spartina ×townsendii for British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the grass genus Spartina are invading salt marshes along the Pacific coast of North America, of which three have been documented in British Columbia, Canada, in only the last decade. A taxonomic synopsis of the two native (Spartina gracilis, Spartina pectinata) and five introduced Spartina taxa (Spartina anglica, Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora, Spartina patens, Spartina ×townsendii) in the Pacific Northwest is presented to facilitate their identification, including nomenclature, a new taxonomic key, new descriptions for a subset of taxa, and representative specimens. Spartina ×townsendii is newly reported for the flora of British Columbia. The non-coastal species Spartina pectinata is reported from an urban site in British Columbia, the first confirmed report of the taxon for the province. Lectotypes are newly designated for Spartina anglica C.E. Hubb., Spartina maritima subvar. fallax St.-Yves, and Spartina cynosuroides f. major St.-Yves. PMID:22461730

  19. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    PubMed Central

    Austin, William C.; Ott, Bruce S.; Reiswig, Henry M.; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas. PMID:24146581

  20. Detecting Near-Field Tsunamis off the Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, Tania Lado; Moran, Kate

    2014-09-01

    Geological and historical records of the coast of British Columbia (BC) and orally transmitted legends from the First Nations in the area indicate the recurrence of tsunamis in this region. Recent studies show a 40% to 80% probability of a local earthquake occurring in the next 50 years over the Cascadia subduction zone, generating a tsunami run-up higher than 1.5 meters. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates ocean observatories off the west coast of BC. Smart Oceans BC is a new multifaceted program to support coastal communities and decision makers by leveraging the unique capabilities of ONC's advanced cabled ocean observatories to inform public safety, marine safety, and environmental monitoring.

  1. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  2. Sincere but naive: methodological queries concerning the British Columbia polygamy reference trial.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Sean Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Academics frequently serve as expert witnesses in legal cases, yet their role as transmitters of social scientific knowledge remains under-examined. The present study analyzes the deployment of social science within British Columbia's polygamy reference trial where research is used to support the assertion that polygamy is inherently harmful to society. Within the trial record and the written decision, the protection of monogamy as an institution is performed in part through the marginalization of qualitative methodology and the concurrent privileging of quantitative studies that purportedly demonstrate widespread social harms associated with the practice of polygyny.

  3. Middle Jurassic terrane accretion along the western edge of the Intermontane superterrane, southwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmore, Margaret E.; Potter, Christopher J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.

    1988-10-01

    Two small lower Mesozoic terranes, the Bridge River and Cadwallader, lie along the southwestern margin of the Intermontane superterrane and represent fragments of a volcanic arc and marginal basin that bordered North America in the early Mesozoic. During Middle Jurassic time, these terranes were juxtaposed and deformed. This event was synchronous with deformation in northern and central British Columbia, and it probably records accretion of the Cadwallader and Stikine volcanic arcs against Quesnellia during closure of the Bridge River-Cache Creek ocean basin.

  4. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Burger, University of Victoria, S.A. Hatch, U.S. Geological Survey, V.L. Friesen , Queen’s University, T.P. Birt, Queens University, M.L. Arimitsu, U.S...Kuletz, K.J., Burger, A.E., Hatch, S.A., Friesen , V.L., Birt, T.P. , Arimitsu, M.L., Drew, G.S., Harding, A.M.A., and K.S. Bixler, 2007, Status...British Columbia ........................................................189 Appendix E . Population Trends of the Marbled Murrelet Evident from At-Sea

  5. Medicinal plants used in British Columbia, Canada for reproductive health in pets.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals.

  6. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lichota, Gillian B; McAdie, Malcolm; Ross, Peter S

    2004-02-01

    We characterized legacy and new contaminants in the highly endangered Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) marmot and found generally low blood and fat concentrations of a complex mixture of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in their tissues. The dominance of the more volatile alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) pesticides and the lesser chlorinated PCB congeners suggests that atmospheric processes largely explain the contamination of this high-altitude herbivore.

  7. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  8. A review of catastrophic drainage of moraine-dammed lakes in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, John J.; Evans, Stephen G.

    2000-12-01

    Moraine-dammed lakes are common in the high mountains of British Columbia. Most of these lakes formed when valley and cirque glaciers retreated from advanced positions achieved during the Little Ice Age. Many moraine dams in British Columbia are susceptible to failure because they are steep-sided, have relatively low width-to-height ratios, comprise loose, poorly sorted sediment, and may contain ice cores or interstitial ice. In addition, the lakes commonly are bordered by steep slopes that are prone to snow and ice avalanches and rockfalls. Moraine dams generally fail by overtopping and incision. The triggering event may be a heavy rainstorm, or an avalanche or rockfall that generates waves that overtop the dam. The dam can also be overtopped by an influx of water caused by sudden drainage of an upstream ice-dammed lake (jökulhlaup). Melting of moraine ice cores and piping are other possible failure mechanisms. Failures of moraine dams in British Columbia produce destructive floods orders of magnitude larger than normal streamflows. Most outburst floods are characterized by an exponential increase in discharge, followed by an abrupt drop to background levels when the water supply is exhausted. Peak discharges are controlled by dam characteristics, the volume of water in the reservoir, failure mechanisms, and downstream topography and sediment availability. For the same potential energy at the dam site, floods from moraine-dammed lakes have higher peak discharges than floods from glacier-dammed lakes. The floodwaters may mobilize large amounts of sediment as they travel down steep valleys, producing highly mobile debris flows. Such flows have larger discharges and greater destructive impact than the floods from which they form. Moraine dam failures in British Columbia and elsewhere are most frequent following extended periods of cool climate when large lateral and end moraines are built. A period of protracted warming is required to trap lakes behind moraines and

  9. The effects of changing demographics on the distribution of marine anemia in farmed salmon in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Stephen, R C; Ribble, C S

    1995-09-01

    The changing geographic distribution of marine anemia (plasmacytoid leukemia) was compared with the evolving demographics of the chinook farming industry in British Columbia to explore the hypothesis that the disease had spread throughout the province between 1987 and 1992. Through retrospective and prospective methods, it was shown that the apparent spread of the disease was likely an artifact, resulting from changes in the distribution of fish farms throughout the province and corresponding changes in the intensity of regional disease surveillance. When viewed over a 5-year period, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the disease amongst fish sampled from each of the major salmon farming regions of British Columbia. By increasing the intensity of surveillance for the disease in apparently negative regions or chinook farms, one could routinely find cases of the disease. The results suggest that marine anemia is an endemic problem for farmed chinook salmon in British Columbia and is not a spreading epidemic.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of observed bark beetle-caused tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States.

    PubMed

    Meddens, Arjan J H; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Ferguson, Charles A

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting timber production, wildlife habitat, wildfire, forest composition and structure, biogeochemical cycling, and biogeophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the United States and British Columbia conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here we combined aerial surveys from British Columbia (2001 2010) and the western conterminous United States (1997-2010), produced 1-km2 grids of the area of crown mortality from bark beetle attack, and analyzed spatial and temporal patterns. We converted aerial-survey polygon data for each combination of host type and bark beetle species available in the western United States, and for each bark beetle species available in British Columbia. We converted affected area (which includes live and killed trees) to mortality area (crown area of killed trees) using species-specific crown diameters and the number (U.S.) or percentage (British Columbia) of killed trees. In the United States we also produced an upper estimate of mortality area by forcing the mortality area to match that from high-resolution imagery in Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico. Resulting adjustment factors of 3.7-20.9 illustrate the underestimate of mortality by the U.S. aerial surveys. The upper estimate, which we suggest is more realistic, better matched the spatial patterns and severity of the British Columbia mortality area. Cumulative mortality area from all bark beetles was 5.46 Mha in British Columbia in 2001-2010 and 0.47-5.37 Mha (lower and upper estimate) in the western conterminous United States during 1997-2010. We note that we report year of detection here; studies that consider year of tree mortality should shift the time series back one year. We conclude by discussing uses and limitations of these data in ecological studies, including uncertainties associated with assumptions in the methods, lack of complete coverage

  11. Climatic variability and trends in the surface waters of coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Multi-decadal records of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) collected at a set of lighthouse stations are used to examine climatic variability and trends in the coastal waters of British Columbia. Particular attention is given to relations between the water property anomalies and variability in coastal freshwater discharge and alongshore wind stress. Within the Strait of Georgia, SSS anomalies are closely related to Fraser River discharge anomalies. Along the Pacific coast, anomalies in alongshore wind stress and freshwater runoff have the characteristics of white noise processes. A cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that SST and SSS variability along the open west coast is consistent with the response of a first-order autoregressive process driven by anomalous alongshore wind stress and coastal freshwater discharge, respectively. Thus climatic variability of SST and SSS along the Pacific coast of British Columbia occurs, in part, through the integration of noisy atmospheric forcing and coastal precipitation. Seasonal correlations show that SST is strongly related to wind stress during winter and fall. Conversely, SSS is relatively weakly related to the alongshore wind during spring, suggesting that variability in upwelling makes only a modest contribution to variability of SSS in the nearshore environment. Consistent with previous studies, secular trends indicate long-term warming and freshening of the coastal ocean at most stations. It is shown that long-term SST trends can be obscured by the pronounced climatic variability of these waters, requiring that time series extend for several decades to be reliably detected.

  12. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in pacific oysters from british columbia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cindy Xin; Cao, Jiguo; Bendell, Leah

    2011-09-01

    Oysters from the Pacific Northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, contain high levels of cadmium, in some cases exceeding some international food safety guidelines. A primary goal of this article is the investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations for oysters sampled from coastal British Columbia. Such information is important so that recommendations can be made as to where and when oysters can be cultured such that accumulation of cadmium within these oysters is minimized. Some modern statistical methods are applied to achieve this goal, including monotone spline smoothing, functional principal component analysis, and semi-parametric additive modeling. Oyster growth rates are estimated as the first derivatives of the monotone smoothing growth curves. Some important patterns in cadmium accumulation by oysters are observed. For example, most inland regions tend to have a higher level of cadmium concentration than most coastal regions, so more caution needs to be taken for shellfish aquaculture practices occurring in the inland regions. The semi-parametric additive modeling shows that oyster cadmium concentration decreases with oyster length, and oysters sampled at 7 m have higher average cadmium concentration than those sampled at 1 m.

  13. Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ruth R.; Langille, Morgan G. I.; Montoya, Vincent; Crisan, Anamaria; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Martin, Irene; Patrick, David M.; Romney, Marc; Tyrrell, Gregory; Jones, Steven J. M.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Tang, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST) 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome. PMID:27366170

  14. Supply and distribution of primary healthcare registered nurses in british columbia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sabrina T; Watson, Diane E; Young, Ella; Mooney, Dawn

    2009-11-01

    WHAT DID WE DO?: This study uses an existing data source to (a) describe the population and geographic distribution of registered nurses (RNs) working in primary healthcare (PHC) in British Columbia, (b) compare this workforce to PHC physicians and (c) assess the distribution of PHC-RNs relative to population health status. WHAT DID WE LEARN?: Of the 27,570 practising RNs in British Columbia in 2000, there were 3,179 (12%) in the PHC workforce. This translates into 147 people per practising RN and 1,277 people per PHC-RN. In 2000, there were 990 people per PHC physician. PHC-RNs represented 43% of the combined PHC workforce of physicians and RNs. A large proportion (47%) of PHC-RNs worked in community health centres, whereas less than 2% worked in physicians' offices. Geographic distribution of PHC-RNs is similar to the distribution of PHC physicians and is not associated with population health status. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS?: There seem to be sufficient PHC-RNs to implement policy objectives in support of interdisciplinary PHC teams, but physicians and nurses will increasingly need to practice in the same location or have access to electronic information systems to support coordination, continuity and comprehensiveness of PHC. The PHC workforce could be better deployed to align with population health status.

  15. Hydrocarbon concentrations and patterns in free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Nichol, Linda M; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    With oil pollution recognized as a major threat to British Columbia's recovering sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population, it is important to distinguish acute from chronic exposures to oil constituent groups in this marine mammal. Concentrations and patterns of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in blood samples from 29 live-captured sea otters in two coastal areas of British Columbia, as well as in representative samples of their invertebrate prey. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sea otters were similar between areas and among age and sex classes, suggesting that metabolism dominates the fate of these compounds in sea otters. Biomagnification factors derived from PAH ratios in otter:prey supported this notion. Although some higher alkylated three- and four-ring PAHs appeared to biomagnify, the majority of PAHs did not. The apparent retention of alkyl PAHs was reflected in the composition of estimated sea otter body burdens, which provided an alternative way of evaluating hydrocarbon exposure. Alkyl PAHs made up 86 ± 9% of estimated body burdens (4,340 ± 2,950 µg), with no differences between males and females (p = 0.18). The importance of measuring both parent and alkyl PAHs is underscored by their divergent dynamics in sea otters, with ready depuration of parent PAHs (metabolized or excreted) by sea otters on the one hand and biomagnification of alkyl PAHs on the other.

  16. Does Sex Matter? Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Cougar-Human Conflict in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Teichman, Kristine J.; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978–2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998–2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312

  17. Observations and Numerical Modeling of the 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami off the Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Isaac V.; Cherniawsky, Josef Y.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Krassovski, Maxim V.

    2015-03-01

    A major ( M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (L eonard and B ednarski 2014). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (L eonard and B ednarski 2014) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region.

  18. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Lourenco, Grant; Georges, Karla

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC). A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy. PMID:16893454

  20. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Lourenco, Grant; Georges, Karla

    2006-08-07

    This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC). A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  2. Response to ‘Discussion: “Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada”’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenagan, J. Donald

    2014-03-01

    A response is given to 'Discussion: “Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada”'. Emphasis is made that the main purpose of the paper under discussion is to present the recognition of a distinctive landscape pattern in central British Columbia that appears to be an immense anastomosing channel network. A channel network of the magnitude described requires a large magnitude of flowing water to form it. Thus, that recognizable landscape pattern and associated upland landform shapes can be explained as products of water erosion. Such landscape patterns are observed being formed by water today.

  3. British Columbia Jurisdictional Report Submitted to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada for the Period April 1, 2006-March 31, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) during the period April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007. Its purpose is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of the steps taken in British Columbia to improve student mobility and credit transfer in…

  4. British Columbia Jurisdictional Report to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada for the Period April 1, 2008-March 31, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) during the period April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Its purpose is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of the steps taken in British Columbia to improve student mobility and credit transfer in…

  5. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupp, Linda; Zajac, David

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a profile of undergraduate transfer students admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia from British Columbia colleges over the five-year fiscal period, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (Summer 2003 to Winter 2008). It includes a general profile of BC college transfer students, their academic performance while at UNBC, and a…

  6. Transfer Credit Assessment for B.C. College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia in the 1997/98 Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reh-Bosch, Susan; Atkins, Lorraine

    This report assesses the transfer credit process for British Columbia (BC) college transfer applicants to the University of British Columbia (UBC). Results indicate that students are earning on average 49.7 credits from the BC college attended and are being granted an average of 42.2 credits when transferring to UBC. This translated into 84.9% of…

  7. Articulation Committee Handbook: A Guide to the Mandate and Operations of Provincial Post-Secondary Articulation Committees in British Columbia. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This handbook, created by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT), serves as a guide to individuals who serve on postsecondary articulation committees in British Columbia. The handbook is divided into four parts. Part A includes a chart detailing the major activities of BCCAT and a description of the membership, purpose,…

  8. Description and Analysis of School District Consultation Processes during Phase 1 of the British Columbia Year-Round School Study Project: A Study Conducted for the British Columbia Ministry of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Linda; Shields, Carolyn

    In July 1994, the British Columbia Ministry of Education invited proposals from school districts interested in studying the feasibility of year-round schools (YRS). This paper presents findings of a study of six partner school districts, each of which implemented its project independently of others while engaging in cross-district collaboration.…

  9. Forecasting Impacts of Climate Change on Indicators of British Columbia's Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Keith Richard

    Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected

  10. The Public-Private Partnership That Built a "Traditional" School: A Case Study from British Columbia. SAEE Research Series #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel

    This study examines the management and outcome of the public-private partnerships (P3s) school construction project used in the Auguston housing development in Abbotsford, British Columbia to build a traditionally-designed elementary school. The study explored the relationship between the project's major players, the fiscal incentives that drove…

  11. Notions of Literacy in the K-12 School System in British Columbia Education since 2002: A Contested Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Developing literacy competencies has become a central component of educational policy in British Columbia (BC), with policies calling for province-wide assessment and school accountability. Based on the critical policy analysis (Blaikie & Soussan, 2000) of provincial and school district documents, complemented by semi-structured interviews of…

  12. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.

  13. Private Career Colleges. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes private colleges serving adults which since 1936 have been required to register with the provincial government of British Columbia, Canada or, since 1993, with a regulatory body created by the government. The sector has always included career colleges, but registration was expanded temporarily in the 1990s to include all…

  14. Education Funding: A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Students in British Columbia are being shortchanged in comparison to students elsewhere in Canada. The teachers of BC are urgently appealing to the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services to recommend to government sufficient increases in education funding to reverse this situation and provide more educational services to BC…

  15. Post-Baccalaureate Programs. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This report describes programs that require a bachelor's degree, not necessarily in the same field, for entry to the program. They are equivalent to at least one semester of full-time study, with at least some of the instruction delivered face-to-face in British Columbia, Canada. Graduate programs, professional programs such as law and medicine,…

  16. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  17. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  18. Connecting to the Art Market from Home: An Exploration of First Nations Artists in Alert Bay, British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Margaret R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, Northwest Coast First Nations artists have been active participants in local and external economic markets. In Alert Bay, British Columbia, home of the 'Namgis People of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation, artists have sold their work in urban centers since the 1950s. Now they are more rigorously involved in selling their work to local shops…

  19. Bending the Bars of the Identity Cage: Amy Brown and the Development of Teacher Identity in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, Amy (Brown) Dauphinee took up her first teaching appointment at Tate Creek, British Columbia where 518 refugees had recently settled after fleeing Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. Amy--an avowed Social Democrat and member of the Young Socialist League--quickly embraced the refugees who were largely trade union activists and Social…

  20. Preschooler Study: The Medical, Social and Economic Correlates of Poverty in Preschool Children of British Columbia. A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkin, Roger S.; And Others

    Over 200 families from lower and middle income areas of British Columbia, including a group representing the Indian communities, were studied in this effort to examine poverty as it relates to families, especially to young children. A wide variety of health, social, and economic variables were examined in the hope of developing output criteria for…

  1. Missing XX Chromosomes or Gender In/equity in Design and Technology Education? The Case of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braundy, Marcia; O'Riley, Pat; Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen; Paxton, Anabelle

    2000-01-01

    Presents data demonstrating the disproportionately low numbers of female technology teachers, teacher educators, and students in British Columbia. Discusses recruiting inequities, history of gendering in industrial technology classrooms, and resistance to gender-specific interventions. Outlines a technology education curriculum for all students.…

  2. Evaluation of the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP) for Senior Elementary and Alternative School Students in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.; Meehan, George

    This study evaluated the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP), a 13-hour curriculum for senior elementary school and secondary school alternative program at-risk students in British Columbia, Canada. The program provides students with information about automobile crime and its costs, consequences, and prevention. It promotes positive…

  3. Adult Basic Education in British Columbia's Public Post-Secondary Institutions. An Articulation Handbook. 2007-2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This is the twenty-second edition of the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Articulation Handbook for British Columbia's public postsecondary institutions. The purpose of ABE articulation is to ensure learners have access to quality courses, receive appropriate credits and are able to transfer easily among publicly-funded colleges, university colleges,…

  4. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  5. Accountability Synopticism: How a Think Tank and the Media Developed a Quasimarket for School Choice in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Michael; Webb, P. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a locally developed school ranking system affected student enrolment patterns in British Columbia over time. In developing an annual school "report card" that was published in newspapers and online, the Vancouver-based Fraser Institute created a marketplace for school choice by devising an accountability scheme…

  6. The Emerging Fourth Tier in K-12 Education Finance in British Columbia, Canada: Increasing Privatisation and Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy; Fallon, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines increasing privatisation of education in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Conceptually, the paper is informed by theories of privatisation and social justice; and methodologically, it uses policy analysis to examine documents and financial records obtained from government departments. The paper critically analyses…

  7. Evidence for underthrusting beneath the Queen Charlotte Margin, British Columbia, from teleseismic receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustin, A. M. M.; Hyndman, R. D.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault zone is the transpressive boundary between the North America and Pacific Plates along the northwestern margin of British Columbia. Two models have been suggested for the accommodation of the ~20 mm yr-1 of convergence along the fault boundary: (1) underthrusting; (2) internal crustal deformation. Strong evidence supporting an underthrusting model is provided by a detailed teleseismic receiver function analysis that defines the underthrusting slab. Forward and inverse modelling techniques were applied to receiver function data calculated at two permanent and four temporary seismic stations within the Queen Charlotte Islands. The modelling reveals a ~10 km thick low-velocity zone dipping eastward at 28° interpreted to be underthrusting oceanic crust. The oceanic crust is located beneath a thin (28 km) eastward thickening (10°) continental crust.

  8. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of Cryptococcus gattii cases: Lessons learned from British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Eleni; Hoang, Linda; Kibsey, Pamela; Morshed, Muhammad; Phillips, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The environmental fungus Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), in 1999. By the end of 2006, it led to 176 cases and eight deaths – one of the highest burdens of C gattii disease worldwide. The present paper describes three cases, and the BC experience in the diagnosis and management of this infection. All three cases presented with pulmonary findings, including cryptococcomas and infiltrates. One also presented with brain cryptococcomas. Cases were diagnosed by chest and brain imaging, and laboratory evidence including serum or cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen detection and culture of respiratory or cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Genotyping of fungal isolates confirmed infection with C gattii VGIIa. Pulmonary cases were treated with fluconazole. One patient with central nervous system disease was treated with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole. Although this infection remains rare, clinicians should be aware of it in patients with a compatible clinical presentation who are either living in or returning from a trip to BC. PMID:20190892

  9. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system.

  10. Thickness of unconsolidated deposits of the Puget Sound aquifer system, Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Puget-Willamette Lowland is located in western Washington, western Oregon, and a small part of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. The Puget-Willamette Lowland study area is composed of two distinct subareas, the Puget Sound Lowland and the Willamette Lowland. This report presents the results of mapping the thickness of the unconsolidated deposits in the Puget Sound Lowland. The thickness of the unconsolidated deposits ranges from a discontinuous veneer in areas of bedrock outcrop to more than 3,600 feet. Available information shows that the unconsolidated deposits are thickest in the Fraser-Whatcom, Everett, Seattle, and Tacoma Basins. The mapped thickness of the unconsolidated deposits in the Tacoma Basin is probably underestimated because of the scarcity of wells penetrating the full thickness of the unconsolidated deposits and the lack of sufficient marine-seismic data.

  11. Decomposition of carrion in the marine environment in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G S; Hobischak, N R

    2004-08-01

    Decomposition of carrion in the marine environment is not well understood. This research involved the decomposition of pig carcasses in Howe Sound in British Columbia. Freshly killed pigs were submerged at two depths, 7.6 m and 15.2 m. The carcasses were tethered so that they could float or sink, but not drift away. Observations were made from May until October. Decomposition was more greatly influenced by sediment type of the sea floor and whether the carcass remained floating, than by depth. Decomposition stages were modified in the marine environment from that seen on land, or in freshwater and were similar to those reported in human death investigations in the marine environment.

  12. Freshwater Microbialites of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada: A Limnological Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; McKay, C. P.; Laval, B.; Bird, J.; Cady, S.

    2004-01-01

    Pavillion Lake is 5.7km long and an average of 0.8 km in width, and is located in Marble Canyon in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake with a maximum-recorded depth of 65m. The basin walls of Pavilion Lake are lined with microbialite structures that are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline, and which are found from depths of 5 meters to the bottom of the photic zone (light levels 1% of ambient; approximately 30m depth). These structures are speculated to have begun formation nearly 11,000 years ago, after the glacial retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. They are likely a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, which display micromorphologies possibly related to the ancient Epiphyton and Girvanella classes of calcareous organosedimentary structures.

  13. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  14. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis in British Columbia associated with imported Thai basil.

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, L. M. N.; Fyfe, M.; Ong, C.; Harb, J.; Champagne, S.; Dixon, B.; Isaac-Renton, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, a common cause of protracted diarrhoea in underdeveloped countries, are often undetected and undiagnosed in industrial countries. In May 2001, an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis gastroenteritis was identified in British Columbia, Canada, with 17 reported cases. We conducted a case-control study involving 12 out of the 17 reported and confirmed case patients. Eleven (92%) of the patients had consumed Thai basil, an essential ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine, compared to 3 out of 16 (19%) of the control patients (P = 0.003). Trace-back investigations implicated Thai basil imported via the United States as the vehicle for this outbreak. This is the first documented sporadic outbreak of cyclosporiasis linked to Thai basil in Canada, and the first outbreak of cyclosporiasis identified in an ethnic immigrant population. This outbreak provides the opportunity to increase our understanding of this emerging pathogen and improve on our prevention and control for future outbreaks. PMID:15724706

  15. Outbreak of cyclosporiasis in British Columbia associated with imported Thai basil.

    PubMed

    Hoang, L M N; Fyfe, M; Ong, C; Harb, J; Champagne, S; Dixon, B; Isaac-Renton, J

    2005-02-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, a common cause of protracted diarrhoea in underdeveloped countries, are often undetected and undiagnosed in industrial countries. In May 2001, an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis gastroenteritis was identified in British Columbia, Canada, with 17 reported cases. We conducted a case-control study involving 12 out of the 17 reported and confirmed case patients. Eleven (92%) of the patients had consumed Thai basil, an essential ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine, compared to 3 out of 16 (19%) of the control patients (P = 0.003). Trace-back investigations implicated Thai basil imported via the United States as the vehicle for this outbreak. This is the first documented sporadic outbreak of cyclosporiasis linked to Thai basil in Canada, and the first outbreak of cyclosporiasis identified in an ethnic immigrant population. This outbreak provides the opportunity to increase our understanding of this emerging pathogen and improve on our prevention and control for future outbreaks.

  16. Assessing the breast cancer risk distribution for women undergoing screening in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Weisstock, Christina R; Rajapakshe, Rasika; Bitgood, Christabelle; McAvoy, Steven; Gordon, Paula B; Coldman, Andrew J; Parker, Brent A; Wilson, Christine

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer risk estimations are both informative and useful at the population level, with many screening programs relying on these assessments to allocate resources such as breast MRI. This cross-sectional multicenter study attempts to quantify the breast cancer risk distribution for women between the ages of 40 to 79 years undergoing screening mammography in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The proportion of women at high breast cancer risk was estimated by surveying women enrolled in the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) for known breast cancer risk factors. Each respondent's 10-year risk was computed with both the Tyrer-Cuzick and Gail risk assessment models. The resulting risk distributions were evaluated using the guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (United Kingdom). Of the 4,266 women surveyed, 3.5% of women between the ages of 40 to 79 years were found to have a high 10-year risk of developing breast cancer using the Tyrer-Cuzick model (1.1% using the Gail model). When extrapolated to the screening population, it was estimated that 19,414 women in the SMPBC are considered to be at high breast cancer risk. These women may benefit from additional MRI screening; preliminary analysis suggests that 4 to 5 additional MRI machines would be required to screen these high-risk women. However, the use of different models and guidelines will modify the number of women qualifying for additional screening interventions, thus impacting the MRI resources required. The results of this project can now be used to inform decision-making groups about resource allocation for breast cancer screening in BC.

  17. Mental health, job satisfaction, and intention to relocate. Opinions of physicians in rural British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    Thommasen, H. V.; Lavanchy, M.; Connelly, I.; Berkowitz, J.; Grzybowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of depression and burnout among family physicians working in British Columbia's Northern and Isolation Allowance communities. Current level of satisfaction with work and intention to move were also investigated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mailed survey. SETTING: Family practices in rural communities eligible for British Columbia's Northern and Isolation Allowance. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of family physicians practising in rural BC communities. Initial response rate was 66% (131/198 surveys returned); excluding physicians on leave and in temporary situations and those who received duplicate mailings gave a corrected response rate of 92% (131/142 surveys returned). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographics; self-reported depression and burnout; Beck Depression Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scores; job satisfaction; and intention to leave. RESULTS: Self-reported depression rate was 29%; the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 31% of physicians suffered from mild to severe depression. About 13% of physicians reported taking antidepressants in the past 5 years. Self-reported burnout rate was 55%; the Maslach Burnout Inventory showed that 80% of physicians suffered from moderate-to-severe emotional exhaustion, 61% suffered from moderate-to-severe depersonalization, and 44% had moderate-to-low feelings of personal accomplishment. Depression scores correlated with emotional exhaustion scores. More than half the respondents were considering relocation. CONCLUSION: Physicians working in these communities suffer from high levels of depression and very high levels of burnout and are dissatisfied with their current jobs. More than half are considering relocating. Intention to move is strongly associated with poor mental health. PMID:11340754

  18. Spatial analysis of mass wasting and topography in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y.; Sjogren, D.

    2003-04-01

    The large inventory of mass wasting data collected by Gimbarzevsky (1988) for the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia is an exceptional data base. The archipelago is located approximately 80 km off the coast of British Columbia and is seismically active, having the potential for earthquakes of large magnitude. The climate is mild, wet (1300 to 3600 mm/yr) and very windy. These factors together contribute to a high frequency of landsliding. The inventory consists of 8328 debris slides, debris avalanches, debris flows and debris torrents. Identification and characterization of events were based on 1:50 000 panchromatic aerial photographs and 1:50 000 map sheets. UTM grid cells of area 1 km^2 were used to classify landslide attributes, such as gradient and aspect. Since the original analysis was undertaken, significant advances have been made in the availability of topographic data and techniques to assess the spatial distribution of mass wasting events and associated landscape attributes. The mass wasting events, originally plotted on 1:50 000 NTS map sheets, are digitized and transferred to the 25-m DEM available for the Queen Charlotte Islands. This format allows for improved analysis of the original data base and, in particular, landscape attributes which may affect mass wasting frequency. Sensitivity analysis is undertaken to explore the effects of improved topographic resolution on results. In addition, the GIS format allows us to extend the original analysis using the sophisticated analytical techniques now available. Gimbarzevsky, P. (1988) Mass Wasting on the Queen Charlotte Islands: A Regional Inventory, BC Ministry of Forests and Lands, Land Management Report, 29, 96 pp.

  19. Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 μg/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90

  20. Standing at the crossroads: Identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, Thomas

    Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis

  1. Diatom Records of Holocene Environmental and Climatic Change in Southeastern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, K. S.; Gavin, D. G.; Fritz, S. C.; Hu, F.; Roschen, L. A.

    2004-12-01

    The sediments of three lakes, spanning a latitudinal gradient and situated within the Interior Cedar-Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone of southeast British Columbia, have been analyzed for independent records of Holocene climate and vegetation history in order to evaluate the role of climate as a control on range expansion of western hemlock and western redcedar. Holocene climate reconstructions are based on multiple proxies, including the diatom and biogenic silica stratigraphies presented here. To our knowledge, these sites provide the first continuous Holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic records from the region between the Interior Plateau and the Rocky Mountains. Stratigraphic variability in the diatom sedimentary records reflects lake response to changes in water balance, catchment development, and atmospheric inputs of silica (i.e. volcanic ash). At Eleanor Lake, the diatom record shows significant assemblage shifts at ˜7500, 6300, and 3700 cal yr BP. Increased abundance of planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatoms and an increase in the abundance of chrysophyte cysts relative to diatoms at 6300 cal yr BP is consistent with an increase in effective moisture at this time. At Mirror Lake, in the south, an assemblage dominated by small benthic species is replaced by a predominantly planktonic assemblage at 6900 cal yr BP, suggesting an earlier increase in lake level. After 6000 cal yr BP, planktonic diatoms further increase in dominance. These dates are consistent with reconstructions of Holocene climate in south-central British Columbia, which suggest a shift to moister conditions ca. 7000 to 6000 cal yr BP. The pollen record indicates the expansion of western hemlock and western redcedar near Mirror Lake at 3550 cal yr BP and 3250 cal yr BP respectively. At Eleanor Lake, hemlock expansion is dated at 4350 cal yr BP. The data indicate a difference of 1950 to > 3000 years between the lacustrine record of increased effective moisture and the vegetation response and

  2. Modeling the Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia, Canada with 3D Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinonez, S. M.; Olaya, J. C.; Miller, K. C.; Romero, R.; Velasco, A. A.; Harder, S. H.; Cerda, I.

    2011-12-01

    The Coast Mountains Batholith on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada comprises a series of granitic to tonalitic plutons; where felsic continental crust is generated from the subduction of mafic oceanic crust by partial melting and fractionation, leaving ultra-mafic roots. In July of 2009, a large controlled-source experiment was conducted along a 400km east - west transect from Bella Bella into central British Columbia. Student volunteers from multiple universities deployed 1,800 one-component and 200 three-component geophones plus 2400 Texan data recorders with 200-m spacing intervals and shot spacing at 30-km. The 18-point sources ranged from 160 to 1,000 kg of high explosive. The geoscience component of the NSF-funded Cyber-ShARE project at UTEP focuses on fusing models developed from different data sets to develop 3-D Earth models. Created in 2007, the Cyber-ShARE Center brings together experts in computer science, computational mathematics, education, earth science, and environmental science. We leverage the Cyber-ShARE work to implement an enhanced 3-D finite difference tomography approach for P-wave delays times (Hole, 1992) with a graphical user interface and visualization framework. In particular, to account for model sensitivity to picked P-wave arrival times, we use a model fusion approach (Ochoa et al., 2010) to generate a model with the lowest RMS residual that a combination of a set of Monte Carlo sample models. In order to make the seismic tomography process more interactive at many points, visualizations of model perturbation at each iteration will help to troubleshoot when a model is not converging to highlight where the RMS residual values are the highest to pinpoint where changes need to be made to achieve model convergence. Finally, a model of the upper mantle using 3-D P-wave tomography will be made to determine the location of these ultra-mafic roots.

  3. Ecological risk of pesticide residues in the British Columbia environment: 1973-2012.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    An updated ecological risk assessment was conducted to re-evaluate and review the overall risk of pesticide residues to certain aquatic life. The focus was the impact on offsite non-target, freshwater organisms of pesticide operational sprays in British Columbia from 1973 until 2012. The values of risk quotients for pesticides of selected indicator organisms were determined to measure the effect. When compared with organophosphorus, carbamate, and other miscellaneous pesticides, this risk assessment analysis suggests that the historical use of persistent and highly toxic organochlorine pesticides posed, and continue to pose, a deleterious ecological risk. The risk is both short-term acute and long-term sub-acute, chronic toxicity to offsite, non-target aquatic invertebrates and juvenile salmonid fish. Data indicated that these organisms were, and remain, subjected to harmful effects of pesticide residues to varying degrees. Most vulnerable were, and also are, benthic organisms inhabiting bottom sediments. This substrate is the natural sink for persistent pesticide residues, predominantly organochlorine pesticides from historical use, as well as dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood preservatives, and other sources. Environment Canada's main aquatic protection strategy was a 10 metre no-treatment buffer zone, augmented with an additional appropriate setback along shorelines of fishery and wildlife resource-sensitive water bodies. This study discusses why this guideline was necessary, useful and effective, but was only partially successful. The physical-chemical properties of pesticide residues, from either an individual compound or different compounds in combination, also influence the nature of biological impacts on non-target, aquatic organisms. Few studies have been conducted in British Columbia aquatic environments to investigate the significance of this aspect.

  4. Observations of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami on the Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) of 11 March 2011 generated highly catastrophic tsunami waves that reached runup heights of up to 40 m along the coast of Japan and were recorded by numerous coastal tide gauges and bottom pressure stations throughout the Pacific Ocean. Near the coast of British Columbia (BC), the tsunami was measured by 15 permanent tide gauges, including gauges located well inside the Strait of Georgia and at Patricia Bay in Saanich Inlet (the site of the Institute of Ocean Sciences, IOS). Tsunami waves were also recorded by 5 temporary tide gauges within Victoria Harbour waterways (Gorge and Portage inlets), by 4 NEPTUNE-Canada bottom cable observatories on the Vancouver Island shelf and by 3 VENUS bottom pressure recorders within Saanich Inlet. Maximum tsunami wave heights observed on the outer BC coast were 1.0-1.5 m, while those within the sheltered basins of the inner coast were about ten times lower. The tsunami wave signal was also observed in the temperature, salinity and current velocity records of CTDs and an ADCP installed in an anoxic Canadian fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island. The collected data enabled us to examine the statistical and spectral properties of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on the coast of British Columbia and to estimate the relative tsunami risk for this coast from distant earthquakes. The tsunami record from the deepest NEPTUNE (CORK) station was used as the input function for the IOS regional tsunami forecast model. The computed and observed tsunami wave forms for this event were in good agreement.

  5. Microbiological survey of locally grown lettuce sold at farmers' markets in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jayde L; Chen, Jessica C; Friesen, Elsie; Delaquis, Pascal; Allen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumer demand for fresh leafy produce has been paralleled by an increase in outbreaks and illness associated with these foods. Presently, data on the microbiological quality and safety of produce harvested in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia is lacking. Therefore, fresh green, red, and romaine lettuce samples (n = 68) were obtained from five regional farmers' markets in late summer of 2012 and subsequently analyzed to determine total numbers of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Additionally, enrichment procedures were used to detect low concentrations of E. coli. Obtained E. coli isolates were subjected to multiplex PCRs to determine phylogenetic groupings and the presence of virulence genes (eaeA, hlyA, stx1, and stx2). All E. coli were tested for resistance to 15 antibiotics using a disk diffusion assay. Lettuce samples yielded mean aerobic colony counts of 6.3 log CFU/g. Coliforms were detected in 72% of samples, with a median concentration of 1.9 log CFU/g. Of samples, 13% were found to harbor E. coli, with a median level of 0.7 log CFU/g. Antibiogram typing of all E. coli (n = 33) revealed that 97% possessed resistance to one or more antimicrobials, with resistance to amikacin (58%), trimethoprim (48%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (45%) being the most common. Phylogroup typing showed that 79% of these isolates belonged to group B1, with the remaining assigned to groups A (9%) or D (12%); no virulence genes were detected. Considering that phylogroup indicators suggestive of fecal contamination (groups A and D E. coli) were recovered in lettuce samples presented at retail, further work is required to explore at what point along the food chain contamination occurs. Also, this study shows the presence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in fresh vegetables. Summed, these data provide important information on the microbiological quality of leafy vegetables grown in British Columbia through the detection and characterization of

  6. Beyond Consultation: First Nations and the Governance of Shale Gas in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvie, Kathryn Henderson

    As the province of British Columbia seeks to rapidly develop an extensive natural gas industry, it faces a number of challenges. One of these is that of ensuring that development does not disproportionately impact some of the province's most marginalized communities: the First Nations on whose land extraction will take place. This is particularly crucial given that environmental problems are often caused by unjust and inequitable social conditions that must be rectified before sustainable development can be advanced. This research investigates how the BC Oil and Gas Commission's consultation process addresses, and could be improved to better address Treaty 8 First Nations' concerns regarding shale gas development within their traditional territories. Interviews were conducted with four Treaty 8 First Nations, the Treaty 8 Tribal Association, and provincial government and industry staff. Additionally, participant observation was conducted with the Fort Nelson First Nation Lands and Resources Department. Findings indicate that like many other resource consultation processes in British Columbia, the oil and gas consultation process is unable to meaningfully address First Nations' concerns and values due to fundamental procedural problems, including the permit-by-permit approach and the exclusion of First Nations from the point of decision-making. Considering the government's failure to regulate the shale gas industry in a way that protects ecological, social and cultural resilience, we argue that new governance mechanisms are needed that reallocate authority to First Nations and incorporate proposals for early engagement, long-term planning and cumulative impact assessment and monitoring. Additionally, considering the exceptional power differential between government, industry and First Nations, we argue that challenging industry's social license to operate is an important strategy for First Nations working to gain greater influence over development within their

  7. Trends in AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia between 1981 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Viviane D.; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Phillips, Peter; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can markedly decrease the risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterize the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and in the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We included data of 3550 HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from different administrative databases in BC. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time using a Negative Binomial model, and we investigated trends in the percentage of all deaths associated with AIDS using generalized additive models. Findings The number of ADIs has decreased dramatically to its lowest level in 2013. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in BC happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs being reported (rate 42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (rate 7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (rate 1 per 100 person-years) (p-value equals to zero for the trend in the number of ADIs). We have also shown that out of 22 ADIs considered, only PCP maintained its prominent ranking (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). Finally, we observed that over time very few deaths were related to AIDS-related causes, especially in the most recent years. Interpretation We showed that the number of new ADIs and AIDS-related mortality have been decreasing rapidly over time in BC. These results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programs that facilitate testing, and deliver treatment and care to this population can be effective in markedly decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that controlling and eventually ending AIDS is possible. Funding The British Columbia Ministry of Health, the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Michael Institute for

  8. Comparison of gridded snow water equivalent products with in situ measurements in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.

    2016-10-01

    Regional-scale estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) are challenging in alpine regions, particularly in areas of high accumulation and dense forest cover, suggesting efforts to improve these estimates may benefit from an evaluation of existing gridded products. Gridded SWE products comprising four reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and MERRA-Land), two land data assimilation system datasets (GLDAS1 and GLDAS2) and two observation-based products (CMC and GlobSnow) have been compared with in-situ measurements over five physiographic regions in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Time series were generated for each survey month (January through June), and median correlation, bias and mean absolute error (MAE) values were found for each product and physiographic region. The best performance in correlation and magnitude of bias and MAE was seen in areas of lowest SWE accumulation and land relief (e.g. the Interior Plains of northern BC), while poorer performance was seen in regions of high accumulation and complex topography (Columbia and Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains). Overall, the performance ranking order is ERA-Interim/Land (best), GLDAS2, MERRA, CMC, GLDAS1, MERRA-Land, GlobSnow and ERA-Interim.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Observed Bark Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality in Western United States and British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Ferguson, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting wildlife habitat, wildfire risk, forest recovery, biogeochemical cycling, and biophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the US and British Columbia are concerned about monitoring outbreaks and so conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here, we describe a gridded product of bark beetle disturbances for the western conterminous United States (1997-2009) and British Columbia (2001-2009). We converted aerial survey polygon data into 1-km2 grids for each combination of host type (e.g., lodgepole pine) and bark beetle species (e.g., mountain pine beetle) available in the US, and for each bark beetle species available in British Columbia. Polygon data are considered "affected area" because the polygons include live and killed trees. We converted affected area to mortality area within each grid cell for each year. We compared the number of killed trees from the US data set with high-resolution classified imagery in Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico, finding that the number of trees reported by the aerial surveys in these locations was substantially underestimated. We adjusted mortality area for the US and found better matches with the spatial patterns and severity of the British Columbia mortality area. As a result, we produced US grids for lower (from the original aerial survey) and upper (with adjustment) estimates. Bark beetle mortality occurred across the entire study domain and temporal and spatial patterns differed among bark beetle species. The calculated mortality area from all bark beetles combined was 0.42 million ha for the lower estimate and 5.04 million ha for the upper estimate in the western conterminous US from 1997 to 2009, and 5.07 million ha in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009. The analyses suggest that mortality area caused by bark beetles in the western conterminous US exceeded the British Columbia mortality

  10. Trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia, and at Columbia Falls, Montana, water years, 1975-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data for selected water quality variables were evaluated for trends at two sampling stations--Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia (Flathead station) and Flathead River at Columbia Falls, Montana (Columbia Falls station). The results were compared between stations. The analyses included data from water years 1975-86 at the Flathead station and water years 1979-86 at the Columbia Falls station. The seasonal Kendall test was applied to adjusted concentrations for variables related to discharge and to unadjusted concentrations for the remaining variables. Slope estimates were made for variables with significant trends unless data were reported as less than the detection limit. At the Flathead station, concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (total and dissolved), total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus increased during the study period. Concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and dissolved iron decreased during the same period. At the Columbia Falls station, concentrations increased for calcium and magnesium and decreased for sulfate and dissolved phosphorus. No trends were detected for 10 other variables tested at each station. Data for the Flathead station were reanalyzed for water years 1979-86. Trends in the data increased for magnesium and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and decreased for dissolved iron. Magnesium was the only variable that displayed a trend (increasing) at both stations. The increasing trends that were detected probably will not adversely affect the water quality of the Flathead River in the near future. (USGS)

  11. The Bowser and Sustut Basins, Northern British Columbia, Canada: Insights From Analysis of Magnetic Anomaly Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J.; Lowe, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Bowser and Sustut basins occupy an area of more than 60,000 km2 in northern British Columbia, Canada. They comprise three, dominantly sedimentary, stratigraphic successions, in part overlapping in age: the Bowser Lake Group, the Skeena Group, and the Sustut Group. These three successions overlie arc volcanic and volcaniclastic strata of Stikinia, an allochtonous island arc terrane that accreted to the western margin of North America in the Early Jurassic to early Middle Jurassic. All three basin successions and underlying Stikinia were deformed during development of a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt (the Skeena Fold and Thrust Belt) in Cretaceous and possibly into earliest Tertiary time. Recently, the basins have been the focus of intense geological studies which have resulted in major revisions to the stratigraphic and structural framework of the basins and demonstrated that they have significantly higher petroleum potential than had been previously recognized. To advance these new findings further requires better imaging of the three-dimensional geometry and architecture of the basins. In this study we harness existing magnetic anomaly data to provide the first quantitative estimates of sedimentary thickness across the entire extents of both basins. Our results, which are in general in accord with geological interpretations, indicate that basin-fill is relatively thin and fairly uniform in the Sustut Basin (2.5-3 km), but highly variable in the Bowser Basin, ranging from less than 2 km to more than 6 km. Overall, sedimentary fill is thicker in the northern half of Bowser Basin compared to the south and is typically less than 2 km near the basins northern, western and southern margins. In addition, we demonstrate how a large, buried intrusion beneath the northeast part of Bowser Basin can account for an observed magnetic anomaly and explain the high coalification gradients and localized high maturation levels of the overlying sedimentary rocks. Neither of

  12. The British Columbia Positive Women's Survey: a detailed profile of 110 HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, C M; Lobb, D J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about HIV testing, health status and medical treatment, use of health care services, degree of satisfaction with medical care and psychosocial stressors. RESULTS: Most of the women surveyed were aged 25 to 39 years (70.0%), were Canadian born (76.4%) and were white (80.9%). Over one-third did not complete high school, and half had an annual household income of less than $20,000. Of the 110 women 51.8% had children, who were HIV-positive in 12.3% of cases. The most frequently reported risk factor for HIV infection was sex with a man (49.1%); 19.1% reported both sex with a man and injection drug use, and 12.7% reported injection drug use only. Seventy-five women indicated that they had become infected through sex with a man, with or without injection drug use. Of these, 65 indicated whether or not this was the result of sexual assault or rape; 8 (12.3%) answered affirmatively. Of the 81 women who responded to the question regarding prior sexual assault or abuse, 43 (53.1%) reported being sexually assaulted as an adult, 35 (43.2%) reported being sexually abused as a child, and 22 (27.2%) reported being sexually abused or assaulted both as a child and as an adult. Women who were sexually abused as a child were more likely than those who were not abused as a child to have injection drug use as a risk factor (54.3% v. 7.5%). Menstrual cycle changes were reported by 70.1% of the respondents. Most women stated that they had not received adequate pre- or post-test counselling, and 47.0% were

  13. Stemflow amount, intensity and timing in a mature forest in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meerveld, Ilja; Spencer, Sheena

    2013-04-01

    Stemflow is the portion of precipitation that falls on the forest canopy and flows along tree branches and stems to the soil at the base of the tree. Previous studies have shown the importance of stemflow for nutrient cycling, groundwater recharge, plant water uptake and soil moisture dynamics; however little is known about stemflow in mature coastal British Columbia forests. Furthermore, most studies focus on the amount of stemflow; few studies have looked at the timing or intensity of stemflow relative to precipitation intensity. We therefore measured stemflow from 18 trees of four different species within a ~1 ha mature western hemlock-western redcedar stand within the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest in British Columbia, Canada, using water collecting containers and tipping bucket rain gauges. Measurements between February and November 2010 showed that stemflow amount was highly variable between the different trees. It did not vary much between species but instead varied mainly with tree size. Trees smaller than 35 cm in diameter contributed relatively more stemflow than larger trees; they represented 24% of the total basal area but contributed ~72% of total stemflow at this site. Funneling ratios were larger than one for the trees smaller than 35 cm in diameter and increased with event size up to 50 mm. Funneling ratios for larger trees were less than one and did not vary much with event size. Stemflow started on average after 3 mm of precipitation. Peak stemflow intensities were much larger than peak precipitation intensity for some events and did not always occur at the same time as peak precipitation intensity; peak stemflow intensities tended to increase for consecutive precipitation bursts and occurred approximately 15 minutes after the corresponding peak precipitation intensity. Peak stemflow intensities were not related to tree species or tree size. Even though stemflow accounted for only ~1% of precipitation, high peak stemflow intensities could

  14. Petrochemistry of Mafic Rocks Within the Northern Cache Creek Terrane, NW British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, J. M.; Johnston, S. T.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    The Cache Creek terrane is a belt of oceanic rocks that extend the length of the Cordillera in British Columbia. Fossil fauna in this belt are exotic with respect to the remainder of the Canadian Cordillera, as they are of equatorial Tethyan affinity, contrasting with coeval faunas in adjacent terranes that show closer linkages with ancestral North America. Preliminary results reported here from geochemical studies of mafic rocks within the Nakina area of NW British Columbia further constrain the origin of this enigmatic terrane. The terrane is typified by tectonically imbricated slices of chert, argillite, limestone, wacke and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as mafic and ultramafic rocks. These lithologies are believed to represent two separate lithotectonic elements: Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic, subduction-related accretionary complexes, and dismembered basement assemblages emplaced during the closure of the Cache Creek ocean in the Middle Jurassic. Petrochemical analysis revealed four distinct mafic igneous assemblages that include: magmatic 'knockers' of the Nimbus serpentinite mélange, metabasalts of 'Blackcaps' Mountain, augite-phyric breccias of 'Laughing Moose' Creek, and volcanic pediments to the reef-forming carbonates of the Horsefeed Formation. Major and trace element analysis classifies the 'Laughing Moose' breccias and the carbonate-associated volcanics as alkaline in nature, whereas the rest are subalkaline. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that the alkaline rocks are of within-plate affinity, while the 'Blackcaps' basalts and 'knockers' from within the mélange typically straddle the island-arc tholeiite and the mid-ocean ridge boundaries. However, primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots indicate that these subalkaline rocks have pronounced negative Nb anomalies, a characteristic arc signature. The spatial association of alkaline volcanic rocks with extensive carbonate domains points to the existence of seamounts within the Cache

  15. Discriminant Analysis of a Spatially Extensive Landsliding Inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogren, D.; Martin, Y. E.; Jagielko, L.

    2010-12-01

    Gimbarzevsky (1988) collected an exceptional landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia (formerly called the Queen Charlotte Islands). This data base includes more than 8 000 landsliding vectors, with an areal coverage of about 10 000 km2. Unfortunately, this landsliding inventory was never published in the referred literature, despite its regional significance. The data collection occurred prior to widespread use of GIS technologies in landsliding analysis, thus restricting the types of analyses that were undertaken at the time relative to what is possible today. Gimbarzevsky identified the landsliding events from 1:50 000 aerial photographs, and then transferred the landslide vectors to NTS map sheets. In this study, we digitized the landslide vectors from these original map sheets and connected each vector to a digital elevation model. Lengths of landslide vectors were then compared to results of Rood (1984), whose landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii relied on larger-scale aerial photographs (~ 1:13 000). A comparison of the two data bases shows that Rood’s inventory contains a more complete record of smaller landslides, whereas Gimbarzevsky’s inventory provides a much better statistical representation of less frequently occurring, medium to large landslide events. We then apply discriminant analysis to the Gimbarzevsky data base to assess which of a set of ten predictor variables, selected on the basis of mechanical theory, best predict failed vs. unfailed locations in the landscape (referred to as the grouping variable in discriminant analysis). Certain predictor variables may be cross-correlated, and any one particular variable may be related to several aspects of mechanical theory (for example, a particular variable may affect various components of shear stress and/or shear strength); it is important to recognize that the significance of particular groupings may reflect this information. Eight of the original variables were found

  16. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  17. Reduction in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in young women in British Columbia after introduction of the HPV vaccine: An ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Naus, Monika; Money, Deborah M; Dobson, Simon R; Miller, Dianne; Krajden, Mel; van Niekerk, Dirk J; Coldman, Andrew J

    2015-10-15

    We report on the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women aged 15-22 years of age in British Columbia before and after the introduction of an HPV vaccine program. Rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ for each age stratum (15-22) in the calendar years 2004-2012 for the province of British Columbia were obtained from the BC Cancer Agency's population-based cervical cancer program. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CIN2+ were described and compared before and after HPV vaccine program introduction in cohorts born in vaccine eligible years, and in non-vaccine eligible years using piece-wise Poisson regression analysis, and adjusted for age. Between 2004 and 2012, rates of CIN2 and CIN2+ in young women aged 15-22 years in the province of British Columbia have decreased overall. After the introduction of the HPV vaccine program, the age adjusted IRR for CIN2+ for young women aged 15-17 years decreased significantly from 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.98 p < 0.01) to 0.36 (95% CI: 0.18-0.73 p < 0.01). During the same time period, no similar reduction was found in young women 18-22 years. After introduction of HPV vaccine program, IRR for CIN2+ in young women 15-17 was significantly reduced for CIN2+ (0.14; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.47; p < 0.01) and CIN2 (0.1; 95% CI: 0.02-0.54; p < 0.01). This ecological analysis shows a significant reduction in CIN2+ lesions in young women aged 15-17 years in British Columbia after the introduction of the HPV vaccine in young women despite vaccine uptake levels below 70%.

  18. The association between population-based treatment guidelines and adjuvant therapy for node-negative breast cancer. British Columbia/Ontario Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Sawka, C.; Olivotto, I.; Coldman, A.; Goel, V.; Holowaty, E.; Hislop, T. G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of province-wide treatment guidelines on consistency of adjuvant therapy for node-negative breast cancer. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, which has province-wide guidelines, and Ontario, which does not. All eligible 1991 incident cases of node-negative breast cancer in British Columbia (n = 942) and a similar number of randomly selected 1991 incident cases in Ontario (n = 938) were reviewed. Consistency of adjuvant therapy received was evaluated by stratifying cases into discrete diagnostic groups using several grouping systems, and by then comparing the distribution of treatments received within each diagnostic group in the two provinces. Recursive partitioning was also performed. We observed that patterns of pathology reporting were consistent with awareness of the factors used in the British Columbia guidelines to define indications for adjuvant therapy. Consistency of care was greater in British Columbia than in Ontario by all diagnostic grouping systems and by recursive partitioning (P < 0.001), and the observed patterns in British Columbia corresponded to the British Columbia guidelines. We conclude that population-based treatment guidelines can play a role in promoting consistent patterns of adjuvant therapy for women with node-negative breast cancer. PMID:9166950

  19. Taxonomic review of Hadromerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent waters, with the description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; Mcdaniel, Neil G

    2014-06-26

    The history of sponge collecting and systematics in British Columbia is reviewed over the period 1878 to 1966. Recent additions and changes are provided in an on-line species list: www.mareco/org/kml/projects/NEsponges.asp. Hadromerids are the focus of this paper as eight of 19 species in British Columbia are considered new. An additional new species is described from southern California to clarify the status of Tethya californiana in BC. An update is timely for hadromerids in BC as there is new material and renewed interest, while existing descriptions are often inadequate. We describe new species and provide additions to previous descriptions for sponges of the order Hadromerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the cold temperate NE Pacific off British Columbia and adjacent waters. We propose one range extension and one new species in Clionaidae; two range extensions and five new species in Polymastiidae; one range extension, two name changes and two new species in Suberitidae; and one new species in Tethyidae. New species include Pione gibraltarensis n.sp., Polymastia piscesae n. sp., Radiella endeavourensis n. sp., Sphaerotylus raphidophora n. sp., Sphaerotylus verenae n. sp., Weberella perlucida n. sp., Prosuberites saanichensis n. sp., Suberites lambei n. sp., and Tethya vacua n. sp..

  20. Neoglaciation, glacier-dammed lakes, and vegetation change in northwestern British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Clague, J.J. |; Mathewes, R.W.

    1996-02-01

    An integrated geomorphic, stratigraphic, paleoecological, and geochronological study of a system of linked valley glaciers and ice-dammed lakes has provided insights into the Neoglacial history and climate of the northern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Cores collected from a small lake in the glacier foreland of Berendon Glacier and pits dug in a nearby fen record Little Ice Age and earlier Neoglacial advances. AMS and conventional radiocarbon dating of fossil plant material from these sites, supplemented by dendrochronological data, indicate that the Little Ice Age began more than 500 yr ago and peaked in the early 17th century. A middle Neoglacial advance of comparable extent occurred about 2200 to 2800 yr ago. The chronology of Neoglacial advances is generally similar to that at other sites in western Canada, although the Little Ice Age may have peaked as much as 100 yr earlier in our study area than elsewhere. The Little Ice Age advances are also broadly synchronous with those in other parts of the world, suggesting that they were caused by global changes in climate.

  1. Population genetics of the white-phased "Spirit" black bear of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-02-01

    The Spirit (or Kermode) bear is a white-phased black bear found on the northwest coast of British Columbia, and is one of the most striking color polymorphisms found in mammals. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (mc1r) locus is the cause of this recessive w variant. Recently, evidence suggests that the white color provides a selective advantage during salmon hunting. Here we examine the effects of favorable selection, gene flow, genetic drift, and positive-assortative mating in an effort to understand the establishment and maintenance of this polymorphism and the observed heterozygote deficiency for mc1r but not for microsatellite loci. It appears that genetic drift was important in the establishment of the w allele and that the selective advantage was important to counteract immigration from populations without the w allele. Positive-assortative mating can result in a deficiency of heterozygotes but needs to be quite high to result in the large deficiency of heterozygotes observed, suggesting that other factors must also be contributing. Examination of population genetic factors, singly and jointly, provides insight into the establishment and maintenance of this unusual polymorphism.

  2. Measurement of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from vegetation in the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewitt, G. B.; Curren, K.; Steyn, D. G.; Gillespie, T. J.; Niki, H.

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) participate in many chemical reactions in the atmosphere and in some cases, adversely affect air quality through increased production of photochemical ozone near urban sources of nitrogen oxides. In order to implement an effective control strategy, the relative role of these biogenic hydrocarbon emissions in producing ground-level ozone must be known. During the summers of 1995 and 1996, a field study was undertaken to determine fluxes of biogenic VOCs from both natural and agricultural surfaces in the Lower Fraser Valley located in southwestern British Columbia. Emissions from agricultural surfaces were measured using a flux gradient approach while emissions from the dominant tree species in the region were measured with a branch enclosure system. Results show very little biogenic VOC production from many agricultural crops such as pasture, Potatoes or Blueberries. Cranberries showed very high emissions during the summer of 1994 but failed to show similar results during the summer of 1995. Emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from native tree species such as Western Red Cedar, Douglas Fir and Coastal Hemlock were quite low. Cottonwood trees on the other hand had fairly low emissions of monoterpenes but extremely high emissions of isoprene. Measurements provided here will be useful for improving our database of hydrocarbon emissions rates from vegetation for future emission inventories and model testing.

  3. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time.

  4. Preliminary identification of fullerenes in the lowermost Jurassic strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Haggart, James W.; Ward, Peter D.

    2004-02-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (~200 mya) event is one of the most severe in geologic history. It is also one of the most poorly understood. Few geologic sections containing the TJ boundary interval have been identified globally, and most of those are poorly preserved; the paucity of suitable stratigraphic sections has prevented corroborative geochemical studies of this interval. Recently, fullerene molecules (C60 to C200) have been shown to be present in the mass extinction boundary intervals of the Permian-Triassic (PT) event (~251.4 mya), as well as the well-known "dinosaur" extinction event of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) (~65 mya). The presence of fullerenes in both these extinction intervals has been used to invoke an extraterrestrial impact cause for the extinctions. Preliminary results of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of selected samples from the Kennecott Point TJ boundary section, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, suggest that fullerenes (C60 to ~C200) are present in the section, stratigraphically above the extinction interval (as defined by paleontological and isotopic data), but not actually within the interval itself. The presence of fullerenes may not be diagnostic of an impact event.

  5. Satellite-derived aerosol radiative forcing from the 2004 British Columbia wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, S.; Leighton, H.

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia wildfires of 2004 was one of the largest wildfire events in the last ten years in Canada. Both the shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) are investigated using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Relationships between the radiative forcing fluxes (??F) and wildfire aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 ??m (??0.55) are deduced for both noontime instantaneous forcing and diurnally averaged forcing. The noontime averaged instantaneous shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA are 45.8??27.5 W m-2 and -12.6??6.9 W m-2, respectively for a selected study area between 62??N and 68??N in latitude and 125??W and 145??W in longitude over three mainly clear-sky days (23-25 June). The derived diurnally averaged smoke aerosol shortwave radiative forcing is 19.9??12.1 W m-2 for a mean ??0.55 of 1.88??0.71 over the same time period. The derived ??F-?? relationship can be implemented in the radiation scheme used in regional climate models to assess the effect of wildfire aerosols.

  6. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  7. Stability and mechanism of failure of The Barrier, southwest British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, Peter

    The Barrier is a steep, 250 m-high escarpment of dacite in Garibaldi Provincial Park, British Columbia. The lava flow comprises four lobes, two of which (Lobes 3 and 4) came into contact with the late Pleistocene Cordilleran ice sheet. Lobe 3 was the source of a major landslide in 1855-1856 and a smaller event in 1977. This thesis investigates potential mechanisms responsible for landslides from The Barrier. Methods that I applied include magnetic surveys to determine the three-dimensional character of lava flows forming The Barrier, long-range photogrammetry to map the structure of the escarpment in digital terrain models, field mapping, distinct element modelling, and passive seismic landslide monitoring. Of particular importance to the stability of The Barrier are ice-contact structures in the volcanic rocks, which provide clues about emplacement environments. Results show that The Barrier should be considered potentially unstable and that past instability is intimately linked to structures produced by emplacement of the lavas against glacier ice. My work also provides new geophysical and geomechanical data for The Barrier. Keywords: The Barrier; landslide; rock fall; Garibaldi Provincial Park; Pleistocene; magnetic survey; photogrammetry; survey; UDEC; geophysics; modelling; distinct element code; Voronoi; tessellation; ice-contact volcanism.

  8. Different responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors among Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; He, Dai-Hai; Chiu, Alice Py; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Zhou, Maigeng; Wong, Chit-Ming; Guo, Qing; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-02-08

    Weather factors have long been considered as key sources for regional heterogeneity of influenza seasonal patterns. As influenza peaks coincide with both high and low temperature in subtropical cities, weather factors may nonlinearly or interactively affect influenza activity. This study aims to assess the nonlinear and interactive effects of weather factors with influenza activity and compare the responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors in two subtropical regions of southern China (Shanghai and Hong Kong) and one temperate province of Canada (British Columbia). Weekly data on influenza activity and weather factors (i.e., mean temperature and relative humidity (RH)) were obtained from pertinent government departments for the three regions. Absolute humidity (AH) was measured by vapor pressure (VP), which could be converted from temperature and RH. Generalized additive models were used to assess the exposure-response relationship between weather factors and influenza virus activity. Interactions of weather factors were further assessed by bivariate response models and stratification analyses. The exposure-response curves of temperature and VP, but not RH, were consistent among three regions/cities. Bivariate response model revealed a significant interactive effect between temperature (or VP) and RH (P < 0.05). Influenza peaked at low temperature or high temperature with high RH. Temperature and VP are important weather factors in developing a universal model to explain seasonal outbreaks of influenza. However, further research is needed to assess the association between weather factors and influenza activity in a wider context of social and environmental conditions.

  9. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  10. Holocene disturbance dynamics from a pine-dominated forest in central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. J.; Hebda, N.; Condor, N.; Hebda, R.; Hawkes, B.

    2013-12-01

    A lake sediment record was retrieved from the Sub-Boreal Pine-Spruce biogeoclimatic zone on the Chilcotin Plateau in central British Columbia, Canada. The record is being analyzed for charcoal, pollen, and magnetic susceptibility, as well as insect and mollusc content. The oldest radiocarbon age is 9.2 cal BP, illustrating that the record spans most of the Holocene. Regarding fire disturbance, charcoal fragments are persistent throughout the core, revealing that fire disturbance has characterized the site for millennia. In total, 74 fire events were recognized. During the warm dry early Holocene, fire frequency was 12-15 fires 2000 yr-1 and peak magnitudes were low, possibly in response to a more open landscape. A change in fire regime occurred at ca. 5000 cal BP, as fire frequency increased, peaking at ca. 20 fires 2000 yr-1 by 3000 cal BP. Peak magnitude likewise increased notably, possibly in response to the development of denser forest cover. On-going analysis of pollen will better constrain the vegetation history in this poorly sampled region. In contrast to charcoal, which was pervasive, Dendroctonus ponderosae (mountain pine beetle) remains were absent in both modern and paleo samples. Given that several insect outbreaks have occurred in the region in the last 100 years, the scarcity of remains is likely related to taphonomic issues.

  11. The formation of basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, D.R.

    1982-08-01

    The basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia occur within unconsolidated, late Miocene fluvial paleochannel sediments that overlie major fault zones within the Okanagan Highlands Intrusive Complex. Five uranium deposits have been outlined to date, of which the Blizzard (4,020 metric tons U) and Tyee (650 metric tons U) are the largest. The basement intrusive complex underlying the deposits varies in age from early Cretaceous to Eocene and is comprised of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, Coryell monzonite, porphyritic granite, and pegmatite. Uranium mineralization is present in the form of uranous (ningyoite) or uranyl (saleeite, autunite) phosphates coating clastic grains and filling voids. Because of very strong reducing conditions related to large concentrations of marcasite and organic material, ningyoite is the only uranium mineral in the Tyee deposit, whereas the Blizzard deposit contains a more complex assemblage of minerals (saleeite, autunite, ningyoite). The observed paragenetic sequence of mineral precipitation in the Blizzard deposit (autunite-saleeite-ningyoite) indicates that the uranyl minerals, saleeite and autunite, are primary. Investigations of the source of the ore-forming elements (U, Ca, Mg, PO/sub 4/) showed the deposits to be formed by the infiltration into fluvial sediments of deep-seated, structurally controlled, ground waters that migrated in a well-developed regional hydrologic system within the Complex. Research indicates that the ore-forming ground waters were cold, slightly bicarbonated (150-400 ppm), highly uraniferous (10-50 ppb), and slightly oxidizing (dissolved oxygen = 2-4 ppm).

  12. Alkali-deficient tourmaline from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Alkali-deficient tourmalines are found in albitized rocks from the hanging-wall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia, Canada). They approximate the Mg-equivalent of foitite with an idealized formula D???(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO 3)3(OH)4. Major chemical substitutions in the tourmalines are the alkali-defect type [Na*(x) + Mg*(Y) = ???(X) + Al(Y)] and the uvite type [Na*(X) + Al(Y) = Ca(X) + Mg*(Y)], where Na* = Na + K, Mg* = Mg + Fe + Mn. The occurrence of these alkali-deficient tourmalines reflects a unique geochemical environment that is either alkali-depleted overall or one in which the alkalis preferentially partitioned into coexisting minerals (e.g. albite). Some of the alkali-deficient tourmalines have unusually high Mn contents (up to 1.5 wt.% MnO) compared to other Sullivan tourmalines. Manganese has a strong preference for incorporation into coexisting garnet and carbonate at Sullivan, thus many tourmalines in Mn-rich rocks are poor in Mn (<0.2 wt.% MnO). It appears that the dominant controls over the occurrence of Mn-rich tourmalines at Sullivan are the local availability of Mn and the lack of other coexisting minerals that may preferentially incorporate Mn into their structures.

  13. Phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate humid regions of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2009-08-01

    The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the aboveground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  14. Alteration of basaltic glasses from north-central British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Jercinovic, M.J. ); Keil, K. ); Smith, M.R.; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence of palagonitization is seen on all glasses studied from three Pleistocene subglacial volcanoes in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Samples from foreset breccias of Tuya Butte are more highly palagonitized than those from the tephra cones of Ash Mountain and Southern Tuya. Extensive palagonitization is generally associated with authigenic mineralization (clays, zeolites). Palagonite composition varies widely relative to glass composition, and palagonite can be broadly categorized as either high-Al or low-Al, depending on whether Al was retained or lost to aqueous solutions during palagonitization. Loss of Al during palagonitization is related to closed-system alteration, including precipitation of aluminosilicate authigenic cements. Microenvironment appears to be more influential than macroenvironment in determining the composition of palagonite. Palagonite rinds are compositionally zoned, generally becoming progressively higher in Al and Ca, and lower in Fe and Mg, towards the innermost (later-formed) portions of the rinds. Phillipsite is the first zeolite formed, followed by chabazite. Analcime and calcite occur in the most highly palagonitized samples. Mass balance considerations indicate higher mass loss where palagonitization has not proceeded to the point where zeolite solubility limits were attained in the local solution. Zeolites occur in closed-system conditions (low flow rates), where little net system mass loss or gain has occurred. The colloidal nature of palagonite allows the effective adsorption of Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, and REEs.

  15. Low-flow hydraulic geometry of small, steep mountain streams in southwest British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Donald E.; Hickin, Edward J.; Babakaiff, Scott C.

    2010-10-01

    This investigation explores the at-a-station hydraulic geometry (AHG) of small, steep mountain streams at low discharge. Thirteen reaches in five tributaries of Chilliwack River, British Columbia, ranging in size from 12 to 77 km 2 are examined. The resulting data set is composed of eight to twelve measurements of water-surface width, mean depth, and mean velocity at each of 61 cross sections or 625 unique combinations of the three variables. Mean velocity in a given cross section responds most rapidly to changing discharge, and 31 of the 61 cross sections have velocity exponents that are greater than the water-surface width and mean-depth exponents combined. The velocity exponent ( m) averages 0.51, while the mean water-surface width exponent ( b) and mean-depth exponent ( f) average 0.20 and 0.29, respectively. Somewhat surprisingly, the AHG of steep mountain streams can be reasonably predicted from just a few measurements of the primary flow variables and stream discharge. While conditions at the cross section appear predictable from a few measurements, extrapolating the results from one cross section to another in the same reach involves large errors. The section-to-section variability of the exponents and coefficients, even when they are located in similar channel units such as riffles, prevents accurate extrapolation to unmeasured cross sections.

  16. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Jane A; Sebastian, Renee; Clearsky, Lorne; Angus, Natalie; Shah, Lena; Lem, Marcus; Spacey, Sian D

    2011-01-21

    An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America.Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74%) of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55%) had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48%) cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents.Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings.

  17. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  18. Different responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors among Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; He, Dai-Hai; Chiu, Alice PY; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Zhou, Maigeng; Wong, Chit-Ming; Guo, Qing; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-02-01

    Weather factors have long been considered as key sources for regional heterogeneity of influenza seasonal patterns. As influenza peaks coincide with both high and low temperature in subtropical cities, weather factors may nonlinearly or interactively affect influenza activity. This study aims to assess the nonlinear and interactive effects of weather factors with influenza activity and compare the responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors in two subtropical regions of southern China (Shanghai and Hong Kong) and one temperate province of Canada (British Columbia). Weekly data on influenza activity and weather factors (i.e., mean temperature and relative humidity (RH)) were obtained from pertinent government departments for the three regions. Absolute humidity (AH) was measured by vapor pressure (VP), which could be converted from temperature and RH. Generalized additive models were used to assess the exposure-response relationship between weather factors and influenza virus activity. Interactions of weather factors were further assessed by bivariate response models and stratification analyses. The exposure-response curves of temperature and VP, but not RH, were consistent among three regions/cities. Bivariate response model revealed a significant interactive effect between temperature (or VP) and RH (P < 0.05). Influenza peaked at low temperature or high temperature with high RH. Temperature and VP are important weather factors in developing a universal model to explain seasonal outbreaks of influenza. However, further research is needed to assess the association between weather factors and influenza activity in a wider context of social and environmental conditions.

  19. Remote Sensing Analysis of a Rapidly Eroding Sea Cliff at Point Grey, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westin, A. M.; Francioni, M.; Kremsater, R.; Stead, D.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    A range of remote sensing tools can be used to document hazardous and sensitive environments. Presented at this time are the first results of an ongoing study of a rapidly eroding, steep sea cliff in Vancouver, British Columbia. The sea cliff is formed in a 70-m-thick sequence of outwash sands and silts (Quadra Sand) deposited during the early part of the last glaciation, known locally as the Fraser Glaciation. The sea cliff is unstable and retreating due to wave attack, groundwater seepage, and shallow-seated landslides. If no measures are taken to stem wave erosion, the sea cliff will likely retreat faster with rising seas over the remainder of this century. The beach below the cliff is a popular recreational location, thus a hard engineering solution to the erosion problem might be unacceptable to Vancouver residents. We have used conventional photogrammetry, structures from motion, thermal imaging, and terrestrial full waveform laser scanning to provide base-line spatial data for the most rapidly eroding section of the cliff. Here, we present some of our results and discuss the challenges that we faced in characterizing this large soil slope.

  20. Outcomes in splenic marginal zone lymphoma: analysis of 107 patients treated in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Xing, Katharine H; Kahlon, Amrit; Skinnider, Brian F; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Sehn, Laurie H; Savage, Kerry J; Slack, Graham W; Shenkier, Tamara N; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina S; Villa, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) accounts for less than 2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We identified 107 cases diagnosed with SMZL between 1985 and 2012 from the British Columbia Cancer Agency Centre for Lymphoid Cancer and Lymphoma Pathology Databases. Patient characteristics were: median age 67 years (range 30-88), male 40%, stage IV 98%, splenomegaly 93%, bone marrow involvement 96%, peripheral blood involvement 87%. As initial treatment, 52 underwent splenectomy (10 with chemotherapy), 38 chemotherapy alone (21 chemoimmunotherapy containing rituximab, 1 rituximab alone), two antivirals for hepatitis C, and 15 were only observed. The 10-year overall survival for first-line splenectomy versus chemotherapy was 61% and 42%, respectively [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0·48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·26-0·88, P = 0·017]. The 10-year failure-free survival (FFS) after first-line splenectomy vs chemotherapy was 39% and 14%, respectively (HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·28-0·80, P = 0·004). Among the 38 patients who received first-line chemotherapy, FFS was similar between those receiving rituximab (n = 22) and those who did not (n = 16) (HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·31-1·34, P = 0·238). Fifteen patients transformed to aggressive lymphoma with median time to transformation of 3·5 years (range 6 months to 12 years) and the 10-year transformation rate was 18%. In conclusion, splenectomy remains a reasonable treatment for patients with SMZL.

  1. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    PubMed Central

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  2. Assessment of mercury emissions from the Afton copper smelter, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Price, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    The afton Copper Smelter adjacent to Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada commenced operation in 1978 and employed a mercury scrubbing system. Two years of preproduction studies, which included monitoring for mercury in ambient air, water, soil, and vegetation were performed. The results from similar studies conducted during four full years (1978-81) and two partial years (1982-83) of production are presented in the data analysis. These programs illustrated that the most frequent ground impingement occurred within a 1.6-3.2-km radius of the source, and that the levels decreased with increasing distance from the source to a maximum radius of 8 km. The results of a comprehensive source monitoring program illustrated that the average mercury emission levels ranged from 3.2 to 6.8 kg/calendar day during 1979-81, and that the majority of the emissions were in a vapor form. The ambient monitoring data acquired when smelter operations were significantly reduced indicate a quick recovery to preproduction levels in virtually all monitored parameters and at most monitored sites. The integrated results from all mercury monitoring programs illustrate the environmental impact from mercury emissions which were two to four times the permit standard of 1.8 kg/day.

  3. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles <5 mm, are an emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems. Because microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  4. Feruvite from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; McDonald, A.M.; Slack, J.F.; Leitch, C.H.B.

    1996-01-01

    Feruvite, an uncommon Ca- and Fe2+-rich tourmaline species, has been discovered in the footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit (British Columbia) near gabbro sills and dikes. Its chemical composition varies according to occurrence: feruvite from the shallow footwall has lower Ca, higher Al, and higher X-site vacancies than that from the deep footwall. The major chemical substitution involved in the feruvite is the exchange vector CaMgO???-1Al-1(OH)-1. The most important factor controlling feruvite formation at Sullivan is likely the reaction of Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids with Ca-rich minerals in gabbro and host rocks. This reaction led to the breakdown of Ca-rich minerals (plagioclase and hornblende), with release of Ca to solution and its incorporation into feruvite. This process probably postdated the main stages of formation of fine-grained, intermediate schorl-dravite in the tourmalinite pipe in the footwall, and is attributed to postore intrusion of gabbro and associated albite-chlorite-pyrite alteration.

  5. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming.

  6. Sub-tidal Circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles; Foreman, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in Kitimat fjord system that opens to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. The fjord is separated from the open shelf by a broad sill that is about 150 m deep, and there is another sill (200 m) that separates the fjord into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected from three moorings deployed during 2013-2015, and the water property observations collected during six cruises (2014 and 2015). Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill-depth. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from early June to September, and this dense water renews both basins in the form of gravity currents at 0.1 - 0.2 m/s with a thickness of 100 m. At other times of the year, the deep flow structures and water properties suggest horizontal and vertical processes and support the re-circulation idea in the inner and the outer basins. The near surface current velocity fluctuations are dominated by the along-channel wind. Overall, the circulation in the meteorological band is a mix of the estuarine flow, direct wind driven flow, and the baroclinic response to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind driven currents.

  7. Microbial community dynamics in a seasonally anoxic fjord: Saanich Inlet, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Walsh, David A; Stilwell, Claire P; Mohn, William W; Tortell, Philippe D; Hallam, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration plays a major role in shaping biotic interactions and nutrient flows within marine ecosystems. Throughout the global ocean, regions of low dissolved oxygen concentration (hypoxia) are a common and expanding feature of the water column, with major feedback on productivity and greenhouse gas cycling. To better understand microbial diversity underlying biogeochemical transformations within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters, we monitored and quantified bacterial and archaeal community dynamics in relation to dissolved gases and nutrients during a seasonal stratification and deep water renewal cycle in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, a seasonally anoxic fjord. A number of microbial groups partitioned within oxygen-deficient waters including Nitrospina and SAR324 affiliated with the delta-proteobacteria, SAR406 and gamma-proteobacteria related to thiotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. Microbial diversity was highest within the hypoxic transition zone decreasing dramatically within anoxic basin waters and temporal patterns of niche partitioning were observed along defined gradients of oxygen and phosphate. These results provide a robust comparative phylogenetic framework for inferring systems metabolism of nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycling within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters and establish Saanich Inlet as a tractable model for studying the response of microbial communities to changing levels of water column hypoxia.

  8. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean.

  10. A study of challenges and opportunities for long-term care dietitians in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer L; Dunham, Rebecca; Kafka, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    While demand for long-term care (LTC) in Canada is expected to grow in the coming years, little is known about the current LTC dietetic workforce or its members' practice-related concerns. A web-based survey was developed and distributed to and subsequently completed by 75 LTC dietitians in British Columbia. The survey was intended to characterize dietitians' demographic characteristics, educational and employment experiences, salaries and benefits, future employment plans, and concerns about current practice. Regression models were used to examine the associations between demographic, educational, and employment characteristics and self-reported hourly wages. The majority of respondents were employed at more than one facility (57%) and did not belong to a union (71%). The mean hourly wage for LTC dietetics positions was $37.50 ± $5.85, and was significantly higher for positions that did not provide additional employee benefits (p < 0.05). Hourly wages were not significantly higher for dietitians with more years of experience or graduate-level education. Concerns were raised about potential implications of revised residential care regulations for workload, and only 36% of respondents reported being committed to working in the area of LTC dietetics in the future. This study highlights practice-related challenges and future opportunities to build the LTC dietetic workforce, and can inform planning for training, recruitment, and retention.

  11. A solid waste audit and directions for waste reduction at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Felder, M A; Petrell, R J; Duff, S J

    2001-08-01

    A novel design for a solid waste audit was developed and applied to the University of British Columbia, Canada, in 1998. This audit was designed to determine the characteristics of the residual solid waste generated by the campus and provide directions for waste reduction. The methodology was constructed to address complications in solid waste sampling, including spatial and temporal variation in waste, extrapolation from the study area, and study validation. Accounting for spatial effects decreased the variation in calculating total waste loads. Additionally, collecting information on user flow provided a means to decrease daily variation in solid waste and allow extrapolation over time and space. The total annual waste estimated from the experimental design was compared to documented values and was found to differ by -18%. The majority of this discrepancy was likely attributable to the unauthorised disposal of construction and demolition waste. Several options were proposed to address waste minimisation goals. These included: enhancing the current recycling program, source reduction of plastic materials, and/or diverting organic material to composting (maximum diversion: approximately 320, approximately 270, and approximately 1510 t yr(-1), respectively). The greatest diversion by weight would be accomplished through the diversion of organic material, as it was estimated to comprise 70% of the projected waste stream. The audit methodology designed is most appropriate for facilities/regions that have a separate collection system for seasonal wastes and have a means for tracking user flow.

  12. Bond cycles recorded in terrestrial Pleistocene sediments of southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicock, Stephen R.; Lian, Olav B.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    1999-08-01

    Recent data from exposures of terrestrial Pleistocene sediments in the Fraser Lowland of southwestern British Columbia reveal at least two Bond cycles within Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. The maximum of the Coquitlam Stade coincides with the timing of Heinrich event H2, the Port Moody Interstade with Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) interstade 2, the maximum of the Vashon Stade with H1, and the Fort Langley interval with D-O interstade 1. The Sumas Stade apparently preceded H0 (Younger Dryas) but could have been in response to the same climatic signal. The timing of Sumas advances may be explained by a combination of glacio-isostatic rebound, destabilisation of the ice margin, and rapid movement over a short distance on soft muddy beds of a rising sea floor, thereby leading the timing of North Atlantic events by hundreds of years. In contrast, Coquitlam and Vashon advances were mainly over permeable glaciofluvial sediments and because of this their maxima probably did not precede the timing of H2 and H1. The Port Moody Interstade coincided with the global Last Glacial Maximum, due in part to the moderating effect of moist summer storms in a southward-shifted jet stream that influenced the Fraser Lowland at that time.

  13. Culicoides Hypersensitivity in the Horse: 15 Cases in Southwestern British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Kleider, N.; Lees, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of a chronic, seasonal dermatitis of horses in southwestern British Columbia is described. Typically the history indicated an insidious onset, followed by a gradual progression in the severity of the signs each year. Lesions appeared during the warmer months of the year and tended to regress during the winter. The clinical signs consisted of areas of pruritus and excoriation, affecting predominantly the ventral midline, mane and tailhead. In all cases corticosteroid therapy relieved the pruritus and allowed the lesions to heal. The salient pathological findings were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and a dermal infiltration of eosinophils together with mononuclear cells. These changes are typical of an allergic dermatitis, which has been recognized in many parts of the world as a hypersensitivity reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. In this instance, the epidemiological findings relating to the geographic area, the local insect population and the distribution of lesions implicated Culicoides obsoletus as the etiological agent. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.Figure 3.FIGURE 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422351

  14. Reservoirs of Selenium in Coal Waste Rock: Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hendry, M Jim; Biswas, Ashis; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Chen, Ning; Day, Stephen J; Barbour, S Lee

    2015-07-07

    Selenium (Se) reservoirs in coal waste rock from the Elk Valley, southeastern British Columbia, the location of Canada's major steelmaking coal mines, were characterized and quantified by analyzing samples collected from the parent rock, freshly blasted waste rock (less than 10 days old), and aged waste rock (deposited between 1982 and 2012). Se is present throughout the waste rock dumps at a mean digestible (SeD) concentration of 3.12 mg/kg. Microprobe analyses show that Se is associated with the primary minerals sphalerite, pyrite, barite, and chalcopyrite and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Selenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analyses indicate that, on average, 21% of Se is present as selenide (Se(2-)) in pyrite and sphalerite, 19% of Se is present as selenite (Se(4+)) in barite, 21% of Se is present as exchangeable Fe oxyhydroxide and clay-adsorbed Se(4+), and 39% of Se is present as organoselenium associated with coaly matter. The dominant source minerals for aqueous-phase Se are pyrite and sphalerite. Secondary Fe oxyhydroxide sequesters, on average, 37% of Se released by pyrite oxidation. Measured long-term Se fluxes from a rock drain at the base of a waste dump suggest that at least 20% of Se(2-)-bearing sulfides were oxidized and released from that dump over the past 30 year period; however, the Se mass lost was not evident in SeD analyses.

  15. Geologic reservoir model for the Triassic Doig Formation, northeast British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Moslow, T.F. ); Munroe, H.D. )

    1991-03-01

    A subsurface investigation of the mid-Triassic Doig formation in northeastern British Columbia documented two main reservoir facies. Both are a product of mass movement and sediment gravity flow processes on a progradational, tectonically active continental shelf margin. Substrate instability was likely a product of sediment loading, perhaps in concert with seismic activity. Sedimentary facies and reservoir parameters were determined from analysis of approximately 150 cores and 900 well logs. Laterally discontinuous Doig sandstones are up to 60 m thick and trend northeasterly within the study area. The main reservoir facies are incised density flow deposits and laterally extensive slump deposits. Reservoir quality within these sands is extremely variable with porosity ranging from less than 5% to 15%. In core, these deposits consist of moderately well sorted, very fine grained sandstones with no vertical grain size variation. The best production to date is in the Buick Creek field with initial flows of 346 BOPD. The slump deposits are thinner and tend to be more elongate parallel to paleoshoreline. These sands were subject to some wave or current reworking. Modern analogs where similar processes and products of deposition are known to occur include the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf and the Fraser River Delta slope. Doig sandstones usually are enclosed in fine-grained shelf deposits that provide a good stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Successful development of Doig reservoirs must incorporate geologic modes that assist in understanding the complex and highly variable reservoir quality of sandstones units.

  16. Agricultural pesticide residues of farm runoff in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jen-ni; Soon, Alicia Y; Garrett, Christine; Wan, Michael T K; Pasternak, John P

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine environmental occurrence and concentrations of selected currently-used-pesticides and some transformation products in agricultural farms in the Okanagan Valley (OKV), and to conduct a simple risk assessment of environmental pesticides levels detected in OKV on non-target aquatic organisms. The OKV is the tree fruit country of the Province of British Columbia where considerable amount of pesticides are applied annually. Water, sediment and soil samples were collected at eleven sites in early June and late September following rainfall events and/or extended periods of irrigation from drainage ditches and/or from small streams. Undisturbed reference sites were also sampled. Study results showed that forty of the eighty chemicals analyzed, including organochlorine, nitrogen-containing and organophosphate pesticides commonly used for OKV crops, were detected in runoff and small stream water samples. Among which, endosulfan-sulfate was the most frequently detected chemical. Also, azinophos-methyl (0.699-25.5 ng/L), diazinon (0.088-214 ng/L) exceeded, and α-, β- endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate approached the guidelines for the protection of aquatic life.

  17. 'Heated political dynamics exist ...': examining the politics of palliative care in rural British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care is delivered by a number of professional groups and informal providers across a range of settings. This arrangement works well in that it maximizes avenues for providing care, but may also bring about complicated 'politics' due to struggles over control and decision-making power. Thirty-one interviews conducted with formal and informal palliative care providers in a rural region of British Columbia, Canada, are drawn upon as a case study. Three types of politics impacting on palliative care provision are identified: inter-community, inter-site, and inter-professional. Three themes crosscut these politics: ownership, entitlement, and administration. The politics revealed by the interviews, and heretofore underexplored in the palliative literature, have implications for the delivery of palliative care. For example, the outcomes of the politics simultaneously facilitate (e.g. by promoting advocacy for local services) and serve as a barrier to (e.g. by privileging certain communities/care sites/provider) palliative care provision.

  18. Microbial water quality communication: public and practitioner insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dunn, G; Henrich, N; Holmes, B; Harris, L; Prystajecky, N

    2014-09-01

    This work examines the communication interactions of water suppliers and health authorities with the general public regarding microbial source water quality for recreational and drinking water. We compare current approaches to risk communication observable in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with best practices derived from the communications literature, finding significant gaps between theory and practice. By considering public views and government practices together, we identify key disconnects, leading to the conclusion that at present, neither the public's needs nor public health officials' goals are being met. We find: (1) there is a general lack of awareness and poor understanding by the public of microbial threats to water and the associated health implications; (2) the public often does not know where to find water quality information; (3) public information needs are not identified or met; (4) information sharing by authorities is predominantly one-way and reactive (crisis-oriented); and (5) the effectiveness of communications is not evaluated. There is a need for both improved public understanding of water quality-related risks, and new approaches to ensure information related to water quality reaches audiences. Overall, greater attention should be given to planning and goal setting related to microbial water risk communication.

  19. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  20. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  1. Campus 2020: Thinking Ahead. The Report. Access and Excellence: The Campus 2020 Plan for British Columbia's Post-Secondary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking Ahead asked British Columbians to imagine the future of higher learning and to create a plan that will help us get there. This report is that plan. This report is the first comprehensive look at higher education in British Columbia in 45 years. It charts a course for the future that builds on the strengths of the past. While…

  2. RISQy business (Relationships, Incentives, Supports, and Quality): evolution of the British Columbia Model of Primary Care (patient-centered medical home).

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Dan; Hollander, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the British Columbia Medical Association (now Doctors of BC) came together to form the British Columbia General Practice Services Committee to bring about transformative change in primary care in British Columbia, Canada. This committee's approach to primary care was to respond to an operational problem--the decline of family practice in British Columbia--with an operational solution--assist general practitioners to provide better care by introducing new incentive fees into the fee-for-service payment schedule, and by providing additional training to general practitioners. This may be referred to as a "soft power" approach, which can be summarized in the abbreviation RISQ: focus on Relationships; provide Incentives for general practitioners to spend more time with their patients and provide guidelines-based care; Support general practitioners by developing learning modules to improve their practices; and, through the incentive payments and learning modules, provide better Quality care to patients and improved satisfaction to physicians. There are many similarities between the British Columbian approach to primary care and the US patient-centered medical home.

  3. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with <1 km2 in Prince Rupert under the lowest to highest emissions scenarios. In contrast, the NO2 critical level was not exceeded in Kitimat, and ranged from 4.5 to 6 km2 in Prince Rupert owing to proposed LNG related emissions. Predicted areal exceedance of the critical load of acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21

  4. Risk analysis procedure for post-wildfire natural hazards in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Following a severe wildfire season in 2003, and several subsequent damaging debris flow and flood events, the British Columbia Forest Service developed a procedure for analysing risks to public safety and infrastructure from such events. At the same time, the Forest Service undertook a research program to determine the extent of post-wildfire hazards, and examine the hydrologic and geomorphic processes contributing to the hazards. The risk analysis procedure follows the Canadian Standards Association decision-making framework for risk management (which in turn is based on international standards). This has several steps: identification of risk, risk analysis and estimation, evaluation of risk tolerability, developing control or mitigation strategies, and acting on these strategies. The Forest Service procedure deals only with the first two steps. The results are passed on to authorities such as the Provincial Emergency Program and local government, who are responsible for evaluating risks, warning residents, and applying mitigation strategies if appropriate. The objective of the procedure is to identify and analyse risks to public safety and infrastructure. The procedure is loosely based on the BAER (burned area emergency response) program in the USA, with some important differences. Our procedure focuses on identifying risks and warning affected parties, not on mitigation activities such as broadcast erosion control measures. Partly this is due to limited staff and financial resources. Also, our procedure is not multi-agency, but is limited to wildfires on provincial forest land; in British Columbia about 95% of forest land is in the publicly-owned provincial forest. Each fire season, wildfires are screened by size and proximity to values at risk such as populated areas. For selected fires, when the fire is largely contained, the procedure begins with an aerial reconnaissance of the fire, and photography with a hand-held camera, which can be used to make a

  5. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  6. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  7. Impacts of Mountain Pine Beetle on Peak Flow in the Fraser Basin in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, C.; Rosin, K.; Weiler, M.

    2008-12-01

    Increasing winter temperature in combination with forest management practices are the main drivers for the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia (BC). The infestation of MPB has now turned into a major threat to the natural habitat of the province. The Fraser basin, the largest watershed in BC, is the most affected watershed with an infested forest area of 7.7 million hectares (88% of the watershed) [Redding and Pike 2007]. Forest cover is a key modifier of the watershed's peak flow regime. The peak flow generally increases when forest cover is reduced. Major parts of the Fraser basin have only a limited number of gauging stations (or are even ungauged). The goal of the project was to develop a hydrological model that can predict peak flow increases but does not rely on complex data inputs for its validation and calibration procedures. The model consists of two major components: climate input and runoff. The climate input component determines the mean annual snowmelt as well as the maximum rainfall based on long term climatic averages. This information is then used to determine the time and the capacity of the peak flow for every 3rd order watershed. The runoff component delineates hydrologic processes such as Hortonain Overland Flow, Saturation Overland Flow and Shallow Surface Flow. The model combines the two components and computes a map of peak flow contribution. A peak flow analysis has been carried out to validate the model results using available gauging stations in subcatchments. The validated model has been then applied to the entire watershed to analyze the impacts of MPB on peak flow in the Fraser basin. The presentation will show the conceptual presentation of the hydrological model. It will highlight the results of the peak flow analysis and show initial results of the application of the model. Cited Literature: Redding, T. and Pike, R (2007). Mountain Pine Beetle and Watershed Hydrology Workshop Summary, Streamline Watershed

  8. Beyond Rabies: Are Free-Ranging Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in British Columbia Reservoirs of Emerging Infection?

    PubMed

    Britton, A P; Redford, T; Bidulka, J J; Scouras, A P; Sojonky, K R; Zabek, E; Schwantje, H; Joseph, T

    2017-04-01

    Wild animal reservoirs are an important source of emerging and zoonotic infection. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are a reservoir of skunk strain rabies virus in Canada, with the exception of some areas including the province of British Columbia (BC). Beyond rabies, the reservoir status of skunks for emerging and zoonotic pathogens in BC is unknown. From March 2011 to February 2015, 50 free-ranging skunks were necropsied and tested for 4 pathogens: influenza A, Aleutian disease virus (ADV), Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. Two skunks (4%) with respiratory disease caused by influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 were detected during the human flu season suggesting that skunks may represent a target population for reverse zoonosis of this strain of influenza A virus. High prevalence of ADV infection was detected (43/50, 86%). Two of the infected skunks exhibited Aleutian disease (AD) suggesting that skunks act as both a reservoir and a target population for the virus. Most studies of ADV have focused on the potential for infection of free-ranging species living near mink farms. Our study suggests that urban skunks may be a primary host for the virus independent of domestic mink. Whether skunks act as a reservoir of ADV infection for other peridomestic species will depend on host specificity of the viral strains. Leptospira interrogans was detected in 18% (9/49) of the skunks. Identification of the serovar(s) detected is needed to determine any public health risk of leptospirosis following exposure to infected skunks. Salmonella spp. was isolated from three of 43 skunks (7%), specifically S. Typhimurium, S. Muenchen and S. Enteritidis. These serotypes cause disease in humans, but the low prevalence of infection suggests there is a low risk for zoonotic transmission.

  9. Food insecurity and hunger are prevalent among HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Normén, Lena; Chan, Keith; Braitstein, Paula; Anema, Aranka; Bondy, Greg; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2005-04-01

    Hunger and food insecurity are important factors that may affect an individual's nutritional state and should therefore be assessed in nutrition surveillance activities. The objective of this study was to determine the level of food insecurity and hunger among HIV-positive persons accessing antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia. A cross-sectional study was performed in the BC HIV/AIDS drug treatment program, a province-wide source of free-of-charge antiretroviral medications. In 1998-1999, participants completed a questionnaire focusing on personal information, health, and clinical status. Food and hunger issues were evaluated with the Radimer/Cornell questionnaire. Overall, 1213 responding men and women were classified as food secure (52%), food insecure without hunger (27%), or food insecure with hunger (21%). In both categories of food insecurity, individuals were significantly more likely to be women, aboriginals, living with children, and to have less education, a history of recreational injection drug and/or alcohol abuse, and an unstable housing situation (P < 0.05). In logistic multivariate modeling, income < or = Can$10,000 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.78, 95% CI (2.53-5.65)], shared household with children [AOR 3.68, 95% CI (1.98-6.84)] and unemployment [AOR 3.15, 95% CI (1.94-5.13)] were the strongest predictors of hunger. In HIV-positive individuals, the occurrence of food insecurity was nearly 5 times higher than in the general Canadian population. The results should stimulate further research to identify to what extent hunger-associated factors are reversible with interventions built on nutritional and/or social strategies.

  10. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lorna J; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation) of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia). With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length), has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain largely unconstrained.

  11. Harvesting and climate effects on organic matter characteristics in British Columbia coastal forests.

    PubMed

    Preston, C M; Trofymow, J A; Niu, J; Fyfe, C A

    2002-01-01

    As part of investigations into the effects of harvesting old-growth forest, we characterized carbon in five organic matter pools in eight forest chronosequences of coastal British Columbia. Each chronosequence comprised stands in four seral stages from regeneration (3-8 yr) to old-growth (>250 yr), with second-growth stands mostly of harvest origin. Stands were located in two biogeoclimatic subzones with contrasting climate (wetter, slightly cooler conditions on the west coast of Vancouver Island than on the east). Carbon concentrations in fine woody debris (FWD), forest floor (LFH), fine roots from LFH, and two water-floatable fractions from 10 to 30 cm mineral soil (MIN-ROOT, 2-8 mm and MIN-FLOAT, <2 mm) showed no significant effects due to climate, seral stage, or site. There were some significant differences in N concentrations, but none related to seral stage. Carbon-13 cross-polarization with magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra with principal component analysis of relative areas also showed little harvesting effect, but greater variation related to input of coarse woody debris (CWD) vs. roots high in tannin. Overall, there tended to be more spectral features associated with wood and lignin in the west; whereas some MIN-ROOT samples from the drier east side had aromatic intensity attributed to charcoal. The minimal effects of one harvest on organic matter are most likely due to the large legacy effect; however, more intensive management will probably result in less CWD retention, less charcoal input, and less microsite variability in these pools of poorly decomposed organic matter.

  12. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-01-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation. PMID:10480460

  13. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Stephen N; Olson, John R; Kershner, Jeffrey L; Corbett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish Stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2=0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone.

  14. Process Monitoring of an HIV Treatment as Prevention Program in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Lillian; Lima, Viviane D.; Heath, Kate; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gilbert, Mark; Colley, Guillaume; Consolacion, Theodora; Barrios, Rolando; Robert, Hogg; Krajden, Mel; Konrad, Stephanie; Murti, Michelle; Nelson, Joanne; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Haggerstone, James; Pick, Neora; Gustafson, Reka; Rusch, Melanie; Day, Irene; Montaner, Julio Sg

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all five regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of eight criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: one for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. PMID:25072608

  15. Hepatitis B Awareness and Knowledge in Asian Communities in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ford, Jo-Ann; Kwan, Peter Wing Cheung; Chan, Jessica; Choo, Queenie; Kwong, Willie; Huang, Alan; Yoshida, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study examined hepatitis B virus (HBV) awareness and knowledge in Asian communities in British Columbia (BC). Methods. A statistical random sample representation of Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in Greater Vancouver was surveyed by telephone. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HBV knowledge. Results. General awareness of HBV was reported in 78.8% (798/1013). HBV awareness was the highest in Chinese (89%) and Filipino (88%) populations and the lowest in the South Asian (56%) population. “Reasonable” knowledge of HBV was elicited in 76.8% (778/1013). Higher HBV knowledge was associated with younger age (p = 0.014), higher education (p < 0.0001), Chinese ethnicity (p < 0.0001), and use of media (p = 0.01) and Internet (p = 0.024) for health information. Compared to the Chinese (OR = 1.0) population, “reasonable” knowledge of HBV was lower in Korean (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.5), Filipino (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.6), South Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2–0.4), and Southeast Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.6) populations. 54.8% (555/1013) felt that HBV education was inadequate and 80.1% (811/1013) preferred HBV education in their native languages. Conclusion. Compared to the Chinese population, other Asian communities in BC have lower HBV awareness and knowledge. Public education should target older and less educated and Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in their native languages via media and Internet. PMID:27446839

  16. Thermochronologic constraints on mylonite and detachment fault development, Kettle Highlands, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.R.; Snee, L.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The Kettle dome, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia, is one of several large metamorphic core complexes in the region. New Ar-40/Ar-39 cooling dates from the mylonite immediately beneath the Kettle River detachment fault at Barney's Junction, a cross-cutting mafic dike, and the youngest Eocene lavas in the Republic graben set constraints on kinematic models of the tectonic evolution of the dome and related grabens: Amphibolite--hornblende (59.0 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--muscovite (49.3 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--K-feldspar (49.2 [+-] 1); Augen gneiss--K-feldspar (48.0 [+-] 1); Mafic dike--hornblende (54.5 [+-] 0.1) and biotite (49.6 [+-] 0.1); Klondike Mt. Formation lava--feeder dike (48.8 [+-] 1). The authors interpret the dates to indicate that the tectonized amphibolite, part of a Cretaceous and older metamorphosed terrane, had formed and cooled to [approx] 500 C by Late Paleocene, the mylonite zone was being domed above the ductile zone by Early Eocene at the time of emplacement of the dike--temporally equivalent to the Keller Butte suite, Eocene Colville batholith--which crosscuts the mylonite, and incipient rifting was occurring in the Republic graben as evidenced by dike swarms. The mylonite complex reached 300 C by 49Ma coincident with the termination of Sanpoil volcanism, and then cooled rapidly to near or below 150 C by 48 Ma. At about this time, mafic Klondike Mt. lavas mark the termination of Republic graben rifting and possibly detachment faulting along the Kettle River fault.

  17. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  18. A New Stalked Filter-Feeder from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Lorna J.; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation) of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia). With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality. This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length), has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events. Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain largely unconstrained

  19. Opinions and preferences of British Columbia pharmacists and physicians on medication management services

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Nicole W.; Khakban, Amir; Gastonguay, Louise; Zafari, Zafar; Lynd, Larry D.; Marra, Carlo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medication management (MM) services are being provided by pharmacists across Canada in various forms, but pharmacist-physician collaboration is still not a routine practice in most jurisdictions. This survey aimed to gather pharmacists’ and physicians’ opinions and preferences for MM provision. Methods: Two parallel, cross-sectional online surveys, including best-worst scaling tasks, were designed for pharmacists and physicians in British Columbia to capture and compare their preferences for a number of attributes of MM. Results: Surveys were completed by 119 pharmacists and 146 physicians. Results indicate that pharmacists and physicians had similar opinions on many aspects of MM. Ninety-five percent of pharmacists and 69% of physicians believed that additional health services are needed to help patients optimize the use of their medications. However, the majority of each group felt that they were the most important health care professional in providing this service. Most pharmacists (79%) and some physicians (25%) thought that optimizing use of medications would result in both decreased costs and utilization to the health care system. Both pharmacists and physicians felt that the best attribute of an MM service would be if the services resulted in improved health and medication use for patients. Both groups were motivated by increased remuneration for MM; however, the relative strength of preference for this was higher among physicians. Interestingly, physicians valued improved medication adherence as a result of MM more highly than pharmacists did. Discussion and Conclusion: Most pharmacists and physicians agreed that improving patients’ health and medication use would be the best attribute of MM and that there is a need for such services. However, physicians also had strong preferences for being remunerated for participating in MM provision. PMID:28286592

  20. Interplay of plutonism and regional deformation in an obliquely convergent arc, southern Coast Belt, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. H.; Talbot, J. L.; McClelland, W. C.; Feltman, J. A.; Lapen, T. J.; Bennett, J. D.; Hettinga, M. A.; Troost, M. L.; Alvarez, K. M.; Calvert, A. T.

    2000-06-01

    The Coast Plutonic Complex is an extensive zone of continental growth that formed along the Mesozoic convergent margin of northwestern North America. The orogeny creating this belt involved terrane accretion and assembly, massive upward transfer and emplacement of sial in the form of batholiths constituting a magmatic arc, and transformation of broad tracts of sedimentary and volcanic rocks into crystalline continental crust, all operating in more or less the same space and time. The mechanisms and interplay of these orogenic processes are well displayed in the Harrison Lake area of the southern Coast Belt, British Columbia. Great structural relief across the area exhibits a present-day architecture defined by thin, thrust-stacked terrane sheets and early concordant pluton sheets folded on a macroscopic scale, all truncated by oblique dextral-reverse faults and overlain by later floored plutons. Construction of this complex began with terrane assembly on orogen-normal thrusts during a lull in plutonism in the Early Cretaceous. Low-grade metamorphism during this event indicates only modest crustal thickening. Subsequent plutons intruded into the assembled terranes appear to be composites of sheets. Early pluton sheets are now steeply dipping due to folding but were likely intruded as horizontal bodies. Large ovoid post folding plutons are mostly subhorizontal floored bodies, at least in part sheeted. These plutons are underlain by Barrovian mineralogic aureoles that indicate downward vertical displacement of 10 km or more during plutonism, suggesting pluton emplacement by vertical inflation. Magmatic fabrics in these bodies, and the discordant relation of plutons to regional structures, preclude emplacement in active fault zones. Penetrative strain aureoles flanking plutons are mostly limited to zones a few hundred meters wide, and regional tectonic structures are widely preserved. Tectonic deformation of the arc is characterized by contraction and strike-slip, not

  1. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Ryan N.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances. PMID:27168988

  2. Stratigraphic and Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Hazelton Trough-Bowser Basin, Northwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Jean-Francois

    The Hazelton trough--Bowser basin is a large sedimentary basin that developed on volcanic arc rocks of the Stikine terrane in northern British Columbia, Canada. Its fill mostly consists of the Lower to Middle Jurassic Hazelton Group and the Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Bowser Lake Group. Regional correlations indicate that the Hazelton Group can be divided in two distinct lithostratigraphic intervals separated in most places by an unconformity. The lower Hazelton Group (LHG) is dominated by arc-related volcanic rocks, whereas the upper Hazelton Group (UHG) contains mainly fine-grained clastic rocks and lesser bimodal rift-related volcanic rocks. Lowermost coarse-grained strata of the UHG, including the bioturbated and fossiliferous units of the Smithers Formation and the Spatisizi River Formation, record a transgressive trend consistent with thermal subsidence and relative sea-level rise. Transgression of the Stikine arc culminated with the establishment of deep-water conditions in the Late Toarcian-Early Aalenian, and deposition of the Quock Formation. Interbedded siliceous mudstone and rusty-weathered tuff of the Quock Formation are correlated throughout most of the basin, except in the Iskut River area on the northwestern margin of the basin, where contemporaneous strata of the Iskut River Formation are dominated by rift-related volcanic rocks and conglomerates. Inception of rifting in the Iskut River area constitutes an independent extensional event on Stikinia, and could be related to reorganization of tectonic plates during a protracted period of terrane accretion in the Middle Jurassic. Obduction of the Cache Creek terrane over Stikinia in early Middle Jurassic provided a new source of sediment, which led to accumulation of the Bowser Lake Group. The second pulse of subsidence observed at Todagin Mountain can be explained by sediment loading of the accommodation previously generated during extension of the Hazelton trough in Early Jurassic time.

  3. Upper crustal structure of southwestern British Columbia from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Zelt, C.A.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies nonlinear three-dimensional travel time tomography to refraction data recorded during the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) to derive the first large-scale, high-resolution upper crustal velocity model for southwestern British Columbia. A minimum structure P wave velocity model is constructed using 175,000 first arrival travel times picked from data recorded by 58 temporary onshore stations. The model details forearc crustal structures related to terrane accretion and subsequent basin formation to a depth of about 10 km. The Metchosin igneous complex (correlative with the Eocene Crescent-Siletz Terrane in Washington) is imaged as a laterally extensive WNW trending high-velocity anomaly underlying southernmost Vancouver Island and much of the Strait of Juan du Fuca. Northeast of the Strait of Georgia, the southwesterly dip of the contact between the Wrangellia terrane rocks of Vancouver Island and the Coast Plutonic Complex suggests Wrangellia rocks are down-faulted against the plutonic complex. At the southwestern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the 50 km long WNW trending Clallam basin has a maximum thickness of 5-6 km. Near the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Port Townsend basin has an inferred thickness of approximately 4-5 km. The southern end of the 9 km thick Georgia basin is bounded by a high-velocity basement ridge. Beneath the Strait of Georgia, clusters of well-located earthquakes have a prominent NW trend and coincide spatially with rapid lateral velocity changes. Clusters of microearthquakes there are associated with the intersection of several east trending structural highs within this NW trend. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Acidic herbicides in surface waters of Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Woudneh, Million B; Sekela, Mark; Tuominen, Taina; Gledhill, Melissa

    2007-01-12

    In the period 2003-2005 a study was conducted to determine the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution of five acidic herbicides in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) region of British Columbia, Canada. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method capable of detecting analytes at the sub ng/L level was developed for this study. Samples were collected and analyzed from two references, five agricultural, two urban and five agricultural and urban mixed sites. Only (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and triclopyr were detected at the reference sites. The highest concentration of herbicide detected at the reference sites was 0.109ng/L for (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid. Varying levels of all of the herbicides monitored were detected at the urban, agricultural and the mixed sites. For the urban sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 66.6ng/L for 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid. For the agricultural sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 345ng/L for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D). For the mixed sites the highest concentration of herbicide detected was 1230ng/L for 2,4-D. Overall the mixed sites showed highest concentrations and detection frequencies followed by the agricultural and urban sites. With few exceptions higher concentrations of herbicides were observed for samples collected during spring than for samples collected during fall. The detected concentrations of herbicides were evaluated against established water quality criteria. Herbicide data presented in this study provide reference levels for future pesticide monitoring programs in the region.

  5. Seasonal habitat use and selection by grizzly bears in Northern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We defined patterns of habitat use and selection by female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Besa-Prophet watershed of northern British Columbia. We fitted 13 adult females with Geographic Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars and monitored them between 2001 and 2004. We examined patterns of habitat selection by grizzly bears relative to topographical attributes and 3 potential surrogates of food availability: land-cover class, vegetation biomass or quality (as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and selection value for prey species themselves (moose [Alces alces], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Although vegetation biomass and quality, and selection values for prey were important in seasonal selection by some individual bears, land-cover class, elevation, aspect, and vegetation diversity most influenced patterns of habitat selection across grizzly bears, which rely on availability of plant foods and encounters with ungulate prey. Grizzly bears as a group avoided conifer stands and areas of low vegetation diversity, and selected for burned land-cover classes and high vegetation diversity across seasons. They also selected mid elevations from what was available within seasonal ranges. Quantifying relative use of different attributes helped place selection patterns within the context of the landscape. Grizzly bears used higher elevations (1,595??31 m SE) in spring and lower elevations (1,436??27 m) in fall; the range of average elevations used among individuals was highest (500 m) during the summer. During all seasons, grizzly bears most frequented aspects with high solar gain. Use was distributed across 10 land-cover classes and depended on season. Management and conservation actions must maintain a diverse habitat matrix distributed across a large elevational gradient to ensure persistence of grizzly bears as levels of human access increase in the northern Rocky Mountains

  6. Forearc structure beneath southwestern British Columbia: A three-dimensional tomographic velocity model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. A Retrospective Review of Chemotherapy for Patients with Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Duerr, Donat; Ellard, Susan; Zhai, Yongliang; Taylor, Marianne; Rao, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is associated with a poor prognosis. It is an uncommon malignancy and therefore difficult to study. Randomized phase III trials are not available to guide best approaches. The Provincial Cancer Registry of the British Columbia Cancer Agency contains long-term data on patients with SBA. The authors analyzed characteristics and treatment outcomes for SBA patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2008. Material and methods: Charts of 150 patients with a histological diagnosis of SBA were retrospectively analyzed. Epidemiological and treatment data were collected. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Baseline characteristics, such as median age at diagnosis (64.5 years), tumor stage (I-II 33%, III-IV 58%, unknown 9%), and location (duodenum 48%, jejunum 31%, ileum 21%) were consistent with published data. 55% of patients had a positive family history of cancer. DFS and OS of 29 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy were not significantly different to that of 47 patients without (p = 1 and p = 0.211, respectively). In the palliative setting patients treated with polychemotherapy (21 patients) had statistically better OS than patients treated with monochemotherapy (12 patients) (p = 0.0228). Conclusions: Our study suggests a survival benefit for advanced-stage SBA patients treated with poly- versus monochemotherapy. This, however, was a retrospective analysis with several potential confounders. Nevertheless, our study adds to the evidence suggesting that chemotherapy may be beneficial for patients with SBA, at least in the palliative setting. PMID:27994666

  8. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Andrea C.; Howard, A. Fuchsia; Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah; Hasan, Haroon; Goddard, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  9. Hepatitis B Awareness and Knowledge in Asian Communities in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ford, Jo-Ann; Kwan, Peter Wing Cheung; Chan, Jessica; Choo, Queenie; Lee, Tim K; Kwong, Willie; Huang, Alan; Yoshida, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study examined hepatitis B virus (HBV) awareness and knowledge in Asian communities in British Columbia (BC). Methods. A statistical random sample representation of Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in Greater Vancouver was surveyed by telephone. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HBV knowledge. Results. General awareness of HBV was reported in 78.8% (798/1013). HBV awareness was the highest in Chinese (89%) and Filipino (88%) populations and the lowest in the South Asian (56%) population. "Reasonable" knowledge of HBV was elicited in 76.8% (778/1013). Higher HBV knowledge was associated with younger age (p = 0.014), higher education (p < 0.0001), Chinese ethnicity (p < 0.0001), and use of media (p = 0.01) and Internet (p = 0.024) for health information. Compared to the Chinese (OR = 1.0) population, "reasonable" knowledge of HBV was lower in Korean (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.5), Filipino (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6), South Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.4), and Southeast Asian (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) populations. 54.8% (555/1013) felt that HBV education was inadequate and 80.1% (811/1013) preferred HBV education in their native languages. Conclusion. Compared to the Chinese population, other Asian communities in BC have lower HBV awareness and knowledge. Public education should target older and less educated and Korean, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian populations in their native languages via media and Internet.

  10. Anoxia Precedes the end-Triassic Mass Extinction: Evidence from the Kennecott Point Formation, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, A. H.; Sepúlveda, J.; Price-Waldman, R.; Williford, K. H.; Whiteside, J. H.; Summons, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (ETE), at 201.4 million years ago, is one of the five largest ecologic disasters of the Phanerozoic eon. Few geologic sections offer the potential to reconstruct environmental and ecological changes at this time in the marine realm with global significance. The Kennecott Point Formation in Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, preserves a thick sequence of calcareous shales and siltstones deposited on late Triassic basaltic rocks interpreted to be an oceanic plateau resting within the Panthalassic basin, the largest ocean basin at the time of the Triassic-Jurassic transition. This section, which spans the late Norian to the mid-Hettangian, is plausibly the most representative of the global ocean system at this time; however, environmental reconstructions have been mostly based on bulk carbon and sulfur isotope records. Here, we present a record of molecular fossils (biomarkers) and indices indicative of ecological and redox changes (i.e., algal steranes and bacterial hopanes, gammacerane index, homohopane index, 2- and 3- methyl hopane indices) from the Kennecott Point Formation to argue for a period of low oxygen conditions associated with increased stratification, ecological changes, and disrupted nutrient cycling directly preceding the end-Triassic mass extinction. We couple these results with biomarkers indicative of terrestrial input and vegetation disturbance (tricyclic diterpanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) to clarify the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry and environmental changes in the terrestrial realm. This record provides new evidence for changing marine conditions preceding and associated with the ETE and allows for a more rigorous investigation into the chronology of events hypothesized to be mechanistically linked to this mass extinction, including abrupt global warming, major alterations to marine primary productivity, and terrestrial vegetation die-off.

  11. Flesh quality of market-size farmed and wild British Columbia salmon.

    PubMed

    Ikonomou, M G; Higgs, D A; Gibbs, M; Oakes, J; Skura, B; McKinley, S; Balfry, S K; Jones, S; Withler, R; Dubetz, C

    2007-01-15

    This study compared the flesh quality of farmed and wild sources of British Columbia (BC) salmon with respect to concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans and their associated toxic equivalents, total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and selected fatty acids of known importance for human health viz., omega-3 (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) and (n-6) fatty acids. Skinned fillets from known sources of farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110) and wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91) were examined. Atlantic salmon contained higher PCB concentrations (means, 28-38 ng/g) than farmed coho or chinook salmon, and levels in these latter species were similar to those in wild counterparts (means, 2.8-13.7 ng/g). PCB levels in Atlantic salmon flesh were, nevertheless, 53-71-fold less than the level of concern for human consumption of fish, i.e., 2000 ng/g as established by Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). Similarly, THg and MeHg levels in all samples were well below the Health Canada guideline (0.5 microg/g) and the US-FDA action level (1.0 microg/g). On average, THg in farmed salmon (0.021 microg/g) was similar to or lower than wild salmon (0.013-0.077 microg/g). Atlantic salmon were a richer source (mean, 2.34 g/100 g fillet) of n-3 HUFAs than the other farmed and wild sources of salmon examined (means, 0.39-1.17 g/100 g). The present findings support the recommended weekly consumption guidelines for oily fish species (includes all BC salmon sources) for cardio-protective benefits as made by the American Heart Association and the UK Food Standards Agency.

  12. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jessica A; Cloutier, Ryan N; Côté, Isabelle M

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides-a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates-began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  13. The influence of surface mining on runoff timing and flow pathways, Elk Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock thereby allowing access to mineable ore. The removed waste rock is deposited in adjacent valleys where it may bury existing streams. Previous research, predominantly in Appalachia, has focused on downstream water quality impacts with less focus on how streamflow response and flow pathways are affected by surface mining. This study reports on how surface mining affects streamflow hydrological and chemical responses at the headwater catchment scale in the Elk Valley, British Columbia. A paired catchment approach was utilized between May and October 2012, where a reference catchment (Dry Creek - DC) was compared to an impacted catchment (West Line Creek - WLC), whose area is ~30% covered by deposited waste rock. Hydrometrically, WLC had considerably lower flows and exhibited a damped, slower response to precipitation events than DC. Dissolved ions were an order of magnitude greater in WLC, with conductivity (SpC) ranging between 400 μS/cm at high flow to 1300 μS/cm at low flow. A strong hysteretic pattern was observed between SpC and flow and with specific ions at WLC, suggesting dilution or changing flowpaths as the season progressed. In contrast, patterns of SpC and flow at DC did not exhibit hysteresis. Major ion hydrochemistry at WLC shows dilution affecting ion concentrations whereas results at DC are consistent with chemostatic behavior. Stable isotopes were more depleted at DC compared with WLC, suggesting different sources and timing of water contributing to streamflow. Future research will work towards a conceptual model of surface mining impacts on catchment scale processes in montane environments through increased understanding of residence time and flowpath distributions at a number of impacted and reference catchments. .

  14. Measurement of plant-available zinc in British Columbia orchard soils

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, D.; Hoyt, P.B.; MacKenzie, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc availability in 20 southern British Columbia orchard soils was examined in the greenhouse. Zinc concentration, uptake and yield in navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were measured and compared with soil Zn extracted by MgCl/sub 2/ at three concentrations (1.0 M, 0.50 and 0.25 M), DTPA, 0.10 M HCl and 0.05 M HCl + 0.0125 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Adding Zn at the rate of 10 mg/kg did not increase yields. Available Zn varied greatly as measured by the soil tests and by plant Zn concentration and uptake. These availability indices, except for plant Zn concentration, varied directly with Bray-P1 extractable P and organic matter content. Plant Zn uptake and concentration and MgCl/sub 2/ extractable Zn also varied inversely with pH. Zinc extracted by MgCl/sub 2/ was more closely related to plant Zn concentration and uptake than Zn extracted by the other three extractants. Furthermore, extraction of Zn with 0.25 M MgCl/sub 2/ instead of with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ decreased analytical difficulties with atomic absorption spectrophotometry and also resulted in improved relationships with plant Zn concentration. Comparisons between Zn and Mn extracted by MgCl/sub 2/ solutions ranging from 1.0 M to 0.01 M in strength and at different soil:extractant ratios indicated that 0.25 M MgCl/sub 2/ extracted less specifically adsorbed Zn than 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ which resulted in the improved relationship with plant Zn.

  15. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  16. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  17. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Providers' perceptions of Aboriginal palliative care in British Columbia's rural interior.

    PubMed

    Castleden, Heather; Crooks, Valorie A; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2010-09-01

    Aboriginal Canadians experience a disproportionate burden of ill-health and have endured a history of racism in accessing and using health care. Meanwhile, this population is rapidly growing, resulting in an urgent need to facilitate better quality of living and dying in many ways, including through enhancing (cultural) access to palliative care. In this article, we report the findings from a qualitative case study undertaken in rural British Columbia, Canada through exploring the perceptions of Aboriginal palliative care in a region identified as lacking in formal palliative care services and having only a limited Aboriginal population. Using interview data collected from 31 formal and informal palliative care providers (May-September 2008), we thematically explore not only the existing challenges and contradictions associated with the prioritisation and provision of Aboriginal palliative care in the region in terms of (in)visibility but also identify the elements necessary to enhance such care in the future. The implications for service providers in rural regions are such that consideration of the presence of small, and not always 'visible', populations is necessary; while rural care providers are known for their resilience and resourcefulness, increased opportunities for meaningful two-way knowledge exchange with peers and consultation with experts cannot be overlooked. Doing so will serve to enhance culturally accessible palliative care in the region in general and for Aboriginal peoples specifically. This analysis thus contributes to a substantial gap in the palliative care literature concerning service providers' perceptions surrounding Aboriginal palliative care as well as Aboriginal peoples' experiences with receiving such care. Given the growing Aboriginal population and continued health inequities, this study serves to not only increase awareness but also create better living and dying conditions in small but incremental ways.

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 offshore British Columbia-southeastern Alaska and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Ooms, Jonathan G.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The tectonics of the Pacific margin of North America between Vancouver Island and south-central Alaska are dominated by the northwest motion of the Pacific plate with respect to the North America plate at a velocity of approximately 50 mm/yr. In the south of this mapped region, convergence between the northern extent of the Juan de Fuca plate (also known as the Explorer microplate) and North America plate dominate. North from the Explorer, Pacific, and North America plate triple junction, Pacific:North America motion is accommodated along the ~650-km-long Queen Charlotte fault system. Offshore of Haida Gwaii and to the southwest, the obliquity of the Pacific:North America plate motion vector creates a transpressional regime, and a complex mixture of strike-slip and convergent (underthrusting) tectonics. North of the Haida Gwaii islands, plate motion is roughly parallel to the plate boundary, resulting in almost pure dextral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte fault. To the north, the Queen Charlotte fault splits into multiple structures, continuing offshore of southwestern Alaska as the Fairweather fault, and branching east into the Chatham Strait and Denali faults through the interior of Alaska. The plate boundary north and west of the Fairweather fault ultimately continues as the Alaska-Aleutians subduction zone, where Pacific plate lithosphere subducts beneath the North America plate at the Aleutians Trench. The transition is complex, and involves intraplate structures such as the Transition fault. The Pacific margin offshore British Columbia is one of the most active seismic zones in North America and has hosted a number of large earthquakes historically.

  20. Differences in obstetric care among nulliparous First Nations and non–First Nations women in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Corinne A.; Hutcheon, Jennifer A.; Dahlgren, Leanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Canada’s Aboriginal population faces significantly higher rates of stillbirth and neonatal and postnatal death than those seen in the general population. The objective of this study was to compare indicators of obstetric care quality and use of obstetric interventions between First Nations and non-First Nations mothers in British Columbia, Canada. Methods: We linked obstetrical medical records with the First Nations Client File for all nulliparous women who delivered single infants in British Columbia from 1999 to 2011. Using logistic regression models, we examined differences in the proportion of women who received services aligned with best practice guidelines, as well as the overall use of obstetric interventions among First Nations mothers compared with the general population, controlling for geographic barriers (distance to hospital) and other relevant confounders. Results: During the study period, 215 993 single births occurred in nulliparous women in British Columbia, 9152 of which were to members of our First Nations cohort. First Nations mothers were less likely to have early ultrasonography (adjusted risk difference = 10.2 fewer women per 100 deliveries [95% confidence interval {CI} −11.3 to −9.3]), to have at least 4 antenatal care visits (3.6 fewer women per 100 deliveries [95% CI −4.6 to −2.6]), and to undergo labour induction after prolonged (> 24 hours) prelabour rupture of membranes (−5.9 [95% CI −11.8 to 0.1]) or at post-dates gestation (−10.6 [95% CI −13.8 to −7.5]). Obstetric interventions including epidural, labour induction, instrumental delivery and cesarean delivery were used less often in First Nations mothers. Interpretation: We identified differences in the obstetric care received by First Nations mothers compared with the general population. Such differences warrant further investigation, given increases in perinatal mortality that are consistently shown and that may be a downstream consequence of

  1. RISQy Business (Relationships, Incentives, Supports, and Quality): Evolution of the British Columbia Model of Primary Care (Patient-Centered Medical Home)

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, Dan; Hollander, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the British Columbia Medical Association (now Doctors of BC) came together to form the British Columbia General Practice Services Committee to bring about transformative change in primary care in British Columbia, Canada. This committee’s approach to primary care was to respond to an operational problem—the decline of family practice in British Columbia—with an operational solution—assist general practitioners to provide better care by introducing new incentive fees into the fee-for-service payment schedule, and by providing additional training to general practitioners. This may be referred to as a “soft power” approach, which can be summarized in the abbreviation RISQ: focus on Relationships; provide Incentives for general practitioners to spend more time with their patients and provide guidelines-based care; Support general practitioners by developing learning modules to improve their practices; and, through the incentive payments and learning modules, provide better Quality care to patients and improved satisfaction to physicians. There are many similarities between the British Columbian approach to primary care and the US patient-centered medical home. PMID:24867550

  2. Renovating the built environment for dementia care: lessons learned at the Lodge at Broadmead in Victoria, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Gnaedinger, Nancy; Robinson, Janice; Sudbury, Fiona; Dutchak, Merv

    2007-01-01

    Major renovations were carried out in occupied dementia care units at the Lodge at Broadmead, Victoria, British Columbia. A 32-bed lodge was divided into two, requiring the relocation of three sets of doors. Home-like kitchens and living and dining rooms were built and furnished in each unit. A silent resident call system was installed. Nursing stations were moved off the unit. Murals added atmosphere and camouflaged exit doors. The process, while challenging, was successful due to comprehensive planning, careful phasing, the contractor's daily presence, the education of construction workers about residents, constant communication among key people and cooperation of lodge staff. Preliminary results are positive.

  3. Ice-free conditions on the queen charlotte islands, british columbia, at the height of late wisconsin glaciation.

    PubMed

    Warner, B G; Mathewes, R W; Clague, J J

    1982-11-12

    New radiocarbon dates and plant macrofossil data establish that parts of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, were ice-free during and subsequent to the late Wisconsin glacial maximum on the Pacific coast of Canada. A paleoecological investigation of dated sediments at Cape Ball has indicated that a varied flora consisting of terrestrial and aquatic plants was present there about 16,000 years ago. This finding provides support for the existence of a heretofore questioned biotic refugium on the Queen Charlotte Islands during the last glaciation. These results shed new light on problems of glacial chronology, climatic change, biogeography, and archeology along the western margin of North America.

  4. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array dispersion data in southwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Sheri; Dosso, Stan E.; Cassidy, John F.

    2010-11-01

    ) parameters are fixed in the inversion. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array data is applied at two sites in British Columbia, the area of highest seismic risk in Canada, to study the ability to recover an accurate VS profile in relatively deep and shallow geological settings on the Fraser River delta in Greater Vancouver and in Victoria, respectively. A well-resolved VS profile to at least 110 m depth is determined at the Fraser River delta site for a power-law gradient parametrization. At the Victoria site, a layer with low VS and a weak linear gradient is indicated to 15-18 m depth, above much higher velocity material. Invasive VS measurements from seismic cone penetration testing and/or surface-to-downhole methods are used to assess the reliability of the Bayesian microtremor inversion results, with excellent agreement obtained at both sites.

  5. Exploring the ecological processes driving geographical patterns of breeding bird richness in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Mahony, Nancy A

    2013-06-01

    British Columbia (BC), Canada, has a diverse landscape that provides breeding habitat for > 300 avian species, and the recent development of the BC Breeding Bird Atlas data set presents key information for exploring the landscape conditions which lead to biological richness. We used the volunteer-collected raw breeding bird evidence data set to analyze the effects of sampling biases on spatial distribution of observed breeding bird species and implemented regression tree analysis (Random Forests) to examine the influence of productivity, ambient energy, and habitat heterogeneity on independently measured breeding bird richness. Results indicated that total breeding species richness is correlated with total survey effort (alpha < 0.001). By stratifying species richness by survey effort, we observed that ambient energy is the top-ranked environmental predictor of breeding bird richness across BC, which, when used in combination with a number of other environmental variables, explains -40% of the variation in richness. Using our modeled relationships, we predicted breeding bird species richness in the areas of BC not presently surveyed between three and six hours. The majority of the productive Boreal Plains, the southern portion of the Taiga Plains region, the lowlands of the Southern and Central Interior, along the Rocky Mountain Trench, and the coastal areas of the Georgia Depression are predicted to have the highest categories of breeding richness (35-57 unique species). Our results support ongoing species diversity gradient research, which identifies ambient energy as an important factor influencing species diversity distributions in the Northern Hemisphere. By linking breeding bird richness to environmental data derived from remotely sensed data and systematically collected climate data, we demonstrate the potential to monitor shifts in ambient energy as a surrogate for vertebrate habitat condition affecting population levels. By analyzing the influence of

  6. Preliminary age, growth and maturity estimates of spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. R.; McPhie, R. P.

    2015-05-01

    The spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) is a chimaeroid ranging from southeast Alaska to Baja California and found at depths of up to 1029 m. Despite being widespread and ubiquitous, few biological parameter estimates exist for spotted ratfish due to a lack of suitable ageing structures to estimate age and growth. We present preliminary results of age, growth and maturity estimates based on a new method in which tritor ridges are counted on the vomerine tooth plate. We also provide a method for estimating the number of worn tritor ridges based on tooth plate diameter measurements for the spotted ratfish. The tritor ridges are distinct bumps that are easy to identify and precision estimates between readers suggests that this method is transferable. Tritor ridges are a potential structure for estimating age in H. colliei and we provide recommendations for future research to improve the method. We sampled 269 spotted ratfish captured in trawl surveys off the coast British Columbia ranging in size from 74 to 495 mm in precaudal length (PCL). The estimated ages ranged from 2 to 16 years for males and from 2 to 21 years for females. The von Bertalanffy, von Bertalanffy with known size at birth, Gompertz and logistic growth models were fitted to the data. Based on Akaike information criterion corrected for sample size and number of parameters estimated, the logistic growth curve was selected as most suitable. The logistic growth model yielded the following parameter estimates: Linf=407.22 mm (PCL), k=0.23 year-1, t0=-7.06 years for males; L∞=494.52 mm (PCL), k=0.26 year-1, t0=-8.35 years for females. Estimated ages at 50% maturity were 12 and 14 years for males and females, respectively. Correspondingly, the size at 50% maturity estimates was smaller for males (302 mm, PCL) than females (393 mm, PCL). Both estimates are larger than those made for spotted ratfish off of California indicating regional differences in life history traits for this species. Our preliminary

  7. Observing tilts in mid-crustal rocks by paleomagnetism, examples from southeast British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Guy; Irving, E.

    1990-10-01

    Metamorphic core complexes that originated in the middle crust have been exposed by uplift and extension. Indicators of paleohorizontal planes are few or absent, thus it is difficult to determine the degree of tilting that might have accompanied this process. However, if aberrant paleomagnetic directions (paleodirections) are observed in core complexes or their associated intrusive rocks, and if large-scale rotation and translation can be excluded, then these paleodirections can be used to calculate the sense and magnitude of tilting. We describe paleodirections from mid-crustal rocks in southeastern British Columbia, where uplift and extension occurred in Eocene time about a central culmination aligned north-south. Several large extensional faults dip both to the west and to the east of this central culmination. The Eocene Granby pluton (49.3°N, 118.5°W), situated to the west of the main culmination, has a mean direction of magnetization (D°, I°) 309°, 41° (α63° = 7° the standard error) and paleopole at 44°N, 138°E (A63° = 7°). To the east of the main culmination, a 20 km long section of altered Eocene Syringa dikes and associated metadiorite (49.3°N, 117.7°W) has a mean direction of 56°, 47° (α63° = 3°) and paleopole at 56°N, 319°E (A63° = 3°). The paleopoles are very different from one another, and from those calculated from contemporaneous (53 to 49 Ma) rocks of the North American craton to the east. They also differ from those observed from coeval bedded volcanic rocks to the west of the sampling area. Hence, these large aberrancies cannot be caused by translations. We suggest that they are caused by tilting which occurred during the extension process. The tilts are in opposite senses on either side of the central culmination. They are estimated to be down 38°±8° at 99°E for the Granby Pluton, and down 41°±4° at 270°W for the dikes and metadiorite. These tilts are consistent with the Wernicke model for simple extensional shear.

  8. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus) predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats) and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples) provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P < 0.001) with consumption of salmon, which occurred in 40% of all faeces and up to 70% of faeces for some groups. This dietary shift as detected by faecal analysis was correlated with seasonal shifts in δ13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008), which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long

  9. Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Power, Ian M; Wilson, Siobhan A; Thom, James M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Background This study provides experimental evidence for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O), by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia. This wetland is part of a larger hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O) playa. Abiotic and biotic processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment are compared. Results Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp.) contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O) and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7‰, δ18O avg. = 17.2‰) were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3‰, δ18O avg. = 24.9‰). Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated

  10. Numerical modelling study of gully recharge and debris flows in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Yvonne; Johnson, Edward; Chaikina, Olga

    2015-04-01

    In high mountains, debris flows are a major process responsible for transferring sediment to more downstream fluvial reaches. This sediment transfer begins on mountain hillslopes where various mass wasting processes move sediment from hillslopes to uppermost reaches of the channel system (these reaches are herein referred to as gullies and only experience water flow during high intensity precipitation events). Sediment recharge into gullies, which has received minimal attention in the scientific literature, refers to the transfer of sediment and other debris from surrounding hillslopes into gullies (Jakob and Oden, 2005). Debris flow occurrence and debris flow volumes depend on some precipitation threshold as well as volumes of material contained in the particular gully. For example, if one debris flow has removed all of the accumulated material from the gully, then any subsequent debris flow will be smaller if enough time has not yet passed for notable sediment recharge. Herein, we utilize the numerical model of landscape development, LandMod (Martin, 1998; Dadson and Church, 2005; Martin, 2007), to explore connections between hillslope processes, gully recharge rates, and transfer of sediment to downstream channel reaches in the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Hillslope processes in the model include shallow landsliding, bedrock failures and weathering. The updated debris flow algorithm is based on extensive field data available for debris flows in Haida Gwaii (e.g., Rood, 1984; Oden, 1994; Jakob and Oden, 2005), as well as theoretical considerations based on debris flow studies. The most significant model extension is the calculation of gully recharge rates; for each gully, the total accumulated sediment in gullies at each time step is determined using a power-law relation for area-normalized recharge rate versus elapsed time since the last debris flow. Thus, when the stochastic driver for debris flow occurrence triggers an event, the amount of stored material is

  11. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  12. Phosphorus Weathering and Ecosystem Development: Holocene Record From Green Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater-Atwater, S. E.; Filippelli, G. M.; Souch, C.; Menounos, B.

    2001-12-01

    Changes in the availability of the nutrient element phosphorus (P) may control ecosystem development on terrestrial landscapes. Soil development tends to transform mineral P to occluded (mainly oxide-bound) and organic forms. Using well-dated alpine lake sediments from the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, we are using the temporal record of P geochemistry to interpret the extent of soil development on surrounding slopes, inherent slope instability, and repeated cycles of neoglaciation over the Holocene. Over 265 samples were analyzed from a single core from Green Lake. Chronological control is provided by varves, tephra, and radiocarbon dating. Sampling resolution in the upper core (0-2500 ybp) is 10 yr; in the lower core (2500-4600 ybp) resolution is 80 yr. All samples were analyzed for mineral, occluded, and organic P using sequential P extractions. Nine slope samples also were analyzed for these fractions and compared with eight surface Ekman samples from Green Lake. Slope samples show 11.8-31 umol/g of total P, with an average of 20.5 umol/g. Average percentages are occluded P 7.6%, mineral P 86% and organic P 6%. For the surface lake samples, the total P ranged from 24-32.6 umol/g with an average of 28.4 umol/g. Average percentages are occluded P 5.7%, mineral P 89.2%, and organic P 4.9%. These results indicate that modern slope soils and surface lake samples have comparable P compositions, supporting the use of lake samples to reflect nutrient status of surrounding soils. Green Lake core samples show an average of 28.3 umol/g of total P. Most P is in mineral fractions, ranging from 73-98% of the total P, while organic P ranges from 1.1-8.7%. The highest percentage of organic P occurs toward the bottom of the core, between 625 cm and 1155 cm, where the average organic P is 5.7% of the total and mineral P is 87.7 %. These horizons correspond well to warmer conditions, when climate change would have enabled soils to develop. Following this, organic P drops

  13. The Great British Columbia ShakeOut - Seismology and kinaesthetic learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, P.

    2011-12-01

    By the time this paper is presented British Columbia will have experienced two, province wide ShakeOut drills. In the first drill over 10% of the population (470,000 people) participated in the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" drill. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) was one of several federal, provincial, municipal, non-governmental and private sector agencies who organized the drill under the auspices of the BC Earthquake Alliance. The BC drill followed the Great California ShakeOut model (which is coordinated by the Earthquake Country Alliance) and received tremendous support from the Southern California Earthquake Center. NRCan is responsible for the monitoring and research of earthquakes in Canada and is a science-based department. The ShakeOut drill afforded us an opportunity to take our authoritative science straight to the people and help them better understand the seismic hazard in the province. Universities, public schools, daycares, and entire offices participated in the drill and it became the subject of dinner-time conversations across the province. The drill prompted questions like: "How worried should we be about earthquakes?" "How prepared are we as a family or as a work place?" "What else do we need to do, to be prepared?". The kinaesthetic aspect of the drill, physically dropping to the ground, taking cover, and holding on makes it memorable - you end up in a bit of a silly position, so there are lots of giggles. Being memorable is important because in a real earthquake the natural instinct is to run - the very thing you must not do. The drill provides an opportunity for people to attain a body-memory, to practice appropriate behaviour so they know what to do, without thinking, in a real earthquake. The first drill was on January 26th, 2011 the date of the last Cascadia megathrust earthquake. That date conflicted with province wide high school exams, so almost no high schools participated in the drill - they represent an important target demographic

  14. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  15. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, P.; Mićović, Z.; Bernardara, P.; Paquet, E.; Garavaglia, F.; Gailhard, J.; Ribstein, P.

    2013-04-01

    Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs) are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC) coastal region (Canada) and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March), which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns) and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy rainfall

  16. Prevalence of alcohol and drug use in injured British Columbia drivers

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Chan, Herbert; Martz, Walter; Schreiber, William; Asbridge, Mark; Eppler, Jeffrey; Lund, Adam; Macdonald, Scott; Drummer, Olaf; Purssell, Roy; Andolfatto, Gary; Mann, Robert; Brant, Rollin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Determine the prevalence of drug use in injured drivers and identify associated demographic factors and crash characteristics. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Seven trauma centres in British Columbia, Canada (2010–2012). Participants Automobile drivers who had blood obtained within 6 h of a crash. Main outcome measures We analysed blood for cannabis, alcohol and other impairing drugs using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LCMS). Results 1097 drivers met inclusion criteria. 60% were aged 20–50 years, 63.2% were male and 29.0% were admitted to hospital. We found alcohol in 17.8% (15.6% to 20.1%) of drivers. Cannabis was the second most common recreational drug: cannabis metabolites were present in 12.6% (10.7% to 14.7%) of drivers and we detected Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) in 7.3% (5.9% to 9.0%), indicating recent use. Males and drivers aged under 30 years were most likely to use cannabis. We detected cocaine in 2.8% (2.0% to 4.0%) of drivers and amphetamines in 1.2% (0.7% to 2.0%). We also found medications including benzodiazepines (4.0% (2.9% to 5.3%)), antidepressants (6.5% (5.2% to 8.1%)) and diphenhydramine (4.7% (3.5% to 6.2%)). Drivers aged over 50 years and those requiring hospital admission were most likely to have used medications. Overall, 40.1% (37.2% to 43.0%) of drivers tested positive for alcohol or at least one impairing drug and 12.7% (10.7% to 14.7%) tested positive for more than one substance. Conclusions Alcohol, cannabis and a broad range of other impairing drugs are commonly detected in injured drivers. Alcohol is well known to cause crashes, but further research is needed to determine the impact of other drug use, including drug–alcohol and drug–drug combinations, on crash risk. In particular, more work is needed to understand the role of medications in causing crashes to guide driver education programmes and improve public safety. PMID:26966054

  17. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  18. Regional calibration of MODIS snow classification algorithms in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubilowicz, J. W.; Shea, J. M.; Jost, G.; Moore, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The twice-daily temporal resolution and 500-m spatial resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-covered area (SCA) products offer great promise in the field of hydrologic forecasting. MODIS snow classification algorithms are accurate in most situations, but the situations in which accuracy suffers the most are also the situations where spatial observations of SCA would be most useful to operational hydrologists, particularly in the dynamic mountain watersheds of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (BC). Transient snow coverage and snow melt due to rain-on-snow events can cause the SCA in these watersheds to change rapidly, both in the shoulder seasons and mid-winter. These rapid changes are often poorly represented by MODIS SCA products due to both cloud obscuration and the nature of the classification algorithms used. Snow classification algorithms used in the MODIS SCA products have been calibrated globally, but operational use of MODIS snow cover maps has indicated that accuracy could be improved through regional calibration of fractional SCA products. One challenge to regional calibration is the availability of calibration data. To generate a suitable data set, we used ground-based oblique imagery of the Cheakamus River catchment, an operational hydroelectric catchment in the southern Coast Mountains of BC with a catchment area of 721 km2. Images were collected over two seasons at locations determined to have the highest visibility of the entire Cheakamus catchment based on a viewshed analysis. Unsupervised image classification was used to delineate snow cover. The oblique photographs were then geo-located and subsequently re-projected onto a digital elevation model to enable direct comparison to MODIS SCA products. Regional calibration of MODIS SCA classification algorithms using MODIS reflectance bands resulted in improved accuracy of fractional SCA products. While regional calibration may not be practical for short term

  19. Annual bed-elevation regime in the alluvial channel of Squamish River, southwestern British Columbia Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the annual regime of channel scour and fill by monitoring bed-elevation changes in a reach of Squamish River in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Sonar surveys of 13 river cross-sections in a sandy gravel-bed single-channel study reach were repeated biweekly over a full hydrologic year (1995/6). The survey results show that bedload movement occurs as waves or pulses forming bedwaves that appear to maintain an overall coherence with movement downstream. These bedwaves propagate downstream by a mode here termed pulse scour and pulse fill, a process distinguished from the conventional mode of scour and fill commonly associated with flood events (here termed local scour and local fill). Bedwave celerity was estimated to be about 15.5 m d-1 corresponding to a bedwave residence time in the study reach of almost one hydrologic year. The total amount of local bed-elevation change ranged between 0.22 m and 2.41 m during the period of study. Analysis of the bed-elevation and flow data reveals that, because of the bedware phenomenon, there is no simple relation between the mean bed-elevation and discharge nor any strong linear correlation among cross-sectional behaviour. The bed-elevation data also suggest that complex changes to the bed within a cross-section are masked when the bed is viewed in one dimension, although no definitive trends in bed behaviour were found in the two-dimensional analysis. Although a weak seasonal effect is evident in this study, the bed-elevation regime is dominated by sediment supply-driven fluctuations in bedload transport occurring at timescales shorter than the seasonal fluctuation in discharge. The study also indicates that bed-elevation monitoring on Squamish River, and others like it, for purposes of detecting and measuring aggradation/degradation must take into account very considerable and normal channel-bed variability operating at timescales from hours to months. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and

  20. Impacts of a changing winter precipitation regime on the Great Snowforest of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsvig, H.; Dery, S. J.; Coxson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Rising air temperatures have profoundly impacted British Columbia (BC) mountain ecosystems, including its Interior Wetbelt. This region supports the sole Interior Temperate Rainforest (ITR), or perhaps more appropriately "snowforest", of North America. This snowforest encompasses about 30,500 km2 and contains Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and western hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla) in excess of 1500 years old. This region is projected to be one of the more vulnerable biogeoclimatic zones in BC due to forest operations and climate change. Loss of snow as a storage medium has the potential to negatively affect the forest. A decrease in snow water equivalent (SWE) has the potential to decrease soil moisture values; impacts of decreased water availability in this region have the possibility to affect soil moisture storage, vegetative species composition, flora and fauna interdependence, and pathogen outbreaks. Given the projected climate change in high latitude and altitude areas, this project analyzes the contemporary and potential future climate of BC's Interior Wetbelt and explores the possible environmental and ecohydrological impacts of climate change on the snowforest. Models project an increase in air temperature and precipitation but a decrease in snowfall in this region. Analyses of the snow depth, SWE, and temperature from the Upper Fraser River Basin automated snow pillow sites of the BC River Forecast Centre (RFC) were conducted; snow depth, SWE, and temperature were also measured at the field site via automated weather stations and bi-monthly snow surveys. Surveys recorded depth and SWE after observed peak accumulation and continued until snowpack was depleted in 80% of the field site. To determine the influence of precipitation on the soil moisture levels in the ITR, soil moisture and water table levels were measured for the 2011-12 water year in addition to meteorological conditions; snow, spring water, and near surface ground water samples were collected

  1. Spectrum of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection in British Columbia: report of 40 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniewska-Kosela, M; FitzGerald, J M; Vedal, S; Allen, E A; Schechter, M T; Lawson, L; Phillips, P; Black, W; Montaner, J S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical features, treatment and outcome of all known cases of tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in British Columbia between 1984 and 1990. DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Provincial tuberculosis registry and university-affiliated HIV clinic. PATIENTS: All people with HIV infection in whom active tuberculosis was diagnosed during the study period. RESULTS: All 40 patients identified were men; their mean age was 38 years. Of the subjects 30 (75%) were homosexual, 6 (15%) were homosexual and used intravenous drugs, 2 (5%) just used intravenous drugs, and 1 (2%) had had heterosexual contact with prostitutes; for the remaining subject the risk factor for HIV infection was not established. In all cases cultures of specimens from 15 body sources yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thirty-five of the patients had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and five had HIV infection uncomplicated except for tuberculosis. In 28 (70%) of the cases no AIDS-defining disease had previously been diagnosed, and in 23 (58%) extrapulmonary tuberculosis represented the AIDS-defining disease. Symptoms at presentation included weight loss (in 80% of the cases), fever (in 75%), cough (in 70%) and night sweats (in 55%). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count was 0.2 x 10(9)/L (in 15 cases). Tuberculin skin test results were positive in 8 of 16 cases. The most striking radiologic finding was intrathoracic adenopathy. All except one of the 36 patients who received appropriate treatment responded favourably at first. Adverse reactions necessitating changes in treatment occurred in 12 (33%) of the cases. Relapse occurred after completion of therapy in two cases (one at 3 weeks and the other at 9 months after treatment was stopped). Tuberculosis was the cause of death in five cases. CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis in people with HIV infection commonly presents as extrapulmonary disease and precedes or coincides with other AIDS

  2. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant

  3. Geomagnetic field for the past 5 Myr recorded in lava flows from British Columbia, Patagonia, and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Victoria

    2005-11-01

    Paleosecular variation (PSV) and time averaged field (TAF) results recorded in lava flows younger than 5 million years are presented. The targeted areas of studies are several volcanic fields from British Columbia (mainly the Silverthrone, Garibaldi, and Wells Park volcanic fields), Southern Patagonia (the Pali-Aike volcanic field and Meseta Viscachas lavas), and Mexico (the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt and several volcanic areas in San Luis Potosi). The purpose of this investigation was to obtain high quality paleomagetic data suitable to test the presence or absence of permanent non dipolar components of the field that have been interpreted from studies carried out with less rigor. The mean directions in the areas of British Columbia and Patagonia (roughly at 50° N and 50° S latitude) coincide with the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) at these areas. The presence of a quadrupolar component of the field is difficult to discard because it is expected to produce only about 1° shallower inclinations. The mean direction in the area of Mexico coincides with a GAD plus a 5% quadrupole. The VGP scatter in the three areas of study coincides with Model G. The asymmetry between the northern and southern hemisphere of the present magnetic field and particularly the 20° inclination anomaly relative to GAD in Patagonia, are not observed in the paleomagnetic data obtained, implying that the present field configuration is relatively recent. The results confirm that axial components prevail in the time-averaged field.

  4. A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People: The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,18961942.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past.

  5. Mercury residues in livers of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead or dying in British Columbia, Canada (1987-1994).

    PubMed

    Weech, S A; Wilson, L K; Langelier, K M; Elliott, J E

    2003-11-01

    Postmortem examinations were conducted on 82 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead or dying in British Columbia, Canada, from 1987 to 1994. As part of the examination, livers were analyzed for total mercury (Hg) content, as well as methylmercury (meHg) and selenium (Se) in selected individuals. In total, 67 eagles were classed as having low Hg exposure [total Hg liver residues ranging from 0.5 to 17.2 mg/kg dry weight (dw)]. Fourteen eagles were moderately exposed (liver residues ranging from 19.2 to 36.8 mg/kg Hg dw). One eagle was judged to have died of Hg poisoning, with a total liver Hg content of 130.3 mg/kg dw, of which approximately 77% was meHg. The poisoned eagle and most of the exposed eagles were found in locations where effluent from pulp and paper processing plants is discharged along the British Columbia coast. In total, 6% of eagles examined died as a result of acute metal toxicosis (one from Hg poisoning, four from lead poisoning), in comparison to 72% dying from trauma (electrocution, vehicle/power line collision, eagle attack, trap, gunshot, drowning, and asphyxiation) and 11% from disease. The cause of death was undetermined in the remaining 11% of eagles.

  6. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in coastal natives of British Columbia: phylogenetic affinities and possible origins.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, F J; Coulthart, M B; Oger, J; King, E E; Kim, S; Arp, J; Rice, G P; Dekaban, G A

    1995-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection has been discovered recently in people of Amerindian descent living in coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada. DNA sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of HTLV-1 strains recovered from these British Columbia Indians (BCI) was conducted. Sequence-based phylogenetic trees distributed the BCI isolates among the Japanese subcluster (subcluster B) and the geographically widely distributed subcluster (subcluster A) of the large HTLV-1 cosmopolitan cluster. Long terminal repeat (LTR) RFLP typing revealed three distinct, equally frequent LTR cleavage patterns, two of which were of previously recognized Japanese and widely dispersed cosmopolitan types. A third, new cleavage pattern was detected which may have arisen by recombination between two other HTLV-1 genotypes. Our results suggest multiple origins for HTLV-1 in BCI, which are equally consistent with (i) a cluster of recent sporadic infections, (ii) ancient endemic vertical transmission through Amerindian lineages, or (iii) both. PMID:7474147

  7. Field study of growth and calcification rates of three species of articulated coralline algae in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Martone, P T

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising atmospheric CO₂ is predicted to negatively impact growth and calcification rates of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosystems and on carbon sequestration worldwide. In this study, we measured growth and calcification rates of three common species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plumosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum, and Corallina vancouveriensis) at an intertidal field site in British Columbia. Linear growth rates measured in the field were slow, although Bossiella grew significantly faster (0.22 cm mon⁻¹) than Calliarthron and Corallina (0.17 and 0.15 cm mon⁻¹, respectively). Growth rates in the field were generally slower than growth rates in the laboratory, suggesting that data generated in the laboratory may not be representative of natural field conditions. Growth rates did not decrease as fronds approached their maximum observed size, suggesting that maximum frond size might be determined not by intrinsic factors but by external factors such as wave-induced drag forces. Using growth data, we estimate that the largest observed Bossiella frond (20 cm²) and Calliarthron frond (40 cm²) were about 4- and 11-years-old, respectively, and had deposited approximately 1 and 6 g CaCO₃ in that time. Given the great abundance of coralline algae along the coast of British Columbia, deposition rates of CaCO₃ are expected to play a significant but poorly characterized role in carbon sequestration.

  8. Three-dimenstional crustal velocity structure beneath the strait of georgia, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, B.C.; Ellis, R.M.; Zelt, C.A.; Hyndman, R.D.; Lowe, C.; Spence, G.D.; Fisher, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a topographic depression straddling the boundary between the Insular and Coast belts in southwestern British Columbia. Two shallow earthquakes located within the strait (M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) and felt throughout the Vancouver area illustrate the seismic potential of this region. As part of the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiment, seismic instruments were placed in and around the Strait of Georgia to record shots from a marine source within the strait. We apply a tomographic inversion procedure to first-arrival travel-time data to derive a minimum-structure 3-D P-wave velocity model for the upper crust to about 13 km depth. We also present a 2-D velocity model for a profile orientated across the Strait of Georgia derived using a minimum-parameter traveltime inversion approach. This paper represents the first detailed look at crustal velocity variations within the major Cretaceous to Cenozoic Georgia Basin, which underlies the Strait of Georgia. The 3-D velocity model clearly delineates the structure of the Georgia Basin. Taking the 6 km s-1 isovelocity contour to represent the top of the underlying basement, the basin thickens from between 2 and 4 km in the northwestern half of the strait to between 8 and 9 km at the southeastern end of the study region. Basin velocities in the northeastern half are 4.5-6 km s-1 and primarily represent the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group. Velocities to the south are lower (3-6 km s-1) because of the additional presence of the overlying Tertiary Huntingdon Formation and more recent sediments, including glacial and modern Fraser River deposits. In contrast to the relatively smoothly varying velocity structure of the basin, velocities of the basement rocks, which comprise primarily Palaeozoic to Jurassic rocks of the Wrangellia Terrane and possibly Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Coast Belt, show significantly more structure, probably an indication

  9. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  10. Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health strategies that focus on legislative and policy change involving chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have the potential to prevent chronic diseases and improve quality of life as a whole. However, many public health policies introduced as part of public health reform have not yet been analyzed, such as in British Columbia and Ontario. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a descriptive, comparative analysis of public health policies related to the Healthy Living Core Program in British Columbia and Chronic Disease Prevention Standard in Ontario that are intended to prevent a range of chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and physical activity, among other things. Methods Policy documents were found through Internet search engines and Ministry websites, at the guidance of policy experts. These included government documents as well as documents from non-governmental organizations that were implementing policies and programs at a provincial level. Documents (n = 31) were then analysed using thematic content analysis to classify, describe and compare policies in a systematic fashion, using the software NVivo. Results Three main categories emerged from the analysis of documents: 1) goals for chronic disease prevention in British Columbia and Ontario, 2) components of chronic disease prevention policies, and 3) expected outputs of chronic disease prevention interventions. Although there were many similarities between the two provinces, they differed somewhat in terms of their approach to issues such as evidence, equity, and policy components. Some expected outputs were adoption of healthy behaviours, use of information, healthy environments and increased public awareness. Conclusions The two provincial policies present different approaches to support the implementation of related programs. Differences may be related to contextual factors such as program delivery structures and

  11. Geologic and structure maps of the Kalispell 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Montana, and Alberta and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, J.E.; Whipple, J.W.; Cressman, E.R.; digital database by Kayser, Helen Z.; Derkey, Pamela D.; ,

    2000-01-01

    This dataset was digitized by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center and U.S. Geological Survey Spokane Field Office for input into an Arc/Info geographic information systsem (GIS). The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of derivative geologic maps.

  12. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  13. Learning and Community Transition in the Lakes District Rural Dialogue. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Burns Lake, British Columbia, Canada, March 29, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the Learning and Community Transition, Lakes District Rural Dialogue, held in Burns Lake, British Columbia, on March 29, 2006. This dialogue emerged further to a meeting of northern federal representatives which was organized to better coordinate federal support for northern B.C.…

  14. Issues Affecting Rural Communities (II). Proceedings of the International Conference [on] Rural Communities & Identities in the Global Millennium (Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, May 1-5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jim C., Ed.; Kitchenham, Andrew D., Ed.

    This proceedings of a conference held in May 2000 at Malaspina University-College (British Columbia) contains approximately 63 conference papers, abstracts of papers, and keynote speeches. The conference examined issues affecting rural communities, with major themes being rural education, health, human services, families, and the sustainability of…

  15. Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia: Findings from the BC College & Institute Student Outcomes Survey, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    The British Columbia (B.C.) Council on Admissions and Transfer commissioned this report to investigate the admissions and transfer-related experiences of former students who had attended a B.C. college, institute, university college, or the Open Learning Agency. The analysis presented here is based on data collected through the 2002 B.C. College…

  16. Continuing Education in BC's Public Postsecondary Institutions. Made in B.C.: A History of Postsecondary Education in British Columbia. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Traces the development of continuing education and contract training in publicly funded postsecondary institutions in British Columbia, Canada. The first section describes the changing orientation over time, while the second half considers themes across all categories of institution. The appendix describes each institution individually. This…

  17. Articulation Guide for English as a Second Language Programs in the British Columbia Post-Secondary Transfer System. Seventh Edition, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the provincial ESL articulation process is to maintain high standards of quality in ESL programming at the public post-secondary institutions of British Columbia, as well as to facilitate access to programs at other public institutions for students wishing to transfer. Goals of the provincial articulation process are to: (1) provide…

  18. 2005 Admissions and Transfer Experiences of Students Continuing Their Studies in British Columbia: Findings from the BC College & Institute Student Outcomes Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of admissions and transfer data from the 2005 British Columbia (BC) College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey. A number of issues related to the admissions and transfer experiences of former students from BC's college, university college, and institute sector are addressed from the student…

  19. The Road to Employability through Personal Development: A Critical Analysis of the Silences and Ambiguities of the British Columbia (Canada) Life Skills Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna; Benjamin, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of a life skills career education curriculum for schools in British Columbia, Canada. This curriculum calls for the development of a set of life skills that are positioned as central to students' employability. At the heart of the curriculum is a focus on personal development, in particular, the need…

  20. Reflection on 10 Years of Community-Engaged Scholarship in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems at the University of British Columbia-Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Alejandro; Sipos, Yona; Valley, Will

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a cultural transformation to embrace community-engaged scholarship by faculty members in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems at the University of British Columbia-Vancouver. They describe a transition from community-inquiry faculty projects to community-engaged action research projects achieved through…

  1. Power, Politics, Democracy and Reform: A Historical Review of Curriculum Reform, Academia and Government in British Columbia, Canada, 1920 to 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelations between power, politics, academia and curriculum reform in British Columbia (BC) using social studies curriculum documents as a case study. It describes how curriculum reform occurred and argues that reform was undemocratic as it was largely the product of individuals with power who invited individuals with…

  2. "Sound Off": Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Vernon, British Columbia, Canada, January 14, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the "Sound Off" Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication, held in Vernon, British Columbia, on January 14, 2006. This event was part of the Rural Dialogue, an ongoing, two-way discussion between the Government of Canada and Canadians from rural,…

  3. Get Heard: Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada, November 19, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the "Get Heard" Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication, held in Castlegar, British Columbia, on November 19, 2005. The "Get Heard" Regional Rural Youth Dialogue was organized in partnership with the BC Rural Network (BCRN). This Network…

  4. Kanada Shinbun (The Canada Daily News) and Nikkan Minshu (The Daily People) for 1941 on Microfilm: A Preservation Microfilming Project at the University of British Columbia Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonnami, Tsuneharu

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Japanese-Canadian newspapers published in pre-WWII Vancouver. Describes the collection held by the University of British Columbia and the microfilming initiatives undertaken to preserve the collection. Specifications and information on availability of the microform editions are given. (JKP)

  5. A Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2000/01 to 2004/05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia on the basis of transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2000/01 through 2004/05 academic years. Data are provided that indicates the number of transfer students, where they…

  6. The Emergence of a Market-Driven Funding Mechanism in K-12 Education in British Columbia: Creeping Privatization and the Eclipse of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Gerald; Poole, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Since 2002, British Columbia's education system has undergone extensive change following amendments to the "BC School Act" ("Bill 34"). This article presents a critical analysis of policy changes to the K-12 education finance system, particularly the expansion of the legal capacity of school districts to create "'school…

  7. Continuing Education and Cultural Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1984-1985. A Report to the President, the Senate, and the Board of Governors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    Continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia for the 1984-1985 academic year are reported, with attention to noncredit offerings. For various faculties, schools, and departments providing continuing education, information is provided on objectives of the sponsoring unit, progress toward achieving objectives, types of…

  8. Continuing Education Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1982-1983. A Report to the President, the Senate, and the Board of Governors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    Continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia for the 1982-1983 academic year are reported. Information is provided on: extra-sessional credit programs, guided independent study, the Centre for Continuing Education, the Division of Continuing Education in the Health Sciences, professional programs of the Faculty of Commerce…

  9. A Follow-Up Study of Career/Technical Students from the British Columbia Community Colleges and Institutes: Summary Report. Report No. 5-04-857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, John D.; And Others

    In Fall 1980, a follow-up survey was conducted of students who had graduated, withdrawn from or otherwise left career/technical programs at British Columbia's 14 community colleges and institute of technology. The study sought to determine: (1) why students undertook career/technical programs; (2) if and for what reasons students failed to…

  10. Standardized Testing Moratorium and Task Force Brief 2009. A Brief to the Minister of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) seeks to foster a constructive discussion on the issue of standardized testing. To that end, the Federation urges the BC Ministry of Education to adopt a two-year moratorium on all standardized tests, including the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) and the Grade 10, 11, and 12 provincial…

  11. Report from the 17th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Edmonton, Alberta; 11–12 September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, K.E.; Ahmed, S.; Davies, J.D.; Doll, C.M.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Lim, H.; McFadden, A.; McGhie, J.P.; Park, J.; Wong, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 17th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference (wcgccc) was held in Edmonton, Alberta, 11–12 September 2015. The wcgccc is an interactive multidisciplinary conference attended by health care professionals from across Western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) who are involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of gastric cancer. PMID:28050139

  12. Potential near-future carbon uptake overcomes losses from a large insect outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Vivek K.; Peng, Yiran; Kurz, Werner A.; Fyfe, John C.; Hawkins, Barbara; Werner, Arelia T.

    2016-03-01

    The current capacity of northern high-latitude forests to sequester carbon has been suggested to be undermined by the potential increase in fire and insect outbreaks. Here we investigate the response of the terrestrial ecosystems in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, to the recent large mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak that started in 1999 as well as changing climate and continually increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration up to 2050, in a combined framework, using a process-based model. Model simulations suggest that the recent MPB outbreak results in BC's forests accumulating 328 Tg less carbon over the 1999-2020 period. Over this same period changing climate and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, however, yield enhanced carbon uptake equal to a cumulative sink of around 900-1060 Tg C, depending on the future climate change scenario, indicating that the reduced carbon uptake by land due to the MPB disturbance may already be surpassed by 2020.

  13. Early-winter diet of woodland caribou in relation to snow accumulation, Selkirk Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rominger, Eric M.; Oldemeyer, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the southern Selkirk Mountains of British Columbia shift from a diet of primarily vascular taxa during snow-free months to an arboreal lichen – conifer diet during late winter. We present evidence that caribou diets, during the early-winter transition period, are influenced by snow accumulation rates. Caribou shift to an arboreal lichen – conifer diet earlier during winters of rapid snow accumulation and forage extensively on myrtle boxwood (Pachistima myrsinites), an evergreen shrub, and other vascular plants during years of slower snow accumulation. The role of coniferous forage in early-winter food habits is examined. Forest management strategies can be developed to provide habitat that will enable caribou to forage in response to varying snow accumulation rates.

  14. Bowser basin, northern British Columbia: Constraints on the timing of initial subsidence and Stikinia-North America terrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Brian D.; Evenchick, Carol A.; Anderson, Robert G.; Murphy, Donald C.

    1992-12-01

    Clastic strata composing the northern Bowser basin record the accretion of Stikinia to the composite western edge of the North American plate (Cache Creek-Quesnellia-Slide Mountain-Kootenay North America) in early Middle Jurassic time and the concomitant demise of the intervening Cache Creek ocean. Initial flexural subsidence of the northern Bowser basin, resulting from thrust loading of Cache Creek terrane on Stikinia, is represented by an organic-rich shale of Aalenian age (the Abou Formation of the Spatsizi Group). Coarse-grained sediment first appeared in early Bajocian time following uplift and subaerial exposure of Cache Creek rocks in the upper plate. Thus, the inception of the Bowser basin was Aalenian, rather than Bajocian, as believed by earlier workers. Aalenian southwest-vergent thrusting at the composite western edge of North America is also known from southern British Columbia, a coincidence that implicates collision with Stikinia in the south as a cause of that deformation.

  15. The 2005 British Columbia smoking cessation mass media campaign and short-term changes in smokers attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Lynda

    2008-03-01

    The effect of the 2005 British Columbia (BC) smoking cessation mass media campaign on a panel (N = 1,341) of 20-30-year-old smokers' attitudes is evaluated. The 5-week campaign consisted of posters, television, and radio ads about the health benefits of cessation. Small impacts on the panel's attitudes toward the adverse impacts of smoking were found, with greater impacts found for those who had no plans to quit smoking at the initial interview. As smokers with no plans to quit increasingly recognized the adverse impacts of smoking, they also increasingly agreed that they use smoking as a coping mechanism. Smokers with plans to quit at the initial interview already were well aware of smoking's adverse impacts. Respondents recalling the campaign poster, which presented a healthy alternative to smoking, decreased their perception of smoking as a coping mechanism and devalued their attachment to smoking. Evidence was found that media ad recall mediates unobserved predictors of attitudes toward smoking.

  16. Early humans and rapidly changing holocene sea levels in the Queen Charlotte Islands - Hecate Strait, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Josenhans, H.; Fedje, D.; Pienitz, R.; Southon, J.

    1997-07-04

    Marine cores from the continental shelf edge of British Columbia (Canada) demonstrate that sea level at the shelf edge was 153 meters below present 14,000 calendar years ago and more than 30 meters lower than the maximum eustatic low of -120 meters. Dated artifacts, including stone tools, indicate that humans occupied this region by at least 10,200 calendar years before present (B.P.). Local sea level rose rapidly (5 centimeters per year) during the period of early human occupation as a result of eustatic sea-level rise and glacio-isostatic forebulge movement. This shelf edge site was first elevated and then subsided. The exposed shelf edge was available for human occupation and may have served as a migration route during times of lowered sea levels between 13,500 and 9500 {sup 14}C years B.P. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Timing of terminal Pleistocene deglaciation at high elevations in southern and central British Columbia constrained by 10Be exposure dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Clague, John J.; Heyman, Jakob

    2014-09-01

    The Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) covered most of British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory at the local Last Glacial Maximum (lLGM) during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. However, its subsequent demise is not well understood, particularly at high elevations east of its ocean-terminating margin. We present 10Be exposure ages from two high-elevation sites in southern and central British Columbia that help constrain the time of initial deglaciation at these sites. We sampled granodiorite erratics at elevations of 2126-2230 m a.s.l. in the Marble Range and 1608-1785 m a.s.l. in the Telkwa Range at the western margin of the Interior Plateau. The erratics at both sites are near ice-marginal meltwater channels that delineate the local ice surface slope and thus the configuration of the ice sheet during deglaciation. The locations of the erratics and their relations to meltwater channels ensure that the resulting 10Be ages date CIS deglaciation and not the retreat of local montane glaciers. Our sample sites emerged above the surface of the CIS as its divide migrated westward from the Interior Plateau to the axis of the Coast Mountains. Two of the four samples from the summit area of the Marble Range yielded apparent exposure ages of 14.0 ± 0.7 and 15.2 ± 0.8 ka. These ages are 1.8-3.0 ka younger than the well-established lLGM age of ca 17 ka for the Puget lobe of the CIS in Washington State; they are 1.7 ka younger than the lLGM age for the Puget lobe if a snow-shielding correction to their uncertainty-weighted mean age is applied. The other two samples yielded much older apparent exposure ages (20.6 ± 1.4 and 33.0 ± 1.5 ka), indicating the presence of inherited isotopes. Four samples collected from the summit area of the Telkwa Range in the Hazelton Mountains yielded well clustered apparent exposure ages of 10.1 ± 0.6, 10.2 ± 0.7, 10.4 ± 0.5, and 11.5 ± 1.1 ka. Significant present-day snow cover introduces a large uncertainty in the apparent exposure ages from

  18. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles <63 μm), percent gravel (sediment particles >2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p < 0.00001) with non-netted plots containing slightly smaller clams. The observed increase in organic carbon levels beneath netting is possibly due to biodeposition by T. philippinarum beneath nets and removal of organics by the deposit feeding Nuttallia obsurata on non-netted plots; however that was not tested here. For the locations and parameters monitored in this study, it appears that netting and clam farming in Baynes Sound British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  19. Surveying Cross Sections of the Kootenai River Between Libby Dam, Montana, and Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Moran, Edward H.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The declining population of Kootenai River white sturgeon, which was listed as an Endangered Species in 1994, has prompted a recovery team to assess the feasibility of various habitat enhancement scenarios to reestablish white sturgeon populations. As the first phase in this assessment, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section and longitudinal data during 2002—03 at about 400 locations along the Kootenai River from Libby Dam near Libby, Montana, to where the river empties into Kootenay Lake near Creston, British Columbia, Canada. Survey control stations with a horizontal and vertical accuracy of less than 0.1 foot were established using a global positioning system (GPS) prior to collection of stream channel cross-section data along the Kootenai River. A total of 245 cross sections were surveyed. Six cross sections upstream from Kootenai Falls were surveyed using a total station where the river was too shallow or dangerous to navigate by vessel. The remaining 239 cross sections were surveyed by interfacing real-time GPS equipment with an echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data and with a laser range- finder to obtain streambank data. These data were merged, straightened, ordered, and reduced in size to be useful. Spacing between these cross sections ranged from about 600 feet in the valley flat near Deep Creek and Shorty Island and near bridges to as much as several miles in other areas. These stream channel cross sections will provide information that can be used to develop hydraulic flow models of the Kootenai River from Libby Dam, Montana, to Queens Bay on Kootenay Lake in British Columbia, Canada.

  20. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) disease diagnosed on a British Columbia salmon farm through a longitudinal farm study

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Hugh W.; Schulze, Angela D.; Kaukinen, Karia H.; Li, Shaorong; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Wessel, Øystein; Rimstad, Espen; Gardner, Ian A.; Hammell, K. Larry; Miller, Kristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging disease of marine-farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), first recognized in 1999 in Norway, and later also reported in Scotland and Chile. We undertook a longitudinal study involving health evaluation over an entire marine production cycle on one salmon farm in British Columbia (Canada). In previous production cycles at this farm site and others in the vicinity, cardiac lesions not linked to a specific infectious agent or disease were identified. Histologic assessments of both live and moribund fish samples collected at the farm during the longitudinal study documented at the population level the development, peak, and recovery phases of HSMI. The fish underwent histopathological evaluation of all tissues, Twort’s Gram staining, immunohistochemistry, and molecular quantification in heart tissue of 44 agents known or suspected to cause disease in salmon. Our analysis showed evidence of HSMI histopathological lesions over an 11-month timespan, with the prevalence of lesions peaking at 80–100% in sampled fish, despite mild clinical signs with no associated elevation in mortalities reported at the farm level. Diffuse mononuclear inflammation and myodegeneration, consistent with HSMI, was the predominant histologic observation in affected heart and skeletal muscle. Infective agent monitoring identified three agents at high prevalence in salmon heart tissue, including Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and parasites Paranucleospora theridion and Kudoa thyrsites. However, PRV alone was statistically correlated with the occurrence and severity of histopathological lesions in the heart. Immunohistochemical staining further localized PRV throughout HSMI development, with the virus found mainly within red blood cells in early cases, moving into the cardiomyocytes within or, more often, on the periphery of the inflammatory reaction during the peak disease, and reducing to low or undetectable levels later in the

  1. Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Michael; Bradfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Forests are being clearcut over extensive areas of western North America, but plant community response to harvesting and slashburning under varying climatic conditions in central British Columbia, Canada is still largely unknown. Evaluation of resilience is hampered by the short history of logging, lack of long-term experiments and methodological limitations. To test the effect of clearcut logging, prescribed burning and reforestation on forest resilience, we recorded vascular plant cover repeatedly after treatment between 1981 and 2008 in 16 permanent research installations in three biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock and Sub-Boreal Spruce. We created a plant-trait dataset for the 181 recorded species to define plant functional types representing groups of plants that behave in similar ways and/or produce similar ecological outcomes. These plant functional types, along with taxonomic analysis of diagnostic and indicator species, were then used to evaluate plant community response to disturbance. Twenty years post-treatment, species diversity increased in all zones and plant abundance was greatest in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock. Cover of understory plant functional types associated with mature conifer forests increased in all zones, constituting a significant proportion (> 40%) of the vegetation community by year 20. Response patterns varied by zone and with time. Understory species diagnostic of mature forests were present in all zones by year 20, but we identified indicator species sensitive to slashburning or requiring more time for recovery, including white-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and devil's club (Oplopanax horridus). Overall, loss of compositional or functional diversity following harvest and site remediation was not detected, suggesting that montane and subalpine forests in British Columbia are resilient to this treatment. However, because these forests can be slow to recover from disturbance

  2. Gully recharge rates and debris flows: A combined numerical modeling and field-based investigation, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Yvonne E.; Johnson, E. A.; Chaikina, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall, snowmelt and/or other mass movements are possible triggers to initiate debris flows. In supply-limited landscapes, clastic and organic materials (together termed debris) accumulate in the gully via various geomorphic processes that occur on gully sidewalls. The conceptualization of this phenomenon has been termed the gully recharge rate, with several recent field studies measuring such rates in coastal British Columbia. In the present study, a simple numerical model is introduced to estimate debris flow volumes in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia based on debris flow recurrence intervals, gully recharge rates and factors affecting deposition of debris flow material. Debris flow volumes obtained in model runs are somewhat lower than field-based values by about half, which is a reasonable result for this exploratory study. The annual erosion rate (clastic material) for debris flows in the model run is 0.031 mm yr- 1. This value is about 0.57 × of the field-based value and is lower than the erosion rate for debris slides in Haida Gwaii of 0.1 mm yr- 1. Deposition of debris flows in the model occurs in 60% of cases due to a decrease in channel gradient, with deposition resulting from high stream junction angles being less common. Locations for initiation of debris flow deposition were situated in stream orders 3 and 4 in 60% of cases. Sensitivity analysis shows that in comparison to other model variables, recharge rate has the greatest effect on the statistics and frequency distributions of debris flow volumes and total debris flow volume (summation of all debris activity in a basin) over the study time period.

  3. To the Application of LiDAR to Detect the Geological Structures in Sulphurets Property, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohzare, A.; Rezaeian, M.; McIntosh, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Kerr Sulphurets property in North Western British Columbia has been explored primarily as a placer gold holding since the 1880s; and, potentially includes one of Canada's largest gold deposits (e.g. the Mitchell Zone). The Sulphurets camp has been classified by Taylor in 2007 as a prominent global epithermal high-sulphidation subtype with 10 million tonnes of ore (reserves + production) containing approximately 10 g/t gold. The geological and geophysical observations of this deposit indicate intrusion- related mineralized veins which are known to overlap as the result of structural complexities. Faulting predates mineralization and alteration and dramatically dominates the location of the mineralization for this porphyry- epithermal high-sulphidation deposit (Britton and Alldrick 1988, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1992; Margolis, 1993). However, the surface trace of these structures and lineaments within the site is obscured by vegetation, glacial cover and steep topographic relief. We used high resolution LiDAR airborne bare-earth sensing (vegetative data deleted) in an effort to detect the surface geological features and lineaments in the Kerr Sulphurets site. The LiDAR flight was designed to acquire high density data with 2 points per square meter using a 150 kHz multipulse system. High resolution LiDAR data provides a level of detail not achievable by other digital terrain modelling techniques, whether extracted from aerial photography, low-resolution topographic contour maps, 10-30 meter USGS, or SRTM digital elevation models. LiDAR bare-earth data spectacularly revealed hidden geological structures within the property district, which in turn assisted in identifying the high potential zones for mineralization in Sulphurets.

  4. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  5. Immunoglobulin (GM and KM) allotypes and relation to population history in native peoples of British Columbia: Haida and Bella Coola.

    PubMed

    Field, L L; Gofton, J P; Kinsella, T D

    1988-06-01

    Differences in the frequencies of GM haplotypes among native peoples of the Americas support the hypothesis that there were three distinct waves of migration from northeast Asia into the Americas: Paleo-Indian, Na-Dene, and Inuit (Eskimo)-Aleut (Salzano and Steinberg: Am. J. Hum. Genet. 17:273-279, 1965; Sukernik and Osipova: Hum. Genet. 61:148-153, 1982; Williams et al.:Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 66:1-19, 1985; Szathmary: In R Kirk and E Szathmary (eds): Out of Asia: Peopling of the Americas and the Pacific. Canberra: The Journal of Pacific History, Canberra Australian National University, pp. 79-104, 1985). We studied GM allotypes in two linguistically unique populations of Canadian west coast native peoples, the Haida and the Bella Coola, and compared them to GM frequencies in populations that are supposed descendants of the three migrations, in order to investigate the possible genetic relationships of these British Columbia (BC) groups to other native populations. We also estimated the amount of European admixture from the frequency of the Caucasian haplotype, Gm3;5. Results showed that the frequencies in both BC populations of the three common native haplotypes (Gm1,17;21, Gm1,2,17;21, and Gm1,17;15,16), were intermediate between the frequencies in supposed descendants of Paleo-Indian and Na-Dene. These genetic findings are consistent with the controversial hypothesis of archeologist C. Borden (Science 203:963-971, 1979) that, following deglaciation about 13,000 years ago, British Columbia was repopulated by peoples from the north (?Na-Dene) and by culturally distinct peoples from the south (?Paleo-Indian). Caucasian admixture estimates suggested that the Haida and Bella Coola have also experienced moderate amounts (12-20%) of genetic input from European-originating peoples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Improved Virological Outcomes in British Columbia Concomitant with Decreasing Incidence of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Vikram S.; Lima, Viviane D.; Zhang, Wen; Wynhoven, Brian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Harrigan, P. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been limited studies evaluating temporal changes in the incidence of detection of drug resistance among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates and concomitant changes in plasma HIV load for treated individuals in a population-wide setting. Methods Longitudinal plasma viral load and genotypic resistance data were obtained from patients receiving antiretroviral therapy from the British Columbia Drug Treatment Program from July 1996 through December 2008. A total of 24,652 resistance tests were available from 5422 individuals. The incidence of successful plasma viral load suppression and of resistance to each of 3 antiretroviral categories (nucleoside/nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors) was calculated for the population receiving therapy. Results There has been a drastic decrease in the incidence of new cases of HIV-1 drug resistance in individuals followed during 1996–2008. In 1997, the incidence rate of any newly detected resistance was 1.73 cases per 100 person-months of therapy, and by 2008, the incidence rate had decreased >12-fold, to 0.13 cases per 100 person-months of therapy. This decrease in the incidence of resistance has occurred at an exponential rate, with half-times on the order of 2–3 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of individuals with plasma viral load suppression has increased linearly over time (from 64.7% with HIV RNA levels <50 copies/mL in 2000 to 87.0% in 2008; R2 = 0.97; P <.001). Conclusions Our results suggest an increasing effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy at the populational level. The vast majority of treated patients in British Columbia now have either suppressed plasma viral load or drug-susceptible HIV-1, according to their most recent test results. PMID:19951169

  7. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  8. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  9. Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Julia R; Haeussler, Sybille; Hamilton, Evelyn H; Feller, Michael; Bradfield, Gary; Simard, Suzanne W

    2017-01-01

    Forests are being clearcut over extensive areas of western North America, but plant community response to harvesting and slashburning under varying climatic conditions in central British Columbia, Canada is still largely unknown. Evaluation of resilience is hampered by the short history of logging, lack of long-term experiments and methodological limitations. To test the effect of clearcut logging, prescribed burning and reforestation on forest resilience, we recorded vascular plant cover repeatedly after treatment between 1981 and 2008 in 16 permanent research installations in three biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock and Sub-Boreal Spruce. We created a plant-trait dataset for the 181 recorded species to define plant functional types representing groups of plants that behave in similar ways and/or produce similar ecological outcomes. These plant functional types, along with taxonomic analysis of diagnostic and indicator species, were then used to evaluate plant community response to disturbance. Twenty years post-treatment, species diversity increased in all zones and plant abundance was greatest in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock. Cover of understory plant functional types associated with mature conifer forests increased in all zones, constituting a significant proportion (> 40%) of the vegetation community by year 20. Response patterns varied by zone and with time. Understory species diagnostic of mature forests were present in all zones by year 20, but we identified indicator species sensitive to slashburning or requiring more time for recovery, including white-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and devil's club (Oplopanax horridus). Overall, loss of compositional or functional diversity following harvest and site remediation was not detected, suggesting that montane and subalpine forests in British Columbia are resilient to this treatment. However, because these forests can be slow to recover from disturbance

  10. Identifying sources and biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in biota from mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Bendell-Young, Leah I; Elliott, John E

    2005-10-15

    We assessed whether biota occupying mountain streams accumulate and biomagnify remotely derived organic pollutants originating from atmospheric inputs to snowpack and glacial runoff and from marine sources introduced by migrating anadromous salmon. Several persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor were commonly detected in benthic invertebrates, salmon fry (Oncorhynchus spp.), and eggs of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) from the Chilliwack River watershed, British Columbia, Canada. Total PCBs and several organochlorines (OCs) biomagnified from benthic invertebrate composites to salmon fry to dipper eggs. Invertebrate samples generally did not differ significantly in contaminant burdens between the river main stem where salmon are more abundant and higher-elevation tributaries where the salmon density is lower. Concentrations of total OCs and total PCBs in dipper eggs were positively related to drainage basin area and collection year but not to elevation. No differences in PCB congener patterns existed between dipper egg samples from the Chilliwack watershed and other watersheds in southwestern British Columbia. However, principal component analysis revealed significant spatial differences in egg PCB congener patterns between the main Chilliwack River and the higher-elevation tributaries. This difference was primarily due to a greater occurrence of lower chlorinated PCB congeners (66 and 105) in dipper eggs collected from the tributaries and higher loadings of the more stable and persistent congeners (153, 138, 130, and 128) in eggs from the river main stem. The results suggest that atmospheric sources are the main contributor of contaminants detected in biota from the region and that biomagnification is a common pathway for accumulation in lotic predators such as the American dipper.

  11. Temporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy in British Columbia, Canada, 2004-2013: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, K.S.; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Metcalfe, Amy; Razaz, Neda; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Routine surveillance of congenital anomalies has shown recent increases in ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the temporal trends in ankyloglossia and its surgical treatment (frenotomy). Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving all live births in British Columbia from Apr. 1, 2004, to Mar. 31, 2014, with data obtained from the province's Perinatal Data Registry. Spatiotemporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy, and associations with maternal and infant characteristics, were quantified using logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 459 445 live births and 3022 cases of ankyloglossia between 2004 and 2013. The population incidence of ankyloglossia increased by 70% (rate ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.01), from 5.0 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 8.4 per 1000 in 2013. During the same period, the population rate of frenotomy increased by 89% (95% CI 52%-134%), from 2.8 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 5.3 per 1000 in 2013. The 2 regional health authorities with the lowest population rates of frenotomy (1.5 and 1.8 per 1000 live births) had the lowest rates of ankyloglossia and the lowest rates of frenotomy among cases with ankyloglossia, whereas the 2 regional health authorities with the highest population rates of frenotomy (5.2 and 5.3 per 1000 live births) had high rates of ankyloglossia and the highest rates of frenotomy among cases of ankyloglossia. Nulliparity, multiple birth, male infant sex, birth weight and year were independently associated with ankyloglossia. Interpretation: Large temporal increases and substantial spatial variations in ankyloglossia and frenotomy rates were observed that may indicate a diagnostic suspicion bias and increasing use of a potentially unnecessary surgical procedure among infants. PMID:27280112

  12. The Politics of Curriculum Reform in Canada: The Case of Technology Education in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates the case of technology education in British Colombia and discusses its invulnerability of teachers to curriculum reform. Draws on historical and survey data related to school practices and Ministry of Education enrollment data disaggregated by sex. Casts these data into a politics of curriculum framework informed by the work of…

  13. The perspectives of educators, regulators and funders of massage therapy on the state of the profession in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Registered Massage Therapists (RMTs) are valuable members of the healthcare team who assist in health promotion, disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and palliation. RMT visits have increased across Canada over the past decade with the highest increase in British Columbia (BC). Currently, RMTs are private practitioners of healthcare operating within a largely publicly funded system, positioning them outside of the dominant system of healthcare and making them an important case study in private healthcare. In another paper we examined the perspectives of RMTs themselves. Here, we offer perspectives of regulators, educators and funders of Massage Therapy (MT) on advancement of the profession. Methods We interviewed 28 stakeholders of MT in BC – including members of the MT regulatory board, representatives from MT colleges in BC and public and private health insurers. Results All three groups identified research, particularly on efficacy of MT, as playing a vital role in enhancing the professional credibility of MT. However, participants noted that presently research is not a large feature of the current MT curricula and we analyze why this may be and how it can improve. Finally, conferral of baccalaureate degree status could assist RMTs in gaining recognition with the general public and other healthcare professionals. Conclusion RMTs have potential to ameliorate population health in a cost-effective manner. Their role in British Columbia’s healthcare landscape could be expanded if they produce more research and earn degree status. PMID:23294987

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ether trends in eggs of marine and freshwater birds from British Columbia, Canada, 1979-2002.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Wilson, Laurie K; Wakeford, Bryan

    2005-08-01

    Temporal, spatial, and interspecific trends in polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants were determined in eggs of marine and freshwater bird species from the province of British Columbia, Canada. Temporal trends in the Fraser River estuary, 1983-2002, were examined by analysis of eggs of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and from the Strait of Georgia marine ecosystem, 1979-2002, in eggs of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Results were compared to those from eggs of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) taken along the lower Fraser River and along the Columbia River near Castlegar, British Columbia, and of a pelagic seabird, the Leach's storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), collected at a colony on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Mean concentration of sigmaPBDE, 455 microg/kg w.w., were highest in heron eggs collected in 2002 from the Fraser estuary. Concentrations in eggs of cormorants and ospreys taken from sites of varying urban influence tended to be about half that value. Leach's storm petrel eggs had only trace amounts of sigmaPBDE (3.38 microg/kg), despite having similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides to the other species. PBDEs increased exponentially with a doubling time of 5.7 years in eggs of both herons and cormorants. Over this period of increasing PBDEs, major chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as PCBs and DDE, were stable or decreased. The PBDE pattern was relatively consistent in most years and sites, with BDEs 47 > 100 > 99 > 153 > 154 > 28 > 183. This was interpreted as evidence of technical pentaBDE formulations as primary sources of the contamination, with the octaBDE formulations as secondary. Higher resolution analysis of a subsample of the eggs revealed the presence of up to nine other congeners, including BDE209 (range: 0.9-1.8 microg/kg), indicating exposure and uptake of decaBDE sourced congeners in North American foodchains. At some locations, concentrations of pentabrominated congeners and

  15. Biota: sediment partitioning of aluminium smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yunker, Mark B; Lachmuth, Cara L; Cretney, Walter J; Fowler, Brian R; Dangerfield, Neil; White, Linda; Ross, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    The question of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability and its relationship to specific PAH sources with different PAH binding characteristics is an important one, because bioavailability drives PAH accumulation in biota and ultimately the biochemical responses to the PAH contaminants. The industrial harbour at Kitimat (British Columbia, Canada) provides an ideal location to study the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment hydrocarbons to low trophic level biota. Samples of soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) and intertidal sediment collected from multiple sites over six years at various distances from an aluminium smelter and a pulp and paper mill were analysed for 106 PAHs, plant diterpenes and other aromatic fraction hydrocarbons. Interpretation using PAH source ratios and multivariate data analysis reveals six principal hydrocarbon sources: PAHs in coke, pitch and emissions from anode combustion from the aluminium smelter, vascular plant terpenes and aromatised terpenes from the pulp and paper mill, petroleum PAHs from shipping and other anthropogenic activities and PAHs from natural plant detritus. Harbour sediments predominantly contain either pitch or pyrogenic PAHs from the smelter, while clams predominantly contain plant derived PAHs and diterpenes from the adjacent pulp mill. PAHs from the smelter have low bioavailability to clams (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors; BSAFs <1 for pitch and coke; <10 for anode combustion, decreasing to ∼0.1 for the mass 300 and 302 PAHs), possibly due to binding to pitch or soot carbon matrices. Decreases in PAH isomer ratios between sediments and clams likely reflect a combination of variation in uptake kinetics of petroleum PAHs and compound specific metabolism, with the importance of petroleum PAHs decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Plant derived compounds exhibit little natural bioaccumulation at reference sites, but unsaturated and aromatised diterpenes released from resins by

  16. Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems and their relation to ore deposition, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, Robert E.; Fleck, Robert J.; Taylor, Hugh P., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems have altered the rocks exposed over more than 5 % of the land surface of the northwestern United States and southern British Columbia, including at least 25,000 km2 in Idaho. The systems typically involved convective circulation of fluid derived from ordinary meteoric groundwaters around crystallizing, calc-alkaline, epizonal plutons emplaced into coeval volcanic cover rocks. These individual systems had widely ranging "lifetimes" of 103 to 106 years and operated locally throughout the Cenozoic, although the most profound development of such activity occurred during Eocene time. Individual systems varied in size from a few tens of square kilometers (Yankee Fork, Idaho) or less to several thousand square kilometers (Sawtooth and Castro ring zones, Idaho) Typically, regional propylitization aacompanied the fluid circulation, although the higher-temperature alteration assemblages were developed locally, as were intense alteration effects (e.g., silicification, sericitization, etc.) near some veins and in mining districts. A significant amount, probably 25-50%, of the mineral production and potential in the region is closely related to Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data clearly demonstrate the close geologic association of meteoric hydrothermal systems and mineralization in (1) the Paleocene, Cu-Zn-Pb-Mn Main Stage mineralization at Butte, Montana; (2) numerous Eocene epithermal deposits principally valued for Au and Ag but also including significant deposits of Cu, Pb, Zn, F, Sb, etc., as at Republic, Washington, and in several mining districts in the Idaho batholith and the Challis volcanic field; (3) several Eocene skarn deposits valued for W (Ima, Idaho) and Cu (Mackay, Idaho); (4) important lead-silver vein and replacement deposits of Tertiary (Bluebell, British Columbia) and of probable Cretaceous and early Tertiary age (Wood River, Idaho); (5) several potentially economic Mo-, Be-, and

  17. PCR fishing for red endophytes in British Columbia Kallymeniaceae (Gigartinales, Florideophyceae) uncovers the species-rich Kallymenicola gen. nov. (Palmariales, Nemaliophycidae).

    PubMed

    Evans, Joshua R; Saunders, Gary W

    2017-02-14

    Unexpected contaminants uncovered during routine COI-5P DNA barcoding of British Columbia Kallymeniaceae indicated the presence of a novel lineage allied to the family Meiodiscaceae, Palmariales. Available rbcL data for species of this family were used to design specific primers to screen for the presence of the meiodiscacean species in 534 kallymeniacean specimens primarily from British Columbia, Canada. Ultimately, 43 positive PCR products representing six diverse genetic groups from nine host species were uncovered; three are described here in the new genus Kallymenicola gen. nov., viz., K. invisiblis sp. nov., K. penetrans sp. nov., and K. superficialis sp. nov. Although genetic groups loosely displayed evidence of host specificity and cospeciation, examples of host switching with interesting biogeographical patterns were also documented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium (11th) on Principles of Distributed Computing Held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada on 10-12 Aug 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-10

    1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED i0 AUGUST 1992 FINAL 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT NUMBER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 6356...MONITORING OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL RESEARCH AGENCY REPORT NUMBER CODE 1133 BALLSTON TOWER ONE 800 NORTH QUINCY STREET ARLINGTON, VA 22217-5660 11

  19. Personal digital assistants in the classroom--and beyond: a collaborative initiative of the College of New Caledonia, British Columbia and the University of Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Anonson, June; Schweitzer, Kelly; Bassendowski, Sandra; Petrucka, Pammla M; Ralston, Anthony; Ollech, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to address the shortage of northern and, particularly, Aboriginal healthcare providers, northern Canada educational institutions have been researching solutions for self-paced study with up-to-date information for remote students. Current statistics show that nearly 12 million Canadians live in northern provinces and territories. A pilot PDA program initiated and implemented in northern British Columbia and Saskatchewan is expected to enhance northern nursing education, attract and recruit regional nursing students and provide better patient outcome.

  20. Renal leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis in First Nations people in Northern British Columbia, Canada: a report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Holly L; DeMarco, Mari L; Magil, Alex B; Taylor, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT2) amyloidosis is a recently identified type of amyloidosis that may represent an underdiagnosed cause of chronic kidney disease. LECT2 amyloidosis typically is reported as being renal limited and, in the United States, more prevalent in Hispanic patients. We add to the epidemiologic data of this condition by describing 4 First Nations people from Northern British Columbia, Canada, who presented with slowly progressive chronic kidney disease that was found to be due to LECT2 amyloidosis.

  1. Variation in water chemistry parameters in the Clayburn Creek watershed, British Columbia during fall 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Clemence, E.; Faber, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; McCabe, M.; Toner, A.; Strangway, A.; Turner, S.; Sidhu, D.; Sidhu, B.; Sekhton, J.; Puri, K.; Paulson, D.; Mahil, G.; Leffers, R.; Kanda, S.; Gaultier, M.; Dhaliwal, H.

    2015-12-01

    faculty and students from the University of the Fraser Valley have conducted the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and five Fraser Valley tributaries as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) organized by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Clayburn Creek and Willband Creek in Abbotsford, British Columbiahave been part of this project and have been sampled for nutrient and major ion concentrations and parameters such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH and turbidity. This watershed is being threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) that may threaten the salmon that spawn in this watershed. Documenting the change in the water chemistry in this watershed as the seasons progress from a dry summer to a wet fall will yield a greater understanding of our impact on this watershed and may assist our attempts to protect this watershed.

  2. A cross-sectional study of public attitudes towards safer drug use practices in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Harm reduction programs are often vulnerable to political and vocal opposition despite documented evidence of their effectiveness and economic benefit. It is not well understood if opponents to harm reduction represent the general public’s attitudes. Objective To understand the attitudes of the people of British Columbia (BC) towards various harm reduction strategies and services, and factors associated with support for harm reduction. Methods A random-digit dialing telephone survey assessing attitudes towards various harm reduction strategies was administered to British Columbians in August 2011 (n = 2000). We compared the level of support for general harm reduction by sex, age, education level, and area of residence (Health Authority region) (χ2). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess odds of support for harm reduction. Results Overall support for general harm reduction among participants was 76%; needle distribution 72%; needle distribution in one’s local community 65%; and safer inhalation equipment distribution 52%. In the multivariate analysis, those with significantly lower odds of supporting harm reduction were male, older, had equal or less than high school education or completed a certificate/diploma program, and resided in the Fraser Health Authority region. The Health Authority region with a municipality that has introduced a bylaw prohibiting the implementation of harm reduction services was found to have 69% support for harm reduction. Another Health Authority region with a municipality that closed a long-standing needle distribution site was found to have over 78% support. Conclusion In contrast to some local policies, our results show the British Columbians surveyed in our study support harm reduction. It is unclear whether policy makers are swayed by a vocal minority or block harm reduction activities for other reasons. Tailoring messages towards segments of the public less likely to support harm reduction, as well

  3. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  4. Destruction of the First Nations Village of Kwalate, Knight Inlet, British Columbia, by a Rockfall-Generated Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhold, B. D.; Harper, J. R.; McLaren, D.; Thomson, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    The First Nations (Da'naxda'xw) village of Kwalate, Knight Inlet, British Columbia was located along the shores of a funnel-shaped bay in this fjord. Oral history reports that it was a major village that was completely swept away by a tsunami formed when an 840-m high rock slope fell into more than 500 m of water on the opposite side of the fjord. The rockfall volume is estimated to have been about 3-4 million cubic metres. Geological investigations, including multibeam bathymetric surveys and observations of the rockfall talus using a Remotely Operated Vehicle, combined with empirical tsunami modeling, indicate that the tsunami was at least 3 m high and more probably closer to 10 m high prior to runup into the village. The wave left a 1-2 cm thick layer of clean marine sand over much of the village site. Archeological investigations show that the village stretched 100 m along the shoreline and would have been home to as many as 100, or possibly more, inhabitants. Radiocarbon dates, supported by other archeological evidence, document that the village was occupied from the late 1300s CE until the late 1500s CE when it was destroyed by the tsunami; oral history had placed a much younger date on this event.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, I A; Myers, J H

    2001-08-01

    Thrips were sampled from six nectarine orchards in the Dry Central Interior, British Columbia, Canada, between April and June 1993 using yellow sticky cards on posts spaced around the perimeter of each orchard. Although 12 identified species of thrips were captured, >90% of individuals were the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). The flight patterns and abundances of western flower thrips were compared between orchards located in two differently oriented valleys (N-S and E-W) and between orchards located close to or far from areas of wild land. Results indicate that densities of western flower thrips entering orchards, and their direction of movement, were related more to the external vegetation than either location within the two different valleys or general wind flow patterns. Western flower thrips tended to move into orchards close to ground level in early spring (late April and early May) but flew higher as ground cover grew taller and temperatures increased. Densities of western flower thrips at ground level were highest in an orchard with the densest dandelion ground cover. We conclude that the location of nectarine orchards in relation to wild areas is a major determinate of western flower thrips densities.

  6. Drinking water consumption patterns in British Columbia: an investigation of associations with demographic factors and acute gastrointestinal illness.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; Edge, V L; Thomas, M K; MacDougall, L; Fyfe, M; Atashband, S; Kovacs, S J

    2007-12-15

    A cross-sectional telephone survey was performed in the province of British Columbia, Canada, to investigate drinking water consumption patterns and their associations with various demographic characteristics and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). Water consumption included plain water and water used in the preparation of cold beverages. The median amount of water consumed daily was four-250 mL servings (1.0 L), although responses were highly variable (0 to 9.0 L). Alternative water use was common: bottled water was the primary source of drinking water (i.e. >or=75% of the total daily water intake) for 23% of respondents and 47% of households used in-home water treatment methods. Approximately 10% of respondents reported an episode of AGI (vomiting or diarrhea) in the previous 4-week period. Such illness was associated with age (continuous variable in years, OR=-0.98), sex (male vs. female, OR=0.8) and the amount of water consumed (continuous variable in 250-mL servings, OR=1.06); however, a causal relationship with water consumption cannot be established based on this study alone. Overall, the associations of drinking water patterns with age, sex, education, and household income serve as important reminders to researchers and public health professionals of the non-uniform nature of drinking water consumption, and indicate potential differences in exposure to waterborne hazards in this population.

  7. Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and its implications for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.

  8. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279

  9. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

  10. Paleogeography, glacially induced crustal displacement, and Late Quaternary coastlines on the continental shelf of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Renée; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Reid, Robert G. B.; MacLeod, Roger; Smith, Dan J.

    2004-02-01

    Subsequent to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), complex isostatic adjustments resulted from deglaciation, eustatic sea level change, tectonic faulting, and a relatively thin, flexible lithosphere in the Queen Charlotte Islands (QCI) region. A geostatistical interpolation model charts the sequence of evolving landscapes and displays temporal changes in the magnitudes and extent of crustal flexure that accompanied forebulge development on the Late Quaternary northeast Pacific continental shelf between 14.2 and 8.7 ka BP. Wavelength and forebulge amplitude are consistent with thermal modeling implying low upper mantle viscosity and thin elastic lithospheric thickness beneath Queen Charlotte (QC) Sound and Hecate Strait. Glacial ice ˜690 m thick began retreating from Dixon Entrance after 14.5 ka BP ( 14C years ago) and prior to 12.6 ka BP, permitting over 100 m of crustal uplift in northern Hecate Strait. A forebulge persisted in Hecate Strait and QC Sound from 13.2 until after 9.7 ka BP, implying fixed glacial ice on the British Columbia (BC) mainland until ˜10 ka BP. Paleogeographic reconstructions show two emergent ice-free terrains, one extending eastward from the QCI and the other in QC Sound. By ˜11.7 ka BP, a landbridge connected the BC mainland and the QCI.

  11. Speciation and toxicity of arsenic in mining-affected lake sediments in the Quinsam watershed, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Maeve M; Lai, Vivian W-M; Koch, Iris; Cui, Longpeng; Combs, Chris; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg; Cullen, William R; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic arsenic inputs into fresh water lakes in the Quinsam watershed, British Columbia, were probed by using multiple methods of inquiry including sediment coring combined with (210)Pb dating, a principal components analysis of elemental composition of sediments, arsenic speciation, bioaccessibility, and toxicity testing. The quantification of arsenic inputs from anthropogenic sources was not trivial because a variety of processes redistribute the element throughout lakes. However, elevated arsenic and sulfate concentrations in Long Lake, a lake that receives arsenic from a seep, suggest that this lake is influenced by mine operations. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra reveal similar arsenic speciation for all sediments within the studied lakes. Bioaccessibility tests, which in this study were used to approximate the solubility and availability of arsenic to benthic organisms, indicate moderate bioaccessibility of arsenic in sediments (7.9-35%). Toxicity testing indicates that not all benthic organisms should be used for evaluating arsenic toxicity, and suggests that the amphipod, Corophium volutator, shows promise as a candidate for widespread use for arsenic sediment toxicity testing.

  12. Should North America’s first and only supervised injection facility (InSite) be expanded in British Columbia, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reports qualitative findings from a sample of 31 purposively chosen injection drug users (IDUs) from Vancouver, Surrey and Victoria, British Columbia interviewed to examine the context of safe injection site in transforming their lives. Further, the purpose is to determine whether the first and only Supervised injection facility (SIF) in North America, InSite, needs to be expanded to other cities. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in a classical anthropological strategy of conversational format as drug users were actively involved in their routine activities. Purposive sampling combined with snowball sampling techniques was employed to recruit the participants. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 software. Results Attending InSite has numerous positive effects on the lives of IDUs including: saving lives, reducing HIV and HCV risk behavior, decreasing injection in public, reducing public syringe disposal, reducing use of various medical resources and increasing access to nursing and other primary health services. Conclusions There is an urgent need to expand the current facility to cities where injection drug use is prevalent to reduce overdose deaths, reduce needle sharing, reduce hospital emergency care, and increase safety. In addition, InSite’s positive changes have contributed to a cultural transformation in drug use within the Downtown Eastside and neighboring communities. PMID:23414093

  13. Scarcity discourses and their impacts on renal care policy, practices, and everyday experiences in rural British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brassolotto, Julia; Daly, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a qualitative case study in rural British Columbia, Canada, this paper examines the discourse of kidney scarcity and its impact on renal care policies and practices. Our findings suggest that at different levels of care, there are different discourses and treatment foci. We have identified three distinct scarcity discourses at work. At the macro policy level, the scarcity of transplantable kidneys is the dominant discourse. At the meso health care institution level, we witnessed a discourse regarding the scarcity of health care and human resources. At the micro community level, there was a discourse of the scarcity of health and life-sustaining resources. For each form of scarcity, particular responses are encouraged. At the macro level, renal care and transplant organizations emphasize the benefits of kidney transplantation and procuring more donors. At the meso level, participants from the regional health care system increasingly encourage home hemodialysis and patient-led care. At the micro level, community health care professionals push for rural renal patients to attend dialysis and maintain their care plans. This work contributes to critical, interdisciplinary organ transfer discourse by contextualizing kidney scarcity. It reveals the tension between these discourses and the implications of pursuing kidney donations without addressing the conditions in which individuals experience kidney failure.

  14. Pathobiological Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus Isolated in British Columbia, Canada, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Yohannes; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Pickering, Brad; Babiuk, Shawn; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Suderman, Mathew; Leung, Anders; Cottam-Birt, Colleen; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Pasick, John

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we describe the pathobiologic characteristics of a novel reassortant virus - A/chicken/BC/FAV-002/2015 (H5N1) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 that was isolated from backyard chickens in British Columbia, Canada. Sequence analyses demonstrate PB1, PA, NA and NS gene segments were of North American lineage while PB2, HA, NP and M were derived from a Eurasian lineage H5N8 virus. This novel virus had a 19 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase stalk. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of this isolate in various animal models. The virus was highly pathogenic to mice with a LD50 of 10 plaque forming units (PFU), but had limited tissue tropism. It caused only subclinical infection in pigs which did result in seroconversion. This virus was highly pathogenic to chickens, turkeys, juvenile Muscovy ducks (Cairnia moschata foma domestica) and adult Chinese geese (Anser cynoides domesticus) causing a systemic infection in all species. The virus was also efficiently transmitted and resulted in mortality in naïve contact ducks, geese and chickens. Our findings indicate that this novel H5N1 virus has a wide host range and enhanced surveillance of migratory waterfowl may be necessary in order to determine its potential to establish itself in the wild bird reservoir. PMID:26988892

  15. Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

  16. Integration of Invertebrate Monitoring Data Into a Chemical-Based Water Quality Index for Selected Rivers in British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, S.; Ryan, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) is a recently developed tool used to summarize complex water quality data for communication to senior managers and the public. Within the index, water quality is assessed relative to its desirable state, as defined by water quality objectives, and indicates the degree to which it is affected by human activities. The index combines water quality measures of concern at a particular site (e.g. coliforms, metals, dissolved oxygen) and compares them to objectives to provide a ranking (e.g. good, fair, poor) for rivers and lakes. In British Columbia, the federal and provincial governments collaboratively maintain a network of water quality stations which are sampled routinely for a range of chemical variables. Environment Canada incorporated an annual biomonitoring component at 10 of these stations using the reference condition approach. Benthic invertebrates are used in this approach to assess the health of a stream by comparing expected invertebrate communities with observed communities. At one station the biological community indicated an impaired environment where the CCME WQI indicated "good" water quality. We will discuss options for incorporating the information provided by the benthic invertebrate community into the calculation of the index.

  17. Seven hundred years of human-driven and climate-influenced fire activity in a British Columbia coastal temperate rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Daniel G.; Starzomski, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    While wildland fire is globally most common at the savannah-grassland ecotone, there is little evidence of fire in coastal temperate rainforests. We reconstructed fire activity with a ca 700-year fire history derived from fire scars and stand establishment from 30 sites in a very wet (up to 4000 mm annual precipitation) temperate rainforest in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Drought and warmer temperatures in the year prior were positively associated with fire events though there was little coherence of climate indices on the years of fires. At the decadal scale, fires were more likely to occur after positive El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation phases and exhibited 30-year periods of synchrony with the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. Fire frequency was significantly inversely correlated with the distance from former Indigenous habitation sites and fires ceased following cultural disorganization caused by disease and other European impacts in the late nineteenth century. Indigenous people were likely to have been the primary ignition source in this and many coastal temperate rainforest settings. These data are directly relevant to contemporary forest management and discredit the myth of coastal temperate rainforests as pristine landscapes. PMID:27853581

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury levels in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in British Columbia, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.; Langelier, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Liver samples from 70 bald eagles found dead or dying in British Columbia between 1988 and 1993 were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury levels. A subset of 11 eagles found around the Strait of Georgia, an area of known pulp mill pollution, in summer (and therefore presumably resident birds) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Levels of DDE and PCBs ranged from less than 1 mg/kg to 190 and 65 mg/kg respectively. Levels of other organochlorines were generally less than 1 mg/kg, with the exception of some chlordane-related compounds which were occasionally over 2 mg/kg. All birds analyzed for PCDDs/PCDFs contained detectable levels of the major 2,378-substituted isomers. Some birds had extremely high levels, one eagle collected near a kraft pulp mill site contained: 400 ng/kg 2378-TCDD, 1400 ng/kg 12378-PnCDD and 4400 ng/kg 123678-HxCDD. All but two eagles had > 1 mg/kg dry wt. of mercury in liver; most contained less than 1 0 mg/kg d.w. but one bird had 130 mg/kg, a level of toxicological concern. All carcasses were autopsied and cause of death determined wherever possible. The relationship between cause of death and sublethal exposure to OCs and Hg is analyzed and discussed.

  19. Patterns and trends of chlorinated hydrocarbons in nestling bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma in British Columbia and Southern California.

    PubMed

    Cesh, Lillian S; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Elliott, John E

    2008-10-01

    Patterns and trends of chlorinated hydrocarbons were assessed in bald eagle nestling plasma from sites along the west coast of North America. Eagle plasma was sampled from four areas in southwestern British Columbia (BC), a reference site in northern BC, and from Santa Catalina Island, off the coast of California. Sites were chosen to reflect variation in contaminant exposure due to differing recent and/or historic anthropogenic activities. Santa Catalina Island had significantly greater mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE, 41.3 microg/kg wet weight (ww), than other sites, and Nanaimo/Crofton, BC had the greatest mean concentration of total PCBs, 28.9 microg/kg ww. Contaminant levels measured in 2003 in BC were compared to levels measured in 1993; over that ten year span, concentrations and patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbons have not significantly changed. There were no significant differences in levels of p,p'-DDE or hexachlorobenzene between 1993 and 2003, but significant decreases were found for trans-nonachlor and PCBs at BC sites. Levels of total PCBs and trans-nonachlor in the central Fraser Valley and Nanaimo/Crofton area have significantly decreased. Mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE measured in bald eagle nestling plasma samples in 2003 exceeded published criteria for effects on bald eagle reproduction at Santa Catalina Island and Barkley Sound, more than 30 years since heavy usage restrictions were imposed.

  20. Incorporating recreational users into marine protected area planning: a study of recreational boating in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gray, Darcy L; Canessa, Rosaline; Rollins, Rick; Keller, C Peter; Dearden, Philip

    2010-08-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) and zoning plans require an understanding of stakeholders if they are to be successful at achieving social and biological objectives. This study examines recreational boaters in a proposed MPA in British Columbia, Canada, using the recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) and models of recreation conflict as a basis for investigation. Boaters (n = 543) visiting the region during the summer completed face-to-face surveys. Results show variability in boater setting preferences, supporting an ROS-based approach to MPA planning and zoning. While boaters as a whole placed the greatest importance on natural settings, sailboat operators expressed stronger preferences for natural and quiet settings relative to motorboats, and motorboat operators expressed stronger preferences for settings characterized by built facilities and extractive activities relative to sailboats. Several marine activities emerged as sources of perceived conflict for boaters, including personal watercraft, commercial whale watching vessels, and shellfish aquaculture. Our analysis indicates that while some of these may be addressed through zoning, others are better addressed through education and communication. Recommendations for both MPA management and future research are made.

  1. Incorporating Recreational Users into Marine Protected Area Planning: A Study of Recreational Boating in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Darcy L.; Canessa, Rosaline; Rollins, Rick; Keller, C. Peter; Dearden, Philip

    2010-08-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) and zoning plans require an understanding of stakeholders if they are to be successful at achieving social and biological objectives. This study examines recreational boaters in a proposed MPA in British Columbia, Canada, using the recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) and models of recreation conflict as a basis for investigation. Boaters ( n = 543) visiting the region during the summer completed face-to-face surveys. Results show variability in boater setting preferences, supporting an ROS-based approach to MPA planning and zoning. While boaters as a whole placed the greatest importance on natural settings, sailboat operators expressed stronger preferences for natural and quiet settings relative to motorboats, and motorboat operators expressed stronger preferences for settings characterized by built facilities and extractive activities relative to sailboats. Several marine activities emerged as sources of perceived conflict for boaters, including personal watercraft, commercial whale watching vessels, and shellfish aquaculture. Our analysis indicates that while some of these may be addressed through zoning, others are better addressed through education and communication. Recommendations for both MPA management and future research are made.

  2. Reconstruction of late Quaternary paleohydrologic conditions in southeastern British Columbia using visible derivative spectroscopy of Cleland Lake sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihindukulasooriya, Lorita N.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Pompeani, David P.; Steinman, Byron A.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2015-05-01

    Visible derivative spectroscopy (VDS) analysis of sediment from Cleland Lake, Southeastern British Columbia provides a reconstruction of paleolimnological productivity and hydrologic change during the past 14,000 calibrated 14C years before present (cal yr BP). The first five principal components (PC) of the VDS data explain 97% of the variance in the VDS data set. Four PCs correlate with standard reflectance derivative spectra for diatom, dinoflagellate algae, and cyanophyte pigments that record ecological change, while two PCs are paleohydrologic indicators. Dinoflagellate algae are predominant from 11,600 to 8600 cal yr BP then decrease to low levels after 8500 cal yr BP. PCs 3-5 represent variations in cyanophyte abundance and exhibit peaks from 14,000 to 11,600, 14,000 to 9500, and 6100 to 5400 cal yr BP, respectively. Conditions shifted toward favoring diatoms around 9400 and lasted until 170 cal yr BP. Higher dinoflagellate-related pigment concentrations suggest a lower lake level from 11,600 to 8600 cal yr BP, followed by higher water levels and wetter conditions after 8500 cal yr BP. We propose that drier conditions transitioning from the late glacial into the Holocene were caused by summer insolation-driven, non-linear feedbacks between the northern hemisphere subtropical high-pressure systems, vegetation, and soil moisture.

  3. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  4. Use of beta regression for statistical downscaling of precipitation in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sohom; Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2016-07-01

    Impacts of global climate change on water resources systems are assessed by downscaling coarse scale climate variables into regional scale hydro-climate variables. In this study, a new multisite statistical downscaling method based on beta regression (BR) is developed for generating synthetic precipitation series, which can preserve temporal and spatial dependence along with other historical statistics. The beta regression based downscaling method includes two main steps: (1) prediction of precipitation states for the study area using classification and regression trees, and (2) generation of precipitation at different stations in the study area conditioned on the precipitation states. Daily precipitation data for 53 years from the ANUSPLIN data set is used to predict precipitation states of the study area where predictor variables are extracted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the same interval. The proposed model is applied to downscaling daily precipitation at ten different stations in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada. Results show that the proposed downscaling model can capture spatial and temporal variability of local precipitation very well at various locations. The performance of the model is compared with a recently developed non-parametric kernel regression based downscaling model. The BR model performs better regarding extrapolation compared to the non-parametric kernel regression model. Future precipitation changes under different GHG (greenhouse gas) emission scenarios also projected with the developed downscaling model that reveals a significant amount of changes in future seasonal precipitation and number of wet days in the river basin.

  5. When access is an issue: exploring barriers to predictive testing for Huntington disease in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Alice K; Creighton, Susan; Hayden, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Predictive testing (PT) for Huntington disease (HD) requires several in-person appointments. This requirement may be a barrier to testing so that at risk individuals do not realize the potential benefits of PT. To understand the obstacles to PT in terms of the accessibility of services, as well as exploring mechanisms by which this issue may be addressed, we conducted an interview study of individuals at risk for HD throughout British Columbia, Canada. Results reveal that the accessibility of PT can be a barrier for two major reasons: distance and the inflexibility of the testing process. Distance is a structural barrier, and relates to the time and travel required to access PT, the financial and other opportunity costs associated with taking time away from work and family to attend appointments and the stress of navigating urban centers. The inflexibility of the testing process barrier relates to the emotional and psychological accessibility of PT. The results of the interview study reveal that there are access barriers to PT that deter individuals from receiving the support, information and counseling they require. What makes accessibility of PT services important is not just that it may result in differences in quality of life and care, but because these differences may be addressed with creative and adaptable solutions in the delivery of genetic services. The study findings underscore the need for us to rethink and personalize the way we deliver such services to improve access issues to prevent inequities in the health care system. PMID:22781094

  6. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  7. Lower incidence of plasma cell neoplasm is maintained in migrant Chinese to British Columbia: findings from a 30-year survey.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vicky; Song, Kevin; Mang, Oscar; Ip, Dennis K M; Au, Wing Y

    2011-12-01

    The etiology of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is largely unknown. Its incidence varies widely in different ethnic groups. Migrant study may help determine the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors to PCM pathogenesis. We performed a retrospective review of the computerized records of all patients diagnosed with PCM between 1975 and 2004 in British Columbia (BC), and identified patients of Chinese ethnicity. This was compared with PCM incidence in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese. Age distributions of HK, BC and BC Chinese populations were obtained from the census departments to calculate world age-standardized rates (WASRs). The WASR of PCM over the 30-year period in BC Chinese was 1.64/100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-1.93). This was similar to the WASR observed in HK (1.78, 95% CI 1.73-1.83), with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.10). The rate was much lower than that in the BC non-Chinese background population (WASR 3.59, 95% CI 3.50-3.68; SIR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38-0.56). The lower rates in BC Chinese were maintained across all years, both genders and in all age groups above 45 years. Our observations suggest a strong genetic component as the cause of differences in the ethnic predisposition to PCM.

  8. Remote mineralogic and lithologic mapping of the Ice River alkaline complex, British Columbia, Canada, using AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, T.L.; Rowan, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Ice River Alkaline Complex is a late Paleozoic intrusion of mafic alkaline rocks, syenite, and carbonatite exposed in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The complex intrudes Cambrian and Ordovician shales, slates, and limestones of the Chancellor and Ottertail Formations and the McKay Group. We examined the alkaline complex and adjacent country rocks using Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. The data were first calibrated to relative reflectance and then used to spectrally map mineralogies in the study area by using a linear spectral unmixing program. This technique models each pixel spectrum in an AVIRIS image as a linear combination of unique endmember spectra. We selected endmember spectra from well-exposed and spectrally distinct mineralogic units, vegetation, and snow. Four of the endmembers reflect mineralogic variations within the McKay group in the study area, and may represent lateral and vertical variations of sedimentary or metamorphic facies. Otherwise, the resultant spatial distribution of endmembers shows generally close agreement with the published geologic map, although, in several places, our image-map is more accurate than the published map.

  9. The perceived implications of an outsourcing model on governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles (P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  10. Environmental contaminants and reproductive success of great blue herons Ardea herodias in British Columbia, 1986-1987.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Butler, R W; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, eggs were collected and productivity estimated at four great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colonies on the coast of British Columbia. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were present in all eggs in a qualitatively similar pattern among colonies. PCDD levels were significantly elevated at a colony near a kraft pulp mill at Crofton on Vancouver Island, although there was no correlation between the number of young raised in a nest and levels of either PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides or mercury. In 1987, heron productivity was normal at three colonies, while the colony at Crofton failed to raise any young. A normal complement of eggs were apparently laid in about 57 nests, but during incubation they were destroyed and the broken eggshells were found in and beneath the nests. Analysis of eggs salvaged from nests showed that 2378-TCDD levels were about three times higher in 1987 than in 1986. At a colony in Vancouver, 2378-TCDF levels were significantly higher in 1987 than 1986 eggs. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and total mercury in eggs were generally low; highest residue levels were found in two mainland colonies, particularly at one adjacent to an agricultural area. Total PCB levels were low and did not differ significantly among locations. Analysis of PCB congener ratios indicated different sources of PCBs. Regurgitated prey samples collected in 1986 from four locations had generally low levels of PCDD, PCDF, mercury, lead and cadmium contamination.

  11. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Michael G G; Guo, Ming; Garver, Kyle A; Stucchi, Dario; Chandler, Peter; Wan, Di; Morrison, John; Tuele, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

  12. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Michael G. G.; Guo, Ming; Garver, Kyle A.; Stucchi, Dario; Chandler, Peter; Wan, Di; Morrison, John; Tuele, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed. PMID:26114643

  13. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lithospheric mantle beneath West Kettle River, British Columbia: Evidence from ultramafic xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xianyu; Baadsgaard, H.; Scarfe, C.M. ); Irving, A.J. )

    1990-09-10

    A group of spinel peridotite xenoliths from West Kettle River, British Columbia, represents essentially undepleted to moderately depleted lithospheric mantle rocks in terms of major and compatible trace elements. Whole rock Sr isotopic composition for most of these xenoliths, and whole rock Sm-Nd isotopic composition and LREE contents for some of them, seem to have been perturbed by near-surface processes. Sr and Nd isotopic results for acid-cleaned clinopyroxenes separated from these spinel peridotites reveal an isotopically mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like mantle. Seven spinel lherzolites gave Nd model ages of 1.5-3.6 Ga, similar to MORB, and on a Sm-Nd isotope diagram plot close to a reference Nd isochron with an age of 0.7 Ga and an initial {var epsilon}{sub Nd} of +7. These features likely resulted from multiple mantle depletion. The isotopic similarities of these xenoliths with MORB suggest that this area is underlain by oceanic lithospheric mantle, possibly accreted to North America during the mid-Jurassic. The Nd isochron age could record the time when the oceanic lithosphere was isolated from the asthenosphere. Recent enrichment event may have acted on such a depleted mantle, as indicated by the low Sm/Nd ratios of two spinel harzburgites.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  15. The impact of changes in social policies on household food insecurity in British Columbia, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    As concerns about food insecurity in high income countries grow, there is a need to better understand the impact of social policy decisions on this problem. In Canada, provincial government actions are particularly important because food insecurity places substantial burden on provincial health care budgets. This study was undertaken to describe the socio-demographic and temporal patterning of food insecurity in British Columbia (BC) from 2005 to 2012 and determine the impact of BC's one-time increase in social assistance and introduction of the Rental Assistance Program (RAP) on food insecurity rates among target groups. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Surveys, logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify trends and assess changes in food insecurity among subgroups differentiated by main source of income and housing tenure. Models were run against overall food insecurity, moderate and severe food insecurity, and severe food insecurity to explore whether the impact of policy changes differed by severity of food insecurity. Overall food insecurity rose significantly among households in BC between 2005 and 2012. Following the increase in social assistance benefits, overall food insecurity and moderate and severe food insecurity declined among households on social assistance, but severe food insecurity remained unchanged. We could discern no effect of the RAP on any measure of food insecurity among renter households. Our findings indicate the sensitivity of food insecurity among social assistance recipients to improvements in income and highlight the importance of examining severity of food insecurity when assessing the effects of policy interventions.

  16. The Queen Charlotte Fault, British Columbia: seafloor anatomy of a transform fault and its influence on sediment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Harris, Peter T.

    2013-08-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ) off western Canada is the northern equivalent to the San Andreas Fault Zone, the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Geomorphologic expression and surface processes associated with the QCFZ system have been revealed in unprecedented detail by recent seabed mapping surveys. Convergence of the Pacific and North American plates along northern British Columbia is well known, but how the QCFZ accommodates this convergence is still a subject of controversy. The multibeam sonar bathymetry data reveal, for the first time, evidence of a fault valley with small depressions on the upper slope, offshore central Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands). The depressions form where strike-slip right-step offsets have realigned the fault due to oblique convergence. Core stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of sediments within the fault valley and small depressions suggest that these features are recent in origin. In addition, the development of the fault valley and dislocation of submarine canyons control sediment migration from the continental shelf through to the lower slope. This interpretation of the geomorphic expression of major plate tectonic processes along the QCFZ can now be tested with new surveys subsequent to the October 2012 magnitude 7.7 earthquake.

  17. The significance of an Early Jurassic (Toarcian) carbon-isotope excursion in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, Andrew H.; Gröcke, Darren R.; Smith, Paul L.

    2011-07-01

    During the Early Toarcian there was a significant disruption in the short-term active carbon reservoir as revealed by carbon-isotope records, which show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a large 5-7‰ negative excursion (δ 13C org). Carbon-isotope excursion co-occurs with the deposition of organic-rich shales in many areas. This perturbation in carbon isotopes is thought to be indicative of severe climate change and marine anoxia. The two leading hypotheses as to the cause of this event invoke either global or regional controls. Here we present carbon-isotope data from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada showing a significant perturbation within a temporally constrained Early Toarcian succession that was deposited in the northeastern paleo-Pacific Ocean. These data reinforce the concept that the short-term active carbon reservoir was affected globally, and assist with the correlation of ammonite zonal schemes between western North America and Europe. The δ 13C org data show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a sharp and pronounced negative excursion of 7‰ (8.5‰ in δ 13C wood) in the Early Toarcian Kanense Zone. This negative excursion also coincides with increasing total organic carbon (TOC) from ~ 0.4% to ~ 1.2%. These data suggest that the Early Toarcian carbon-isotope perturbation was indeed global and imprinted itself on all active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric).

  18. Identifying subtidal burying habitat of Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Clifford L. K.; Hrynyk, Doug; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Schweigert, Jake

    2013-08-01

    Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), an important prey species for many vertebrate predators in the northeast Pacific, lacks a swim bladder and relies on coarse sand substrates to bury in overnight and during the winter. Surprisingly little information is available describing the spatial distribution and extent of its burying habitat along the British Columbia coast. Thus, a habitat suitability model was developed for Pacific sand lance in the Strait of Georgia that considered information on shallow depths (<80 m), high bottom current speeds (25-63 cm s-1) and coarse sand (0.25-2.0 mm grain diameter). Overall, the model identified 6% of the study domain as suitable burying habitat, with the southern Strait containing the largest burying areas. By-catch data from mid-water trawl and purse seine sets was also used to map the location of pelagic schools of foraging sand lance. The persistent location of large Pacific sand lance by-catches over many years identified key foraging areas adjacent to several burying habitats. The median distance of 88 sand lance schools to coarse sand patches was 2 km; 75% of the schools were found within 4.9 km of coarse sand. The mapping of suitable burying and foraging areas in the Strait of Georgia will assist managers in guarding against anthropogenic activities that might impact the relatively uncommon and patchy habitats of a key coastal food-web species.

  19. Association between lymphocyte proliferation and polychlorinated biphenyls in free-ranging harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Levin, Milton; De Guise, Sylvain; Ross, Peter S

    2005-05-01

    Recent pinniped die-offs have led to the speculation that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are immunomodulatory, making individuals more susceptible to viral infections. Eighteen healthy harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups (aged 3-4 weeks) were live-captured from southern British Columbia, Canada, and maintained temporarily in captivity for an immunotoxicological assessment. The relationships between mitogen-induced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and blubber concentrations of three major immunotoxic POP classes (the polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and the polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]) were evaluated. A significant body weight-independent positive correlation was observed between both T-cell mitogen (phytohemagglutinin [PHA])- and B-cell mitogen (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced lymphocyte proliferation and the blubber concentrations of total PCB. Best subset regression analysis revealed that total PCBs, and not total PCDD or total PCDF, explained 24 and 29% of the changes in both T-cell mitogen-and B-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, respectively. Further regression analysis performed on the PCB classes measured in this study showed that di-ortho PCBs accounted for 25 and 30% of the changes in both T-cell and B-cell lymphocyte proliferation, respectively. Results suggest that POPs, and PCBs in particular, are associated with changes in lymphocyte proliferation, something that could result in increased susceptibility to infections in harbor seal pups. Further research is needed to evaluate the relative roles of natural and contaminant-related influences on the immune system of marine mammals.

  20. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

    2014-06-01

    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  1. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  2. Ameson metacarcini sp. nov. (Microsporidia) infecting the muscles of Dungeness crabs Metacarcinus magister from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Small, Hamish J; Meyer, Gary R; Stentiford, Grant D; Dunham, Jason S; Bateman, Kelly; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-11

    The Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister supports a large and valuable fishery along the west coast of North America. Since 1998, Dungeness crabs exhibiting pink- to orange-colored joints and opaque white musculature have been sporadically observed in low prevalence from the Fraser River delta of British Columbia, Canada. We provide histological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence that this condition is caused by a new microsporidian parasite. Crabs displaying gross symptoms were confirmed to have heavy infections of ovoid-shaped microsporidian spores (~1.8 × 1.4 µm in size) within muscle bundles of the skeletal musculature. The parasite apparently infected the outer periphery of each muscle bundle, and then proliferated into the muscle fibres near the centre of each infected bundle. Light infections were observed in heart tissues, and occasionally spores were observed within the fixed phagocytes lining the blood vessels of the hepatopancreas. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed multiple life stages of a monokaryotic microsporidian parasite within the sarcoplasm of muscle fibres. Molecular analysis of partial small subunit rRNA sequence data from the new species revealed an affinity to Ameson, a genus of Microsporidia infecting marine crustaceans. Based on morphological and molecular data, the new species is distinct from Nadelspora canceri, a related microsporidian that also infects the muscles of this host. At present, little is known about the distribution, seasonality, and transmission of A. metacarcini in M. magister.

  3. Metal content of road deposited sediment and fluvial channel-bed sediment in the City of Prince George, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phil; Droppo, Ian; Taylor, Kevin; Caley, Katrina; Campbell, Sarah; Rutherford, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Over 50% of the global population live in urban centres and, therefore, an understanding of the processes acting upon urban systems is a global issue. The nature of human-made, often impervious, land surfaces and heavily engineered waterways results in hydrological and sedimentological systems in urbanised basins which contrast significantly to those within more natural (i.e. pristine, forested, agricultural) aquatic systems. In addition, the abundance of contamination sources in urban systems results in chemical pressures often manifested as high pollution concentrations or loadings which in turn have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health. We collected samples of road deposited sediment (RDS) and fluvial channel-bed sediment within the city of Prince George, British Columbia, in order to determine the metal content of the sediment within the urban landscape, and to investigate the link between the urban road surface and the urban river network, which flows into the Fraser River. Replicate samples of RDS were collected from street surfaces in fall 2008, summer 2009 and fall 2009, air-dried, and sieved into: 500-250 microns, 250-125 microns, 125-63 microns and <63 microns. We are currently undertaking a chemical sequential extraction to give detailed information on the metal speciation within the different size classes. Samples of channel bed sediment have also been analysed for total metal content. This presentation describes this work and presents preliminary results.

  4. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses.

  5. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  6. Radar facies and architecture of alluvial fans and related sediments in high-energy alpine environments, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekes, Csaba

    2000-08-01

    It is widely recognized that the dominant depositional processes on alluvial fans include rock falls, rock slides, rock avalanches, debris flows, sheetfloods and incised-channel floods. A fundamental question addressed in this thesis is: Can ground penetrating radar (GPR) differentiate between the sediments associated with these processes? Do these individual deposits have characteristic radar reflection signatures? The dissertation is divided into two parts. In part one, a calibration exercise conducted in southern British Columbia, it was demonstrated that GPR was able to obtain good penetration and resolution in rock fall, rock slide, fluvial and alluvial fan sediments, and that a characteristic radar reflection pattern (or radar facies) can be assigned to these deposits. Bedrock reflection pattern is characterised by a discontinuous radar signal and by stacked diffractions. The radar facies for rock slide and rock avalanche sediments, where boulders constitute the predominant clast size, is characterized by discontinuous, high amplitude, macro-scale, hyperbolic reflections that are different from diffractions generated by bedrock. Alluvial fans dominated by debris flow processes produce a chaotic and discontinuous radar pattern; diffractions in these patterns are attributed to boulders. Alluvial fans dominated by sheetflood processes are likely to produce surface-parallel, gently dipping, more or less continuous radar patterns. Large-scale meandering-river radar-patterns are characterized by high amplitude, continuous, dipping clinoforms. Braided-river radar facies, based on data collected on the Kicking Horse braidplain, are characterized by predominantly horizontally continuous reflections with few identifiable features. Based solely on GPR data, it was possible to distinguish between sediments of meandering and braided rivers. Analysis of over 95 km GPR data suggests that alluvial fan radar-reflection patterns are distinctly different from those observed in

  7. The crustal structure, deformation from GPS, and seismicity related to oblique convergence along the Queen Charlotte margin, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustin, Amanda M. M.

    Tectonic processes and seismic hazard along the west coast of British Columbia result from oblique convergence between the continental North America plate and the oceanic Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates. This dissertation integrates seismic and geodetic techniques to examine the tectonic interaction along these plate boundaries. The Queen Charlotte Fault zone is the transpressive boundary between the North America and Pacific plates along the northwestern margin of British Columbia. Two models have been suggested for the accommodation of the ˜20 mm/yr of convergence along the fault boundary: (1) underthrusting; (2) internal crustal deformation. Strong evidence supporting an underthrusting model is provided in this dissertation by a teleseismic receiver function analysis that defines the underthrusting slab. Forward and inverse modelling techniques were applied to receiver function data calculated at two permanent and six temporary seismic stations within the Islands. The modelling reveals a ˜10 km thick low-velocity zone dipping eastward at 28° interpreted to be underthrusting oceanic crust. The oceanic crust, which may be anisotropic, is located beneath a thin (28 km) westward shallowing (10°) continental margin. The majority of seismicity along the Queen Charlotte Fault zone plots within the modelled underthrusting crust, suggesting that these earthquakes are occurring on faults that extend down into the slab or they might be intraslab events. None of the earthquakes within the Queen Charlotte Basin have occurred deep enough to be intraslab earthquakes. The Wadati-Benioff seismicity may be inhibited beneath the basin by the hot young oceanic crust or by the short distance of underthrusting. GPS measurements have been recorded within the Queen Charlotte Islands during 8 years of campaign surveys. The crustal velocity field derived from the GPS data indicates northward margin-oblique motion of 10--15 mm/yr. Comparisons of the observed velocities with elastic

  8. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    The channel network on a fluvial fan distributes sediment across the fan surface and determines fan development. We present a method to characterize fan channel networks (FCNs) so that the effect of controls (e.g., sediment supply) on the FCN can be evaluated. We then do a preliminary test of the method using three fans in coastal British Columbia. The method uses a set of three measures: 1) the spatial extent of hydrogeomorphic activity, measured as the percentage of the contemporary fan surface area occupied by active channels; 2) the topologic structure, using node counts to measure channel network complexity; and 3) a sediment budget to indicate the proportion of sediment that is stored on the fan, loosely characterized by comparing the second-largest clast size of sediment at the fan apex or intersection point with the second-largest clast at the toe of the fan. These measures were applied to two fan deltas and one partial fan delta in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using channel surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. All three fans are located within 30 km of each other, have similar climatic, physiographic, and vegetation settings, and have natural channel networks. Each fan has perennial channel flow at the fan apex. Watershed areas range from 19.5 to 35.6 km 2, and contemporary fan areas range from 0.2 to 0.7 km 2. The Melton Relative Relief ratio ranges from 0.24 to 0.30 and none of the fans show evidence of debris floods or debris flows. In addition to testing the efficacy of the FCN measures, we use these fans to explore the question of whether fans in similar geomorphic settings and with similar controls develop similar FCNs. Results show the fans have between 4.7-8.5 % of the contemporary fan surface occupied by the active channel network. Topologic node counts indicate that the two fan deltas have a similar level of channel complexity, with 42-54 nodes in total. The partial fan delta channel network is approximately half as complex, with

  9. Dolomitization and neomorphism of Mississippian (Visean) upper debolt formation, Blueberry field, northeastern British Columbia: Geologic, petrologic, and chemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Durocher, S.; Al-Aasm, I.S.

    1997-06-01

    Petrographic, chemical, and isotopic studies of the Mississippian (Visean) upper Debolt Formation in the Blueberry field, British Columbia, Canada, reveal that dolomitization was the result of several diagenetic events and that neomorphic alteration of these dolomites significantly modified their original chemical signatures. These studies also demonstrate how tectonics play an important role in controlling and modifying reservoir dolomites in the area. Petrographic investigations have documented two early dolomite phases, (1) early matrix dolomite and (2) pervasive dolomite, and two later generations, (3) coarse cement and (4) pseudomorphic replacement of crinoids. Early matrix dolomite occurs as small (average 25 {mu}m) subhedral to euhedral crystals that replace the matrix of carbonate mudstones, wackestones, and packstones. Petrographic evidence suggests that early matrix dolomite had a relatively early, precompaction origin, possibly from marine fluids. However, geochemical evidence indicates that later fluids have altered their original geochemical signatures. Pervasive dolomite, which forms the reservoir intercrystalline porosity, occurs with planar-s and planar-e textures. Planar-s crystals typically have a dirty appearance and exhibit homogeneous dull brown/red cathodoluminescence colors. Planar-e crystals may appear with a cloudy core and a clear rim, and under cathodoluminescence display an irregular dull brown/red core and a thin, bright red rim. Due to the spatial distribution pattern of pervasive dolomite with respect to the overlying unconformity surface, its paleogeographic distribution and close temporal relationship with meteoric diagenetic events, pervasive dolomite formed from a mixture of seawater and meteoric fluids. However, alteration of their primary chemistry by later fluids is indicated by their depleted {delta}{sup 18}O values and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios.

  10. Calls to the British Columbia Drug and Poison Information Centre: A summary of differences by health service areas

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sarah B; Kent, Debra; Kosatsky, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Poison control centres provide information on the management of poisoning incidents. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre recently implemented an electronic database system for recording case information, making it easier to use case data as a potential source of population-based information on health services usage and health status. This descriptive analysis maps poisoning case rates in BC, highlighting differences in patient age, substance type, medical outcome, and caller location. Methods There were 50,621 human exposure cases recorded during 2012 and 2013. Postal code or city name was used to assign each case to a Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA). Case rates per 1,000 person-years were calculated, including crude rates, age-standardized rates, age-specific rates, and rates by substance type, medical outcome, and caller location. Results The lowest case rate was observed in Richmond, a city where many residents do not speak English as a first language. The highest rate was observed in the Northwest region, where the economy is driven by resource extraction. Pharmaceutical exposures were elevated in the sparsely populated northern and eastern areas. Calls from health care facilities were highest in the Northwest region, where there are many remote Aboriginal communities. Conclusions Case rates were generally highest in the primarily rural northern and eastern areas of the province. Considering these results alongside contextual factors informs further investigation and action: addressing cultural and language barriers to accessing poison centre services, and developing a public health surveillance system for severe poisoning events in rural and remote communities. PMID:25379127

  11. Pediatric lumbar Chance fractures in British Columbia: chart review and analysis of the use of shoulder restraints in MVAs.

    PubMed

    Louman-Gardiner, Katherine; Mulpuri, Kishore; Perdios, Angeliki; Tredwell, Stephen; Cripton, Peter A

    2008-07-01

    Chance fractures of the skeletally immature spine classically occur in frontal motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) when the occupants are restrained by a lap belt only and undergo traumatic hyperflexion of the torso during the impact. We retrospectively examined all MVA-related Chance fractures at British Columbia's Children's Hospital since 1986, by collecting injury and seat-belt use information from chart data and imaging studies. Twenty-six patients were included in the study, 14 wore a lap belt only, seven wore a three-point restraint properly, and five were reportedly misusing the shoulder portion of a three-point restraint. The subjects ranged in age from 3 to 16 with a mean age of 10.6 years. Eleven of the 26 (42%) patients sustained abdominal viscera injuries, seven of the 26 patients suffered neurologic injury (spinal cord and/or spinal nerve injury) associated with their spinal fracture, with two cases of complete paralysis, and there was a 38% incidence of head injury. Concomitant injuries (i.e. to the head, abdomen and abdominal contents) tended to be mitigated by the presence of a properly worn shoulder restraint. This leads to the conclusion that Chance fractures can be sustained even when the occupant is using a shoulder belt to restrain their torso. The mechanism responsible for this is unknown. This may indicate that Chance fractures can be caused by a lesser degree of torso hyperflexion than previously thought. Alternatively, we also speculate that Chance fractures can occur while the torso is restrained by the shoulder belt if the hips submarine beneath the lap belt and the torso experiences hyperflexion secondary to forward excursion of the pelvis and legs during the collision. Future work is necessary to confirm these mechanisms and to find ways to prevent them. These studies will need to use computational or experimental child surrogates that can sit in a slouched posture and submarine during a collision.

  12. An ice core record of net snow accumulation and seasonal snow chemistry at Mt. Waddington, southwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, P. D.; Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; McConnell, J. R.; Pettit, E. C.; Menounos, B.

    2011-12-01

    We recovered a 141 m ice core from Combatant Col (51.39°N, 125.22°W, 3000 m asl) on the flank of Mt. Waddington, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Aerosols and other impurities in the ice show unambiguous seasonal variations, allowing for annual dating of the core. Clustered melt layers, originating from summer surface heating, also aid in the dating of the core. Seasonality in water stable isotopes is preserved throughout the record, showing little evidence of diffusion at depth, and serves as an independent verification of the timescale. The annual signal of deuterium excess is especially well preserved. The record of lead deposition in the core agrees with those of ice cores from Mt. Logan and from Greenland, with a sharp drop-off in concentration in the 1970s and early 1980s, further validating the timescales. Despite significant summertime melt at this mid-latitude site, these data collectively reveal a continuous and annually resolved 36-year record of snow accumulation. We derived an accumulation time series from the Mt. Waddington ice core, after correcting for ice flow. Years of anomalously high or low snow accumulation in the core correspond with extremes in precipitation data and geopotential height anomalies from reanalysis data that make physical sense. Specifically, anomalously high accumulation years at Mt. Waddington correlate with years where "Pineapple Express" atmospheric river events bring large amounts of moisture from the tropical Pacific to western North America. The Mt. Waddington accumulation record thus reflects regional-scale climate. These results demonstrate the potential of ice core records from temperate glaciers to provide meaningful paleoclimate information. A longer core to bedrock (250-300 m) at the Mt. Waddington site could yield ice with an age of several hundred to 1000 years.

  13. Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in marine plankton from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Dangerfield, Neil; Macdonald, Robie W.; Galbraith, M.; Crewe, Norman; Shaw, Patrick; Mackas, David; Ross, Peter S.

    2013-08-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a large, deep, fjord-like estuary on the southern coast of British Columbia which is subject to local and atmospheric inputs of persistent environmental contaminants. We measured 204 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 61 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) seasonally in water (two depths; dissolved and particle-bound) and plankton (vertical tow) samples collected at two stations. Principal components analysis clearly distinguished the dissolved and particulate water fractions and plankton samples, with the latter two compartments associated more with heavier congeners. Bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for PCBs and PBDEs in plankton were best described by parabolic relationships against octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log Kow), peaking at a log Kow of 5-7, underscoring the important role of physico-chemical properties in driving the uptake of these persistent contaminants by plankton from water. The estimated total quantity of PCBs (annual average of 0.61 ± SEM 0.12 kg) and PBDEs (annual average of 0.64 ± 0.19 kg) in Strait of Georgia plankton biomass were remarkably similar, highlighting the emergence of currently-used PBDEs as a priority concern. The estimated total of 52.1 ± 8.41 kg of PCBs in water (dissolved + particle-bound) was higher than the estimated 26.8 ± 5.20 kg of PBDEs (dissolved + particle-bound), reflecting the dichotomous use histories for these two contaminant classes. Results provide insight into the biological availability of PCBs and PBDEs to the Strait of Georgia food web, and describe an important initial partitioning process by which the region's endangered killer whales have become highly contaminated.

  14. Perceptions of British Columbia residents and their willingness to pay for medication management services provided by pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Nicole W.; Khakban, Amir; Gastonguay, Louise; Li, Kathy; Lynd, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across Canada, pharmacists have expanded their scope of practice by performing medication management (MM) services. However, little is currently known about the opinions and attitudes of patients and the general population toward MM services. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey, including a best-worst scaling task, was designed to understand the general public’s opinions, preferences and willingness-to-pay with respect to MM services in British Columbia. Results: Of 977 individuals contacted, 819 responded to the questionnaire (84% response rate). The mean age was 45 years (standard deviation [SD] 16 years), and 37% were male. Overall, 93% of respondents felt that the medication advice from their pharmacist resulted in improvement in patient outcomes and/or medication use. This was also selected as the “best” attribute of MM, while other preferred attributes of MM included being able to obtain an appointment with the pharmacist on the same day or via walk-in, improved patient-physician relationships and MM sessions able to be completed in 15 minutes with the pharmacist. The average willingness to pay for MM was $24.55 (SD $21.44). Younger males with higher household income and those who had had MM in the past were willing to pay more for MM services out of pocket. Discussion and Conclusion: The accessibility of pharmacists was valued highly by respondents who, overall, were supportive of MM services and recognized the potential of pharmacists’ involvement in drug therapy management to improve patient outcomes and medication use. Alternative models of funding are worth considering for the sustainability of MM service provision. PMID:26445584

  15. Numerical Modelling of Freshwater Flux and Temperature on the Northern British Columbia Coast in support of Marine Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, D. R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fortin, V.; Durnford, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Canada has the longest coastline of any country (>120,000 miles). Canadian response to potential oil spills along its coast is being improved under a high-level federal government strategy, falling under the rubric of the World Class Tanker Safety System (WCTSS). The first component of this strategy focuses on the Kitimat area and its marine approaches on the northern British Columbia (BC) coast. This initiative reflects concerns around both existing ship traffic, and potential increases in tanker traffic associated with the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline. The project includes joint development, between multiple federal departments, of an operational modeling system to predict currents in the coastal ocean. One of Environment Canada's (EC) contributions is the development and implementation of a short-term forecast model of river flows with corresponding stream temperatures. These quantities influence currents in the coastal ocean, which in turn affect oil spill fate and transport. Our platform is based on the Surface Prediction System (SPS), which is essentially a driver for a land surface scheme (LSS) linked to a hydrological routing model, and is related to the earlier MESH platform. LSS's under consideration for use in this mountain rainforest environment are the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), and the Soil and Vegetation Simulator (SVS), which is an evolution of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) model. Runoff and drainage outputs are then routed through the stream network by WATROUTE. The River Basin Model (RBM), a physically-based stream temperature simulator, is also being integrated into SPS to additionally enable water temperature forecasting. The freshwater modelling system will be directly driven by EC's numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems.Preliminary results from this ambitious modeling program are presented, along with recommendations for improvements to physical process representation in the various models employed.

  16. The 2007 Nazko, British Columbia, earthquake sequence: Injection of magma deep in the crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassidy, J.F.; Balfour, N.; Hickson, C.; Kao, H.; White, Rickie; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mazzotti, S.; Rogers, Gary C.; Al-Khoubbi, I.; Bird, A.L.; Esteban, L.; Kelman, M.; Hutchinson, J.; McCormack, D.

    2011-01-01

    On 9 October 2007, an unusual sequence of earthquakes began in central British Columbia about 20 km west of the Nazko cone, the most recent (circa 7200 yr) volcanic center in the Anahim volcanic belt. Within 25 hr, eight earthquakes of magnitude 2.3-2.9 occurred in a region where no earthquakes had previously been recorded. During the next three weeks, more than 800 microearthquakes were located (and many more detected), most at a depth of 25-31 km and within a radius of about 5 km. After about two months, almost all activity ceased. The clear P- and S-wave arrivals indicated that these were high-frequency (volcanic-tectonic) earthquakes and the b value of 1.9 that we calculated is anomalous for crustal earthquakes but consistent with volcanic-related events. Analysis of receiver functions at a station immediately above the seismicity indicated a Moho near 30 km depth. Precise relocation of the seismicity using a double-difference method suggested a horizontal migration at the rate of about 0:5 km=d, with almost all events within the lowermost crust. Neither harmonic tremor nor long-period events were observed; however, some spasmodic bursts were recorded and determined to be colocated with the earthquake hypocenters. These observations are all very similar to a deep earthquake sequence recorded beneath Lake Tahoe, California, in 2003-2004. Based on these remarkable similarities, we interpret the Nazko sequence as an indication of an injection of magma into the lower crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt. This magma injection fractures rock, producing high-frequency, volcanic-tectonic earthquakes and spasmodic bursts.

  17. Women's Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuetao; Salters, Kate A.; Zhang, Wen; McCandless, Lawrence; Money, Deborah; Pick, Neora; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.; Kaida, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Background. HIV-infected women are disproportionately burdened by gynaecological complications, psychological disorders, and certain sexually transmitted infections that may not be adequately addressed by HIV-specific care. We estimate the prevalence and covariates of women's health care (WHC) utilization among harder-to-reach, treatment-experienced HIV-infected women in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods. We used survey data from 231 HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) study, which recruited harder-to-reach populations, including aboriginal people and individuals using injection drugs. Independent covariates of interest included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, individual health status, structural factors, and HIV clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted estimates of associations between use of WHC and covariates of interest. Results. Overall, 77% of women reported regularly utilizing WHC. WHC utilization varied significantly by region of residence (P value <0.01). In addition, women with lower annual income (AOR (95% CI) = 0.14 (0.04–0.54)), who used illicit drugs (AOR (95% CI) = 0.42 (0.19–0.92)) and who had lower provider trust (AOR (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95–0.99)), were significantly less likely to report using WHC. Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women's holistic health. PMID:23227316

  18. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.

  19. Characteristics and origin of coarse gold in Late Pleistocene sediments of the Cariboo placer mining district, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, N.

    1995-02-01

    The Cariboo placer mining district (1000 km 2) sited in the Interior Plateau of central British Columbia, Canada, is the premier placer gold mining district of the Province. Gold is recovered from three Late Pleistocene sedimentary facies: postglacial fluvial gravels (< 10 Ka), Late Wisconsin till (ca. 25-10 Ka), and "older" fluvial gravels (>25 Ka). This study reports the morphology (size, roundness, sphericity) of 1636 gold grains, ranging in size from 0.25 to 17 mm, recovered from 19 placer mines. Older gravels contain the smallest gold grains (mean grani size 1.53 mm), grains of intermediate size occur in till (2.23 mm) and the coarsest gold occurs in postglacial gravels (2.34 mm) with a mean of 1.93 mm for the mining district as a whole. The most common grain shapes are sub-rounded, discoidal (14.73% of the grain population), sub-angular, discoidal (10.88%), and sub-rounded, sub-discoidal (9.59%); the most angular grains occur in postglacial gravels. In-situ growth of coarse, angular grains is indicated by a "composite" grain structure, consisting of aggregates of gold particles welded together by high-grade (Ag = < 2%) filamentous gold; in-situ coarsening may be reliant on organic complexing agents produced below a dense forest cover. An evolutionary sequence of grain form, from angular aggregates to rounded "pumpkin seed" grains, is suggested. Rounded grains commonly show a crystalline structure which may result from the cold hammering of gold during transport; fracturing along crystal boundaries is common. Gold grains may undergo cycles of coarsening, rounding, diagenesis and breakup in response to repeated recycling through Pleistocene sedimentary environments.

  20. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  1. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  2. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Wei, X.

    2012-03-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2) situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbances (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation) cumulated over space and time in the studied watershed. The cumulative ECA was up to 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (time series analysis) with modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr-1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was -35.5 mm yr-1. The opposite change directions and magnitudes clearly suggest offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7%) overriding that from climate variability (42.3%). Forest disturbances also produced significant positive effect on low flow and dry season (fall and winter) mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  3. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Wei, X.

    2012-07-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2), situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbance (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation), cumulated over space and time in the watershed. The cumulative ECA peaked at 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (i.e. time series analysis) and graphic method (modified double mass curve) was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr-1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was 35.5 mm yr-1. The opposite changes in directions and magnitudes clearly suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7%) overriding that from climate variability (42.3%). Forest disturbance also produced significant positive effects on low flow and dry season (fall and winter) mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  4. Geochemistry of arsenic in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock. However, in aged waste rock the As is associated with both primary pyrites and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of pyrite in waste rock dumps was reflected by the presence of high concentrations of SO4(2-) in porewater and oxidation rims of Fe oxyhydroxides around pyrite grains. Acid released from pyrite oxidation to Fe oxyhydroxides is neutralized by carbonate mineral dissolution that buffers the pH in the waste rock to circumneutral values. Adsorption of As onto secondary Fe oxyhydroxides provides an internal geochemical control on As release during pyrite oxidation and porewater flushing from the dump, resulting in the low As concentrations observed in porewater (median: 9.91μg/L) and rock-drain effluent (median: 0.31μg/L). Secondary Fe oxyhydroxides act as a long-term sink for As under present day hydrologic settings in waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley.

  5. Crystal fractionation of the basalt comendite series of the mount Edziza volcanic complex, British Columbia: Major and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souther, J. G.; Hickson, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    The Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex in north-central British Columbia includes a group of overlapping basaltic shields, salic composite volcanoes, domes and small calderas that range in age from 7.5 Ma to less than 2000 years B.P. The volcanic assemblage is chemically bimodal, comprising voluminous alkali olivine basalt and hawaiite, a salic suite of mainly peralkaline trachyte and comendite, plus a relatively small volume of intermediate rocks (trachybasalt, tristanite, mugearite, benmoreite). The complex is the product of five cycles of magmatic activity, each of which began with alkali olivine basalt and culminated with the eruption of salic magma. The regular chemical variation shown by almost 100 major- and trace-element analyses suggests a genetic lineage between the basic and salic members of each cycle. Least-squares mathematical modelling, indicates that the salic rocks (trachyte and comendite) have formed by fractionation of observed phenocryst and cumulate nodule mineral phases from a common alkali olivine basalt parent magma. Hawaiite is thought to be a cumulate rock, formed by partial fractionation and feldspar accumulation within rising columns of primary alkali olivine basalt. Fractionation leading from alkali olivine basalt through trachybasalt and trachyte to comendite is believed to have taken place where primary basalt became trapped in large crustal reservoirs. The early removal of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, leading to a trachytic residuum, and subsequent fractionation of mainly alkali feldspar, leading to the peralkaline end members, is consistent with major- and trace-element variation and with isotopic and REE data. The chemical diversity of the complex is attributed to its location over a zone of crustal extension where mantle-derived basalt, trapped in large high-level reservoirs, underwent prolonged fractionation.

  6. Middle Triassic biostromes from the Liard Formation, British Columbia, Canada: oldest examples from the Mesozoic of NW Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, John-Paul

    2001-12-01

    Mesozoic carbonate accumulations are rare in northwestern Pangea. This is due, initially to the demise of many carbonate-secreting organisms during the terminal Permian biotic crisis and subsequently, to increased siliciclastic sedimentation resulting from the tectonic development of western North America. Ecological voids resulting from the extinction, however, resulted in new opportunities for surviving taxa. Terebratulid brachiopod-echinoderm dominated biostromes within the primarily siliciclastic Liard Formation (Middle Triassic, Ladinian) of northeastern British Columbia provide a unique example. The Liard biostromes are composed primarily of whole and unabraded terebratulid brachiopods ( Aulacothyroides liardensis), articulate crinoid elements ( Isocrinus sp.) and cidaroid echinoid spines and interambulacral plates ( Miocidaris sp.). Many of the terebratulid brachiopods are characterized by the pedicle attachment trace fossil Podichnus. Other organisms which occupied the biostromes include discinid (cf. Orbiculoidea sp.) and spiriferid ( Spiriferina abichi) brachiopods, bivalves (including oysters), and gastropods, as well as rare bryozoans and possibly scleractinian corals. Sedimentary units deposited on the margins of the biostromes are characterized by an abundance of body fossils (decapod crustaceans, bivalves and ophiuroids) and trace fossils ( Asterosoma, Cylindrichnus, Palaeophycus, Rosselia, Teichichnus and Thalassinoides). This trace fossil assemblage contains a mix of dwelling traces, horizontal deposit feeding traces, and vertical suspension feeding traces, consistent with deposition in a lower shoreface setting. Hiatal surfaces and laterally restricted bioclastic sandstone layers and lenses within these features suggest that frequent turnover of infaunal and epifaunal communities occurred at the edges of the Liard brachiopod-echinoderm biostromes. Development of the Liard brachiopod-echinoderm biostromes depended on initial storm

  7. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Sean W.; Hood, Eran; Dalhke, Helen; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  8. Reticulate Structures Reveal the Significance of Cell Motility in the Morphogenesis of Complex Microbial Structures in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial communities are architects of incredibly complex and diverse morphological structures. Each morphology is a snapshot that reflects the complex interactions within the microbial community and between the community and its environment. Characterizing morphology as an emergent property of microbial communities is thus relevant to understanding the evolution of multicellularity and complexity in developmental systems, to the identification of biosignatures, and to furthering our understanding of modern and ancient microbial ecology. Recently discovered cyanobacterial mats in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia construct unusual complex architecture on the scale of decimeters that incorporates significant void space. Fundamental mesoscale morphological elements include terraces, arches, bridges, depressions, domes, and pillars. The mats themselves also exhibit several microscale morphologies, with reticulate structures being the dominant example. The reticulate structures exhibit a diverse spectrum of morphologies with endmembers characterized by either angular or curvilinear ridges. In laboratory studies, aggregation into reticulate structures occurs as a result of the random gliding and colliding among motile cyanobacterial filaments. Likewise, when Pavilion reticulate mats were sampled and brought to the surface, cyanobacteria invariably migrated out of the mat onto surrounding surfaces. Filaments were observed to move rapidly in clumps, preferentially following paths of previous filaments. The migrating filaments organized into new angular and ropey reticulate biofilms within hours of sampling, demonstrating that cell motility is responsible for the reticulate patterns. Because the morphogenesis of reticulate structures can be linked to motility behaviors of filamentous cyanobacteria, the Willow Point mats provide a unique natural laboratory in which to elucidate the connections between a specific microbial behavior and the construction of complex microbial

  9. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  10. The influence of land-use composition on fecal contamination of riverine source water in southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Laurent, Jacques; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-12-01

    The potential for riverine drinking source water to become contaminated with pathogens is related to the production and transport of fecal waste from within the local catchment area. Identifying specific relationships between land-use types and fecal contamination in riverine water provides an indication of the risk associated with land-use change and helps to target mitigation measures toward land-use types of concern. Fecal coliform (FC) data from 42 riverine sites across British Columbia (BC), Canada, were examined in relation to land-use composition (including 16 land-use types) in the local catchment area. FC concentration significantly increased in relation to anthropogenic land-use impacts but was negatively associated with undisturbed and high-elevation land types. Regression tree analysis identified that highest FC concentrations occurred in catchments characterized by more than 12.5% agricultural land and more than 1.6% urban land. Furthermore, the risk of violation of the BC partial treatment raw drinking water quality guideline for FC concentration (100 CFU 100 mL-1) increased in relation to agricultural impacts. Additional factors, such as sewage treatment discharge, low dilution in smaller streams, and higher temperatures, were associated with higher FC concentration among sites with similar levels of agricultural development. These results identify land-use types that present the greatest threat to riverine contamination, namely agricultural and urban land, and indicate the proportion of such land use associated with high contamination. Land use should be managed and source water protection should be targeted in light of these results so as to minimize the risk of surface water exposure to fecal contaminants.

  11. Acid leaching studies of chrysotile asbestos from mines in the Coalinga region of California and from Quebec and British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, A

    1997-06-01

    The dissolution of magnesium (Mg) and silicon (Si) from various samples of chrysotile asbestos was measured in N HCl at 25 degrees C. Nine samples were used, five from Canada and four from the Coalinga deposit in California. With milled samples from Quebec, the fraction of Mg dissolving was linearly related to the square root of the leaching time until at least 65% had dissolved. With a hand-picked sample of ore from Quebec, the sample from British Columbia and all the Californian samples, the Mg leaching patterns were sigmoid. The leaching patterns for Si were sigmoid in shape for all the materials tested. Mean Mg dissolution rates were calculated for each leaching period. Considerable differences were observed between samples from the different mining regions and also between hand-picked and milled samples from the same mine. Initially, Mg dissolved more rapidly from milled Quebec chrysotiles than from the Coalinga samples. This difference is due in part to the rapid dissolution of non-structural brucite, present in all the samples from Quebec but not in those from California. An additional cause is greater damage to the fibre surfaces resulting from the milling to which the less readily-opened fibres, typical of the Quebec mining area, were subjected. Once this readily-available Mg had dissolved, there was little difference in leaching rates between milled and unmilled samples from the different regions. When the fraction of Mg dissolving is plotted against that of Si, all the materials follow a similar pattern, suggesting that the dissolution of Si (as silica) is the rate-controlling step in the dissolution of Mg.

  12. Geology and paleoecology of a mid-Wisconsin peat from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Barry G.; Clague, John J.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    1984-05-01

    A peat bed on east-central Graham Island of the Queen Charlotte Islands occurs within a nonglacial fluvial succession that is both overlain and underlain by glacial deposits. Radiocarbon dates of 27,500 ± 400 and 45,700 ± 970 yr B.P. at the top and base of the peat, respectively, indicate that it was deposited during the mid-Wisconsin nonglacial interval. The peat is the first documented mid-Wisconsin organic deposit in northern coastal areas of British Columbia. Three local pollen zones are represented. The lowest zone (PM-1) is restricted to sandy silt directly underlying the dated peat. Very high Cyperaceae and moderate Poaceae pollen percentages characterize zone PM-1, and a variety of other herbs are common, suggesting an open landscape rather than a forested one. The middle zone (PM-2) is characterized by abundant pollen of Picea, Tsuga mertensiana, and Cyperaceae, and also contains pollen of Abies, a genus now absent from the Queen Charlotte Islands. Graham Island probably had extensive forests at this time, but abundant pollen and macrofossils of Cyperaceae and emergent aquatics such as Hippuris vulgaris, Veronica scutellata, Potentilla palustris, and Menyanthes trifoliata indicate that there also were open wetland areas. Zone PM-3 also contains abundant arboreal pollen. Large amounts of Sphagnum spores and Selaginella selaginoides megaspores indicate succession of the wetland area at the sample site to a peat bog. Paleoecological analysis of the data suggests that subalpine vegetation elements were depressed by at least 400 m, probably due to a cooler climate. Probable modern analogs in southeastern Alaska and the presence of Abies (probably A. amabilis) indicate that precipitation was higher on eastern Graham Island during the mid-Wisconsin than at present.

  13. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

  14. The landslide response of alpine basins to post-Little Ice Age glacial thinning and retreat in southwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Kris; Bovis, Michael; Jakob, Matthias

    2004-02-01

    The role of post-Little Ice Age (LIA) Neoglacial retreat on landslide activity is investigated in 19 alpine basins along the upper Lillooet River Valley, British Columbia. We examine how Neoglacial scouring and glacial recession have modified hillslope form and slope stability, and construct a decision-making flowchart to identify landslide hazards associated with glacial retreat. This work is based on field mapping, GIS analysis, statistical associations between landslides and terrain attributes, and a comparison between Neoglaciated and non-Neoglaciated terrain within each basin. The bedrock landslide response to glacial retreat varies appreciably according to lithology and the extent of glacial scour below the LIA trimline. Valleys carved in weak Quaternary volcanics show significant erosional oversteepening and contain deep-seated slope movement features, active rock fall, rock slides, and rock avalanches near glacial trimlines. Basins in stronger granitic rock rarely show increased bedrock instability resulting from post-LIA retreat, except for shallow-seated rock slides along some trimlines and failures on previously unstable slopes. In surficial materials, landslides associated with post-LIA retreat originate in till or colluvium, as debris slides or debris avalanches, and are concentrated along lateral moraines or glacial trimlines. Significant spatial association was also observed between recent catastrophic failures, gravitational slope deformation, and slopes that were oversteepened then debuttressed by glacial erosion. Eight out of nine catastrophic rock slope failures occurred just above glacial trimlines and all occurred in areas with a previous history of deep-seated gravitational slope movement, implying that this type of deformation is a precursor to catastrophic detachment.

  15. Modeling clinical progression and healthcare utilization of HIV-positive patients in British Columbia prior to death

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zishan; Grafstein, Eric; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Lima, Viviane Dias

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The extent in which clinical progression of HIV-positive patients leads to an increase in healthcare utilization, especially prior to their death, is unknown. Thus, we modeled trends in CD4 cell count and emergency department utilization and the likelihood of an emergency department visit leading to a transfer to acute care level facility prior to a patient’s death from non-accidental causes. Methods Eligible patients initiated HAART in British Columbia between August 1996 and June 2006 (N=457). Patients were followed until their death, which occurred on or before June 30, 2007 (period in which the emergency department visit data were available). Trends were modeled using generalized mixed effects. Results Patients experienced a significantly steep decline in CD4 cell count and a corresponding increase in the number of emergency department visits and transfers to acute level facilities in the five years prior to death. For every 6-month interval prior to death, the CD4 cell count decreased 13.22 cells/mm3, the risk of experiencing an emergency department visit increased by 9%, and among those ever admitted, the odds ratio of being transferred to an acute care level facility increased by 3%. Conclusions We showed that patients experienced a steep decline in CD4 cell count, which was associated with an increase in healthcare utilization prior to their death. These findings highlight the substantial residual avoidable burden that unsuccessfully managed HIV disease poses, even in the HAART era. Further strategies to enhance sustained and successful engagement in care are urgently needed to mitigate high healthcare utilization. PMID:24641495

  16. Optimism about breakthroughs in the age of targeted therapy: the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2014; Vancouver, British Columbia; February 7, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2014, held in Vancouver, British Columbia, was an opportunity for Canadian lung cancer researchers and treatment experts to meet and discuss current breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in the field. The full-day program featured lectures, discussion, and debates, with ample time for informal networking. We are already looking forward to next year’s meeting (scheduled for February 6, 2015), where we expect to discuss and reflect on some of the latest results and breakthroughs from both the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  17. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and sources of nitrate in lowland glacial aquifers of Whatcom County, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Stephen E.; Kahle, Sue C.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of domestic, municipal, and irrigation water supply throughout the Fraser-Whatcom Lowland, particularly for the 225-square mile agricultural area surrounding the Whatcom County communities of Lynden, Everson, Nooksack, and Sumas and the British Columbia communities of Abbotsford and Aldergrove. Population growth and developing ground-water-quality problems have increased the demand for additional sources of ground water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Whatcom County Planning Department, collected water-level, lithologic, and water-quality data from 608 wells during 1990-92 to complete a regional appraisal of the ground-water system.

  18. Opportunities and Barriers to Rural, Remote and First Nation Health Services Research in Canada: Comparing Access to Administrative Claims Data in Manitoba and British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sabrina; Katz, Alan; Sinclair, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Access to geographically disaggregated data is essential for the pursuit of meaningful rural, remote and First Nation health services research. This paper explores the opportunities and challenges associated with undertaking administrative claims data research in the context of two different models of administrative data management: the Manitoba and British Columbia models. We argue that two conditions must be in place to support rural, remote and First Nation health services research: (1) pathways to data access that reconcile the need to protect privacy with the imperative to conduct analyses on disaggregated data; and (2) a trust-based relationship with data providers. PMID:27585026

  19. First Canadian record of the water mite Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 (Arachnida: Acariformes: Hydrachnidiae: Thermacaridae) from hot springs in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Thermacarus nevadensis Marshall, 1928 is an uncommonly collected mite associated with hot spring environments in the western United States. Information on its distribution and ecology are incomplete. New information In this paper, we report Thermacarus nevadensis from northern British Columbia. These records represent the first of Thermacaridae from Canada, the most northern records of this species in North America, and the most northern records for the family globally. We also provide short notes and images of the habitats in which specimens have been collected in Canada. PMID:27660534

  20. Wide-angle seismic recordings from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS), western Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Parsons, Tom; Creager, Ken C.; Crosson, Robert S.; Symons, Neill P.; Spence, George D.; Zelt, Barry C.; Hammer, Philip T.C.; Hyndman, Roy D.; Mosher, David C.; Trehu, Anne M.; Miller, Kate C.; Brink, Uri S. ten; Fisher, Michael A.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Alvarez, Marcos G.; Beaudoin, Bruce C.; Louden, Keith E.; Weaver, Craig S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the acquisition and processing of deep-crustal wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction data obtained in the vicinity of Puget Lowland, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and Georgia Strait, western Washington and southwestern British Columbia, in March 1998 during the Seismic Hazards Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS). As part of a larger initiative to better understand lateral variations in crustal structure along the Cascadia margin, SHIPS participants acquired 1000 km of deep-crustal multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and 1300 km of wideangle airgun shot lines in this region using the R/V Thompson and R/V Tully. The Tully was used to record airgun shots fired by the Thompson in two different geometries: (1) expanding spread profiles (ESPs) and (2) constant offset profiles (COPs). Prior to this reflection survey, we deployed 257 Reftek and 15 ocean-bottom seismic recorders to record the airgun signals at far offsets. All data were recorded digitally on large-capacity hard disks. Although most of these stations only recorded the vertical component of motion, 95 of these seismographs recorded signals from an oriented 3-component seismometer. By recording signals generated by the Thompson's marine air gun array, operated in two differing geometries having a total volume of 110 and 79 liters (6730 and 4838 cu. in.), respectively, the arrays of wide-angle recorders were designed to (1) image the crustal structure, particularly in the vicinity of crustal faults and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, (2) determine the geometry of the Moho, and (3) image the subducting Gorda and Juan de Fuca plates. Nearly 33,300 air gun shots were recorded along several seismic lines. In this report, we illustrate the expanding spread profiles acquired using the Thompson and Tully, describe the land and ocean-bottom recording of the air gun signals, discuss the processing of the land recorder data into common receiver gathers, and illustrate the processed wide

  1. Wide-angle seismic recording from the 2002 Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative, northwestern Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Spence, George D.; Riedel, Michael; Hyndman, Roy D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the acquisition and processing of shallow-crustal wide-angle seismicreflection and refraction data obtained during a collaborative study in the Georgia Strait, western Washington and southwestern British Columbia. The study, the 2002 Georgia Strait Geohazards Initiative, was conducted in May 2002 by the Pacific Geoscience Centre, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Victoria. The wide-angle recordings were designed to image shallow crustal faults and Cenozoic sedimentary basins crossing the International Border in southern Georgia basin and to add to existing wide-angle recordings there made during the 1998 SHIPS experiment. We recorded, at wide-angle, 800 km of shallow penetration multichannel seismic-reflection profiles acquired by the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Tully using an air gun with a volume of 1.967 liters (120 cu. in.). Prior to this reflection survey, we deployed 48 Refteks onshore to record the airgun signals at wide offsets. Three components of an oriented, 4.5 Hz seismometer were digitally recorded at all stations. Nearly 160,300 individual air gun shots were recorded along 180 short seismic reflection lines. In this report, we illustrate the wide-angle profiles acquired using the CCGS Tully, describe the land recording of the air gun signals, and summarize the processing of the land recorder data into common-receiver gathers. We also describe the format and content of the archival tapes containing the SEGY-formated, common-receiver gathers for the Reftek data. Data quality is variable but the experiment provided useful data from 42 of the 48 stations deployed. Three-fourths of all stations yielded useful first-arrivals to source-receiver offsets beyond 10 km: the average maximum source-receiver offset for first arrivals was 17 km. Six stations yielded no useful data and useful firstarrivals were limited to offsets less than 10 km at five stations. We separately archived our recordings of 86 local and regional

  2. Ablation from calving and surface melt at lake-terminating Bridge Glacier, British Columbia, 1984-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernos, M.; Koppes, M.; Moore, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Bridge Glacier is a lake-calving glacier in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and has retreated over 3.55 km since 1972. The majority of this retreat has occurred since 1991. This retreat is substantially greater than what has been inferred from regional climate indices, suggesting that it has been driven primarily by calving as the glacier retreated across an overdeepened basin. In order to better understand the primary drivers of ablation, surface melt (below the equilibrium line altitude, ELA) and calving were quantified during the 2013 melt season using a distributed energy balance model (DEBM) and time-lapse imagery. Calving, estimated using areal change, velocity measurements, and assuming flotation were responsible for 23 % of the glacier's ablation below the ELA during the 2013 melt season and were limited by modest flow speeds and a small terminus cross-section. Calving and surface melt estimates from 1984 to 2013 suggest that calving was consistently a smaller contributor of ablation. Although calving was estimated to be responsible for up to 49 % of the glacier's ablation for individual seasons, averaged over multiple summers it accounted between 10 and 25 %. Calving was enhanced primarily by buoyancy and water depths, and fluxes were greatest between 2005 and 2010 as the glacier retreated over the deepest part of Bridge Lake. The recent rapid rate of calving is part of a transient stage in the glacier's retreat and is expected to diminish within 10 years as the terminus recedes into shallower water at the proximal end of the lake. These findings are in line with observations from other lake-calving glacier studies across the globe and suggest a common large-scale pattern in calving-induced retreat in lake-terminating alpine glaciers. Despite enhancing glacial retreat, calving remains a relatively small component of ablation and is expected to decrease in importance in the future. Hence, surface melt remains the primary driver of ablation at Bridge

  3. The impact of prenatal diagnosis on neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancy versus birth incidence in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Van Allen, Margot I; Boyle, Erin; Thiessen, Paul; McFadden, Deborah; Cochrane, Douglas; Chambers, G Keith; Langlois, Sylvie; Stathers, Patricia; Irwin, Beverly; Cairns, Elizabeth; MacLeod, Patrick; Delisle, Marie-France; Uh, Soo-Hong

    2006-01-01

    The birth incidence of neural tube defect (NTD) cases in British Columbia (B.C.), and elsewhere in North America, is reported to be declining. This decline is being attributed to folic acid (FA) supplementation and food fortification, but 2nd trimester prenatal screening of pregnancies for NTDs and other congenital anomalies has increased during this timeframe, as well. This descriptive, population-based study evaluates the impact of prenatal screening of NTD-affected pregnancies on (1) pregnancy outcome and (2) reporting of NTD births to the provincial Health Status Registry (B.C.H.S.R.); and it assesses (3) the use of periconceptional FA supplementation. NTD cases were ascertained from medical records of health centres providing care to families with NTD-affected pregnancies and newborns; and from NTD cases reported to the B.C.H.S.R. In 1997-1999, the B.C.H.S.R. published a NTD incidence of 0.77/1000. In this study, 151 NTD-affected pregnancies were identified, with an incidence of 1.16/1000. Partial Reporting of induced abortions in a NTD incidence 45.5% low than the actual incidence. Medical records were available for review on 144/151 pregnancies. Prenatal screening identified 86.1% (124/144) of NTD-affected pregnancies, with 72.6% (90/124) resulting in pregnancy termination, and 27.4% (34/124) continuing to term. Use of FA supplementation in the periconceptional period was recorded in 36.4% of pregnancies (39/107). Thus in B.C. the decline in the NTD incidence is due predominantly to pregnancy terminations following prenatal diagnosis, which reduces the NTD incidence by 60%, from 1.16/1000 to 0.47/1000. Continued efforts for primary and the option of secondary prevention of NTDs are recommended in order to improve newborn health in B.C. and elsewhere. These interventions need to be monitored, however, for optimal health care planning.

  4. Origin of gem corundum in calcite marble: The Revelstoke occurrence in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikowski, Tashia J.; Cempírek, Jan; Groat, Lee A.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Giuliani, Gaston

    2014-06-01

    The calcite marble-hosted gem corundum (ruby, sapphire) occurrence near Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, occurs in the Monashee Complex of the Omineca Belt of the Canadian Cordillera. Corundum occurs in thin, folded and stretched layers with green muscovite + Ba-bearing K-feldspar + anorthite (An0.85-1) ± phlogopite ± Na-poor scapolite. Other silicate layers within the marble are composed of: (1) diopside + tremolite ± quartz and (2) garnet (Alm0.7-0.5Grs0.2-0.4) + Na-rich scapolite + diopside + tremolite + Na,K-amphiboles. Non-silicate layers in the marble are either magnetite- or graphite-bearing. Predominantly pink (locally red or purple) opaque to transparent corundum crystals have elevated Cr2O3 (≤ 0.21 wt.%) and variable amounts of TiO2; rare blue rims on the corundum crystals contain higher amounts of TiO2 (≤ 0.53 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (≤ 0.07 wt.%). The associated micas have elevated Cr, V, Ti, and Ba contents. Petrography of the silicate layers show that corundum formed from muscovite at the peak of metamorphism (~ 650-700 °C at 8.5-9 kbar). Because the marble is almost pure calcite (dolomite is very rare), the corundum was preserved because it did not react with dolomite to spinel + calcite during decompression. The scapolite-bearing assemblages formed during or after decompression of the rock at ~ 650 °C and 4-6 kbar. Gem-quality corundum crystals formed especially on borders of the mica-feldspar layers in an assemblage with calcite. Whole rock geochemistry data show that the corundum-bearing silicate (mica-feldspar) layers formed by mechanical mixing of carbonate with the host gneiss protolith; the bulk composition of the silicate layers was modified by Si and Fe depletion during prograde metamorphism. High element mobility is supported by the homogenization of δ18O and δ13C values in carbonates and silicates for the marble and silicate layers. The silicate layers and the gneiss contain elevated contents of Cr and V due to the volcanoclastic

  5. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of sulfur and iron in coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M Jim; Dynes, James J; Hu, Yongfeng; Biswas, Ashis; Lee Barbour, S; Day, S

    2017-02-12

    Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO4(2-) and associated trace elements on receiving waters. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic analysis of coal waste rock samples from the Elk Valley, British Columbia showed Fe present as pyrite (mean 6.0%), siderite (mean 44.3%), goethite (mean 35.4%), and lepidocrocite (mean 14.3%) with S present as sulfide (mean 26.9%), organic S (mean 58.7%), and SO4(2-) (mean 14.4%). Squeezed porewater samples from dump solids yielded mean concentrations of 0.28mg/L Fe and 1246mg/L SO4(2-). Geochemical modeling showed the porewaters in the dumps to be supersaturated with respect to Fe oxyhydroxides and undersaturated with respect to gypsum, consistent with solids analyses. Coupling Fe and S mineralogical data with long-term water quality and quantity measurements from the base of one dump suggest about 10% of the sulfides (which represent 2% of total S) in the dump were oxidized over the past 30years. The S from these oxidized sulfides was released to the receiving surface water as SO4(2-) and the majority of the Fe precipitated as secondary Fe oxyhydroxides (only 3.0×10(-5)% of the Fe was released to the receiving waters over the past 30years). Although the data suggest that the leaching of SO4(2-) from the waste rock dump could continue for about 300years

  6. Chronically ill Canadians’ experiences of being unattached to a family doctor: a qualitative study of marginalized patients in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unattached patients do not have a regular primary care provider. Initiatives are being developed to increase attachment rates across Canada. Most existing attention paid to patient unattachment has focused on quantifying the problem and health system costs. Our purpose is to qualitatively identify the implications of chronically ill patients’ experiences of unattachment for health policy and planning to provide policy-relevant insights for Canadian attachment initiatives. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with marginalized chronically ill individuals residing in a mid-sized city in British Columbia who are unattached to a family doctor. We use the term marginalized as a descriptor to acknowledge that by virtue of their low socio-economic status and lack of attachment the participants are marginalized in Canada’s health care system Focus groups were structured as an open conversation organized around a series of probing questions. They were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed. Results Twenty-six individuals participated in the focus groups. The most common chronic illnesses reported were active drug addiction or recovery (and their associated symptoms), depression, arthritis, and hepatitis C. Participants identified life transitions as being the root cause for not having a family doctor. There was a strong sense that unsuccessful attempts to get a family doctor reflected that they were undesirable patients. Participants wanted to experience having a trusting relationship with a regular family doctor as they believed it would encourage greater honesty and transparency. One of the main health concerns regarding lack of access to a regular family doctor is that participants lacked access to preventative care. Participants were also concerned about having a discontinuous medical record due to unattachment. Conclusions Participants perceived that there are many benefits to be had by having attachment to a

  7. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David

    2016-04-01

    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  8. Dyke Swarms in Southeastern British Columbia: Mineralogical and Geochemical Evidence for Emplacement of Multiple Magma Types During Orogenic Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, M.; Owen, J. P.; Hoskin, P. W.

    2009-05-01

    Eocene dyke swarms in southeastern British Columbia provide an important record of the tectonic and magmatic history of the Cordillera following orogenic collapse. New field mapping, petrographic, and geochemical data is presented for a swarm of more than thirty dykes located near the mining town of Trail, B.C. Detailed field mapping revealed that individual dykes are highly diverse, both in composition and morphology. As a group, the dykes trend northwest (average strike of 338 degrees) and dip steeply to the southwest. Their average thickness is approximately 1.5m, with a range from 4.5m to less than 1cm. Three sub-parallel dykes were mapped for a length of 2km, and exhibit irregularities in their form such as branching and offshoots that follow fractures in the country rock. Thin-section analysis shows a wide variety of rock types within the swarm, including: micro-quartz syenite, micro-syenite, micro-monzonite, latite, basalt, basaltic andesite, and lamprophyre. Texturally, these samples are consistently porphyritic and partially altered to chlorite and sericite. This alteration commonly occurs in concentric rims around phenocrysts. The samples are typically intergranular, although some display trachytic texture. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the dykes have a wide range in composition, with SiO2 between 76.45 wt.% and 45.15 wt.% and MgO between 0.13 wt.% and 13.16 wt.%. The results also revealed that one dyke has very high values of Ni (430 ppm), Cr (1420 ppm), and Co (50 ppm), giving it a fairly primitive composition. Harker diagrams and trace element plots show three distinct groups: mafic calc-alkaline dykes, felsic calc- alkaline dykes, and minette lamprophyres. The felsic dykes are characterized by negative Eu and Sr anomalies suggesting fractionation of plagioclase feldspar, as well as pronounced negative P and Ti anomalies. The minettes are enriched in LILE and depleted in HSFE relative to the mafic dykes. The three groups do not appear to be

  9. Stratigraphic evolution of a long-lived submarine channel system in the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Heather A.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Submarine canyons and slope channel systems are important conveyers of sediment from uplifted catchments to oceanic sedimentary sinks. Long-lived conduits can be established through deep incision of submarine canyons, with bathymetric relief of hundreds of meters to greater than a kilometer in many instances. Alternatively, a combination of erosion of the continental slope and aggradation of levees can yield a broadly comparable stratigraphic product through evolution of channels with more subdued bathymetric relief. Despite differences in formative geomorphic elements on the paleo-seafloor, differentiating the stratigraphic architecture amongst these systems is challenging, particularly in outcrop datasets. Accurate stratigraphic interpretation has significant implications for understanding the frequency and magnitude of controlling processes such as mountain building and denudation or eustatic sea-level fluctuations. In this study, deep-water channel strata of the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group are examined at Hornby and Denman islands, British Columbia, Canada. Evidence for a long-lived submarine conduit records the history of sediment transfer at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The composite submarine channel system deposit is 19.5 km wide and 1500 m thick, which formed and filled over ~ 15 Ma. Facies scale analyses highlight conglomeratic channel fill juxtaposed against thin-bedded out-of-channel deposits. Erosional surfaces are commonly mantled by mass-transport deposits, which provide evidence for conduit wall reworking and maintenance. At a larger scale, a series of composite, conglomerate-prone channelform bodies are observed to stratigraphically stack in two distinct phases: (1) early persistence of laterally offset (migrated) channels; and (2) later vertically aligned and aggraded channels. This stratigraphic trend is comparable to composite, multi-phase degradational-aggradational submarine channel complexes observed globally. As such, we consider

  10. Deep Seismic Reflection Constraints on Paleogene Crustal Extension in the South-Central Intermontane Belt of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. J.; Talinga, D.

    2013-12-01

    Following growth of the Canadian Cordillera during the Mesozoic, the southern Cordillera was subject to extension during the Paleocene and Eocene that correlated with widespread volcanic activity in south-central British Columbia, including across the Nechako-Chilcotin plateau, which forms part of the Intermontane belt. In 2008, 330 km of deep vibroseis reflection profiles were acquired by Geoscience BC over the plateau, which includes the Stikinia arc and oceanic Cache Creek terranes. The objectives of the survey was to characterize the overall crustal structure and the distribution of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, which are of interest for hydrocarbon exploration, beneath the surface cover of volcanic rocks and glacial deposits. Near-surface lithologies were also constrained to depths of 1-4 km using P wave velocity models derived by first arrival tomography using source-receiver offsets up to 14 km. All seven reflection lines reveal a strongly reflective lower crust that extends from 7-9 s down to the Moho, which is defined by the downward termination of reflectivity at 11-12 s. In the uppermost crust, extension occurred by block faulting with faults soling into sub-horizontal to shallowly dipping detachments above 10 km depth. Extension in the deeper upper and middle crust, which was partly controlled by antiforms likely related to earlier shortening, was accommodated on a network of anastomosing shear zones that sole out into the top of the reflective lower crust. The lower crustal reflections correlate with seismic P wave velocities of 6.6-6.8 km/s, indicating that the reflective lower crust has a more mafic composition than the middle crust. As in other areas of continental extension, we suggest that this pervasive fabric of reflectors arises from the intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into zones of ductile shearing, and that differentiation of these melts resulted in the widespread Paleocene to Eocene volcanism. Our seismic observations are

  11. Ethnic variation in the annual rates of adult inflammatory bowel disease in hospitalized patients in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Mangat, Birinder K; Evaschesen, Chad; Lee, Tim; Yoshida, Eric M; Salh, Baljinder

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is currently little available information regarding the impact of ethnicity on the clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Migrating populations and changing demographics in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of ethnicity in the prevalence, expression and complications of IBD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographics of IBD and its subtypes leading to hospitalization in the adult population of BC. METHODS: A one-year retrospective study was performed for all patients who presented acutely with IBD to Vancouver General Hospital from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006. Data regarding sex, age, ethnicity, IBD type and extent of disease, complications and management strategies were collected. Clinical data were confirmed by pathology and radiology reports. RESULTS: There were 186 cases of IBD comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) 56%, ulcerative colitis (UC) 43% and indeterminate colitis (1%) 1%. The annual rate of IBD cases warranting hospitalization in Caucasians was 12.9 per 100,000 persons (7.9 per 100,000 persons for CD and 5.0 per 100,000 persons for UC). This was in contrast to the annual rate of IBD in South Asians at 7.7 per 100,000 persons (1.0 per 100,000 persons for CD and 6.8 per 100,000 persons for UC) and in Pacific Asians at 2.1 per 100,000 persons (1.3 per 100,000 persons for CD, 0.8 per 100,000 persons for UC). The male to female ratio was higher in South Asians and Pacific Asians than in Caucasians. The extent of disease was significantly different across racial groups, as was the rate of complications. CONCLUSIONS: These early results suggest that there are ethnic disparities in the annual rates of IBD warranting hospitalization in the adult population of BC. There was a significantly higher rate of CD in the Caucasian population than in South Asian and Pacific Asian populations. The South Asian population had a higher rate of UC, with an increased rate of complications

  12. Channel and landscape dynamics in the alluvial forest mosaic of the Carmanah River valley, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Patrick J.; Richardson, John S.; Alila, Younes

    2013-11-01

    The highly diverse shifting-mosaic of forest patches of an alluvial forest within the Carmanah River valley on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia was studied to examine the hydrogeomorphic disturbance regime that structures it. We used a landscape-scale analysis to quantify historical channel migrations and changes in the extent of specific forest types. This GIS-based analysis using a 70-year aerial photographic record was complemented by field-based research. Thirty-eight plots containing 4509 trees were sampled for forest structure, age, and elevation above the contemporary channel. These data, including a vegetation chronosequence spanning over 500 years, were used to examine channel and landscape dynamics. Our findings support a general conceptual model that describes cycles of patch development and destruction in unconfined alluvial forests of the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. Over the past century, Carmanah River has eroded nearly 30% of the alluvial forest in this study area, and approximately 65% over the past 500 years. At least 80% of the 2007 channel was forested area within the past 70 years. Younger landforms were disturbed more frequently than mature forest patches, which suggest that as biogeomorphic succession progresses the likelihood of future disturbance decreases. Estimated half lives of landforms ranged from 24 years for pioneer bars to over 1500 years for old growth terraces. Years of regional high magnitude floods resulted in a net loss of floodplain forest area indicating that disturbance was climate driven in this pluvial watershed, whereby rain events result in flood disturbance that converted forests to channel. These events initiate a subsequent course of vegetation succession and geomorphic development, and often result in the deposition of large wood that modifies the channel environment and contributes to channel avulsion and further hydrogeomorphic disturbance. The composition of the landscape is a reflection of the

  13. The impact of mountaintop mining with valley fills on runoff timing and pathways, Elk Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) has been a major contributor to the global increase in surface mining over the last 30 years. It is especially widespread throughout central Appalachia and the Elk Valley, British Columbia. This form of mining operation strips upper elevations of vegetation and soil, explosives are used to break up rocks to access buried coal, and waste-rock (spoil) is pushed into adjacent valleys where it buries existing streams. While considerable research on downstream water quality impacts has been conducted, there is limited information on the changes in physical hydrology and predominant runoff pathways in catchments affected by MTM/VF. As part of a larger program assessing elevated levels of Se in the Elk Valley, this study documents the impact of coal spoils on runoff response and flow pathways using two adjacent catchments, each approximately 10 km2 in size. One catchment has 180 x109 m3 of spoil covering about 40% of its surface area (West Line Creek - WLC), while the other is devoid of any spoil cover (Dry Creek - DC). Each of these watersheds has had hydrometric stations operating since 2011, where concurrent measurements of specific conductance are conducted at 15-minute intervals. Stable isotopes of 2H and 18O were collected using a series of precipitation gauges as of May 2012. In addition, stable isotopes, major ions and DOC have been monitored at the outlet daily over the same time period, with higher recording frequencies during precipitation events. Preliminary results indicate that flows in WLC are less flashy with more gradual hydrograph responses and recessions than DC due to the large storage capacity of spoils. However, there is little impact of spoils on overall discharge volumes on a seasonal or annual basis. Two-component hydrograph separation using stable isotopes suggests that greater portions of stream water are derived from 'old water' in the spoil-affected catchment. More notably, coal spoils have a major

  14. Aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and flatfish health in the Kitimat marine ecosystem, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lyndal L; Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Mark S; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Buzitis, Jon; Collier, Tracy K

    2015-04-15

    From 2000-2004 a monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the health of fish in the marine waters of Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada. These waters are part of the historical fishing grounds of the Haisla First Nation, and since the 1950s the Alcan Primary Metal Company has operated an aluminum smelter at the head of the Kitimat Arm embayment. As a result, adjacent marine and estuarine sediments have been severely contaminated with a mixture of smelter-associated PAHs in the range of 10,000-100,000 ng/g dry wt. These concentrations are above those shown to cause adverse effects in fish exposed to PAHs in urban estuaries, but it was uncertain whether comparable effects would be seen at the Kitimat site due to limited bioavailability of smelter-derived PAHs. Over the 5-year study we conducted biennial collections of adult English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and sediment samples at the corresponding capture sites. Various tissue samples (e.g. liver, kidney, gonad, stomach contents) and bile were taken from each animal to determine levels of exposure and biological effects, and compare the uptake and toxicity of smelter-derived PAHs with urban mixtures of PAHs. Results showed significant intersite differences in concentrations of PAHs. Sole collected at sites nearest the smelter showed increased PAH exposure, as well as significantly higher prevalences of PAH-associated liver disease, compared to sites within Kitimat Arm that were more distant from the smelter. However, measures of PAH exposure (e.g., bile metabolites) were surprisingly high in sole from the reference sites outside of Kitimat Arm, though sediment and dietary PAHs at these sites were low, and fish from the areas showed no biological injury. PAH uptake, exposure, and biological effects in Kitimat English sole were relatively lower when compared to English sole collected from urban sites contaminated with PAH mixtures from

  15. Recreational anglers' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to catch-and-release practices of Pacific salmon in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Rudd, Murray A; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-10-15

    The fate of captured and released fish in recreational fisheries depends in large part on fisher handling and behavior. As such, there is a need for promoting adoption of responsible fishing practices. We interviewed recreational sockeye salmon anglers in the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, to assess their awareness of responsible fishing practices and identify gaps where improved education could promote conservation-oriented behaviors. Based on our interview data, we developed three latent class models of salmon angler typologies based on: 1) anglers' fishing behaviors and preferences, 2) anglers' perceived risks to salmon survival due to post-capture live release, and 3) anglers' level of support for education programs. In the first model, we identified salmon-only anglers (33% of sample), lake-species specialists (46%), and all-around anglers (21%). These classes were differentiated primarily by non-salmon fishing activities (e.g., other target species). In the second model, we found four classes of anglers who differed with regards to key factors they thought affected post-release survival: air exposure (39% of sample); water temperature (24%); hook location (22%); and revival effort (15%). In the third model, we found anglers were either supporters (73%) or non-supporters (27%) of angler education programs. Heterogeneity existed among anglers but we found no correlations in angler classes across models, nor any significant demographic or experiential predictors of class membership. Respondents generally had high awareness and application of catch-and-release best practices, with lake-species specialists rating a higher awareness and usage of recommended catch-and-release technique, and were significantly more likely to cut the line on deeply hooked fish than other groups. Our findings provide resource managers with important insight into the attitudes and behaviors of sockeye salmon anglers in the important lower Fraser River recreational fishery. Our

  16. 10-year Field Measurement Program of Post-Wildfire Tree Root Decay, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Kroeker, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tree population dynamics in subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies are dominated by wildfire disturbance (Gallaway et al., 2009), with wildfire return intervals most often being shorter than the potential lifespan of trees. These crown wildfires kill all trees, resulting in a gradual decline of tree root strength in shallow soils in the immediate post-wildfire years. Tree root networks have been shown to provide mechanical reinforcement of shear strength in shallow soils (Schmidt et al., 2001; Roering et al., 2003). Therefore, decreases in tree root reinforcement in post-wildfire years may result in increased debris slide and debris flow activity during this time period (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007; Jackson and Roering, 2009). To our knowledge, our study is the first that has measured tree root strength annually for 10 years following a crown wildfire to document the nature and timing of tree root decay. Suggestions have been made that studies documenting the decay of tree roots following timber harvesting provide a reasonable analogue for post-wildfire tree root decay; drainage basin modeling studies considering hillslope erosion resulting from episodic wildfires have had to rely on this assumption (e.g., Benda and Dunne, 1997; Martin, 2007). Herein, we present our annual field measurements of post-wildfire tree root strength made over the past 10 years at a post-wildfire site in Kootenay National Park, Canadian Rockies. The episodic nature of crown wildfire occurrence over time in these forests results in periods of tree root decay in the immediate post-fire years, and an associated susceptibility for mass wasting during these time periods. In July 2003, two large crown fires were ignited by lightning in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada and merged to burn approximately 17 000 hectares. Our field measurements were made in the subalpine forest of Hawk Creek drainage basin, Kootenay National Park. Measurements of tree root

  17. Canadian Medical Education Journal Survey evaluations of University of British Columbia residents’ education and attitudes regarding palliative care and physician assisted death

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, David; Paul, Sonia; Tang, Tom; Chen, Charlie; Chase, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Little prior research has been conducted regarding resident physicians’ opinions on the subject of Physician Assisted Death (PAD), despite past surveys ascertaining the attitudes of practicing physicians towards PAD in Canada. We solicited British Columbia residents’ opinions on the amount of education they receive about palliative care and physician assisted death, and their attitudes towards the implementation of PAD. Methods We conducted a cross sectional, anonymous online survey with the resident physicians of British Columbia, Canada. Questions included: close-ended questions, graded Likert scale questions, and comments. Results Among the respondents (n=299, response rate 24%), 44% received ≥5 hours of education in palliative care, 40% received between zero and four hours of education, and 16% reported zero hours. Of all respondents, 75% had received no education about PAD and the majority agreed that there should be more education about palliative care (74%) and PAD (85%). Only 35% of residents felt their program provided them with enough education to make an informed decision about PAD, yet 59% would provide a consenting patient with PAD. Half of the respondents believed PAD would ultimately be provided by palliative care physicians. Interpretation Residents desire further education about palliative care and PAD. Training programs should consider conducting a thorough needs assessment and implementing structured education to meet this need. PMID:28344712

  18. Paleogeography and conodont biostratigraphy of Devonian carbonate rocks of the Whitefish MacDonald Range, NW Montana and SE British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, W.P.; Bush, J.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Five remote Upper Devonian carbonate sections measured within the Rocky Mountain fold and thrust belt of the Whitefish Range, northwestern Montana and contiguous MacDonald Range, southeastern British Columbia are bounded unconformably at the base by Middle Cambrian carbonate rocks and unconformably at the top by the Devonian-Mississippian Exshaw Formation. Conodont zonation provides an age of late Frasnian to middle Famennian. Standard pelagic conodont zones represented are Polygnathus asymmetricus, Ancyrognathus triangularis, Palmatolepis gigas, Pa. triangularis, Pa. crepida, P. rhomboidea, and lower Pa. marginifera zones. Strata are equivalent in age to the Jefferson and Three Forks formations in central Montana, the Jefferson Formation in east central Idaho, carbonate units of Limestone Hill in eastern Washington, the Devils Gate Limestone and pilot Shale in eastern Nevada, and the Fairholme Group, Alexo, and Palliser formations in British Columbia. Devonian carbonate lithologies examined in this study are dominantly subtidal and intertidal lime mudstone, wackestone, and bindstone interpreted to have been deposited above storm wave base on a wide carbonate platform, during the early, less dramatic movements of the Antler orogeny. This research will provide a data point that will fill a significant void in Devonian paleogeographic information in the northern United States and Southern Canadian cordillera.

  19. "A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People": The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,1896-1942.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past.

  20. Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the British Columbia cryptococcosis outbreak induce less protective inflammation in a murine model of infection than Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Yan; Sham, Anita; Kronstad, James W

    2009-10-01

    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes approximately one million cases of cryptococcosis per year in people with AIDS. In contrast, the related species C. gattii is responsible for a much smaller number of cases, but these often occur in immunocompetent people. In fact, C. gattii has emerged in the last decade as the frequent cause of cryptococcosis in otherwise healthy people in British Columbia. We analyzed the immune responses elicited by three C. gattii strains and one C. neoformans strain in mice as a first step toward understanding why C. gattii is able to cause disease in immunocompetent hosts. The C. gattii strains all induced a less protective inflammatory response in C57BL/6 mice by inhibiting or failing to provoke the migration of neutrophils to sites of infection. The C. gattii strains also failed to elicit the production of protective cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, compared to the ability of the C. neoformans strain. Despite these differences, the strain representing the major outbreak genotype from British Columbia showed a virulence equivalent to that of the C. neoformans strain, while two other C. gattii strains had reduced virulence. Taken together, our results indicate that C. gattii strains thrive in immunocompetent hosts by evading or suppressing the protective immune responses that normally limit the progression of disease caused by C. neoformans.

  1. Predicting tuberculosis risk in the foreign-born population of British Columbia, Canada: study protocol for a retrospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Lisa A; Campbell, Jonathon R; Balshaw, Robert F; Roth, David Z; Romanowski, Kamila; Marra, Fawziah; Cook, Victoria J; Johnston, James C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. Methods and analysis This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period. Multiple administrative databases and disease registries will be linked, including a National Immigration Database, BC Provincial Health Insurance Registration, physician billings, hospitalisations, drugs dispensed from community pharmacies, vital statistics, HIV testing and notifications, cancer, chronic kidney disease and dialysis treatment, and all TB and LTBI testing and treatment data in BC. Extended proportional hazards regression will be used to estimate risk factors for TB and to create a prognostic TB risk score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the University of British Columbia Clinical Ethics Review Board. Once completed, study findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. An online TB risk score calculator will also be created. PMID:27888179

  2. Discussion: “Streamlined erosional residuals and drumlins in central British Columbia, Canada” by J. Donald McClenagan, (2013) Geomorphology 189, 41-54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Andrew J.; Ferbey, Travis; Plouffe, Alain; Clague, John J.; Ward, Brent C.; Paulen, Roger C.; Bush, Andrew B. G.

    2014-03-01

    McClenagan (2013) presents a model to explain streamlined erosional residuals or drumlins on uplands and lowlands in the plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada. In this discussion paper, we note that McClenagan (2013) has not adequately discussed previous relevant work in the region, and we argue that additional analyses and evidence are required to substantiate this new model. The hypothesis offered for the origin of the plateau landscape, specifically catastrophic glaciofluvial activity, differs significantly from a model based on glacial erosion and deformation that has been developed from field-based research over the past six decades. We discuss four critical points relating to the proposed model: (1) the current geological model for the plateau region of central British Columbia; (2) theory of glacial dispersal; (3) existing hypotheses for the formation of drumlins and other glacial landforms; and (4) theoretical glacial erosion modeling. We further suggest that the model cannot be substantiated without sedimentological or morphological field evidence for water bodies argued to be the source of the proposed megaflood or megafloods.

  3. Cohort profile: Seek and treat for the optimal prevention of HIV/AIDS in British Columbia (STOP HIV/AIDS BC).

    PubMed

    Heath, Kate; Samji, Hasina; Nosyk, Bohdan; Colley, Guillaume; Gilbert, Mark; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio Sg

    2014-08-01

    The Seek and Treat for Optimal Prevention of HIV/AIDS (STOP HIV/AIDS) cohort is a census of all identified HIV-positive individuals in the province of British Columbia. It was formed through the linkage of nine provincial treatment, surveillance and administrative databases. This open cohort allows for bidirectional analyses from 1996 onward and is refreshed annually. Extensive data collection for cohort members includes demographic information, detailed clinical and laboratory data, complete prescription drug use including antiretroviral agents, and information on health service utilization encompassing inpatient and outpatient care, addictions treatment and palliative care. This cohort provides an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate, over an extended time period, patterns and determinants of key outcomes including engagement in the cascade of HIV care from diagnosis to treatment to viral suppression as well as monitoring trends in medical costs, health outcomes and other key healthcare delivery indicators at a population level with wide-ranging, high-quality data. The overall purpose of these activities is to enable the development and implementation of strategically targeted interventions to improve access to testing, care and treatment for all HIV-positive individuals living in British Columbia.

  4. Hepatitis A outbreak in British Columbia, Canada: the roles of established surveillance, consumer loyalty cards and collaboration, February to May 2012.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, H M; Kuo, M; Embree, G; Andonov, A; Henry, B; Buxton, J A

    2014-05-08

    Non-travel-related hepatitis A is rare in Canada. We describe a hepatitis A outbreak investigation in British Columbia in February to May 2012 in which exposure history was collected from nine confirmed non-travel-related cases. Suspected foods were tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV): a frozen fruit blend was identified as a common exposure for six of the nine cases using supermarket loyalty cards. Consumption of the product was confirmed in each case. Genetic analysis confirmed HAV genotype 1B in the six exposed cases. Of the three non-exposed cases, the virus could not be genotyped for two of them; the virus from the other case was found to be genotype 1A and this case was therefore not considered part of the outbreak. HAV was detected by PCR from pomegranate seeds, a component of the identified frozen fruit blend. Historically low levels of HAV infection in British Columbia triggered early recognition of the outbreak. Loyalty card histories facilitated product identification and a trace-back investigation implicated imported pomegranate seeds.

  5. Comparison of morphology of active cyclic steps created by turbidity currents on Squamish Delta, British Columbia, Canada with flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, Miwa; Yamamoto, Shinya; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Hughes Clarke, John E.; Izumi, Norihiro

    2015-04-01

    Upper-flow-regime bedforms, such as cyclic steps and antidunes, have been reported to be formed by turbidity currents. Their formative conditions are, however, not fully understood because of the difficulty of field surveys in the deep sea. Field observations of turbidity currents and seabed topography on the Squamish delta in Howe Sound, British Columbia, Canada have been undertaken which found bedwaves actively migrating in the upstream direction in channels formed on the prodelta slope. Their topography and behavior suggest that they are cyclic steps formed by turbidity currents. Because Squamish delta is as shallow as around 150 m, and easy to access compared with general submarine canyons, it is thought to be one of the best places for studying characteristics of cyclic steps formed by turbidity currents through field observations. In this study, we have analyzed configurations of cyclic steps with the use of data obtained in the field observation of 2011, and compare them with the data from the flume experiments. On the prodelta slope, three major active channels are clearly developed. In addition to the sonar survey, a 600 kHz ADCP was installed in 150m of water just seaward of the termination of the North Channel. In addition, 1200kHz ADCP and 500kHz M3s are suspended from the research vessel in 60 m of water and 300 m distance from the delta edge. We selected images showing large daily differences. The steps move vigorously at the upper 600m parts of the prodelta slope, so that we measured the steps in this area. From the profiles perpendicular to the bedwave crest lines through the center of channels, wavelength and wave height for each step, mean slope were measured on the software for quantitative image analyses manually. Wave steepness for each step was calculated using the wavelength and wave height measured as above. The mean slope ranges from 6.8° ~ 2.7° (more proximal, steeper), mean wavelength and wave heights of steps range from 24.5 to 87.6m

  6. The seismic stratigraphy of Okanagan Lake, British Columbia; a record of rapid deglaciation in a deep 'fiord-lake' basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nicholas; Mullins, Henry T.; Hine, Albert C.

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents the first detailed data regarding the newly discovered deep infill of Okanagan Lake. Okanagan Lake (50°00'N, 119°30'W) is 120 km long, ˜ 3-5 km wide and occupies a glacially overdeepened bedrock basin in the southern interior of British Columbia. This basin, and other elongate lakes of the region (e.g. Shuswap, Kootenay, Kalamalka, Canim and Mahood lakes), mark the site of westward flowing ice streams within successive Cordilleran ice sheets. An air gun seismic survey of Okanagan Lake shows that the bedrock floor is nearly 650 m below sea-level, more than 2000 m below the rim of the surrounding plateau. The maximum thickness of Pleistocene sediment in Okanagan Lake basin approaches 800 m. Forty-six seismic reflection traverses and an axial profile show a relatively simple stratigraphy composed of three seismic sequences argued to be no older than the last glacial cycle (< 30 ka). A discontinuous basal unit (sequence I) characterized by large-scale diffractions, and up to 460 m thick, infills the narrow, V-shaped bedrock floor of the basin and is interpreted as a boulder gravel deposited by subglacial meltwaters. Overlying seismic sequence II is composed of two sub-sequences. Sub-sequence IIa is a chaotic to massive facies up to 736 m thick. Lakeshore exposures close to where this unit reaches lake level show deformed and chaotically-bedded glaciolacustrine silts containing gravel lens and large ice-rafted boulders. The surface topography of this sub-sequence is irregular and in general mimics the form of the underlying bedrock as a result of compaction. This sequence passes laterally into stratified facies (sub-sequence IIb) at the northern end of the basin. Seismic sequence II appears to record rapid ice-proximal dumping of glaciolacustrine silt as the Okanagan glacier backwasted upvalley in a deep lake. A thin (60 m max.) laminated seismic sequence (III) drapes the hummocky surface of sequence II and represents postglacial sedimentation

  7. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  8. Locating hidden channels for placer gold exploration in the Cariboo District, British Columbia, Canada: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef; Bastian, Dennis; Ebel, Norbert; Schwarz, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    During the past 150 years, most of the modern day creeks were the target of miners roaming the Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia, in the search for placer gold. In these days, the probability to locate new placer gold occurrence in recent river beds is therefore substantially reduced. New, promising exploration targets appear to be channels mostly buried under alluvial cover sediments. It is airborne geophysical methods that can reveal hidden channels fast and cost-effectively as these penetrate the sub-surface contactless and reflect physical properties of the sub-surface, such as electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility or magnetization, respectively. We applied the airborne geophysical exploration approach on four exploration areas in the Cariboo gold district. Helicopter-borne transient electromagnetic (TEM) and magnetic data were flown using the SkyTEM system. To our knowledge, it has been innovatory to apply high resolution, high density airborne geophysics in the search for placer gold deposited in pre-Holocene sedimentary channel fills of the Cariboo Mountains. A particular effort of our studies aimed at the Mary creek claims which straddle the boundary of the Quesnel and Kootenay terranes of the Canadian Cordillera and include the dormant Toop mine situated in the Mary creek area known for many finds of coarse nugget from the pre-glacial buried Toop channel. Our objective was to locate the southbound extension of the channel buried in Pleistocene sediments of the Toop plateau. Careful analysis of the airborne geophysical data sets provided indications from both the TEM and magnetic data sets favouring the existence of a hidden channel beneath the plateau. The evaluation of seven reverse circulation (RC) drill holes sunk into a promising elongated narrow conductor beneath the plateau was not conclusive as not clearly showing the sedimentary pattern of a channel with gravels typically at its bottom. Only electric conductivity-depth sections

  9. Paragenesis and chemistry of multistage tourmaline formation in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed petrographic study, scanning electron microscope imaging, and electron microprobe analyses of tourmalines from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag massive sulfide deposit (British Columbia, Canada) document multiple paragenetic stages and large compositional variations. The tourmalines mainly belong to two common solid-solution series: dravite-schorl and dravite-uvite. Ca- and Fe-rich feruvite and alkali-deficient tourmalines are present locally. Products of tourmaline-forming stages include (from oldest to youngest): (1) rare Fe-rich dravite-schorl within black tourmalinite clasts in footwall fragmental rocks; (2) widespread Mg-rich, very fine grained, felted dravite in the footwall (the main type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe); (3) recrystallized, Fe-rich dravite-schorl (locally Ca-Fe feruvite) in the tourmalinite pipe, which preferentially occurs near postore gabbroic intrusions; (4) Mg-rich dravite or uvite associated with chlorite-pyrrhotite and chlorite-albite-pyrite-altered rocks in the shallow footwall and hanging wall; (5) discrete Mg-rich tourmaline grains associated with chlorite and discordant Mg-rich tourmaline rims which occur on disseminated Fe-rich schorl in the bedded Pb-Zn-Ag ores. The timing of rare Fe-rich schorl in the bedded ores is uncertain, but it most likely occurred during or between stages 2 and 3. The different paragenetic stages and their respective tourmaline compositions are interpreted in terms of a multistage evolution involving contributions from: (1) variable mixtures of synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids and entrained seawater; (2) postore, Fe-rich, gabbro-related hydrothermal fluids; and (3) postore metamorphic reactions. Early synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids which contained little or no entrained seawater formed Fe-rich black tourmalinite clasts locally in the footwall. The major type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe is Mg rich, recording seawater entrainment under high water

  10. Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural History and Population Trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara S.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management. Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western

  11. Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2010 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (34th, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, May 21-25, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Allan, Darien, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims…

  12. Continuing Education and Cultural Activities of the University of British Columbia, 1985-1986. A Report to the President, the Senate, and the Board of Governors, September 1, 1985-August 31, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    Noncredit continuing education activities of the University of British Columbia are reported for 1985-1986. For various faculties, schools, and departments, information is provided on objectives of the sponsoring unit, progress toward achieving objectives, types of offerings and enrollments, and staff members. Information is presented on: the…

  13. Part-Time Studies, Distance Education, Continuing Education and Cultural Activities of the University of British Columbia 1987-1988. A Report to the President, the Senate, and the Board of Governors September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver.

    The 12th annual report on continuing education activities of The University of British Columbia (UBC) Canada is presented. It covers the period of September 1987 to August 1988. Nineteen sections cover the following: Office of Extra-Sessional Studies; faculty of education off campus credit courses; UBC access; guided independent study; Centre for…

  14. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  15. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada from induced polarization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. H.; Zhao, J. X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J. N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time constant) evidence was found that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type.

  16. Investigation into seasonal water chemistry variations in the Clayburn Creek watershed, British Columbia: An opportunity for authentic research experience for University of the Fraser Valley undergraduate students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Janmaat, A.; Faber, A.; Clemence, E.; Yakemchuk, A.; McCabe, M.; Toner, A.; Dhaliwal, H.; Gaultier, M.; Kanda, S.; Leffers, R.; Mahil, G.; Paulson, D.; Puri, K.; Sekhton, J.; Sidhu, B.; Sidhu, D.; Turner, S.; Strangway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Faculty and students from the University of the Fraser Valley participate in the time series sampling of the Fraser River and Fraser River tributaries as part of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. Clayburn and Willband Creeks in Abbotsford, British Columbia are part of this project and are being threatened by increasing anthropogenic activity (agricultural, industrial and residential development) within the watershed. Undergraduate students from the Geography and Biology departments have been instructed in the sampling protocols and the collection of thw water chemistry data. Each student that has been involved in this sampling project will gain a greater understanding of the seasonal variation of the water chemistry of the Clayburn watershed. Through this involvement in this portion of the Global Rivers Observatory our students become more aware of the threats to our streams and the methods utilized to monitor water chemistry.

  17. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Yunker, Mark B; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills.

  18. Differences in heat-related mortality across four ecological regions with diverse urban, rural, and remote populations in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Sarah B; Wan, Victoria; Kosatsky, Tom

    2013-09-01

    Temperature-mortality analyses are challenging in rural and remote communities with small populations, but this information is needed for climate change and emergency planning. The geographic health areas of British Columbia, Canada were aggregated into four ecoregions delineated by microclimatic conditions. Time series models were used to estimate the effect of maximum apparent temperature on daily non-traumatic mortality. The population of the coldest ecoregion was most sensitive to hot weather, while the population of the hottest ecoregion was least sensitive. The effects were consistently strongest in decedents aged less than 75 years. A province-wide total of 815 deaths was attributed to hot weather over the 25-year study period, with 735 deaths in the most populous ecoregion. The framework described could be adapted to other climatically variable regions with urban, rural, and remote populations.

  19. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K

    1996-07-01

    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  20. Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

    1985-05-01

    By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.; Peterman, R.; Lapointe, M.; Gillis, D.; Korman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We compare alternative models of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity (returns per spawner) using more than 30 years of catch and escapement data for Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. The models examined include several alternative forms of models that incorporate climatic influences as well as models not based on climate. For most stocks, a stationary stock-recruitment relationship explains very little of the interannual variation in productivity. In Bristol Bay, productivity co-varies among stocks and appears to be strongly related to fluctuations in climate. The best model for Bristol Bay sockeye involved a change in the 1970s in the parameters of the Ricker stock-recruitment curve; the stocks generally became more productive. In contrast, none of the models of Fraser River stocks that we examined explained much of the variability in their productivity.

  2. Prevalence and response to antiretroviral therapy of non-B subtypes of HIV in antiretroviral-naive individuals in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Christopher S; Montessori, Valentina; Wynhoven, Brian; Dong, Winnie; Chan, Keith; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V; Mo, Theresa; Piaseczny, Magda; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2002-03-01

    In North America, the B subtype of the major group (M) of HIV-1 predominates. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV reverse transcriptase and protease sequences isolated from 479 therapy-naive patients, first seeking treatment in British Columbia between June 1997 and August 1998, revealed a prevalence of 4.4% non-B virus. A range of different subtypes was identified, including one subtype A, 11 C, two D, five CRF01_AE, and one sample that could not be reliably subtyped. Baseline CD4 courts were significantly lower in individuals harbouring the non-B subtypes (P = 0.02), but baseline viral loads were similar (P = 0.80). In this study, individuals infected with non-B variants did not have a significantly different virological response to therapy after up to 18 months.

  3. Levels of PBDEs in plasma of juvenile starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from British Columbia, Canada and assessment of PBDE metabolism by avian liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio; Currier, Heidi; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio; Covaci, Adrian; Elliott, John

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), HO-PBDEs, and bromophenols were monitored in starling chick plasma samples collected in Delta (British Columbia, Canada) close to the Vancouver municipal landfill and in Glen Valley, a rural area in British Columbia. The in vitro formation of hydroxylated metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) was also investigated using starling chick liver microsomes. Total PBDE plasma levels were approximately 60 times higher in starling chicks from Delta than from Glen Valley, suggesting that the Delta site is a major source of PBDEs for the local population of starlings and that PBDEs previously measured in starling eggs are bioavailable to chicks. In both locations, BDE-47 and BDE-99 were the two major congeners present at similar concentrations, suggesting contamination with the Penta-BDE mixture. Among the several possible hydroxylated metabolites of PBDEs monitored in starling plasma, only 2,4,5-tribromophenol was detected and its levels did not exceed 18±7 pg/mL. Also, several hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were formed by starling chick liver microsomes, but in low amounts. Therefore, our data consistently suggest that oxidative metabolism of PBDEs in starling chicks proceeds at low rate in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the landfill located in Delta is a relevant source of bioavailable PBDEs for the local starling population. Because of the limited ability of starling chicks to metabolize PBDEs, these compounds are likely to bioaccumulate in starlings over time. The possible toxicological implications of PBDEs bioaccumulation in starlings are currently unknown and require further research.

  4. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.T.; Bellward, G.D. ); Elliott, J.E.; Whitehead, P.E. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r[sup 2] = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988.

  6. Atmospheric River impacts in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest on 22-24 January 2015 during the CalWater 2015 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggini, N. G.; Spackman, J. R.; Neiman, P. J.; White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.; Barnet, C.; Gambacorta, A.; Hughes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over 30 dropsonde transects were performed across atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the eastern Pacific during CalWater 2015. An event in late January allowed first-of-its-kind coordinated dropsonde transects of an AR using the NOAA G-IV aircraft in tandem with the NOAA Ronald H. Brown (RHB), which observed the marine boundary layer during the passage of this major AR. Dropsonde data collected on 22 January 2015 sampled the early stages of the AR, when the AR began making landfall near Vancouver Island, British Columbia. At the same time the RHB collected precipitation and oceanic moisture flux measurements on the warm side of the AR. A second flight on 24 January 2015 sampled the later stages of the AR, again passing over the RHB stationed beneath the AR. During this later period, the AR axis of moisture shifted north-northeast and fanned out along the coast, affecting regions from Northern Washington to Southern Alaska. Multi-day landfalling AR conditions led to flooding in British Columbia and northern Washington. The influence of the coastal orography combined with the shift in AR orientation is examined to understand the orographic control of precipitation that triggered the flooding. In addition, cross section analysis of the AR using dropsonde and reanalysis data are used to better understand the synoptic influences, water vapor transport, and moisture evolution during the lifecycle of the AR. To gain greater insight into AR development and prolonged AR conditions that led to enhanced flooding, a comparison of aircraft and ship data from CalWater 2015 and NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) retrievals (integrated water vapor, vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and an experimental ATMS-only rain rate product) will be compared for the 22-24 January period.

  7. Eocene melting of Precambrian lithospheric mantle: Analcime-bearing volcanic rocks from the Challis-Kamloops belt of south central British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, J.; Breitsprecher, K.; Church, B. N.; Thorkelson, D.; Hamilton, T. S.

    2003-08-01

    Potassic silica-undersaturated mafic volcanic rocks form a minor portion of the predominantly calc-alkaline Eocene Challis-Kamloops volcanic belt, which extends from the northwestern United States into central British Columbia (Canada). Their major occurrence is in the Penticton Group in south central British Columbia, where they reach a thickness of up to 500 m and form the northwestern edge of the Montana alkaline province. These analcime-bearing rocks (˜53-52 Ma old) are typically rhomb porphyries of ternary feldspar (An 28Ab 52Or 20). Additional phenocryst phases include clinopyroxene, analcime, phlogopite and rare olivine. The rocks are characterized by high total alkalis, particularly K 2O (>4.5 wt%) as well as by a distinct enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements versus heavy rare-earth elements and high-field-strength elements. They have unusual isotopic compositions compared to most other rocks of the Challis-Kamloops belt, particularly high negative ɛNd values and elevated but relatively uniform initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (˜0.7065). The potassic silica-undersaturated rocks overlie Precambrian crust and lithosphere and were at least in part derived from ancient metasomatized subcontinental mantle lithosphere, which was modified in a Precambrian subduction setting. The alkaline rocks of the Challis-Kamloops belt are related to a slab-window environment. In particular, they were formed above the southern edge of the Kula plate adjacent to the Kula-Farallon slab window, whereas the Montana alkaline province situated well to the southeast was formed directly above the Kula-Farallon slab window. Upwelling of the hotter asthenospheric mantle may have been the thermal trigger necessary to induce melting of fertile and metasomatized lithospheric mantle.

  8. Assessing the accuracy of death records and pre-mortem clinical diagnoses in children diagnosed with brain tumors: A retrospective chart review of children in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Haroon; Hendson, Glenda; Howard, A Fuchsia; Hukin, Juliette; Dunham, Christopher; Ahmed, Tareq; Lo, Andrea C; Goddard, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The advantages of autopsy have been demonstrated in pediatric oncology; however, it is unknown to what extent the utility of autopsy is in deceased children diagnosed with a pediatric brain tumor (PBT). The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of autopsy, prevalence of clinical discrepancies, and accuracy of cancer registry death records for deceased children diagnosed with a PBT in British Columbia, Canada. A retrospective chart review was performed of medical records and autopsy reports of pediatric patients diagnosed with a PBT that died between 1982 and 2012 in British Columbia. Clinical discrepancies between pre- and post-mortem findings were classified based on a modified classification system of the Goldman Criteria. The overall autopsy rate was 15.5% (32 of 206) during 1982-2012, with a significant (P=0.001) decrease of 22.4% observed between decade 1 (32.8%) and decade 2 (10.4%) and a further slight decrease (4.5%) between decade 2 (10.4%) and decade 3 (5.9%) (P=0.379). A third of patients had discrepancies between pre-mortem and post-mortem clinical diagnoses, with slightly over 10% of these cases revealing information that would have altered the probability of survival had it been known prior to death. More than half (59.3%) of cases had discordant cause of death as recorded in the cancer registry when compared to autopsy findings. Autopsy for children diagnosed with a PBT can provide health care professionals with important information about the accuracy of their diagnoses and evaluate the efficacy of therapy.

  9. Hatching success and pesticide exposures in amphibians living in agricultural habitats of the South Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada (2004-2006).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christine A; Ashpole, Sara L; Edwards, A Michelle; van Aggelen, Graham; Elliott, John E

    2010-07-01

    In 2004 to 2006, in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, we measured pesticides, water chemistry, and hatching success of Great Basin spadefoot (Spea intermontana), Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla), Western toad (Bufo boreas), and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris). Predator-proof cages containing Gosner Stage 4 eggs were placed in ponds in nonagricultural reference sites in conventionally sprayed and organic orchards. Seventeen pesticides were detected in ponds in sprayed orchards but occurred at low concentrations (ng/L) except for diazinon (1,410 ng/L). Chloride, sulfate, conductivity, nitrate, and phosphorus showed significant differences among sites. Spadefoot mean hatching success ranged from 0 to 92% among sprayed orchards, whereas the range was 48 to 98.6% among organic orchards and 51 to 95.5% among reference sites. Mean hatching success for Pacific treefrog was 22.1 to 76.1% among sprayed orchards, whereas the range was 83.4 to 97.1% among reference sites. Although sample sizes were small and replication was low, we found that trends in hatching success of eggs of Western toad and Columbia spotted frogs were consistent with the other species. Variables that correlated negatively with amphibian hatching success included 12 pesticides and seven water chemistry parameters. However, stepwise regression found that, in 2005, atrazine accounted for 79% of the variation in spadefoot hatching success and, in 2006, atrazine, total nitrate, and chlorpyrifos accounted for 80%. For Pacific treefrog there were no significant correlations with pesticide concentrations; rather, hatching success correlated with water chemistry parameters. The present study also emphasizes the variability in species sensitivity and importance of incorporating water chemistry into the interpretation of water quality for amphibians.

  10. Is There a Future for Nuclear Power? Wind and Emission Reduction Targets in Fossil-Fuel Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jun; Lynch, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in