Science.gov

Sample records for alberta canada methods

  1. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G.; Gesy, Karen M.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids. PMID:23017505

  3. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  5. Genesee Phase 3, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2005-08-01

    Genesee Phase 3 is Canada's first supercritical power plant and, at 450 MW, is significant not only for its low levels of greenhouse gas emissions, made possible by the use of supercritical technology and emissions off-sets. It also marks the North American debut of a boiler, derived from a proven 500-MW-class Hitachi reference plant, that operates at sliding pressure. The key benefits of operating in this mode are high efficiency, operating flexibility, and reliability. This boiler design may well migrate to the US in the very near future. 6 figs.

  6. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples). PMID:19350990

  7. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Nguyen X; Ohinmaa, Arto; Yan, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning) in Alberta in 2005. Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years), who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism) and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism), adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses. Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688) in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9) in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624) to 533 (313–753) thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99) to $84 ($49–$119) million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%. Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a significant economic impact in Alberta and that presenteeism plays an important role in asthma

  8. Sour-gas potential in Devonian of western Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Podruski, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada is presently conducting an assessment of the undiscovered gas resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin using the exploration play analysis technique. The first system being examined is the Devonian, which as been divided into four exploration districts based on differences in depositional and tectonic histories, hydrocarbon compositions, and exploration practices. The western Alberta sour gas district contains most of the Devonian gas reserves (10 trillion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas) and potential in 12 exploration plays. Production in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills, Leduc, and Nisku formations is from the updip (northeast), basinward termination of carbonate shelves or large reef complexes and their associated patch and pinnacle reefs. Mapping the reef or shelf carbonate transition to basinal shale and carbonate delineates the play areas in these formations. Production in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Formation is from stratigraphic traps at shelf carbonate/shelf evaporite transitions and in structural-stratigraphic traps in dolomitized shelf carbonate. Pools in these plays typically contain from 50 to 500 billion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas, have 10-30% H/sub 2/S, and occur at depths from 8000 to 15,000 ft. Potential in most plays is large, considering that between 90 and 99% of the play areas are unexplored. Present exploration is still concentrating on the conventional shelf margin or reef traps, such as in the area of the recent Caroline discovery. Subtle intrashelf traps are only beginning to be explored and could constitute a major resource target of the future, provided that economic conditions and improvements in seismic technology and geologic understanding will sustain the exploration effort in this district.

  9. Preliminary rock physics analysis on Grosmont carbonate formation, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, D.; Keehm, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Grosmont formation in Canada is a bitumen-saturated carbonate reservoir and draw increasing attention as a possible future unconventional oil field. However, the characterization of the formation is not easy due to high geological complexity. In this paper, we report our preliminary results of rock physics modeling effort using log data from seven wells in the T85R19W4 township, Alberta, Canada. Since the acoustic and shear velocity data are not very common, we use three logging properties: gamma ray; neutron-density porosity; and resistivity. The bitumen saturation is obtained from core measurement data. From the preliminary analysis, Grosmont formation can be divided into two groups by resistivity and porosity. The lower group matches with Grosmont A and B from previous studies and upper group with Grosmont C and D. The lower group mainly consists of limestone with different clay contents. The upper group was under dolomitization and karstification during Mesozoic, and is composed of fractured dolomite and karst breccia. The two groups can be divided by 15% porosity and 100 ohm-m resistivity values. The upper group has higher porosity and higher resistivity, which indicates high bitumen saturation and better reservoir quality. In porosity-resistivity domain, some wells shows typical trend; resistivity increases as porosity decrease; however, wells from the north-eastern part does not show any consistent trends. We believe that north-eastern part of our study area has more dolomitization and karstification, thus higher heterogeneity. We report basic trends for porosity vs. resistivity using Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for upper and lower group at each well. We also plan to obtain velocity data and perform quantitative analysis on porosity-velocity relations and velocity sensitivity to bitumen saturation. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of KETEP (Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning), Grant No

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population. PMID:26837668

  11. DETAILED ENDOCRINE ASSESSMENTS IN WILD FISH DOWNSTREAM OF PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    2001. Detailed Endocrine Assessments in Wild Fish Downstream of Pulp and Paper Mills in Northern Alberta, Canada (Abstract). In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, N...

  12. Environmental management in resource-rich Alberta, Canada: first world jurisdiction, Third World analogue?

    PubMed

    Timoney, K; Lee, P

    2001-12-01

    Economic growth is frequently touted as a cure for environmental ills, particularly for those in Third World countries. Here we examine that paradigm in a case study of Alberta, Canada, a wealthy, resource-rich province within a wealthy nation. Through provincial-scale datasets, we examine the increasing pressures of the forest, petroleum, and agricultural industries upon the ecosystems of Alberta within management, economic, and political contexts. We advance the thesis that economic activity leads to environmental degradation unless ecosystem-based management is integrated into economic decision making. Agricultural lands cover 31.7%, and forest management areas leased to industry cover 33.4% of Alberta; both continue to increase in extent. The rate of logging (focused on old-growth by government policy) continues a decades-long exponential rise. Current Alberta annual petroleum production is 52.5 million m3 crude oil and 117 billion m3 of gas. As of early 1999, there were approximately 199,025 oil and gas wells and a conservative total of approximately 1.5-1.8 million km of seismic lines in Alberta. Fire occurrence data indicate no downward trends in annual area burned by wildfire, which may be characterized as driven by climate and inherently variable. When logging and wildfire are combined, the annual allowable cut in Alberta is unsustainable, even when only timber supply is considered and the effects of expanding agriculture and oil and gas activities are ignored. Ecosystem degradation in Alberta is pervasive and contrasts prominently with a high standard of living. A wealth of ecological data exists that indicates current resource-based economic activities are non-sustainable and destructive of ecosystem health yet these data are not considered within the economic decision making process. Given the complex, compounded, and increasing ecosystem perturbations, a future of unpleasant ecological surprises is likely. We conclude with tentative predictions as to

  13. Pesticide and PCB levels in fish from Alberta (Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Chovelon, A.; George, L.; Gulayets, C.; Hoyano, Y.; McGuinness, E.; Moore, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singer, P.; Smiley, K.

    1984-01-01

    Pesticide and PCB analyses were completed on fat and muscle samples of 750 fish collected from 11 major lakes and rivers in Alberta. Although phenoxy and organophosphate residues were always below detectable limits, traces of chlorinated pesticides and their derivatives, particularly DDE, DDD and chlordane, were detected in most fat samples. PCB levels exceeded 25 mg/kg in the fat of several species from the North Saskatchewan River but were generally lower in the other systems. Analysis of 160 sediment samples from the North Saskatchewan River revealed no point source of PCB contamination.

  14. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them. PMID:22360000

  15. The economic impacts of chronic wasting disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in alberta and the rest of Canada.

    PubMed

    Petigara, Milap; Dridi, Chokri; Unterschultz, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Input-output analysis was used to calculate the economic impacts from potential prion diseases outbreaks in Alberta and the rest of Canada. Both chronic wasting disease (CWD) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have the capacity not only to affect the farmed cervid and cattle industries, but also to impact all industries with direct and indirect links to these sectors. Cervid sector shocks yield small spillover effects on the economies of Alberta as well as that of all of Canada. In contrast, the cattle sector generates larger multiplier effects in both specifically Alberta region and all of Canada. The industries that consistently experience the largest impacts from prion disease outbreaks in both Alberta and remainder of Canada economic regions are agricultural sectors, mining and energy sectors, and industries dedicated to trade, transportation, and warehousing. PMID:22043917

  16. Evaluation of air quality indicators in Alberta, Canada - An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada and an overall increase in economic activity in the province in recent years. An evaluation of the state of air quality was conducted in four Alberta locations - urban centers of Calgary and Edmonton, and smaller communities of Fort McKay and Fort McMurray in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). Concentration trends, diurnal hourly and monthly average concentration profiles, and exceedances of provincial, national and international air quality guidelines were assessed for several criteria air pollutants over the period 1998 to 2014. Two methods were used to evaluate trends. Parametric analysis of annual median 1h concentrations and non-parametric analysis of annual geometric mean 1h concentrations showed consistent decreasing trends for NO2 and SO2 (<1ppb per year), CO (<0.1ppm per year) at all stations, decreasing for THC (<0.1ppm per year) and increasing for O3 (≤0.52ppb per year) at most stations and unchanged for PM2.5 at all stations in Edmonton and Calgary over a 17-year period. Little consistency in trends was observed among the methods for the same air pollutants other than for THC (increasing in Fort McKay <0.1ppm per year and no trend in Fort McMurray), PM2.5 in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray (no trend) and CO (decreasing <0.1ppm per year in Fort McMurray) over the same period. Levels of air quality indicators at the four locations were compared with other Canadian and international urban areas to judge the current state of air quality. Median and annual average concentrations for Alberta locations tended to be the smallest in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray. Other than for PM2.5, Calgary and Edmonton tended to have median and annual average concentrations comparable to and/or below that of larger populated Canadian and U.S. cities, depending upon the air pollutant. PMID:27071052

  17. Deaths from exposure to paramethoxymethamphetamine in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Yarema, Mark C.; Jones, Graham R.; Martz, Walter; Purssell, Roy A.; MacDonald, Judy C.; Wishart, Ian; Durigon, Monica; Tzemis, Despina; Buxton, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine similar in structure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”), but substantially more toxic. We describe the clinical features of fatal exposures in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series on deaths in Alberta and BC between June 2011 and April 2012 for which forensic toxicologic analysis was positive for PMMA and the drug was implicated as the primary toxic agent. Data collected included patient demographics, exposure history, clinical features, investigations, therapy provided and postmortem toxicologic findings. Results A total of 27 PMMA-associated deaths (20 in Alberta, 7 in BC) were reported in the 11-month period. The median age was 24 (range 14–52) years, and 22 (81%) were male. Ten patients were pronounced dead at the scene, and 17 died in hospital. The median time from exposure to death was 17 (range 5–264) hours. The median first-recorded vital signs (and ranges) were: heart rate 160 (86–201) beats/min, blood pressure 89/43 (69/30–162/83) mm Hg, respiratory rate 40 (26–48) breaths/min, oxygen saturation 81% (68%–100%) and temperature 39.4°C (34–43.8°C). Sixteen of the 17 people who died in hospital presented with clinical features consistent with serotonin syndrome. End-organ dysfunction included hepatic (30%) and acute kidney injury (85%), rhabdomyolysis (54%), coagulopathy (61%) and cardiac ischemia (15%). Other drugs identified on toxicologic analysis were MDMA (n = 27), cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine (n = 14) and methamphetamine (n = 12). Interpretation Exposure to PMMA was characterized by multiorgan dysfunction and serotonin syndrome, followed by cardiovascular collapse. In addition to PMMA, multiple synthetic amphetamines were present on toxicologic analysis. When evaluating patients suspected of exposure to sympathomimetic drugs of abuse, clinicians must

  18. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  19. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  20. Incidence and Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Aboriginal Peoples in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B.; Voaklander, Don; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Stickland, Michael K.; King, Malcolm; Harris, Andrew W.; Rowe, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major respiratory disorder, largely caused by smoking that has been linked with large health inequalities worldwide. There are important gaps in our knowledge about how COPD affects Aboriginal peoples. This retrospective cohort study assessed the epidemiology of COPD in a cohort of Aboriginal peoples relative to a non-Aboriginal cohort. Methods We used linkage of administrative health databases in Alberta (Canada) from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2010 to compare the annual prevalence, and the incidence rates of COPD between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cohorts aged 35 years and older. Poisson regression models adjusted the analysis for important sociodemographic factors. Results Compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort, prevalence estimates of COPD from 2002 to 2010 were 2.3 to 2.4 times greater among Registered First Nations peoples, followed by the Inuit (1.86 to 2.10 times higher) and the Métis (1.59 to 1.67 times higher). All Aboriginal peoples had significantly higher COPD incidence rates than the non-Aboriginal group (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97, 2.27). COPD incidence rates were higher in First Nation peoples (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 2.19, 2.56) followed by Inuit (IRR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.64, 2.25) and Métis (IRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.69) groups. Conclusions We found a high burden of COPD among Aboriginal peoples living in Alberta; a province with the third largest Aboriginal population in Canada. Altogether, the three Aboriginal peoples groups have higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort. The condition affects the three Aboriginal groups differently; Registered First Nations and Inuit have the highest burden of COPD. Reasons for these differences should be further explored within a framework of social determinants of health to help designing interventions that effectively influence modifiable COPD risk factors in each of the

  1. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  2. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility. PMID:26168055

  3. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Braid, Andrew C. R.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility. PMID:26168055

  4. Structural characterization of Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) and impact on rock slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Epard, Jean-Luc; Froese, Corey R.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a structural investigation of the Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) to better understand the role of the different tectonic features on the development of both local and large scale rock slope instabilities occurring in Turtle Mountain. The study area is investigated by combining remote methods with detailed field surveys. In particular, the benefit of Terrestrial Laser Scanning for ductile and brittle tectonic structure interpretations is illustrated. The proposed tectonic interpretation allows the characterization of the fracturing pattern, the fold geometry and the role of these tectonic features in rock slope instability development. Ten discontinuity sets are identified in the study area, their local variations permitting the differentiation of the study zone into 20 homogenous structural domains. The anticline is described as an eastern verging fold that displays considerable geometry differences along its axis and developed by both flexural slip and tangential longitudinal strain folding mechanisms. Moreover, the origins of the discontinuity sets are determined according to the tectonic phases affecting the region (pre-folding, folding, post-folding). The localization and interpretation of kinematics of the different instabilities revealed the importance of considering the discrete brittle planes of weakness, which largely control the kinematic release of the local instabilities, and also the rock mass damage induced by large tectonic structures (fold hinge, thrust).

  5. Epidemiology of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in Alberta, Canada, from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Alhhazmi, Areej; Hurteau, Donna; Tyrrell, Gregory J

    2016-07-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) cause severe invasive disease in both neonates and adults. Understanding the epidemiology of GBS provides information that can include determining disease prevalence rates in defined populations and geographic regions, documenting the success of GBS screening programs, and understanding antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. In Alberta, only neonatal invasive GBS (iGBS) disease is notifiable to health authorities. We performed a surveillance study of iGBS in Alberta, Canada, from 2003 to 2013. Over the 11-year period, the disease incidence rate increased from a low of 3.92 cases/100,000 population to a high of 5.99 cases/100,000 population. The capsular polysaccharide serotypes (CPSs) found were CPS III (20.3%), CPS V (19.1%), CPS Ia (18.9%), CPS Ib (12.7%), CPS II (11.1%), CPS IV (6.3%), and nontypeable GBS (9.4%). Rates of early-onset disease (0 to 7 days) increased from 0.15 cases/1,000 live births (in 2003) to 0.34 cases/1,000 live births (in 2013). Rates of late-onset disease (>7 to 90 days) also rose, from 0.15 cases/1,000 live births (in 2003) to 0.39 cases/1,000 live births (in 2013). Alberta also experienced an increase in CPS IV isolates, from 2 cases (in 2003) to 24 cases (in 2013), of which the majority were hvgA positive (86.6%). The predominant sequence type (ST) in 2013 was ST459. Erythromycin resistance rose from 23.6% to 43.9% (in 2013). Clindamycin resistance also increased, from 12.2% to 32.5%. In summary, Alberta, Canada, has experienced an increase in GBS disease; the increase includes both neonatal and adult disease. CPS IV cases also notably increased during the surveillance period, as did resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. PMID:27098960

  6. Peculiar debris-flow event of June 2013 in Livingstone mountain range (Alberta, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martin; Rudaz, Benjamin; Humair, Florian; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Froese, Corey

    2014-05-01

    Heavy precipitations occurred in western Alberta in mid-June 2013, which lead to several floods. In particular, this event produced a lot of debris-flow in the area of Mount Livingstone Alberta, Canada (N50° 8' 24.20", W114° 24' 19.69"). The area is mainly composed of folded Devonian to Jurassic carbonates. The peculiarity of the event is that the initiations of the debris-flows were located high in scree slopes, with reduced contributing area. No debris-flow deposits anterior to that event are visible, which contrasts with the number of simultaneous events (~30) triggered by this specific precipitation period (up to 220 mm in 36 hours). Fieldwork was carried out in July, less than one month after this event. Extensive photographic and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data was acquired. In-line grain-size distribution, fine matrix sampling and cross-sections of the debris flow channel were performed at the initiation zone, the propagation zone and deposition area. Samples are analyzed by sieving as well as using laser diffraction methods for fine materials. Morphologic characterization is performed through pre-event HR-DEM (1m cell size) and TLS point-cloud comparison, along with cross-sections. Volumes can thus be calculated. The pristine debris-flow lobes, levees and source areas allowed the dynamic of the different debris-flow pulses to be reconstructed. Comparison between 2012 and 2013 field photographs emphasize the radical morphologic change caused by this single event on an apparently dormant erosion context. The conditions of initiation of the debris flows are compared with literature values, in term of slope, contributing area and saturation of the scree material. Preliminary analysis indicates that these debris-flows started at unusually low slopes in regard to the contributing area. This reinforces the extreme character of this event, attributed to two identified causes: the accumulation and weathering of rock debris in the scree slopes over time and

  7. Statistical Analysis of Drought Indices and Drought Monitoring for Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Dai, Q.; Yin, H.; Howard, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation discusses a statistical analysis of six drought indices for monitoring Alberta drought events from 1901 to 2000. The data used are the interpolated daily precipitation data on the 149 ecodistrict polygons over Alberta. The analyzed indices are standardized precipitation index, rainfall anomaly index, rainfall decile index, standardized anomaly index, principal component index, and optimal index. The historically documented drought records of five sites (Beaver Lodge, Lacombe, Lethbridge, Vegreville, and Swift Current [in Saskatchwan]) are classified into drought categories D4, D3, ?, D0, and wet categories D1, -D2, and D3. The thresholds of the drought categories for different indices are calculated. The wheat drought of Canada's Palliser Triangle was used as a validation analysis of the drought indices. The transitional probability of drought categories from one week to the next is calculated. Some discussions on the theory of calculating SPI are included. It has been found that the while all the drought indices are highly correlated with precipitation, the PCI has the highest correlation. The transitional probability analysis for the south Alberta agricultural region shows that the chance of transition from normal to extremely dry is highest in the mid May, hence this region's spring seeding is extremely vulnerable to precipitation and an effective irrigation system is of great importance to the early stages of crop development.

  8. Evidence for Early Pleistocene Glaciation obtained from borecores collected in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Andriashek, L. D.; Jackson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Borecores collected from the east-central region of Alberta, Canada have recently been sub-sampled and studied for paleomagnetic remanence characteristics. A preliminary magnetostratigraphy has been established for sediments previously assumed to represent multiple continental (Laurentide) glaciations, but for which no geochronology was available for the pre-late Wisconsin units. Comprised primarily of tills and lesser thicknesses of interbedded glacio-lacustrine and outwash sediments, the record is extensive, reaching to thicknesses of 300 metres within buried valleys. Most of the sampled units are not accessible from outcrop, and their sedimentology and stratigraphy is derived from core data only. The lowermost tills are reversely magnetized in the majority of borecores sampled to date. These tills are underlain by Empress Formation sediments and/or Colorado Group shales, and overlain by normally magnetized sediments. Both tills contain substantial weathering horizons at their surface, suggesting that interglacial or nonglacial conditions persisted for some time after each period of till deposition. Whether these tills represent a single Early Pleistocene glaciation, or perhaps two, will require additional borecore measurements. This new record of Early Pleistocene glaciation(s) in east-central Alberta places the westernmost extent of earliest Laurentide ice some 300 km farther westward from its previously established limit in the Saskatoon to Regina region of the western Canadian prairies, but still well short of the all-time limit and elevation reached during the Late Wisconsin (Late Pleistocene) in the foothills of the Alberta and Montana Rocky Mountains. Key Words: East-Central Alberta glacial history, Early Pleistocene (Laurentide) glaciation, till magnetostratigraphy, Quaternary history of Western Canadian Prairies, continental glaciations of North America.

  9. Small mammals as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants and health effects in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of bitumen in areas of northeastern Alberta (Canada) has been associated with the release of complex mixtures of metals, metalloids, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. To mitigate effects on ecosystems, Canadian legislation mandates that disturbed areas be reclaimed to an ecologically sustainable state after active operations. However, as part of reclamation activities, exposure to, and effects on wildlife living in these areas is not generally assessed. To support successful reclamation, the development of efficient methods to assess exposure and health effects in potentially exposed wildlife is required. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of two native mammalian species (deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, and meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus) as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants by examining biomarkers of exposure and indicators of biological costs. Tissue residues of 31 metals and metalloids in kidneys and muscle, activity of the hepatic detoxification enzyme EROD (as a biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants), body condition, and the relative mass of liver, kidney, spleen, and testes were compared in animals from one reclaimed area and a reference site. Deer mice from the reclaimed site had higher renal levels of Co, Se and Tl compared to animals from the reference site, which was associated with reduced body condition. Lower testis mass was another feature that distinguished mice from the reclaimed site in comparison to those from the reference site. One mouse and one vole from the reclaimed site also showed increased hepatic EROD activity. In marked contrast, no changes were evident for these variables in meadow voles. Our results show that deer mouse is a sensitive sentinel species and that the biomarkers and indicators used here are efficient means to detect local contamination and associated biological effects in native mammals inhabiting reclaimed areas on active oil sands mine

  10. Fifteen-year trends in criteria air pollutants in oil sands communities of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of ambient air quality was undertaken at three communities within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada (Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, and Fort Chipewyan). Daily and seasonal patterns and 15-year trends were investigated for several criteria air pollutants over the period of 1998 to 2012. A parametric trend detection method using percentiles from frequency distributions of 1h concentrations for a pollutant during each year was used. Variables representing 50th, 65th, 80th, 90th, 95th and 98th percentile concentrations each year were identified from frequency distributions and used for trend analysis. Small increasing concentration trends were observed for nitrogen dioxide (<1ppb/year) at Fort McKay and Fort McMurray over the period consistent with increasing emissions of oxides of nitrogen (ca. 1000tons/year) from industrial developments. Emissions from all oil sands facilities appear to be contributing to the trend at Fort McKay, whereas both emissions from within the community (vehicles and commercial) and oil sands facility emissions appear to be contributing to the trend at Fort McMurray. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from industrial developments in the AOSR were unchanged during the period (101,000±7000tons/year; mean±standard deviation) and no meaningful trends were judged to be occurring at all community stations. No meaningful trends occurred for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at all community stations and carbon monoxide at one station in Fort McMurray. Air quality in Fort Chipewyan was much better and quite separate in terms of absence of factors influencing criteria air pollutant concentrations at the other community stations. PMID:25454237

  11. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  12. Quetiapine use in adults in the community: a population-based study in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Diane; Cooke, Lara; Symonds, Chris; Gardner, David; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in prescribing of the second-generation antipsychotic medication quetiapine to adults in the province of Alberta from 2008 to 2013 through examination of dispensed prescriptions, and diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine in 2013. Methods We analysed administrative data from Alberta Health; the Alberta Pharmaceutical Information Network (PIN) Dispenses health data set, the Practitioner Payments (Fee-For-Service claims) health data set and the Population Registry health data set. These data sets allowed us to identify discrete quetiapine recipients for each calendar year from 2008 to 2013. To evaluate diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine, we evaluated diagnostic codes used by physicians in billings claims in 2013. Results Quetiapine use increased over the 6-year time period studied. In 2008, there were 16 087 unique quetiapine recipients in Alberta (7.2 per 1000). By 2013, there were 35 314 unique quetiapine recipients (13.3 per 1000). Use by women was higher than men at all time points. Depression was most common diagnosis associated with quetiapine recipients, which was present in 56% of users of quetiapine. Other common diagnoses associated with quetiapine use included neurotic disorders, bipolar disorder and sleep disturbances. Conclusions The current study of quetiapine use in the province of Alberta provides confirmatory data of the increasing use of quetiapine for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Safe and rational prescribing practices must be encouraged in light of the modest advantages of quetiapine over no treatment as an adjunctive treatment of major depression, and the known harms of this medication. PMID:27000788

  13. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  14. Information on the Child Welfare Act (Alberta) & the Young Offenders Act (Canada) for Educators, Parents and Students. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This document provides information on two pieces of legislation which affect children and adolescents in Canada. The introduction to "A Guide to the Young Offenders Act in Alberta" briefly reviews the development of the Young Offenders Act and examines the definition of a young person, offenses covered by the act, and amendments to the act. The…

  15. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  16. Service Needs of Community and Institution-Based Older Persons with a Developmental Handicap in Alberta, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badry, D. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study of 742 older persons (above age 45) with a developmental handicap residing in either community or institutional settings in Alberta, Canada, found those residing in congregate care settings had significantly higher frequencies of health impairments. Persons residing in the community had significantly better independent living skills and…

  17. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  18. Analysis of Biomass Feedstock Availability and Variability for the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, Jamie; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Sowlati, T.; Kloeck, T.; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Biorefineries or other biomass-dependent facilities require a predictable, dependable feedstock supplied over many years to justify capital investments. Determining inter-year variability in biomass availability is essential to quantifying the feedstock supply risk. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and historic crop yield data, average production was estimated for 10 sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Four high-yielding potential sites were investigated for variability over a 20 year time-frame (1980 2000). The range of availability was large, from double the average in maximum years to nothing in minimum years. Biomass availability is a function of grain yield, the biomass to grain ratio, the cropping frequency, and residue retention rate to ensure future crop productivity. Storage strategies must be implemented and alternate feedstock sources identified to supply biomass processing facilities in low-yield years.

  19. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  20. Tracing industrial ammonium in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Proemse, B. C.; Fenn, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The expanding industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about increasing nitrogen (N) emissions from oil sands operations and their potential effects on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stable isotope techniques may help to trace industrial emissions provided that they are isotopically distinct from background isotope ratios of atmospheric N compounds. Ammonium deposition rates (NH4-N) typically exceed nitrate deposition rates (NO3-N) in the AOSR (Proemse et al., 2013), suggesting that emissions of reduced nitrogen compounds play a significant role for the atmospheric nitrogen budget in the AOSR. We collected atmospheric ammonium in open field bulk deposition and throughfall using ion exchange resins over ~6 months time periods from summer 2007 to summer 2011 located at distances between 3 to 113 km to one of the major oil sands developments in the AOSR. Ammonium deposition rates and δ15N-NH4 values were determined using ion chromatography and the ammonium diffusion method (Sebilo et al., 2004) on resin extracts. Atmospheric ammonium deposition rates in open field bulk collectors and throughfall collectors ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, and from 1.0 to 18.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, respectively. δ15N-NH4 values varied from -6.3 to +14.8‰ with the highest δ15N values typically associated with elevated NH4-N deposition rates. δ15N-NH4 values of up to +20.1‰ were observed for industrially emitted NH4 in particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (Proemse et al., 2012) suggesting that industrial NH3 and NH4 emissions are associated with elevated δ15N values providing a potential tracer. Applying a two-end-member mixing analysis using a background δ15N-NH4 value of -3.6‰ for summer and -3.2‰ for winter periods revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to

  1. Short-Term Influence of Revised Provincial Accreditation Standards on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Weight Status in Alberta, Canada Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, revised Alberta child care accreditation standards were released by the Alberta Government in Canada that included a new standard for physical activity and sedentary behavior in accredited child care settings. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the new accreditation standard in increasing physical…

  2. Full genome analysis of enterovirus D-68 strains circulating in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Drews, Steven J; Tipples, Graham; Tellier, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    A widespread outbreak of enterovirus (EV)-D68 that started in the summer of 2014 has been reported in the USA and Canada. During the course of this outbreak, EV-D68 was identified as a possible cause of acute, unexplained severe respiratory illness and a temporal association was observed between acute flaccid paralysis with anterior myelitis and EV-D68 detection in the upper respiratory tract. In this study, four nasopharyngeal samples collected from patients in Alberta, Canada with a laboratory diagnosis of EV-D68 were used to determine the near full-length genome sequence directly from the specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to study the genotypes and pathogenesis of the circulating strains. Our results support the contention that mutations in the VP1 gene and other regions of the genome causing altered antigenicity, as well as lack of immunity in the younger population, may be responsible for the increased severe respiratory disease outbreaks of EV-D68 worldwide. PMID:26643129

  3. Geomorphology and sedimentology of hummocky terrain, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    The landscape in south-central Alberta, Canada, is dominated by a suite of landforms that formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This thesis explores the origins of those landforms, specifically hummocky terrain. Sediments in the hummocks, hummock form, and associations with other landforms are examined to determine hummock genesis. Sediment was examined from over one hundred exposures through the "Buffalo Lake Moraine" at Travers Reservoir, McGregor Reservoir, and the Little Bow River. This belt of hummocky terrain (like most hummocky terrain regions) is traditionally interpreted as forming at, or near, the stagnating margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by supraglacial letdown. However, hummocks in south-central Alberta contain a complex variety of sediments and materials atypical of supraglacial letdown: in situ bedrock, thrust bedrock, lodgement till, melt-out till, sorted sand and gravel, rippled sand, rhythmically-bedded sand, silt, and clay, and pervasively sheared beds. All sediment types and deformation structures were deposited, or formed, subglacially. Also, the deposits make up in situ stratigraphies that record the history of initial Laurentide Ice Sheet advance into the area (lodgment till and thrust bedrock), the extensive accumulation of water at the bed (glaciolacustrine beds), and ice stagnation (melt-out till). Regardless of the genesis of sediments in hummocks, sedimentary units and structures are abruptly truncated by the surface that represents the hummock and trough morphology, demonstrating that the hummocks are erosional forms and that they represent a landscape unconformity. Subglacial sediments predating the erosion and subglacial eskers overlying the erosion surface strongly suggest that hummock erosion was subglacial. Also, hummock morphology, lithostratigraphy correlated from hummock to hummock, abrupt truncation at the land surface, and widespread boulder lags support meltwater erosion for hummocky terrain in the region. Well

  4. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  5. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  6. The distribution of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada) and associated aqueous geochemistry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Nightingale, Michael; Becker, Veith; Kingston, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas and coalbed methane has generated some public concern with regard to the protection of groundwater and surface water resources from leakage of stray gas from the deep subsurface. In terms of environmental impact to and risk assessment of shallow groundwater resources, the ultimate challenge is to distinguish: (a) natural in-situ production of biogenic methane, (b) biogenic or thermogenic methane migration into shallow aquifers due to natural causes, and (c) thermogenic methane migration from deep sources due to human activities associated with the exploitation of conventional or unconventional oil and gas resources. We have conducted a NSERC-ANR co-funded baseline study investigating the occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater of Alberta (Canada), a province with a long record of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and sources of methane in shallow groundwaters and to also characterize the hydrochemical environment in which the methane was formed or transformed through redox processes. Ultimately our aim was to determine whether methane was formed in-situ or whether it migrated from deeper formations into shallow aquifers. Combining hydrochemical and dissolved and free geochemical gas data from 372 groundwater samples obtained from 186 monitoring wells of the provincial groundwater observation well network (GOWN) in Alberta, it was found that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater in Alberta and is predominantly of biogenic origin. The highest concentrations of dissolved biogenic methane (> 0.01 mM or > 0.2 mg/L), characterized by δ13CCH4 values < -55‰, occurred in anoxic Na-Cl, Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type groundwater with negligible concentrations of nitrate and sulfate suggesting that methane was formed in-situ under methanogenic conditions consistent with the redox ladder concept. Despite quite variable gas concentrations and a

  7. Association of vitamin D status with socio-demographic factors in Calgary, Alberta: an ecological study using Census Canada data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are a global health problem with northern countries such as Canada at particular risk. A number of sociodemographic factors have been reported to be associated with low vitamin D levels but prior studies have been limited by the ability of the researchers to gather this data directly from clinical trial participants. The purpose of this study was to use a novel methodology of inferring sociodemographic variables to evaluate the correlates of vitamin D levels in individuals dwelling in the City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Methods We utilized data on vitamin D test results from Calgary Laboratory Services between January 1 2010 and August 31 2011. In addition to vitamin D level, we recorded age, sex, and vitamin D testing month as individual-level variables. We inferred sociodemographic variables by associating results with census dissemination areas and using Census Canada data to determine immigration status, education, median household income and first nations status as clustered variables. Associations between vitamin D status and the individual- and dissemination area-specific variables were examined using the population-averaged regression model by a generalized estimating equations approach to account for the clustering in the data. Results 158,327 individuals were included. Age, sex, month of vitamin D testing (at an individual level), and education, immigrant status, first nations status and income (at an aggregate level) were all statistically significant predictors of vitamin D status. Conclusions Vitamin D status was associated with a number of sociodemographic variables. Knowledge of these variables may improve targeted education and public health initiatives. PMID:23566290

  8. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles. PMID:26313740

  9. Characterization and distribution of metal and nonmetal elements in the Alberta oil sands region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Yang, Lingling; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the characterization and distribution of metals and nonmetals in the Alberta oil sands region (AOSR) of Canada. The development of the oil sands industry has resulted in the release of organic, metal and nonmetal contaminants via air and water to the AOSR. For air, studies have found that atmospheric deposition of metals in the AOSR decreased exponentially with distance from the industrial emission sources. For water, toxic metal concentrations often exceeded safe levels leading to the potential for negative impacts to the receiving aquatic environments. Interestingly, although atmospheric deposition, surface waters, fish tissues, and aquatic bird eggs exhibited increasing level of metals in the AOSR, reported results from river sediments showed no increases over time. This could be attributed to physical and/or chemical dynamics of the river system to transport metals to downstream. The monitoring of the airborne emissions of relevant nonmetals (nitrogen and sulphur species) was also considered over the AOSR. These species were found to be increasing along with the oil sands developments with the resultant depositions contributing to nitrogen and sulphur accumulations resulting in ecosystem acidification and eutrophication impacts. In addition to direct monitoring of metals/nonmetals, tracing of air emissions using isotopes was also discussed. Further investigation and characterization of metals/nonmetals emissions in the AOSR are needed to determine their impacts to the ecosystem and to assess the need for further treatment measures to limit their continued output into the receiving environments. PMID:26766359

  10. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies. PMID:16838719

  11. An experimental study of a minette from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37: 1629-1650, 2000) studied the minettes and xenoliths from the Milk River area of southern Alberta, Canada. Based on previous work, they hypothesized that the minettes were derived from a source containing phlogopite + clinopyroxene ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. To test this hypothesis, liquidus experiments were performed on a primitive minette between 1.33 and 2.21 GPa and between 1,300 and 1,400 °C to constrain the mineralogy of its source region. We found a multiple saturation point along the liquidus at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C, where the liquid coexists with orthopyroxene and olivine. Neither phlogopite nor clinopyroxene were found to be liquidus phases, which is inconsistent with Buhlmann et al.'s hypothesis. We suggest that our minette is not primary, but had re-equilibrated with harzburgitic mantle subsequent to formation. In such a scenario, partial melting of a veined source containing mica and clinopyroxene occurred at or near the base of the Wyoming craton (~200 km). Minimal heating or the introduction of hydrous fluids into the source would be required to induce partial melting. Rapid ascent rates, coupled with slow cooling rates, of the "primary minette magma" would preserve the high temperature observed in our experiments. At ~58 km, our "primary minette magma" likely stalled and re-equilibrated with the harzburgite surroundings.

  12. The development of the ''Sleeping Giant'' deep basin natural gas, Alberta Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.L.

    1984-02-01

    During the past seven years attention has been focused on ''mega'' projects and the frontier areas for continental energy self sufficiency. However, a giant conventional resource project has been developing without fanfare. This project has potential impact on the well being of Canada and the North American energy scene. This ''Sleeping Giant'', which delivered its initial sales gas on November 1, 1979 is the Alberta (Elmworth) Deep Basin. The project area covers 67,400 square km (26,000 square miles) and contains potentially hydrocarbon bearing sediments over a thickness of 4,572 meters (15,000 feet). This basin is best equated in terms of size and reserves to the famous San Juan Basin. Since its discovery in 1976 approximately 1,000 multi-zoned gas wells have been drilled and reserves in the order of 140,000 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/ (5 trillion cubic feet) have been recognized by gas purchasers. Ten gas plants have been constructed with capacity of roughly 28,174 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ (1 billion cubic feet) per day. This paper documents the development of these reserves and the stages in the construction of field facilities.

  13. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages. PMID:18815827

  14. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  15. Thermally Released Arsenic in Porewater from Sediments in the Cold Lake Area of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) in aquifers in close proximity to in situ oil sands extraction in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada is attributed to high temperature steam (~200 °C) injected into oil sands deposits to liquefy bitumen. Heat propagated from hot injection wells alters physicochemical properties of the surrounding sediments and associated porewater. Seven sediments from four different cores drilled up to ~300 m depth collected from different locations in the area were used to study the thermal effect (~200 °C) on As distribution in the sediments and its release into porewater. Sediments were moistened with synthetic aquifer or deionized water according to the moisture regimes present in aquitard, aquifer and fractured zones. Heat application greatly released As in the porewater (500-5200 and 1200-6600 μg L(-1)) from aquifer and fractured sediments, respectively. Mass balance of As chemical fractionation showed that ~89-100% of As in porewater was released from exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As in the sediments. Heat application also altered As distribution in the sediments releasing As from exchange surfaces and amorphous Fe oxides to soluble As fraction. The results provide great insight into As release mechanisms warranting development of strategies to mitigate groundwater As contamination during industrial operation. PMID:26839972

  16. Exploring the process of capacity-building among community-based health promotion workers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Genevieve R; Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Mayan, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Community capacity-building is a central element to health promotion. While capacity-building features, domains and relationships to program sustainability have been well examined, information on the process of capacity-building as experienced by practitioners is needed. This study examined this process as experienced by coordinators working within a community-based chronic disease prevention project implemented in four communities in Alberta (Canada) from 2005-2010 using a case study approach with a mixed-method design. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, a focus group and program documents tracking coordinator activity. Qualitative analysis followed the constant comparative method using open, axial and selective coding. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequency of major activity distribution. Capacity-building process involves distinct stages of networking, information exchange, partnering, prioritizing, planning/implementing and supporting/ sustaining. Stages are incremental though not always linear. Contextual factors exert a great influence on the process. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23445941

  17. Melting phase relations of a mica-clinopyroxenite from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2013-08-01

    Melting experiments were conducted on a mica-clinopyroxenite xenolith brought up in a minette dyke in southern Alberta, Canada, near Milk River. Both the minettes and mica-clinopyroxenite xenoliths were studied by Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37:1629-1650, 2000), who hypothesized that the minettes formed by partial melting of a mantle source containing clinopyroxene + phlogopite ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. In liquidus experiments performed on the most primitive minette in our previous study (Funk and Luth in Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:999-1009, 2012), we found a multiple saturation point where olivine and orthopyroxene coexisted with liquid at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C. We argued that the minette originally formed by partial melting of clinopyroxene + phlogopite, but had re-equilibrated with a harzburgite during ascent. In the current study, we wanted to test both the source region hypothesis of Buhlmann et al. and our re-equilibration hypothesis by studying the near-solidus phase equilibria of a mica + clinopyroxene assemblage. We found the solidus for our xenolith has a steep slope in P-T space and lies at temperatures above those of a normal cratonic geotherm, implying that this mica-clinopyroxenite is stable in the cratonic mantle. Melting could occur at greater depths, where the solidus is extrapolated to cross the geotherm or must be induced either by raising the temperatures of the surrounding rocks or by introducing hydrous fluids into the source. Our melts are in equilibrium with clinopyroxene and olivine. The compositions of the liquids derived from melting this xenolith are similar to madupitic lamproites from the Leucite Hills, Wyoming, studied by Carmichael (Contrib Mineral Petrol 15:24-66, 1967) and Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:41-49, 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979). Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979) proposed that the madupitic lamproites may have come from a source containing mica

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  19. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  20. Skull Ecomorphology of Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6–8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4–7 million km2) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which–dietary niche partitioning–forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  1. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  2. Carbon Isotope Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting Gas From Domestic Water Wells From petroleum Fields of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, K.; Tilley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sixty years of petroleum development has resulted in over 500,000 petroleum wells drilled in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, many in agricultural areas that rely on groundwater (GW). The impact on GW quality by petroleum development is increasingly becoming a societal and regulatory concern triggered by intensive, recent CBM development. To protect GW the production tubing of a resource well is encased by a larger diameter surface casing (SCV) that is set deeper than the depth of potable water. Because of poor cementing the SCVs and soils near the wells often contain gas heightening concern for integrity of GW. Carbon isotope analyses of thousands of SCV gases shows them only rarely to be sourced from the target zone of the resource well, but rather from an intermediate depth. It has long been known that many water wells produce methane and traces of ethane and it needs to be determined if the water wells have been impacted. Alberta now requires all water wells to be tested prior to drilling of nearby resource wells. Carbon isotope analyses are mandated on a proportion of all gases produced by water wells and many hundreds of gas analyses will be placed in a public data base. Carbon isotope values of gases vary within the basin and can be used to quantify natural gas contamination of GW. Two case studies will be presented where landowners have filed complaints about gas contamination of their water wells. Attributing specific contaminant sources to a given resource well has proven to be difficult in areas where there is ongoing CBM development. However, in one area, the problem gas can be attributed to previous conventional petroleum development rather than the current CBM drilling and production. Carbon isotope analyses of water wells in another area suggest a few per cent of CBM contamination in water wells. Unfortunately, lack of pre-drilling background water data prevents reliable quantification of the contamination.

  3. Rainfall-Runoff Dynamics Following Wildfire in Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Alberta, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.; Anderson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Severe wildfire has been shown to increase the magnitude and advance the timing of rainfall-generated stormflows across a range of hydro-climate regions. Loss of canopy and forest floor interception results in increased net precipitation which, along with the removal of forest organic layers and increased shorter-term water repellency, can result in strongly increased surface flow pathways and efficient routing of precipitation to streams. These abrupt changes have the potential to exacerbate flood impacts and alter the timing of runoff delivery to streams. However, while these effects are well documented in drier temperate mountain regions, changes in post-fire rainfall-runoff processes are less well understood in colder, more northern, snowfall dominated regimes. The objectives of this study are to explore longer term precipitation and runoff dynamics of burned and unburned (reference) watersheds from the Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the front-range Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada. Streamflow and precipitation were measured in 5 watersheds (3.7 - 10.4 km2) for 10 years following the wildfire (2005-2014). Measurements were collected from a dense network of meteorological and hydrometric stations. Stormflow volume, peak flow, time to peak flow, and total annual streamflow were compared between burned and reference streams. Event-based data were separated into 3 post-fire periods to detect changes in rainfall-runoff dynamics as vegetation regenerated. Despite large increases in post-fire snowpacks and net summer rainfall, rainfall-generated runoff from fire-affected watersheds was not large in comparison to that reported from more temperate snowfall-dominated Rocky Mountain hydrologic settings. High proportions of groundwater contribution to annual runoff regimes (as opposed to surface flow pathways) and groundwater storage were likely contributors to greater watershed resistance to wildfire effects

  4. The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a wildfire impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by wildfire on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on regional scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 wildfire including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of wildfire and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane regions where forest

  5. Bacteria and Composite Particles in the Glacier-Fed Systems of British Columbia and Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, D. C.; Hodder, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    In controlled environments, bacteria and suspended sediment particles are linked via the creation of a composite structure ("bacteria-sediment associations"; BSA), with associated effects on size, density and hydrodynamics. However, the presence of these particles, and their corresponding effect on sedimentary processes is not well documented in many environments. Here, we compile field data from 20 glacier-fed systems in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, to illustrate: 1) the presence, and (quantity) of bacteria-sediment associations; 2) the presence of in-situ composite particles and their associated settling velocities; 3) the simulated impact of bacteria-sediment associations on settling velocity via controlled manipulation in the laboratory. In general, a significant portion of the fine suspended sediment typical of these systems was associated with bacteria and/or present in a composite-form -- not as primary, individual particles. Four key findings include: 1) Along a 80 kilometre river transect, up to 40% of bacteria were associated with sediment particles; 2) Manipulation of bacteria concentration in the laboratory has revealed a positive relationship between sediment settling velocity, creation of composite particles and bacteria concentration; 3) Composite particles dominated the suspended sediment load among all 20 systems, especially for larger particles; and 4) Measurements reveal these composite particles are settling at rates significantly below that predicted by Stokes Law. The formation of composite particles is especially important in lakes where laminated sediments are used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction (varved), as bacteria can modulate the rate at which some of this sediment reaches the lake floor. These results highlight the importance of bacteria in Earth surface processes and, more specifically, the sediment dynamics within glacier-fed systems.

  6. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-12-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada's largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world's largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s-1 in background air to 62 s-1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994-2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

  7. Soil respiration in four different land use systems in north central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, Carmela B. M.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Chang, Scott X.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Sidders, Derek

    2010-03-01

    This study compares soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components in four land use types: agriculture, 2 and 9 year old hybrid poplar plantations, grassland, and a native aspen stand in north central Alberta, Canada, over a period of two growing seasons (2006 and 2007). The differences were examined with respect to substrate quality and quantity, fine root biomass, and nutrient availability, in addition to soil temperature and soil water content. Cumulative soil C loss via soil respiration averaged over the two growing seasons was (in decreasing order) 781, 551, 523, 502, and 428 g C m-2 for native aspen stand, 9 year old hybrid poplar plantation, grassland, agriculture and 2 year old hybrid poplar plantation, respectively. We found that ˜75% of soil respiration in the native aspen stand originated from the top 7.5-10 cm litter-fibric-humus layer. Seasonal heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration among the land uses ranged from 97 to 272 and 333 to 560 g C m-2, respectively, contributing up to 35% and 83% of total soil respiration, respectively. The variability in soil respiration across different land uses was explained mainly by site differences in soil temperature (88-94%). Soil respiration followed a pronounced seasonal trend: increasing during the growing season and converging to a minimum in the fall. Soil respiration under different land uses was influenced by (1) ecosystem C stock, (2) temperature sensitivity (Q10) of organic matter present, and (3) organic matter decomposability as indicated by the natural abundance of δ13C. Heterotrophic respiration was influenced by soil temperature, while autotrophic respiration was influenced by fine root biomass and nutrient (NO3- and P) availability. These results are useful in estimating potential responses of soil respiration and its components to future land management and climate change.

  8. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: Opportunities and Challenges. Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly, Ed.

    This document describes the outcome of a 1999 symposium that was convened to develop the goal, principles, key considerations, and administrative requirements for a student-improvement program in Alberta. Named the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI), this program is an extension of Alberta's accountability framework that has been in…

  9. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers. PMID:23863703

  10. Collocated comparisons of continuous and filter-based PM2.5 measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Percy, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collocated comparisons for three PM2.5 monitors were conducted from June 2011 to May 2013 at an air monitoring station in the residential area of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, a city located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Extremely cold winters (down to approximately −40°C) coupled with low PM2.5 concentrations present a challenge for continuous measurements. Both the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), operated at 40°C (i.e., TEOM40), and Synchronized Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate (SHARP, a Federal Equivalent Method [FEM]), were compared with a Partisol PM2.5 U.S. Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler. While hourly TEOM40 PM2.5 were consistently ~20–50% lower than that of SHARP, no statistically significant differences were found between the 24-hr averages for FRM and SHARP. Orthogonal regression (OR) equations derived from FRM and TEOM40 were used to adjust the TEOM40 (i.e., TEOMadj) and improve its agreement with FRM, particularly for the cold season. The 12-year-long hourly TEOMadj measurements from 1999 to 2011 based on the OR equations between SHARP and TEOM40 were derived from the 2-year (2011–2013) collocated measurements. The trend analysis combining both TEOMadj and SHARP measurements showed a statistically significant decrease in PM2.5 concentrations with a seasonal slope of −0.15 μg m−3 yr−1 from 1999 to 2014.Implications: Consistency in PM2.5 measurements are needed for trend analysis. Collocated comparison among the three PM2.5 monitors demonstrated the difference between FRM and TEOM, as well as between SHARP and TEOM. The orthogonal regressions equations can be applied to correct historical TEOM data to examine long-term trends within the network. PMID:26727574

  11. Euoplocephalus tutus and the Diversity of Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus. PMID:23690940

  12. Oil Sands Operations in Alberta, Canada: A large source of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Hayden, K.; Taha, Y. M.; Stroud, C.; Darlington, A. L.; Drollette, B.; Gordon, M.; Lee, P.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S.; Wang, D.; O'Brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Staebler, R. M.; Han, Y.; Tokarek, T. W.; Osthoff, H. D.; Makar, P.; Zhang, J.; Plata, D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the reaction products of emissions to the atmosphere from extraction of oil from unconventional sources in the oil sands (OS) region of Alberta, Canada. This study examines these reaction products, and in particular, the extent to which they form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which can significantly contribute to regional particulate matter formation. An aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. A broad suite of measurements were made during 22 flights, including organic aerosol mass and composition with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and organic aerosol gas-phase precursors by Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and off-line gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Large concentrations of organic aerosol were measured downwind of the OS region, which we show to be entirely secondary in nature. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that bitumen (the mined product) contains semi-volatile vapours in the C12-C18 range that will be emitted at ambient temperatures. When oxidized, these vapours form SOA with highly similar HR-ToF-AMS spectra to the SOA measured in the flights. Box modelling of the OS plume evolution indicated that the measured levels of traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not capable of accounting for the amount of SOA formed in OS plumes. This discrepancy is only reconciled in the model by including bitumen vapours along with their oxidation and condensation into the model. The concentration of bitumen vapours required to produce SOA matching observations is similar to that of traditional VOC precursors of SOA. It was further estimated that the cumulative SOA mass formation approximately 100 km downwind of the OS during these flights, and under these meteorological conditions was up to 82 tonnes/day. The combination of airborne measurements, laboratory experiments and box modelling indicated that semi

  13. Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document current commercial practices during long haul transport (≥400 km) of cattle in Alberta through surveys delivered to truck drivers (6,152 journeys that transported 290,362 animals). The live beef export industry to the United States (89% of all journeys) had a large influence on long haul transport. This was particularly true for fat cattle going to slaughter (82%) and backgrounded feeders going to feed yards (15%). Most drivers had either limited (31% with < 2 yr) or extensive (35% > 10 yr) experience hauling cattle. The type of tractors and trailers used most frequently were those with more number of axles (quad-axle trailers pulled with push tractors) because they can accommodate extra weight. Mean (± SD) distance travelled was 1,081 ± 343 km (maximum of 2,560 km) whereas time animals spent on truck averaged 15.9 ± 6.3 h with a maximum of 45 h. However, only 5% of all journeys were greater than 30 h. The most frequent cause of delay was at the Canada-United States border crossing due to paperwork and veterinary inspections. Border delays occurred on 77% of all journeys which had a mean of 1.3 ± 1.9 h and up to 15-h long. Driver rest stops and waiting to unload cattle at destination were the second most frequent and longest cause of delay. Ambient temperature across all journeys ranged from -42 to 45°C with a mean value of 18 ± 11.8°C while temperature variation within a journey was from 0 to 46°C with mean value of 15 ± 6.6°C. The proportion of dead, non-ambulatory, and lame cattle for all journeys was 0.011, 0.022, and 0.011%, respectively. The cattle transport industry showed compliance with federal regulations and to a lesser extent with recommendations. Findings showed extreme values and very large variability in transport conditions however further research is needed to assess their impact on animal welfare outcomes. Delays within the journey as a result of border crossing, weather conditions

  14. Atmospheric dry deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Fenn, Mark E; Percy, Kevin E

    2016-10-15

    Due to the potential ecological effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems from atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, this study was implemented to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs. Passive samplers were used to measure ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid/nitrous acid (HNO3/HONO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the AOSR. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in winter were higher than those in summer, while seasonal differences of NH3 and HNO3/HONO showed an opposite trend, with higher values in summer. Concentrations of NH3, NO2 and SO2 were high close to the emission sources (oil sands operations and urban areas). NH3 concentrations were also elevated in the southern portion of the domain indicating possible agricultural and urban emission sources to the southwest. HNO3, an oxidation endpoint, showed wider ranges of concentrations and a larger spatial extent. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3/HONO and SO2 from passive measurements and their monthly deposition velocities calculated by a multi-layer inference model (MLM) were used to calculate dry deposition of N and S. NH3 contributed the largest fraction of deposited N across the network, ranging between 0.70-1.25kgNha(-1)yr(-1), HNO3/HONO deposition ranged between 0.30-0.90kgNha(-1)yr(-1), and NO2 deposition between 0.03-0.70kgNha(-1)yr(-1). During the modeled period, average dry deposition of the inorganic gaseous N species ranged between 1.03 and 2.85kgNha(-1)yr(-1) and SO4-S deposition ranged between 0.26 and 2.04kgha(-1)yr(-1). Comparisons with co-measured ion exchange resin throughfall data (8.51kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) indicate that modeled dry deposition combined with measured wet deposition (1.37kgSha(-1)yr(-1)) underestimated S deposition. Gas phase NH3 (71%) and HNO3 plus NO2 (79%) dry deposition fluxes dominated the total deposition of NH4-N and NO3-N, respectively. PMID:27295600

  15. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-01

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  16. Travel-related carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria in Alberta, Canada: the first 3 years.

    PubMed

    Peirano, Gisele; Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Fuller, Jeff; Rubin, Joseph E; Pitout, Johann D D

    2014-05-01

    We describe here the characteristics of Alberta, Canada, patients with infections or colonizations with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during 2010 to 2013 that were linked to recent travel outside Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution, and isolates were characterized using PCR, sequencing, and multilocus sequencing typing. A broth mating study was used to assess the transferability of resistance plasmids, which were subsequently characterized. All the patients (n=12) included in our study had contact with a health care system while abroad. Most of the patients presented with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and were admitted to hospitals within weeks after their return to Alberta. Secondary spread occurred in 1 case, resulting in the death of another patient. The carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n=17) consisted of Escherichia coli (sequence type 101 [ST101], ST365, ST405, and ST410) with NDM-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST147, ST258, ST340, ST512, and ST972) with NDM-1, OXA-181, KPC-2, and KPC-3, Acinetobacter baumannii with OXA-23, Providencia rettgeri with NDM-1, Enterobacter cloacae with KPC-2, and Citrobacter freundii with NDM-1. The blaNDM-1 gene was associated with various narrow- (i.e., IncF) and broad- (i.e., IncA/C and IncL/M) host-range plasmids with different addiction factors. Our results show that NDM-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to a variety of sequence types with different plasmid scaffolds, are regularly imported from India into Alberta. Clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant in detecting bacteria with carbapenemases. PMID:24599977

  17. Travel-Related Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Alberta, Canada: the First 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Fuller, Jeff; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the characteristics of Alberta, Canada, patients with infections or colonizations with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during 2010 to 2013 that were linked to recent travel outside Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution, and isolates were characterized using PCR, sequencing, and multilocus sequencing typing. A broth mating study was used to assess the transferability of resistance plasmids, which were subsequently characterized. All the patients (n = 12) included in our study had contact with a health care system while abroad. Most of the patients presented with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and were admitted to hospitals within weeks after their return to Alberta. Secondary spread occurred in 1 case, resulting in the death of another patient. The carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n = 17) consisted of Escherichia coli (sequence type 101 [ST101], ST365, ST405, and ST410) with NDM-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST147, ST258, ST340, ST512, and ST972) with NDM-1, OXA-181, KPC-2, and KPC-3, Acinetobacter baumannii with OXA-23, Providencia rettgeri with NDM-1, Enterobacter cloacae with KPC-2, and Citrobacter freundii with NDM-1. The blaNDM-1 gene was associated with various narrow- (i.e., IncF) and broad- (i.e., IncA/C and IncL/M) host-range plasmids with different addiction factors. Our results show that NDM-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to a variety of sequence types with different plasmid scaffolds, are regularly imported from India into Alberta. Clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant in detecting bacteria with carbapenemases. PMID:24599977

  18. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  19. Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairy cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Mason, S; Pajor, E A; LeBlanc, S J; Orsel, K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence and distribution of foot lesions and associated cow- and herd-level risk factors in dairy cows in Alberta, Canada. Foot lesion data were recorded electronically by 7 hoof trimmers on 28,607 cows in 156 dairy farms from June 2009 to November 2012. Foot lesion prevalence estimates differed between farms that had the whole herd trimmed at once (≥80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=69 farms and 8,020 cows) and farms on which part of the herd was trimmed (selection of cows was determined by farmer and <80% of lactating cows were trimmed; n=87 and 20,587 cows). Estimates were consistently higher for the latter likely because farmers presumably prioritized lame cows in partial-herd trims. On farms with whole-herd trims, digital dermatitis was the most common lesion among all housing types, present in 15% of cows and 94% of herds. Sole ulcers and white line disease were detected in 6 and 4% of the cows and 92 and 93% of herds, respectively. Other infectious and claw horn lesions each affected 1 to 2% of cows and 62 to 78% of herds. Intraclass correlation coefficients for hoof trimmers ranged from 0.01 to 0.20 for all lesions, indicating some clustering of recorded lesions by trimmer. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including hoof trimmer as fixed and farm as random effects) for the 3 most frequently identified lesions. Prevalence of digital dermatitis decreased with increasing parity, but this effect interacted with days in milk (DIM); primiparous cows had higher odds of digital dermatitis in mid lactation (100-199 DIM) and late lactation (≥200 DIM) compared with cows at other stages of lactation. In contrast, prevalence of sole ulcers and white line disease increased with increasing parity; compared with cows in parity 1, those in parity 4 had 5 or 7 times higher odds of having these lesions, respectively. Cows in mid lactation and late lactation had higher

  20. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  1. Potential causes of differences between ground and surface air temperature warming across different ecozones in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1997-10-01

    Analysis and modelling of temperature anomalies from 25 selected deep wells in Alberta show that the differences between GST (ground surface temperature) warming for the northern Boreal Forest ecozone and the combined Prairie Grassland ecozone and Aspen Parkland transition region to the south occur during the latter half of this century. This corresponds with recent changes in surface albedo resulting from permanent land development in the northern areas and also to increases in natural forest fires in the past 20 years. Differences between GST and SAT (surface air temperature) warming are much higher in the Boreal Forest ecozone than in the Prairie Grassland ecozone and Aspen Parkland transition region. Various hypotheses which could account for the existing differences between the GST and SAT warming in the different ecozones of Alberta, and western Canada in general, are tested. Analysis of existing data on soil temperature, hydrological piezometric surfaces, snowfall and moisture patterns, and land clearing and forest fires, indicate that large areas of Alberta, characterised by anomalous GST warming, have experienced widespread changes to the surface landscape in this century. It is postulated that this has resulted in a lower surface albedo with a subsequent increase in the absorption of solar energy. Heat flow modelling shows that, after climatic SAT warming, permanent clearing of the land is the most effective and likely cause of the observed changes in the GST warming. The greater GST warming in the Boreal Forest ecozone in the latter half of this century is related to landscape change due to land development and increasing forest fire activity. It appears to account for a portion of the observed SAT warming in this region through a positive feedback loop with the overlying air. The anthropogenic effect on regional climatic warming through 20th century land clearing and landscape alteration requires further study. In future, more accurate quantification of

  2. Mid-Wisconsinan vertebrates and their environment from January Cave, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James A.

    1991-01-01

    January Cave, in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, has yielded vertebrate remains from a coprocenosis of mid-Wisconsinan-age. Taphonomic analysis indicates accumulation by raptors, mostly owls, and mammalian carnivores. The vertebrate record, together with pollen analysis, indicates that cool, dry conditions prevailed in an extensive tundra-like environment, with prairie elements in the valleys below. Thirty-four mammalian taxa have been recovered from January Cave. Today, some of these species (e.g., Lemmus sibiricus and Dicrostonyx torquatus) do not coexist with others (e.g., Cynomys sp., Mustela nigripes, Vulpes velox, and Lagurus curtatus). Therefore, the January Cave local fauna represents a "nonanalog" mammalian community characteristic of the late Pleistocene. It suggests that the region enjoyed an equable climate, with reduced climatic extremes but still cool, further supporting a mid-Wisconsinan age estimate for the fauna. It is the first major, small vertebrate fauna of its age to be reported from Alberta.

  3. Natural flow and water consumption in the Milk River basin, Montana and Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the differences between natural and nonnatural Milk River streamflow, to delineate and quantify the types and effects of water consumption on streamflow, and to refine the current computation procedure into one which computes and apportions natural flow. Water consumption consists principally of irrigated agriculture, municipal use, and evapotranspiration. Mean daily water consumption by irrigation ranged from 10 cu ft/sec to 26 cu ft/sec in the Canada part and from 6 cu ft/sec to 41 cu ft/sec in the US part. Two Canadian municipalities consume about 320 acre-ft and one US municipality consumes about 20 acre-ft yearly. Evaporation from the water surface comprises 80% 0 90% of the flow reduction in the Milk River attributed to total evapotranspiration. The current water-budget approach for computing natural flow of the Milk River where it reenters the US was refined into an interim procedure which includes allowances for man-induced consumption and a method for apportioning computed natural flow between the US and Canada. The refined procedure is considered interim because further study of flow routing, tributary inflow, and man-induced consumption is needed before a more accurate procedure for computing natural flow can be developed. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. PMID:26476065

  5. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes. PMID:27376846

  6. Cumulative impact of 40 years of industrial sulfur emissions on a forest soil in west-central Alberta (Canada).

    PubMed

    Prietzel, Jörg; Mayer, Bernhard; Legge, Allan H

    2004-11-01

    The impact of 40 years of sulfur (S) emissions from a sour gas processing plant in Alberta (Canada) on soil development, soil S pools, soil acidification, and stand nutrition at a pine (Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana) ecosystem was assessed by comparing ecologically analogous areas subjected to different S deposition levels. Sulfur isotope ratios showed that most deposited S was derived from the sour gas processing plant. The soil subjected to the highest S deposition contained 25.9 kmol S ha(-1) (uppermost 60 cm) compared to 12.5 kmol S ha(-1) or less at the analogues receiving low S deposition. The increase in soil S pools was caused by accumulation of organic S in the forest floor and accumulation of inorganic sulfate in the mineral soil. High S inputs resulted in topsoil acidification, depletion of exchangeable soil Ca2+ and Mg2+ pools by 50%, podzolization, and deterioration of N nutrition of the pine trees. PMID:15276281

  7. Exploration potential of the Mesozoic section in the outer Foothills, Waterton area, southwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, D.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Waterton Foothills (T1-8, R27W4-3W5M) indicates that the Alberta and lower Blairmore Groups hold hydrocarrbon potential near the south of the international border. Prospective units are sublitharenites-litharenties and lithic pebble conglomerates that range in thickness from 5 to 25 m. Thrust faults duplicate all or part of these units and can account for up to six repetitions of sandstone and conglomerate at one locality. Surface geological mapping at a scale of 1:50,000 formed the basis for the subsurface study. Subsurface information included 150 well logs, eight cores, and chip sampels from 18 wells. These data were used in a structural interpretation along with projected surface data and seismic. Structural geometires are shown by two balanced and palinspastically restored structural cross sections. Units within the Alberta and Blairmore groups have tested/showed oil, condensate, and gas throughout the study area. When put into a structural and stratigraphic framework, potential areas for hydrocarbon exploration can be delineated in the footwall of the Harland Lakes/Livingstone thrust where the Cardium sandstone has been shown to be well developed. Key hydrocarbon shows are confined to the same structural level in the Blairmore and Alberta groups (including the Beaver Mines, Cardium, and Blacksone formations and possibly the Cadomin Formation).

  8. Ground-level ozone in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, H.S.

    1999-11-01

    This literature review on ground-level ozone in Alberta begins with introductory sections on the precursors and products of ozone formation, the chemistry and meteorology of ozone, and atmospheric ozone models. The subsequent section reviews ozone data from ambient air quality monitoring stations in Alberta. The final section discusses trends in ozone concentrations in urban and rural areas of Alberta, human and environmental health effects of ozone, proposed national ambient objectives and Canada-wide standards for ground-level ozone, and options for an ozone concentration standard for Alberta. Appendices include an outline of air pollutant monitoring methods used in Alberta, lists of monitoring stations, and tables of monitoring results for nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds at Calgary and Edmonton sites.

  9. Ground-level ozone in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    This literature review on ground-level ozone in Alberta begins with introductory sections on the precursors and products of ozone formation, the chemistry and meteorology of ozone, and atmospheric ozone models. The subsequent section reviews ozone data from ambient air quality monitoring stations in Alberta. The final section discusses trends in ozone concentrations in urban and rural areas of Alberta, human and environmental health effects of ozone, proposed national ambient objectives and Canada-wide standards for ground-level ozone, and options for an ozone concentration standard for Alberta. Appendices include an outline of air pollutant monitoring methods used in Alberta, lists of monitoring stations, and tables of monitoring results for nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds at Calgary and Edmonton sites.

  10. Mapping groundwater storage variations with GRACE: a case study in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Rivera, Alfonso; Palombi, Dan; Smerdon, Brian

    2016-05-01

    The applicability of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to adequately represent broad-scale patterns of groundwater storage (GWS) variations and observed trends in groundwater-monitoring well levels (GWWL) is examined in the Canadian province of Alberta. GWS variations are derived over Alberta for the period 2002-2014 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models. Twelve mean monthly GWS variation maps are generated from the 139 monthly GWS variation grids to characterize the annual GWS variation pattern. These maps show that, overall, GWS increases from February to June, and decreases from July to October, and slightly increases from November to December. For 2002-2014, the GWS showed a positive trend which increases from west to east with a mean value of 12 mm/year over the province. The resulting GWS variations are validated using GWWLs in the province. For the purpose of validation, a GRACE total water storage (TWS)-based correlation criterion is introduced to identify groundwater wells which adequately represent the regional GWS variations. GWWLs at 36 wells were found to correlate with both the GRACE TWS and GWS variations. A factor f is defined to up-scale the GWWL variations at the identified wells to the GRACE-scale GWS variations. It is concluded that the GWS variations can be mapped by GRACE and the GLDAS models in some situations, thus demonstrating the conditions where GWS variations can be detected by GRACE in Alberta.

  11. Probable Ankylosaur Ossicles from the Middle Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of Northwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michael E.; Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    A sample of six probable fragmentary ankylosaur ossicles, collected from Cenomanian deposits of the Dunvegan Formation along the Peace River, represent one of the first dinosaurian skeletal fossils reported from pre-Santonian deposits in Alberta. Specimens were identified as ankylosaur by means of a palaeohistological analysis. The primary tissue is composed of zonal interwoven structural fibre bundles with irregularly-shaped lacunae, unlike the elongate lacunae of the secondary lamellar bone. The locality represents the most northerly Cenomanian occurrence of ankylosaur skeletal remains. Further fieldwork in under-examined areas of the province carries potential for additional finds. PMID:24816807

  12. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted. PMID:9267398

  13. Belly River Formation of western Alberta, Canada: anatomy of an emerging deep basin oil play

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.

    1989-03-01

    The Campanian Belly River Formation of western Alberta appears to form a largely bypassed deep basin type of oil play. In this setting hydrocarbons are found in lenticular fluvial reservoirs located upon folds or intersected by northwest-striking thrust faults and northeast-striking fractures. In the western fold and thrust belt, primary porosity is preserved within relatively thick and widespread grain-supported conglomerates. To the east, secondary porosity predominates in sandy lithofacies, and the best developed porosity is found proximal to fractures which enhanced fluid migration and grain dissolution. To the west, the unit exhibits progressive underpressuring, which reflects postorogenic sediment stripping combined with westward ground-water flow. A manifestation of the hydrodynamic regime is that many wells appear to have damaged Belly River zones because historically most exploration has been focused on deeper targets which require heavier mud weights. This style of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Belly River zone appears to cover several thousand square kilometers. The prior emphasis on deeper targets has also inhibited seismic delineation of Belly River reservoirs. Seismic acquisition must be designed to account for the relatively shallow depth and complex geometry of potential targets. Shear wave data appear to be a promising source of information in locating the distribution of reservoirs relative to fractures. The structural, depositional, diagenetic, and hydrodynamic development of the Belly River in western Alberta is similar to other clastic wedges formed during Laramide orogenic events. Thus, hydrocarbon accumulations may be anticipated in these other areas as well.

  14. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%-128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  15. Emission factors for hydraulically fractured gas wells derived using well- and battery-level reported data for Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tyner, David R; Johnson, Matthew R

    2014-12-16

    A comprehensive technical analysis of available industry-reported well activity and production data for Alberta in 2011 has been used to derive flaring, venting, and diesel combustion greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant emission factors specifically linked to drilling, completion, and operation of hydraulically fractured natural gas wells. Analysis revealed that in-line ("green") completions were used at approximately 53% of wells completed in 2011, and in other cases the majority (99.5%) of flowback gases were flared rather than vented. Comparisons with limited analogous data available in the literature revealed that reported total flared and vented natural gas volumes attributable to tight gas well-completions were ∼ 6 times larger than Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) estimates for natural gas well-completion based on wells ca. 2000, but 62% less than an equivalent emission factor that can be derived from U.S. EPA data. Newly derived emission factors for diesel combustion during well drilling and completion are thought to be among the first such data available in the open literature, where drilling-related emissions for tight gas wells drilled in Alberta in 2011 were found to have increased by a factor of 2.8 relative to a typical well drilled in Canada in 2000 due to increased drilling lengths. From well-by-well analysis of production phase flared, vented, and fuel usage natural gas volumes reported at 3846 operating tight gas wells in 2011, operational emission factors were developed. Overall results highlight the importance of operational phase GHG emissions at upstream well sites (including on-site natural gas fuel use), and the critical levels of uncertainty in current estimates of liquid unloading emissions. PMID:25402949

  16. Ozone trends estimated from Umkehr observations made at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Hare, E. W.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    A Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer has been in service at the Canadian ozone monitoring station at Stony Plain (53.55 deg N, 114.10 deg W), near Edmonton, Alberta, since 1984. During that time, the instrument has been operated in a fully automated mode that includes the collection of morning and evening Umkehr observations. Some 197 Umkehr observations have been analyzed to make an estimate of the temporal trend in ozone amount at high altitude over the station during the last 8 years. This work has shown that at 40 km the trend in the ozone concentration has been observed to be 0.14 plus or minus 0.10 percent per year.

  17. Twelve-year trends in ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a community of the Alberta Oil Sands Region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Spink, David

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air is one of a number of concerns that the First Nation Community of Fort McKay, Alberta has related to development of Canada's oil sands. An in-depth investigation of trends in ambient air VOC levels in Fort McKay was undertaken to better understand the role and possible significance of emissions from Alberta's oil sands development. A non-parametric trend detection method was used to investigate trends in emissions and ambient VOC concentrations over a 12-year (2001-2012) period. Relationships between ambient VOC concentrations and production indicators of oil sands operations around Fort McKay were also examined. A weak upward trend (significant at 90% confidence level) was found for ambient concentrations of total VOCs based on sixteen detected species with an annual increase of 0.64μg/m(3) (7.2%) per year (7.7μg/m(3) increase per decade). Indicators of production (i.e., annual bitumen production and mined oil sands quantities) were correlated with ambient total VOC concentrations. Only one of 29 VOC species evaluated (1-butene) showed a statistically significant upward trend (p=0.05). Observed geometric (arithmetic) mean and maximum ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern for most recent three years of the study period (2010-2012) were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-two VOCs are recommended for tracking in future air quality investigations in the community to better understand whether changes are occurring over time in relation to oil sands development activities and to inform policy makers about whether or not these changes warrant additional attention. PMID:26909813

  18. Do “Virtual” and “Outpatient” Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard; Heffernan, Courtney; Gao, Zhiwei; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Talbot, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB) elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a “virtual” model is attractive. However, whether “virtual” clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the “virtual” and “outpatient” public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population. Methods In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators. Findings In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively. Conclusions Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise

  19. Potential methane production and oxidation in soil reclamation covers of an oil sands mining site in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pum, Lisa; Reichenauer, Thomas; Germida, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities create a number of significant greenhouse gases and thus potentially contribute to global warming. Methane production is significant in some agricultural production systems and from wetlands. In soil, methane can be oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria. However, little is known about methane production and oxidation in oil sand reclamation covers. The purpose of this study was to investigate methane production and oxidation potential of tailing sands and six different reclamation layers of oil sands mining sites in Alberta, Canada. Methane production and oxidation potential were investigated in laboratory scale microcosms through continuous headspace analysis using gas chromatography. Samples from a reclamation layer were collected at the Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) reclamation site at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm in October 2014. In addition, tailing sands provided by Suncor Energy Inc. and soil from a CNRL wetland were studied for methane production. Samples were dried, crushed and sieved to 4 mm, packed into serum bottle microcosms and monitored for eight weeks. Methane production potential was assessed by providing an anoxic environment and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 100 %. Methane oxidation potential was examined by an initial application of 2 vol % methane to the microcosms and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 50 %. Microcosm headspace gas was analysed for methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and oxygen. All experiments were carried out in triplicates, including controls. SF6 and Helium were used as internal standards to detect potential leaks. Our results show differences for methane production potential between the soil depths, tailing sands and wetlands. Moreover, there were differences in the methane oxidation potential of substrate from the three depths investigated and between the reclamation layers. In conclusion, the present study shows that

  20. The Bow City structure, southern Alberta, Canada: The deep roots of a complex impact structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombick, Paul; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Xie, Wei; Bown, Todd; Hathway, Ben; Banks, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence is presented for a newly discovered, probable remnant complex impact structure. The structure, located near Bow City, southern Alberta, has no obvious morphological expression at surface. The geometry of the structure in the shallow subsurface, mapped using downhole geophysical well logs, is a semicircular structural depression approximately 8 km in diameter with a semicircular uplifted central region. Detailed subsurface mapping revealed evidence of localized duplication of stratigraphic section in the central uplift area and omission of strata within the surrounding annular region. Field mapping of outcrop confirmed an inlier of older rocks present within the center of the structure. Evidence of deformation along the eastern margin of the central uplift includes thrust faulting, folding, and steeply dipping bedding. Normal faults were mapped along the northern margin of the annular region. Isopach maps reveal that structural thickening and thinning were accommodated primarily within the Belly River Group. Evidence from legacy 2-D seismic data is consistent with the subsurface mapping and reveals additional insight into the geometry of the structure, including a series of listric normal faults in the annular region and complex faulting within the central uplift. The absence of any ejecta blanket, breccia, suevite, or melt sheet (based on available data) is consistent with the Bow City structure being the remnant of a deeply eroded, complex impact structure. Accordingly, the Bow City structure may provide rare access and insight into zones of deformation remaining beneath an excavated transient crater in stratified siliciclastic target rocks.

  1. Vegetation and soil water interactions on a tailings sand storage facility in the athabasca oil sands region of Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeth, M. A.; Chanasyk, D. S.; Burgers, T. D.

    The relationship between vegetation and soil water was studied on the Syncrude South West Sand Storage facility in the Athabasca Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. Soil water and relevant soil chemical and physical properties were measured at the soil surface, as well as above and below the reclamation soil and tailings sand interface, in areas of low and high vegetation cover. The interface between the reclamation soil and the tailings sand acted as a capillary barrier. Water content was highest under low vegetation cover but soil water conditions above field capacity were rare and unlikely to have impacted vegetation. Periods of water stress occurred, where volumetric water content was below wilting point; these periods were of short duration and generally typical of ecosystems in the study area. Differences in surface soil water between the two vegetation covers were attributed to evapotranspiration and/or canopy interception. Differences above and below the interface were attributed to variation in canopy cover at the surface and resulting quantities of water available for percolation through the soil profiles. At the interface of the reclamation soil and tailings sand, water movement was restricted. High and low canopy covers responded differently to precipitation events; low vegetation cover areas had greater fluctuations in volumetric water content at all depths. The occurrence of a capillary barrier effect will need to be accounted for in developing reclamation soil profiles.

  2. Watershed-scale response of groundwater recharge to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in precipitation (Alberta, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Farrow, Christopher R.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge sets a constraint on aquifer water balance in the context of water management. Historical data on groundwater and other relevant hydrological processes can be used to understand the effects of climatic variability on recharge, but such data sets are rare. The climate of the Canadian prairies is characterized by large inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in precipitation, which provides opportunities to examine the response of groundwater recharge to changes in meteorological conditions. A decadal study was conducted in a small (250 km2) prairie watershed in Alberta, Canada. Relative magnitude of annual recharge, indicated by water-level rise, was significantly correlated with a combination of growing-season precipitation and snowmelt runoff, which drives depression-focussed infiltration of meltwater. Annual precipitation was greater than vapour flux at an experimental site in some years and smaller in other years. On average precipitation minus vapour flux was 10 mm y-1, which was comparable to the magnitude of watershed-scale groundwater recharge estimated from creek baseflow. Average baseflow showed a distinct shift from a low value (4 mm y-1) in 1982-1995 to a high value (15 mm y-1) in 2003-2013, indicating the sensitivity of groundwater recharge to a decadal-scale variability of meteorological conditions.

  3. Presence of natural and anthropogenic organic contaminants and potential fish health impacts along two river gradients in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Ken M; Jackson, Leland J; Ikonomou, Michael G; Habibi, Hamid R

    2010-10-01

    In the current study, 28 organic contaminants were measured, many with estrogen-like activity, in water collected from 16 sites on two rivers in the South Saskatchewan River Basin, Alberta, Canada. The compounds detected included synthetic estrogens (birth control pill compounds and hormone therapy drugs) downstream of municipal wastewater effluents and natural hormones downstream of municipal wastewater effluents and in agricultural areas. Greater concentrations of cholesterol and derivatives, phytosterols, and fecal sterols were measured at the most downstream sites, which indicates cumulative inputs of such compounds in these rivers. A native minnow (longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae) was sampled to assess pathophysiological responses to exposure to compounds with estrogen-like activity. Hepatic vitellogenin protein was detected in at least one adult male longnose dace from 14 of 15 sites sampled for fish. Vitellogenin was negatively correlated with hepatosomatic (r = -0.47, p < 0.001) and gonadosomatic (r = -0.44, p < 0.003) indices, which suggests potential health impacts in male longnose dace in the South Saskatchewan River Basin. The current study demonstrates that organic contaminants, many with estrogen-like activity, are distributed over hundreds of kilometers throughout the South Saskatchewan River Basin and not just downstream of major point-sources. Therefore, many activities within these basins impact water quality in the South Saskatchewan River Basin and affect endemic longnose dace populations. PMID:20872703

  4. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes. PMID:19875156

  5. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-01

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs. PMID:26115178

  6. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada’s largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world’s largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s−1 in background air to 62 s−1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994–2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene. PMID:25685050

  7. Application of reservoir geology of enhanced oil recovery from upper Devonian Nisku Reefs, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, N.R. ); Coppold, M.P. , Calgary, Alberta ); Douglas, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Devonian West Pembina reef trend of west-central Alberta contains recoverable reserves of over 79 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (500 million bbl) of oil and 1.4 x 10[sup 10] m[sup 3] (500 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas within approximately 50 pinnacle reefs in the Nisku Formation. Although the oil is saturated with gas at original reservoir pressure, primary depletion would soon lower the reservoir pressure below the bubble point, decreasing recovery. Thus, pressure maintenance is applied early in the producing life of the pools through waterflood or miscible flood schemes. Selection of the appropriate enhanced recovery scheme depends upon the internal flow-unit geometry of the reefs. The Bigoray Nisku C pool and the Pembina Nisku L pool form end members of the reservoir spectrum. They can be used as flow-unit models in the geological input for reservoir simulation studies. The Bigoray Nisku C pool is dominantly limestone. The primary textures, well perserved in this reef, provide the key to interpreting the relict textures in fully dolomitized reefs. Due to the presence of horizontal permeability barriers associated with the limestone lithology, the pool is developed with a waterflood displacement scheme. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be on the order of 0.55 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (3.5 million bbl) or 46% or original oil in place (OOIP). The Pembina Nisku L pool is a completely dolomitized reef. In contrast to the Bigoray Nisku C pool, the complete dolomitization reduces the number of generic reservoir flow units observed in the L pool reef from six to three. Due to the excellent reservoir quality and absence of horizontal permeability barriers, it is being exploited by a vertical miscible flood. The Nisku L pool is one of the largest pinnacle reefs discovered in the Nisku reef fairway and contains an estimated 5 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (31 million bbl) OOIP. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be approximately 4.1 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (25.8 million bbl) or 82% of OOIP.

  8. Eight-year (2007-2014) trends in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-05-01

    Currently there have been questions about ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada. An investigation of temporal trends in PM2.5 and its chemical components was undertaken in the City of Edmonton within the Capital Region over an 8-year period (2007-2014). A non-parametric trend detection method was adopted to characterize trends in ambient concentrations. No statistically significant change was observed for ambient PM2.5 concentrations during 2007-2014, while significant decreasing trends were found for organic carbon, elemental carbon, oxalate, barium, lead and cadmium. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for sodium chloride indicating an increase of de-icing salt contribution for winter road maintenance in recent years. Concentrations of potassium ion and zinc exhibited strong and significant seasonal variability with higher concentrations in winter than in summer likely reflecting wood smoke origins more than other potential sources in Edmonton and the surrounding region. No statistically significant changes were observed for all other chemical components examined. Notwithstanding robust population growth that has occurred in Edmonton, these findings reveal that particulate air quality and corresponding trace elements in Edmonton's air has been unchanged or improved over the investigated period (2007-2014). Longer-term air quality monitoring at least over several decades is needed to establish whether trends reported here are actually occurring. PMID:26949866

  9. Chemical evolution of groundwater in a drainage basin of Holocene age, east-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallick, E. I.

    1981-12-01

    Chemical evolution of groundwater in a small drainage basin of glacial origin (10,250 yr. B.P., based on radiocarbon age dating of gyttja from a closed saline lake in the basin) was studied in order to understand the generation of salts in surface-mined areas on the interior plains of Alberta. The basin was considered to be a natural analogue of a surface-disturbed area because of the large volumes of rock that had been redistributed by glaciers with the resulting change in topography and drainage. The distributions of hydraulic head, total dissolved solids (TDS), and environmental isotopes essentially reflect the superimposition of groundwater flow systems associated with the post-glacial topography upon a regional bedrock flow system of older but undertermined age. In the glacial drift aquifers and aquitards (sands and till), the groundwater composition was typically Ca-Mg-bicarbonate type at depths less than 30 m, but at depths of 30-100 m, the composition was Na-bicarbonate-sulfate type. In the deeper bedrock aquifers (> 100 m), Nabicarbonate-sulfate and Na-bicarbonate-chloride types were present. TDS was as low as 400 mg/l in the shallow drift aquifer, generally constant at ˜1000 mg/l in the deep drift and shallow bedrock aquifer, and over 1700 mg/l in the deep bedrock aquifer system. Chemical evolution of groundwater in the area appears to be dominated by two depth zones having different types of water-rock interaction. In the shallow drift zone, the dissolution of soil CO 2 in infiltrating groundwater, oxidation of organic carbon, sulfur and pyrite result in the formation of carbonic and sulfuric acids that attack carbonate and silicate minerals. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, these minerals were calcite, dolomite, plagioclase feldspar, and smectite clays. However, in the deep regional bedrock aquifer, conditions are reducing (presence of methane), groundwater is alkaline (pH 8.6-10.3), and the Na-bicarbonate-chloride composition of groundwater

  10. Spatial Analysis of Factors Influencing Long-Term Stress in the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Cattet, Marc R. L.; Darimont, Chris T.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  11. Dissolved organic carbon in a constructed and natural fens in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Bhupesh; Munir, Tariq M; Strack, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, peatlands are disturbed extensively in order to recover bitumen below the surface. Hence, following oil sands mining, landscape reclamation is a part of the mine closure process in order to return functioning ecosystems, including peatlands, to the region. This study was conducted at a pilot fen reclamation project and three other diverse natural (poor, rich and saline) fens in the oil sands region during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014, the first and second year post-construction. Ecosystem functioning of the constructed fen (CF) was evaluated with reference to natural fens based on pore water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chemistry. Significant variation of DOC concentration among the reference fens was observed, varying from an average of 42.0mg/L at the rich fen (RF) to 70.8mg/L at the saline fen (SF). Dissolved organic carbon concentration at CF was significantly lower than at all reference fens, but increased significantly over the first two years. Seasonal variation of DOC concentration was also observed in each site with concentration increasing over the growing season. At CF, DOC was comprised of larger, more humic and complex aromatic compounds than reference fens in the first year post-construction based on its spectrophotometric properties; however, these differences were reduced in the second year. Initial DOC concentration and chemistry at CF was indicative of the source being largely the peat placed during fen construction. Changes in chemistry and increasing concentration of DOC in the second growing season likely resulted from increasing inputs from plants established on site. These results suggest that DOC concentration is likely to increase in future at CF as vascular plant productivity increases and in response to salinity sourced from tailing sand used to construct the catchment. PMID:27037879

  12. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  13. A Comprehensive Land-Use/Hydrological Modeling System for Scenario Simulations in the Elbow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J.

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km2 and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  14. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kindzierski, Warren; Kaul, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI) are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI) hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5)) on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999–2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution–health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1) only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average), but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2) evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction), but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction); and (3) susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65) and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets. PMID:26167938

  15. Sulfide formation in reservoir carbonates of the Devonian Nisku Formation, Alberta, Canada: An ion microprobe study

    SciTech Connect

    Riciputi, L.R.; Cole, D.R.; Machel, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    The processes affecting sulfur during diagenesis in carbonates have been investigated by ion microprobe analysis of {sigma} {sup 34}S values of pyrite, marcasite, and anhydrite from the Devonian Nisku Formation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Pyrite and marcasite from three Nisku wells have {sigma}{sup 34}S ranging between -35 and +20{per_thousand}. The {sigma}{sup 34}S values increase b6y up to 50{per_thousand} with increasing well depth in two different Nisku wells, and {sigma}{sup 34}S also increases by up to 15{per_thousand} as grain size increases form 40 to over 100 {mu}m in individual samples. The appearance of native sulfur is accompanied by an increase of up to 30{per_thousand} in pyrite {sigma}{sup 34}S values. Bulk and ion probe analyses of anhydrite are relatively uniform ({sigma}{sup 34}S = +22 to +30{per_thousand} CDT). The predominately low {sigma}{sup 34}S values of Nisku sulfides indicate bacterial sulfate reduction. Textural relations indicate that Fe-sulfide formation in Nisku carbonates may have occurred by two different mechanisms. Much of the sulfide has {sigma}{sup 34}S values that suggest that it was associated with bacterial sulfate reduction, although most Fe-sulfides did not form until after pervasive matrix dolomitization (depths of 300-1000 m). Other sulfide may have formed later, during deep ({approximately}4km) burial via thermochemical sulfate reduction. The range in {sigma}{sup 34}S values in a single thin section and correlations between pyrite morphology and isotopic values suggest that sulfate reduction was a very localized process, and that the sulfate reduction environment varied considerably on a small scale. 61 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Groundwater baseline sampling programs designed to identify potential leakage from unconventional gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of natural gas exploitation from unconventional reservoirs including coalbed methane and shale gas plays, there is significant public concern about potential future contamination of shallow potable groundwater with stray gases, formation waters or chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. In order to enable a scientifically sound assessment of potential future deterioration of freshwater resources in shallow aquifers, it is essential to first establish and understand the current baseline of groundwater quality including its dissolved or free gases. Since 2006, we have conducted monitoring programs determining the chemical and isotopic compositions of water, its dissolved constituents, and of gases obtained from shallow groundwater and formation fluids collected from coalbed methane and shale gas plays in Western Canada. For groundwater samples, we placed special emphasis on determining the sources of dissolved and free gases using isotope techniques to assess whether gases produced from shale gas plays or potentially leaking from the intermediate zone are isotopically distinct from those in shallow aquifers. Methane and ethane in free gas samples obtained from shallow aquifers (n = 24) were found to have mean δ13C values of -72.4 ‰ and -50.2 ‰, respectively. These values are markedly different from the much higher δ13C values of methane and ethane in deeper portions of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and in shale gas plays. Therefore, it appears highly feasible to identify potential gas leakage from unconventional gas plays provided that baseline data for shallow groundwater have been determined. Repeat baseline sampling of free gas from selected wells revealed a comparatively low variability of δ13C values of methane and ethane of usually < 2 ‰ over periods of several years, suggesting that it is not necessary to conduct baseline analyses more than three times. Also, δ13C values of methane in free gas samples and

  17. Snow dynamics and water fluxes within a constructed watershed in Northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcheson, S. J.; Price, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The most important aspect to consider during the development of reclamation soil covers and constructed watershed designs is the influence of the regional climate and the availability of water to recharge systems, which is driven by the difference between precipitation (P) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). Snowfall represents ~25% of P in the sub-humid climate of the Western Boreal Plains region of Canada (WBP) where, in most years, potential evapotranspiration (PET) slightly exceeds P. Despite the importance of water availability, few studies focus on the distribution of snow and, hence, the storage of winter precipitation in reclaimed oil sands landscapes in the WBP. In this study, the distribution, ablation and fate of snowmelt waters are quantified within a constructed ecosystem in a post-extraction oil sands environment in the WBP. Field measurements made during March/April 2013 indicated that snow depth was the greatest at changes in slope, which suggests that wind redistribution was a dominant control on snow distribution. Basin-averaged peak snow water equivalence (SWE) was 100 mm, but varied depending upon the presence (109 mm SWE) or absence (85 mm SWE) of vegetation. Over-winter accumulation of dust layers within the snowpack caused increased ablation rates when exposed at the melting surface, which decreased the snow surface albedo and subsequently increased the absorption of shortwave radiation. Similarly, vegetation presence and height (as influenced by time since reclamation/revegetation) also influenced ablation rates via increased absorption of shortwave radiation upon emergence of vegetation stems and branches from the snowpack. Recharge to aquifers within the constructed watershed was minimal, as the presence of ground frost constrained infiltration of snowmelt water. Accordingly, substantial surface runoff was observed from all reclaimed slopes, including those designed to reduce runoff and increase water storage, which indicates the

  18. Contributing towards a conceptual model of soil-landscape co-evolution: observations from historic mining sites in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Naeth, Anne; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    At the former Diplomat Mine near Forestburg, Alberta, Canada we find a diverse soil landscape which can help to conceptualize factors and processes controlling initial pedogenesis and soil distribution on very young landforms in prairie environments. Due to differing reclamation practices in the 1950s and landslides occurring after spoil dumping, four areas can be distinguished by GoogleMaps/LiDAR evaluation and onsite field survey: (i) not-mined, (ii) stock piled and unreclaimed, (iii) stock piled and reclaimed and (iv) affected by post-mining geomorphodynamics and quasi-natural redeposition. The parent material for areas (ii) to (iv) was initially dumped by spreaders but only (ii) didn't undergo further change. Landscape (iii) has seen levelling of the piles by heavy machinery. Features of landscape (iv) are formed by reshaping the originally dumped and levelled structures. This last landscape unit marks the rim of the former mine adjacent to the river valley. In practice, mining activities formed new valley slopes. In contrast to the naturally developed slopes the mine slopes were less stable. Vegetation, which could have hindered slope wash erosion, was missing after dumping the spoil slopes. Slopes were very steep (or practically undercut) and therefore, substrates were naturally re-located by mass movements such as sliding and slumping. Characteristic sliding and slumping structures can be identified in the close-ups of the LiDAR images. Both processes, mass movement and slope wash erosion, may have overlapped. Landscape (ii) is the most contrasting one. Dumped stock piles formed elongated, curved and steep ridges. These landforms do not have a natural analogue but clearly show their technological origin. Most interesting are differences in vegetation. South and southwest facing slopes are covered with grassland whereas north and northeast facing slopes are covered with aspen trees. Some of the ditches are filled with water and form small elongated ponds. The

  19. Impacts of Wildfire on Interception Losses and Net Precipitation in a Sub-Alpine Rocky Mountain Watershed in Alberta, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Silins, U.; Wagner, M. J.; Bladon, K. D.; Martens, A. M.; Anderson, A.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Interception of precipitation in sub-alpine forests is likely to be strongly reduced after wildfire, potentially producing large increases in net precipitation. Objectives of this study were to describe changes in rainfall and snow interception, and net precipitation after the severe 2003 Lost Creek wildfire as part of the Southern Rockies Watershed Project in the south-west Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. Throughfall troughs and stemflow gauges were used to explore relationships between throughfall, stemflow, and net rainfall with variation in gross rainfall in burned and undisturbed stands during the summers of 2006-2008. These relationships were used to scale the effects of the wildfire on net rainfall for the first decade after the wildfire (2004-2013) using a 10 year rainfall record in the watershed. Annual snowpack surveys (5 snow courses in each of burned and reference stands) measured peak snowpack depth, density, and snow water equivalent (SWE) for this same period. Mean annual P was 1140 mm (684-1519 mm) during the first 10 years after the wildfire, with 61% falling as snow. Throughfall and stemflow in the burned forest accounted for 86% and 7% of gross rainfall, respectively, compared with 53% and 0.002% in the unburned stands in the summers of 2006-2008. Scaled rainfall interception relationships (=f(rainfall event size)) indicated annual increases in net rainfall were 192 mm/yr (133-347 mm) for 10 years after the fire. Similarly, mean increases in peak SWE were 134 mm/yr (93-216 mm). Collectively, the mean increase in net precipitation was 325 mm/yr (226-563 mm; 29%) for the first decade after the wildfire. Hydrologic forcing by increased net precipitation may be a particularly important element of wildfire impacts on sub-alpine watersheds. Furthermore, because of the very slow growth rates of sub-alpine forests, increases in net precipitation are likely to persist and affect precipitation-runoff relationships for decades in these environments.

  20. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  1. Alberta Education's Computer Technology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Jim

    This description of activities initiated through the Computer Technology Project of the provincial education ministry in Alberta, Canada, covers the 2-year period beginning with establishment of the project by the Alberta Department of Education in October 1981. Activities described include: (1) the establishment of the Office of Educational…

  2. A 10-Year Population Based Study of ‘Opt-Out’ HIV Testing of Tuberculosis Patients in Alberta, Canada: National Implications

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard; Niruban, Selvanayagam; Heffernan, Courtney; Cooper, Ryan; Fisher, Dina; Ahmed, Rabia; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Fur, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB) patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally. Methods The experience of “opt-out” HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003–2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the “opt-out” approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection. Results HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of “opt-out” testing. During the “opt-out” testing years those <15 or >64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15–64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35–64 years), Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads) at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another. Conclusion “Opt-out” HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested) has immediate (patients) and longer-term (TB/HIV program

  3. Biological N2-fixation in Boreal Peatlands of Alberta Canada Following Acute N-Deposition: Down-Regulation and Subsequent Post-Recovery Projections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vile, M. A.; Fillingim, H.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, boreal peatlands cover a mere 3-4 % of the Earth's land surface, yet store ~ 30% of the world's soil carbon and ~9-16% of global soil nitrogen. Biological N2-fixation is the primary input of new nitrogen (N) to bogs in Alberta. We have demonstrated that this process is down regulated in the presence of enhanced atmospheric N deposition such as that from the growing Oil Sands Mining Operations in northern Alberta Canada. An important question for understanding the long term function of bogs in Alberta is whether N2-fixation can recover upon cessation of N pollution, and if so, how quickly? Here we present our preliminary findings in pursuit of this question. We measured rates of biological N2-fixation using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA), with subsequent calibration using 15N2 on separate, but paired incubations. Sphagnum fuscum from bogs at two different sites from northern Alberta were incubated over the course of 3 years, in 3 experimentally added treatments in the field; controls, plots receiving no added N and no water, water only treatments (no added N), and plots that were fertilized with N at a rate of 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1, and plots which had been fertilized with 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1in 2012-2013, but not since. In 2014, the rates of N2-fixation in the 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1plots and the recovering 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1plots were not significantly different, but both were significantly lower than the controls (p<0.05). In 2015, control plots had significantly higher rates of N2-fixation than the plots that had previously received 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1 in 2012 and 2013, and the plots that had not received 20 kg·ha-1·yr-1 since 2013 had significantly higher rates of biological N2-fixation. These data suggest that in a low atmospheric N deposition scenario, and over a short time frame, peatlands of northern Alberta may be able to recover from chronic atmospheric N deposition.

  4. The Impact of Wildland and Structure Fire Smoke on Ambient Pollution Levels in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    An unprecedented wildfire impacted the northern Alberta city of Fort McMurray in May 2016 causing a mandatory evacuation of all residents and resulted in the loss of over 2,400 homes and businesses. An estimated two hectare wildfire was first discovered on May 1 by a fire patrol...

  5. Use of Seismic and Magnetic Surveys in a Regional Geophysical Study for Geothermal Exploration in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I.

    2012-12-01

    NE Alberta hosts many producing oil sand projects. These projects require large amounts of thermal energy to produce most of which is currently provided by burning natural gas; and this increases the greenhouse gas footprint to producing such hydrocarbons. One possible solution is to instead use geothermal heat directly with hot fluids produced using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). Geothermal exploration always starts with broad geological structure reconnaissance of the area. Unfortunately, the larger geological context particularly beneath those relatively shallow depths (typically less than 400 m) of interest to hydrocarbon exploration, is still poorly understood. As such, we have selected a rectangular area of 22000 km2 extending across 56.25 to 57.12N and 111.92 to 113.52W that we refer to as the Athabasca region. . The main two categories of data which are in used consist of over 600 km seismic reflection profiles and 22,000 km2 high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. Also there is a large amount of available well-logs from 1,000 boreholes in this area that have a key role in interpretation of seismic profiles. These integrated data sets are used for outlining sedimentary basin, mapping geological formation tops, locating fault zones and other structural lineaments, finding true depth of metamorphic basement and Curie point, and finally building a geological model of the region. To date all the formation tops are mapped through the area and picked on the seismic profiles. HRAM data is gridded using minimum curvature method. Some structural lineaments are picked on the HRAM data including a great NE-SW fault zone which is in agreement with seismic and well-logs. Additionally, the region hosts interesting geological features such as channels, pinnacle reefs and unconformities that are distinguishable on seismic profiles. Any of these findings help us to get a better view of the region for geothermal exploration.

  6. Images in Transition. Proceedings of the Annual Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) Conference (3rd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 24-26, 1992) and the Canadian Symposium on Gifted Education (6th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This document presents the conference proceedings of the primary stakeholders in gifted education in Alberta (Canada): "Activities in Math for the Gifted Student" (Ballheim); "The Self Awareness Growth Experiences Approach" (Balogun); "Computer Simulations: An Integrating Tool" (Bilan); "The Portrayal of Gifted Children in Children's Books"…

  7. The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Supply Variability on the Delivered Price to a Biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, Jamie; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Sowlati, T.; Kloeck, T.; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly over the 20 25 year lifetime of a biorefinery. Since delivered price of biomass feedstock to a biorefinery is related to the distance travelled and equipment optimization, and transportation distance increases as productivity decreases, productivity is a primary determinant of feedstock price. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) modeling environment and a standard round bale harvest and delivery scenario, harvest and delivery price were modelled for minimum, average, and maximum yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 tonnes per year. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be combined with a polynomial harvest function to create a generalized delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The range in delivered cost is substantial and is an important consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery.

  8. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, J. M.; Sauchyn, D.; Luckman, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with 1) a generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow, and 2) a 900-year tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record.

  9. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    PubMed Central

    Sauchyn, David J.; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world’s third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record. PMID:26392554

  10. Evaluation of the use of oseltamivir prophylaxis in the control of influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective provincial database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Jacobs, Angela; Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jaipaul, Joy; Oda, Joanna; Johnson, Marcia; Doroshenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of oseltamivir prophylaxis in the management and control of influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Alberta, Canada. Setting and participants Long-term care facilities where 127 influenza outbreaks were reported to public health authorities in Alberta, Canada, during two influenza seasons from 2013 to 2015. Design and outcome measures Using routinely collected surveillance and administrative data, we examined the association between decision-making time for oseltamivir recommendation as prophylaxis strategy for influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities (explanatory variable) and the duration of an influenza outbreak, the postprophylaxis risk of influenza-like illness and hospitalisation among residents of long-term care facilities in Alberta (outcome variables) using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models. Results Oseltamivir prophylaxis decision-making time was positively associated with the postintervention duration of an outbreak, with a 1-day delay in making decision on oseltamivir prophylaxis associated with 2.22 (95% CI 1.37 to 3.06) more days of the duration of an outbreak after controlling for potential confounding effect of the number of residents at risk at intervention, outbreak progression time, prevalence of influenza-like illness during outbreak progression, facility location, presence of mixed strain and based on optimal timing of oseltamivir prophylaxis. Although not statistically significant, a 1-day delay in making decision on oseltamivir prophylaxis was associated with a 5% (95% CI −1% to 11%) increase in the postintervention risk of influenza-like illness, and a 6% (95% CI −8% to 22%) increase in the postintervention risk of hospitalisation after controlling for the same potential confounders. Conclusions Our study demonstrated benefits of using oseltamivir prophylaxis to shorten the duration of influenza outbreaks; however, there were no significant differences in the

  11. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  12. Comparing the epidemiology of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone groups in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, S; Bush, K; Leal, J; Kim, J; Vickers, D M; Rusk, A; Fathima, S; Li, V; Chui, L; Louie, M; Henderson, E

    2016-07-01

    Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones, which were traditionally seen in the community setting (USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10), are often identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections using Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance definitions. This study examined the demographics and healthcare risk factors of patients with HA-MRSA to help understand if community MRSA clones are from a source internal or external to the hospital setting. Despite USA300/CMRSA10 being the predominant clone in Alberta, hospital clones (USA100/CMRSA2) still dominated in the acute care setting. In the Alberta hospitalized population, patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, and a greater proportion had none or ambulatory care-only healthcare exposure. These findings suggest that there are two distinct populations of HA-MRSA patients, and the patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones identified in hospital more greatly resemble patients affected by those clones in the community. It is possible that epidemiological assessment overidentifies HA acquisition of MRSA in patients unscreened for MRSA on admission to acute care. PMID:26947456

  13. Trends in testing behaviours for hepatitis C virus infection and associated determinants: results from population-based laboratory surveillance in Alberta, Canada (1998-2001).

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, G C; Lee, B; Singh, A E; Preiksaitis, J K

    2007-04-01

    Little is currently known about hepatitis C virus (HCV) test seeking behaviours at the population level. Given the centralized nature of testing for HCV infection in the province of Alberta, Canada, we had an opportunity to examine HCV testing behaviour at the population level on all newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases using laboratory data to validate the time and number of prior tests for each case. Record linkage identified 3323, 2937, 2660 and 2703 newly diagnosed cases of HCV infections in Alberta during 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively, corresponding to age-adjusted rates of 149.8, 129, 114.3 and 113.7 per 100,000 population during these years, respectively. Results from secondary analyses of laboratory data suggest that the majority of HCV cases (95.3%) who were newly diagnosed between 1998 and 2001 were first-time testers for HCV infection. Among repeat testers, analysis of a negative test result within 1 year prior to a first of a positive test report suggests that 211 (38.4%) may be seroconvertors. These findings suggest that 339 or 61.7% of repeat testers may not have discovered their serostatus within 1 year of infection. Among this group, HCV testing was sought infrequently, with a median interval of 2.3 years between the last negative and first positive test. This finding is of concern given the risks for HCV transmission, particularly if risk-taking behaviours are not reduced because of unknown serostatus. These findings also reinforce the need to make the most of each test-seeking event with proper counselling and other appropriate support services. PMID:17381716

  14. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations. PMID:23895936

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of an invading parasite: Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sympatric wapiti and beef cattle in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D

    2007-06-01

    Previous surveys of wild ungulates indicate that the liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, was rare in the Cypress Hills area of southeastern Alberta. However, 41 of 59 wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sampled during the 2003 and 2004 hunting seasons from this region were infected, with 7 hosts containing >1,000 worms. Prevalence and mean intensity were similarly high in sympatric beef cattle and mule deer. Worm abundance in wapiti was age related, with calves containing significantly higher numbers of worms (mean +/- SD abundance = 825 +/- 1098) than adults (107 +/- 259). This pattern with host age was not evident in beef cattle, although the smaller sample sizes may be a contributing factor. These results indicate that D. dendriticum is now well established in Cypress Hills Park, circulating between at least 3 species of sympatric ungulates, including beef cattle. PMID:17626339

  16. Critical loads and H+ budgets of forest soils affected by air pollution from oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kangho; Chang, Scott X.; Ok, Yong Sik; Arshad, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the critical load (CL) and exceedance (EX) of sulfur (S) deposition, temporal changes in soil chemistry, and H+ budget of soils in plots dominated by Pinus banksiana (jack pine) or Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen, aspen) in two acid-sensitive watersheds to assess the risk of soil acidification by S emissions from oil sands mining in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Canada. The CLs and EXs were determined by two methods: one was based on bulk deposition and the other based on total deposition (as a sum of bulk deposition and interception deposition). The CLs ranged from 223 to 711 molc ha-1 yr-1 based on bulk deposition. Those values were similar to that obtained based on total deposition. However, EXs based on bulk deposition were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those based on total deposition due to the relative increase of SO concentrations in interception deposition, indicating that EXs based on bulk deposition only could underestimate the risk of soil acidification in the AOSR. The S deposition did not exceed CLs in the long-term for both methods. The pH in the forest floor increased and available SO (as the sum of soluble and adsorbed SO) in the forest floor and surface mineral soils increased in both jack pine and aspen stands between 2005 and 2010. The H+ budget ranged from -289 to -130 molc ha-1 yr-1 in jack pine stands and from -510 to -371 molc ha-1 yr-1 in aspen stands. Our results suggest that 1) soils in the studied forest stands have recovered from acidification based on the increasing soil pH over time and the negative H+ budget, and 2) the risk of soil acidification should be assessed by CL and EX calculated based on total deposition.

  17. Stratigraphic setting of transgressive barrier-island reservoirs with an example from the Triassic Halfway Formation, Wembley field, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.J.; Moslow, T.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Established models for landward barrier-island migration focus primarily on the preservation pattern of transgressive facies in the shoreface which are typically thin and buried beneath finer grained marine lower shoreface-to-offshore sediments. In contrast, transgressive barrier-island sandstones in the Triassic Halfway Formation of Wembley field in Alberta are preserved interbedded with, and overlain by, backbarrier and nonmarine sediments. These transgressive barrier sandstones formed from coalescing washover fans during shoreface retreat and were subsequently [open quotes]abandoned[close quotes] as the shoreline stabilized and resumed progradation. The abandoned transgressive barrier sandstones were subsequently blanketed by backbarrier and nonmarine sediments as the coastline continued to prograde. Abandoned transgressive barrier island sandstones in the Halfway Formation are 2-6 m thick, up to 2 km wide, and form paleocoastline-parallel trends tens of kilometers in length. The trends define the paleolandward limit of transgressive events. The updip pinch-out of these sandstones in backbarrier mudstones forms a stratigraphic trap for hydrocarbons in Wembley field. Top seal is provided by nonmarine mudstones and evaporites which buried and abandoned transgressive barrier island. The sandstone has porosities and permeabilities averaging 11% and 63 md, respectively. By using well logs and cores to correlate individual parasequences in the Halfway Formation to their updip termination, it is possible to define the extent of associated marine flooding events and therefore identify hydrocarbon exploration targets for abandoned transgressive barrier-island sandstones. 58 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram

    2016-07-01

    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts. PMID:27017080

  19. Heat flow and heat generation estimates for the Churchill basement of the Western Canadian Basin in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.D.W.; Jones, F.W.; Majorowicz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Heat flow through the sediments and temperatures of the Churchill province basement under the sedimentary cover are determined for 24 locations in the central part of the Prairies basin in Alberta where the vertical heat flux is approximately constant from the base of the sediments to the surface. The contribution to heat flow from heat generation in the sediments is also considered. The average heat flow through the sediments is found to be 71 mWm/sup -2/ +- 12mWm/sup -2/ which is about 30 mWm/sup -2/ higher than in the neighbouring shield area of the Churchill province, and the contribution from heat generation in the sediments to the surface heat flow is only approximately 2.5 mWm/sup -2/. The relationship between basement heat generation and heat flow is investigated, and it is found that the platform heat flow/heat generation values are in general higher than those from the Churchill province of the shield found by Drury (1985). Although for the platform and shield data, the reduced heat flow is about 40 mWm/sup -2/ and the slope is about 8km, it is apparent that the platform data alone are not good enough to establish a precise relationship.

  20. The public's viewpoint on the right to hastened death in Alberta, Canada: findings from a population survey study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Birch, Stephen; MacLeod, Rod; Dhanji, Nurin; Osei-Waree, Jane; Cohen, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    A research study was conducted to determine public opinion in Alberta, a Canadian province, on the controversial topic of death hastening. Questions on the right to hastened death, end-of-life plans and end-of-life experiences were included in the Population Research Laboratory's annual 2010 health-care telephone survey, with 1203 adults providing results relatively representative of Albertans. Of all 1203, 72.6% said yes to the question: 'Should dying adults be able to request and get help from others to end their life early, in other words, this is a request for assisted suicide'? Among all who provided an answer, 36.8% indicated 'yes, every competent adult should have this right' and 40.6% indicated 'yes, but it should be allowed only in certain cases or situations'. Over 50% of respondents in all but one socio-demographic population sub-group (Religious-other) were supportive of the right to hastened death. However, multinomial regression analysis revealed that the experiences of deciding to euthanise a pet/animal and developing or planning to develop an advance directive predicted support, while self-reported religiosity predicted non-support. Finding majority public support for death hastening suggests that legalisation could potentially occur in the future; but with this policy first requiring a careful consideration of the model of assisted suicide or euthanasia that best protects people who are highly vulnerable to despair and suffering near the end of life. PMID:23216960

  1. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; Ryan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution. PMID:26154293

  2. Long-term impact of wildfire on particulate phosphorus forms and phosphorus sorption behavior of suspended river sediment in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M.; Allin, D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of wildfire on catchment hydrology, sediment production and nutrient yield have been well documented. However, lesse is known about the downstream propagation of fire-modified materials, their nutrient composition and potential effects to downstream environments. This study examines the long-term impact (6-7 years) of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire on particulate phosphorus forms (NAIP, AP, OP) and phosphorus sorption behavior of suspended river sediment at a large regional scale (554 km2) in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada. Total P concentrations were similar among burned and unburned river sediments but the mean bioavailable NAIP fraction remained approximately 70% greater and the organic P was > 2-fold higher in sediments from five burned tributary watersheds compared to the reference catchment. In a series of batch experiments, fire impacted sediments desorbed significantly more P than reference sediments. Because of the key role of phosphorus in regulating aquatic productivity in oligotrophic mountain streams, the results highlight the risk of a large scale and long-term legacy of wildfire in some mountain river systems and their potential impact on the nutrient dynamics of reservoirs used for drinking water supply.

  3. Recognition and delineation of Paleokarst zones by the use of wireline logs in the bitumen-saturated upper Devonian Grosmont formation of Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dembicki, E.A.; Machel, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    The Upper Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a shallow-marine carbonate platform complex that was subaerially exposed for hundreds of millions of years between the Mississippian(?) and Cretaceous. During this lengthy exposure period, an extensive karst system developed that is characterized by an irregular erosional surface, meter-size (several feet) dissolution cavities, collapse breccias, sinkholes, paleosols, and fractures. The karsted Grosmont Formation, which contains giant reserves of bitumen, sub-crops beneath Cretaceous clastic sediments of the giant Athabasca tar sands deposit. The paleokarst in the Grosmont Formation can be recognized on wireline logs in relatively nonargillaceous carbonate intervals (<30 API units on the gamma-ray log) as excursions of the caliper log, off-scale neutron-density porosity readings, and severe cycle skipping of the acoustic log. The paleokarst is more prevalent in the upper units of the Grosmont Formation, and the effects of karstification decrease toward stratigraphically older and deeper units. The paleokarst usually occurs within 35 m (115 ft) of the erosional surface. The reservoir properties of the Grosmont Formation (e.g., thickness, porosity, permeability, and seal effectiveness) are significantly influenced by karstification. Depending upon the location, karstification has either benefited or degraded the reservoir characteristics. Benefits include porosity values greater than 40% (up to 100% in caverns) and permeability values of 30,000 md in severely fractured intervals. Detrimental reservoir characteristics include erosion, porosity and permeability reduction, and seal ineffectiveness.

  4. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution. PMID:26154293

  5. A multi-isotope approach for estimating industrial contributions to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Proemse, Bernadette C; Mayer, Bernhard; Fenn, Mark E; Ross, Christopher S

    2013-11-01

    Industrial nitrogen (N) emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, affect nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) deposition rates in close vicinity of industrial emitters. NO3-N and NH4-N open field and throughfall deposition rates were determined at various sites between 3 km and 113 km distance to the main oil sand operations between May 2008 and May 2009. NO3 and NH4 were analyzed for δ(15)N-NO3, δ(18)O-NO3, Δ(17)O-NO3 and δ(15)N-NH4. Marked differences in the δ(18)O and Δ(17)O values between industrial emissions and background deposition allowed for the estimation of minimum industrial contributions to atmospheric NO3 deposition. δ(15)N-NH4 values also allowed for estimates of industrial contributions to atmospheric NH4 deposition. Results revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to atmospheric NO3 and NH4 deposition. PMID:23896680

  6. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine. PMID:23955061

  7. Long term measurements in reconstructed soils at a coal mine in the plains region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Macyk, T.M.; Faught, R.L.; Logan, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    In 1983 the Alberta Research Council and Luscar Ltd. initiated a study to monitor the physical and chemical properties of newly mined and reconstructed soils at the Paintearth Mine. The objective was to determine what changes were occurring and the impact, if any, of these changes on long-term soil quality and productivity. Baseline soil sampling and neutron access tube installation were completed shortly after spoil leveling and soil replacement at six locations representing different slope positions and thickness of replaced subsoil. Monitoring sites were also established in unmined soils adjacent to the mine area. Neutron probe measurements to determine soil moisture and bulk density status in the upper 4 m were conducted annually from April to October. Forage crop harvests were completed to determine yield and forage quality in three different years. Sampling of soils in 15 cm intervals to a maximum depth of 210 cm for analytical purposes was completed in seven of the ten years of the study. Soil moisture data indicated that moisture content and distribution pattern in the reconstructed soils were similar to that of adjacent unmined soils. Bulk density at the reconstructed sites decreased with time during the term of the project and was similar to the bulk density values measured at unmined sites. The electrical conductivity data indicated salts were leached or redistributed downward in the profiles over time. Measurements to date indicate that in terms of soil moisture regime, bulk density status and forage yield the reconstructed soils are similar to unmined soils in the area. The overall improvement in the chemical properties of the reconstructed soils from the time of reconstruction could be largely attributed to leaching of salts.

  8. Investigating the Effect of Livestock Grazing and Associated Plant Community Shifts on Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, D. B.; Chuan, S.; Stolnikova, E.; Bork, E. W.; Carlyle, C. N.; Chang, S. X.

    2015-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems are ubiquitous across the globe covering an estimated 40 % of Earth's terrestrial landmass. These ecosystems are widely valued for providing forage for domestic livestock and a suite of important ecosystem goods and services including carbon (C) storage. Despite storing more than 30 % of soil C globally, the effect of both livestock grazing and the associated change in plant community structure in response to grazing on C and nutrient cycling remains uncertain. To gain a quantitative understanding of the direct and indirect effects of livestock grazing on C and nutrient cycling, we established study sites at 15 existing site localities with paired long-term grazing (ca. 30 y) and non-grazed treatments (totaling 30 unique plant communities). Our sites were distributed widely across Alberta in three distinct grassland bioclimatic zones allowing us to make comparisons across the broad range of climate variability typical of western Canadian grasslands. In each plant community we decomposed 5 common plant species that are known to increase or decrease in response to grazing pressure, a unique plant community sample, and a cellulose paper control. We measured mass loss, initial lignin, C and N concentrations at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of field incubation. In addition we assayed hydrolytic and oxidative extracellular enzymes associated with for C (n= 5 hydrolytic; phenoloxidase and peroxidase) and nutrients (i.e. N and P; n=1 ea.) cycling from each litter sample at each collection. Our results suggest that by changing the plant community structure, grazing can affect rates of decomposition and associated biogeochemical cycling by changing plant species and associated litter inputs. Moreover, measures of microbial function are controlled by site-specific conditions (e.g. temperature and precipitation), litter chemistry over the course of our incubation.

  9. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  10. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  11. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and

  12. Mobile membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry for on-the-fly measurements and adaptive sampling of VOCs around oil and gas projects in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, E.; Gill, C.; Bell, R.; Davey, N.; Martinsen, M.; Thompson, A.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The release of hydrocarbons into the environment can have significant environmental and economic consequences. The evolution of smaller, more portable mass spectrometers to the field can provide spatially and temporally resolved information for rapid detection, adaptive sampling and decision support. We have deployed a mobile platform membrane introduction mass spectrometer (MIMS) for the in-field simultaneous measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. In this work, we report instrument and data handling advances that produce geographically referenced data in real-time and preliminary data where these improvements have been combined with high precision ultra-trace VOCs analysis to adaptively sample air plumes near oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada. We have modified a commercially available ion-trap mass spectrometer (Griffin ICX 400) with an in-house temperature controlled capillary hollow fibre polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer membrane interface and in-line permeation tube flow cell for a continuously infused internal standard. The system is powered by 24 VDC for remote operations in a moving vehicle. Software modifications include the ability to run continuous, interlaced tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments for multiple contaminants/internal standards. All data are time and location stamped with on-board GPS and meteorological data to facilitate spatial and temporal data mapping. Tandem MS/MS scans were employed to simultaneously monitor ten volatile and semi-volatile analytes, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), reduced sulfur compounds, halogenated organics and naphthalene. Quantification was achieved by calibrating against a continuously infused deuterated internal standard (toluene-d8). Time referenced MS/MS data were correlated with positional data and processed using Labview and Matlab to produce calibrated, geographical Google Earth data-visualizations that enable adaptive sampling protocols

  13. Alberta Education's Clearinghouse: Functions and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighton, David

    1984-01-01

    Discusses functions of the Alberta (Canada) Computer Technology Project's courseware clearinghouse, reviews findings on instructional software quality, identifies software development trends, and discusses need for support systems to facilitate the incorporation of computer assisted instruction in Canadian schools. (MBR)

  14. Fold-Related Fractures and Postfolding Fracturing, Rock Mass Condition Analyses and Geological Modelling in Turtle Mountain (Alberta Canada).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Epard, Jean-Luc; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Froese, Corey

    2010-05-01

    Turtle Mountain is located in the Foothills in southwest Alberta and is formed by highly fractured Paleozoic carbonates rocks and Mesozoic clastic rocks. This area is mainly affected by two major geological structures that are the Turtle Mountain anticline and the Turtle Mountain thrust. This site has become famous after a 30 M m3 rock avalanche of massive limestone and dolostone affecting the eastern mountainside of Turtle Mountain on April 1903. This resulted in more than 70 casualties and buried part of the Frank village. A detailed analysis of predisposing factors leading to failure has been performed using a structural and rock mass condition field analysis (geological and geotechnical mapping, rock mass classification, Schmidt hammer). In addition remote sensing analyses have been provided (High Resolution Digital Elevation Model, Coltop 3D software). The local variations of discontinuity sets and rock mass conditions has been estimated in order to separate the study zone into homogenous structural domains and to correlate them with unstable areas (volumes and failure mechanisms). The aim of this study is to build a theoretical model that shows the relationship between the anticline geometry and the fracturating density. It should be able to determine the origin and the chronology of the discontinuity sets in relation to the tectonic phases (mainly the folding one). A 3D geological model based on several geological profiles performed perpendicular to the Turtle Mountain anticline is necessary to make a detailed analysis. The preliminary results indicate the role of discontinuity sets in the failure mechanisms of the mountain. Moreover if some sets only appear in one limb of the anticline, some others are present in both limbs indicating their posteriority compared with the first ones. Furthermore, a relation between the distance to the fold axis and the quality of the rock mass (Geological Strength Index) has been statistically pointed out, illustrating the

  15. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Results Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Conclusions Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the

  16. Boron in tree-ring as an indicator of forest disturbances in the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands region, Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégin, Christian; Savard, Martine M.; Marion, Joëlle; Thiffault, Évelyne; Pinno, Brad

    2016-04-01

    Industrial activities related to oil sands (OS) extraction in northeastern Alberta (Canada) have generated, since 1967, important quantities of NOx and SO2 emissions that can lead to several negative effects on forest ecosystems including the potential for soil acidification. In addition, mining processes, tailing pond treatments and heavy transport (haul roads) in mining areas are considered important sources of air contaminants that have the potential to impair forest health by affecting the nutrient balance and physiology of trees. In this study, we analysed micronutrients (B, Fe, Zn, Na, Cu) and macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Mn, K) in the tree-ring series of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and spruce (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) trees growing at different distances from the heart of mining operations (two sites for each species). Based on tree-ring records, our aims were to provide a historical perspective on the nutritional status of forest ecosystems and to identify temporal changes in tree-ring chemistry that can be attributed to OS activities. One of the key findings of this research is the direct and immediate response of boron (B) in woody tissues of all studied species to mining operations. During the pre-mining period (prior to 1967) [B] variations in tree-rings of the three species covary with other elements such as Na and Fe and are likely controlled by environmental factors, namely climatic conditions. After 1970, [B] increases and strongly departs from trends of other elements. In jack pine trees (54 km NNE of the centre of industrial operations) the increasing trend is abrupt with mean [B] increasing from 11.7 mg/kg during the pre-industrial period to 14.3 mg/kg during mining period. In spruce trees at the proximal site (14 km NE), [B] increases gradually and nicely reproduces the historical pattern of industrial emissions with mean pre-mining [B] of 29.5 mg/kg increasing to 92.1 mg/kg during the mining period. At the four spruce sites, the increasing

  17. Task 21 - Evaluation of Artificial Freeze Crystallization and Natural Freeze-Thaw Processes for the Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, Canada - Sour Gas Remediation Technology R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    During the period from 1993 to 1996, a long-term program was initiated to conduct remediation research at the Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, Canada. As part of this research program, optimization of the existing pump-and-treat (P{ampersand}T) facility was of interest. The cost-effective treatment of contaminated groundwater produced from the P{ampersand}T system was complicated by several factors, including: (1) increased cost and reduced effectiveness of most water treatment processes because of the cold temperatures and severe winter conditions prevalent in Alberta, (2) interference caused by the mixture of inorganic and organic contaminants found in the groundwater that can reduce the effectiveness of many water treatment processes, and (3) pretreatment to prevent scaling in existing treatment process unit operations caused by the iron, manganese, and hardness of the contaminated groundwater.

  18. Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sabry, H.

    1989-03-01

    A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

  19. An 8-year record of gas geochemistry and isotopic composition of methane during baseline sampling at a groundwater observation well in Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Jones, Don; Lam, Vien

    2016-02-01

    Variability in baseline groundwater methane concentrations and isotopic compositions was assessed while comparing free and dissolved gas sampling approaches for a groundwater monitoring well in Alberta (Canada) over an 8-year period. Methane concentrations in dissolved gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 4,380 ± 2,452 μg/L, yielding a coefficient of variation (CV) >50 %. Methane concentrations in free gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 228,756 ± 62,498 ppm by volume, yielding a CV of 27 %. Quantification of combined sampling, sample handling and analytical uncertainties was assessed via triplicate sampling (CV of 19 % and 12 % for free gas and dissolved gas methane concentrations, respectively). Free and dissolved gas samples yielded comparable methane concentration patterns and there was evidence that sampling operations and pumping rates had a marked influence on the obtained methane concentrations in free gas. δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values of methane were essentially constant (-78.6 ± 1.3 and -300 ± 3 ‰, respectively) throughout the observation period, suggesting that methane was derived from the same biogenic source irrespective of methane concentration variations. The isotopic composition of methane constitutes a robust and highly valuable baseline parameter and increasing δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values during repeat sampling may indicate influx of thermogenic methane. Careful sampling and analytical procedures with identical and repeatable approaches are required in baseline-monitoring programs to generate methane concentration and isotope data for groundwater that can be reliably compared to repeat measurements once potential impact from oil and gas development, for example, may occur.

  20. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development. PMID:26341787

  1. Field performance evaluation of Maxxam passive samplers for regional monitoring of ambient SO2, NO2 and O3 concentrations in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Curran, Rhonda Lee T.; Kindzierski, Warren B.

    2015-08-01

    A field performance evaluation of Maxxam passive samplers was carried out for ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3). Monthly passive and hourly continuous air monitoring data from four regional air monitoring networks in Alberta, Canada were evaluated over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Monthly concentrations were relatively low, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 ppb, 0.2-18.1 ppb and 10.1-56.1 ppb for SO2, NO2 and O3, respectively. From duplicate passive sampling, geometric mean precision values were 17.9%, 14.8% and 4.7% for SO2, NO2 and O3, respectively. Geometric mean of the relative error (as a measure of accuracy) was 30% (median = 33%, interquartile range, IQR 15-63%) for SO2 and 32% (median = 40%, IQR = 25-64%) for NO2. O3 measurements had a better measure of accuracy with a geometic mean relative error of 12% (median = 17%, IQR = 8-27%) and met the acceptable level recommended by United States National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the European Union (EU) Directive (±25%). From reduced major axis (RMA) analysis, bias (systematic error) is apparent in the Maxxam passive samplers in the field resulting in overestimation of ambient SO2 and O3 concentrations and underestimation of NO2 concentrations relative to continuous analyzers. Seasonal influences were observed for accuracy of passive SO2 and O3 measurements. A poor association was found between passive versus continuous concentrations for SO2 and O3 during the winter and the summer, respectively.

  2. A unified hydrogeological conceptual model of the Milk River transboundary aquifer, traversing Alberta (Canada) and Montana (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René; Hendry, M. Jim; Folnagy, Attila J. B.

    2016-06-01

    A conceptual model of the transboundary Milk River Aquifer (MRA), extending across the Canada-USA border, was developed based on literature, focused fieldwork and a three-dimensional geological model. The MRA corresponds to the Virgelle Member of the Milk River Formation (Eagle Formation in Montana, USA) and it is an important groundwater resource over a large area (25,000 km2). The Virgelle outcrops near the international border and along the Sweet Grass Arch in Montana. The down-gradient limit of the MRA is the unconformity separating the Virgelle from the gas-bearing sandy shale of the Alderson Member. The MRA is confined above by the Pakowki/Claggett Formations aquitards and below by the Colorado Group aquitard. The MRA contains higher transmissivity areas resulting in preferential flowpaths, confirmed by natural geochemical tracers. Tritium and 14C delineate restricted recharge areas along the outcrops on both sides of the international border. Drastic decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients indicate that the Milk River intercepts a large proportion of groundwater flowing to the north from the recharge area. Downgradient of the Milk River, groundwater movement is slow, as shown by 36Cl residence times exceeding 1 Ma. These slow velocities imply that groundwater discharge downgradient of the Milk River is via vertical leakage through the Colorado Group and upward along buried valleys, which act as drains and correspond to artesian areas. When confined, the MRA contains a fossil groundwater resource, not significantly renewed by modern recharge. Groundwater exploitation thus far exceeds recharge, a situation requiring properly managed MRA groundwater depletion.

  3. Fourteen Years of Pond Monitoring in Boreal Plain, northern Alberta, Canada: The effects of climate variability and harvesting practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Western Boreal forest of Canada is experiencing rapid increase in rates of cumulative impacts of disturbance for resource extraction, climate change and forest fires. To understand their sensitivity and response to multi-decadal natural and anthropogenic disturbances a long-term (1998-2013) and extensive pond ecosystem monitoring has been conducted on the Boreal Plains at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) (56o N, 115o W). Hydrological, chemical and nutrient data were collected along a forest-peatland-pond transect in a paired catchment aspen harvest study in the area underlain by fine-grained till moraines glacial deposits. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrologic regime, specifically water level dynamics, both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured hydro-chemistry and nutrients; and (3) to provide evidence on how water quality conditions in the ponds are changing on long (multi-year to decadal) time scales in response to harvesting practices and climatic trends during wet and dry cycles. No difference in pond or catchment hydrologic and hydro-chemical response was observed between harvested and reference sites pre- or post- harvesting. Wetland and pond waters were not affected by the harvesting practices due to lack of hydrologic connectivity between pond and forest systems. The hydrologic relationship between forestlands and open-water wetlands is a response in their water balance differences driven by their storage characteristics. Temporal trends in ponds' water levels, chemical and nutrient concentrations during the 14 year record were most closely related to relative connectivity to groundwater systems and flow direction in response to climatic cycles and vegetation water use and were the most useful parameters for characterizing duration and type of connectivity during wet and dry cycles. Using empirical relationships from such long-term monitoring, this study

  4. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Hammond, H.E. James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated. PMID:27199584

  5. Luminescence Chronology for the Formation of Glacial Lake Calgary, Southern Alberta, Canada: Age Constraints for the Initiation of the Late Pleistocene Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from its Western Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyikwa, K.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial Lake Calgary in southern Alberta, Canada, was a Late Pleistocene proglacial lake that formed along the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), dammed by the retreating ice sheet margin. Attempts to constrain the age of the lake using radiocarbon methods have been hampered by the lack of datable organic material. In an effort to apply an alternative chronometer, this study uses two optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating approaches to date fine grained sand and silt that were deposited in the lake during its existence. OSL dating determines the depositional ages of sediments by measuring the energy from ionizing radiation that is stored in mineral grains such as quartz and feldspar. Dividing the stored energy, also referred to as the paleodose, by the rate at which the dose accumulated, allows an age to be ascertained. In one method applied in this study, the paleodose stored in the feldspar component of the sediment is determined using normalized infrared stimulated luminescence signals acquired using a portable OSL reader. In the second method, blue optically stimulated luminescence signals obtained from quartz separates from the sediment by employing a regular OSL reader and standard protocols are used to determine the paleodose. After correcting the feldspar data for anomalous fading, the age results from the two dating approaches are compared. The ages signify a time period by which the LIS had retreated from the study area and, hence, serve as constraints for the initiation of the retreat of the ice sheet from its western limit. Advantages and limitations of the dating methods are briefly discussed. Constraining the chronology of the retreat of the LIS from western Canada allows for a better understanding of the driving forces behind ice sheet retreat. Secondly, assigning a temporal scale to the postglacial evolution of the environment of the region permits a better insight into the dynamics of the physical and biological

  6. Application of spatially distributed coupled glacio-hydrological model to predict the effect of glacier recession on the flow of the Upper Bow River, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Frans, C. D.; Clarke, G. K.; Nolin, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Burns, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that observed decreases in summer flows in Canada's South Saskatchewan River are partly due to retreat of glaciers in the river's headwaters. Despite the risk posed by declining glaciers to water supply in the high mountain river systems, our ability to accurately predict runoff contribution from partially glacierized basins is limited. Modeling the effect of glacier changes on streamflow response in such basins is complicated due to limited availability of high resolution gridded meteorological data, lack of long term measurements of glaciological parameters and most importantly glacier dynamics are not linked to hydrological processes in many existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models. We investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow variations for the Upper Bow River basin, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan, near Lake Louise, Alberta, using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) coupled with the spatially distributed glacier dynamics model. The coupled model is forced with the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data for the period of 1979 - 2010 at a 3-hourly time step. The NARR data are adjusted for spatial variability in precipitation and temperature using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) monthly data at 2.5 arcmin resolution made available through the Climate Western North America (ClimateWNA) database (Wang et al. 2006). Using known subglacial bed topography information, a multidecade spin-up run of the stand alone glacier model is first conducted until the beginning of the simulation period for the coupled model to accurately predict ice thickness confirmed through comparison of modeled ice margins with observed glacier extent. The integrated model initialized with already estimated glacier thickness and ice extent is then run to predict glacier evolution, including spatial extent in combination with other hydrologic

  7. Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E

    2012-01-01

    We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107). PMID:21484300

  8. Isotopic characterization of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in stack PM2.5 emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Mayer, Bernhard; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope techniques may be a suitable tool for tracing industrial emissions in the atmosphere and the environment provided that the isotopic compositions of industrial emissions are distinct. We determined the isotopic compositions of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in PM2.5 emitted from two industrial stacks at a large upgrader site in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), northeastern Alberta, Canada, and compared them to the nitrogen and sulfur isotopic compositions of source materials and upgrading by-products. We found distinct isotopic compositions of nitrate and ammonium in PM2.5 compared to those reported for atmospheric nitrate and ammonium in the literature. Nitrate in PM2.5 had δ15N values of 9.4‰ (Stack A) and 16.1 ± 1.2‰ (Stack B) that were significantly enriched in 15N compared to the feedstock materials (˜2.5‰), by-products of upgrading (-0.3-1.3‰), and atmospheric N2 (0‰). δ15N of ammonium in PM2.5 showed a large range with values between - 4.5 to +20.1‰ (Stack B). We report the first measurements of the triple oxygen isotopic composition of industrial emitted nitrate. Nitrate emitted as PM2.5 is not mass-independently enriched in 17O resulting in Δ17O = 0.5 ± 0.9‰ (Stack B) and is therefore distinct from atmospheric nitrate, constituting an excellent indicator of industrial derived nitrate. δ18O values of nitrate in PM2.5 (36.0 and 17.6 ± 1.8‰ for Stack A and B, respectively) were also significantly lower than δ18O values of atmospheric nitrates and hence isotopically distinct. δ34S values of sulfate in PM2.5 were with 7.3 ± 0.3‰ (Stack A) and 9.4 ± 2.0‰ (Stack B) slightly enriched in 34S compared to δ34S in bitumen (4.3 ± 0.3‰) and coke (3.9 ± 0.2‰). δ18O values of sulfate in PM2.5 were 18.9 ± 2.9‰ and 14.2 ± 2.8‰ for Stack A and Stack B, respectively. The isotopic composition of sulfate in PM2.5 was not sufficiently different from δ34S and δ18O values of sulfate in long-range atmospheric

  9. Literacy, More Than Words: Summary of Input on a Literacy Framework for Alberta. Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes comments from 539 individuals on a literacy framework for Alberta, provided during the Alberta Literacy Forum held in Edmonton from April 14 to 16, 2008. The Forum was Alberta's contribution to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum, which involved all of Canada's…

  10. Research Funding at Alberta Universities, 2000-2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Innovation and Science, Edmonton. University Research and Strategic Investments Branch.

    This report presents facts related to the funding of research at Alberta, Canada, universities. Data are provided by the universities, derived from audited financial schedules. Research at Alberta universities is supported in part by the provincial government through a number of programs. Sponsored research funding, funding received outside of…

  11. Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

    The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

  12. Radioacarbon in dissolved organic carbon, a possible groundwater dating method: Case studies from western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wassenaar, L.; Aravena, R. ); Hendry, J. ); Fritz, P. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of using {sup 14}C in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as an alternative isotopic groundwater dating method. Two hydrogeologically contrasting groundwater systems were tested; the Cretaceous age Milk River aquifer, and low-permeability, organic rich, Wisconsinan age Prairie tills in southern Alberta, Canada. Comparisons of radiocarbon data were made between DOC fractions, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and several DIC geochemical age correction models along well defined flow paths. The data presented demonstrate that {sup 14}C dating of DOC fractions can indeed provide an alternative method for determining isotopic groundwater ages, under suitable conditions. However, detailed information may be required regarding (1) the geologic nature of the aquifer and its flow system, (2) the isotopically conservative behavior of DOC, (3) the initial {sup 14}C activity of DOC in recharge, and (4) the effect of bacterial redox processes on the {sup 14}C activity of DOC. In the Milk River aquifer, DOC {sup 14}C ages were successfully used to estimate groundwater residence times, as well as to further refine input parameter assumptions for the DIC method. In the Prairie tills, DOC {sup 14}C ages were used to establish a maximum age for the pore waters in an environment where the DIC method is especially problematic.

  13. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

  14. Desalination of oil sands process-affected water and basal depressurization water in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada: application of electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sik; Dong, Shimiao; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The high content of inorganic species in water used to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands and in the groundwater below the oil sands is an increasing environmental concern. These water matrices require treatment before they can be reused or safely discharged. Desalination of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and groundwater, or basal depressurization water (BDW), can be accomplished with deionization techniques such as electrodialysis (ED). In order to achieve the effective ED treatment, OSPW and BDW were pretreated with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation to remove solid species and turbidity. We demonstrated that a conductivity range for industrial reuse of OSPW and BDW can be achieved with the ED treatment and showed the possibility of applying ED in the oil sands industry. A continuous ED system that reuses the diluate stream as a source for the concentrate stream was designed. The cost of a hypothetical ED water treatment plant in Fort McMurray, Alberta, was estimated to be C$10.71 per cubic meter of treated water. PMID:24355856

  15. Senior Executive Views on Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meanwell, Richard J.; Barrington, Gail V.

    Interviews were conducted with 60 senior executives in the private sector to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the education system in Alberta, Canada from their perspective. The executives' views were solicited on the following topics: (1) current strengths of the education system; (2) necessary improvements in educational programs and…

  16. A Guide to Native Organizations in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Native Affairs, Edmonton.

    Names, addresses, names of directors, and telephone numbers for 182 organizations formed by or serving Canada Natives in Alberta are presented, grouped by their area of interest. Listed are 17 arts and crafts organizations, 10 business and employment development services, 8 radio stations and newspapers, 12 cultural groups, 19 educational…

  17. Education in Alberta: Facts and Figures, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    A statistical overview of the educational system in Alberta (Canada) for 1989 is presented. The report includes data and analyses concerning demographics; family and social structure; economy and workforce; early childhood services enrollments and projections; public and separate school enrollments and projections; private school enrollments;…

  18. Alberta Catholic Schools...A Social History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkach, Nicholas

    The purposes of this book are to trace the influence of major social forces on the Alberta, Canada, public and Catholic school systems and to detail the evolution of these two systems. Beginning with a review of "The First People" of the Northwest Territories, chapter I examines political, economic, and sociocultural developments and their impact…

  19. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  20. Fostering Innovation in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, the Minister of Alberta Advanced Education initiated a comprehensive exercise to establish a new direction for Alberta's advanced education system. Through the A Learning Alberta review, a new vision and policy outcomes for the advanced education system will be articulated. The process provides an opportunity for government, stakeholders,…

  1. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  2. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  3. Enteric Campylobacteria and RNA Viruses Associated with Healthy and Diarrheic Humans in the Chinook Health Region of Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; Boras, Valerie F.; Houde, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species and enteric RNA viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern Alberta was examined (May to October 2005). A large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for C. jejuni (n = 54) or C. coli (n = 19) were PCR positive for these taxa. Overall detection rates for C. jejuni and C. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. In contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positive for these taxa, respectively. Infection with C. jejuni was endemic over the study period. However, there was no difference in infection rates between individuals living in urban or rural locations. Stools from a large number of diarrheic (74%) and healthy (88%) individuals were positive for Campylobacter DNA. The prevalence rates of C. concisus, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. helveticus, C. hominis, C. hyointestinalis, C. mucosalis, C. showae, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis DNA were either not significantly different or were significantly lower in stools from diarrheic than from healthy individuals. No C. lanienae or C. lari DNA was detected. Stools from 4% and 0% of diarrheic and healthy humans, respectively, were positive for rotavirus, sapovirus, or norovirus (GI/GII). Our results showed a high prevalence of diarrheic individuals living in southwestern Alberta who were infected by C. jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by C. coli. However, other Campylobacter species, norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and bovine enteric calicivirus were either inconsequential pathogens during the study period or are not pathogens at all. PMID:21106791

  4. Application of Response Surface based Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis methods for Regional Hydrogeological Modelling in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Palombi, D.; Huff, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    A regional scale study of groundwater flow dynamics was undertaken in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), comprising parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. The objective of the study is to investigate basin-scale hydrogeology in WCSB and to establish boundary conditions for future local-scale groundwater management models. Earlier work in the Alberta basin has acknowledged the fact that in addition to topography controlled conditions, a substantial part of the basin exhibits sub-hydrostatic regimes. The basin-scale model (approx. 420,000 km2) includes Upper Cretaceous aquifers to Recent age sediments which collectively attain maximum thicknesses of >2600 m. Regional aquifer units considered for the numerical model are Quaternary sediments, and the sedimentary rocks of the Paskapoo, Scollard, Horseshoe Canyon formations and the Belly River Group. Regional aquitards delineated include the Battle and Bear Paw formations. The study area is bound to the west by the Brazeau-Waptiti thrust belt and to the south by the Canada-USA international border. The boundary to the north and east is delineated by the maximum extent of the Wapiti and Belly River groups and Judith River Formation. USGS MODFLOW was implemented for numerical simulation. The steady state numerical model was calibrated using a Response Surface based (Radial Basis Functions) optimization method. The calibration targets (~2000) were comprised of drill stem tests for deeper units and static water levels for shallower units. Petrophysical analyses of cores averaged K values from analyses of aquifer test results,and literature values were used to provide initial values and calibration ranges for hydraulic properties. Results indicate predominance of topography driven, local- to intermediate-scale flow systems in all hydrostratigraphic units with recharge of these units occurring in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The Battle aquitard, where present, acts to retard regional flow

  5. Distance Education and Sustainable Community Development: Selected Articles from a Conference on Distance Education and Sustainable Community Development, Canadian Circumpolar Institute (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, December 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Denis, Ed.; Owen, Michael, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers on the role of distance education in sustainable community development, particularly in Canada's remote northern communities. Four sections cover theoretical issues such as the meaning of "community" in international distance programs and the influence of students' immediate community on their survival in…

  6. Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada) Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Joyce S.; Jackson, Leland J.; Habibi, Hamid R.; Ikonomou, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled an abundant, native minnow (Longnose dace—Rhinichthys cataractae) throughout the Oldman River, Alberta, to determine physiological responses and possible population level consequences from exposure to compounds with hormone-like activity. Sex ratios varied between sites, were female-biased, and ranged from just over 50% to almost 90%. Histological examination of gonads revealed that at the sites with >60% females in the adult population, there was up to 38% occurrence of intersex gonads in fish identified through visual examination of the gonads as male. In the majority of intersex gonad cases, there was a large proportion (approx., 50%) of oocytes within the testicular tissue. In male dace, vitellogenin mRNA expression generally increased with distance downstream. We analyzed river water for 28 endocrine disrupting compounds from eight functional classes, most with confirmed estrogen-like activity, including synthetic estrogens and hormone therapy drugs characteristic of municipal wastewater effluent, plus natural hormones and veterinary pharmaceuticals characteristic of livestock production. The spatial correlation between detected chemical residues and effects to dace physiology indicate that multiple land uses have a cumulative impact on dace in the Oldman River and effects range from altered gene regulation to severely female-biased sex ratios. PMID:24278710

  7. Effects of canopy-deposition interaction on H+ supply to soils in Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides ecosystems in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kangho; Chang, Scott X; Arshad, M A Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Soil acidification has been of concern in the oil sands region in Alberta due to increased acid deposition. Using the canopy budget model, and accounting for H(+) canopy leaching by organic acids, we determined sources and sinks of H+ in throughfall in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands in two watersheds from 2006 to 2009. In pine stands, H+ deposition was greater in throughfall than in bulk precipitation while the opposite was true in aspen stands. The annual H+ interception deposition was 148.8-193.8 and 49.7-70.0 molcha(-1) in pine and aspen stands, respectively; while the annual H+ canopy leaching was 127.1-128.7 and 0.0-6.0 molcha(-1), respectively. The greater H+ supply in pine stands was caused by greater interception deposition of SO4(2-) and organic acids released from the pine canopy. Such findings have significant implications for establishing critical loads for various ecosystems in the oil sands region. PMID:21310518

  8. Devonian salt dissolution-collapse breccias flooring the Cretaceous Athabasca oil sands deposit and development of lower McMurray Formation sinkholes, northern Alberta Basin, Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-Cretaceous paleotopography underlying giant Lower Cretaceous Athabasca oil sands, northern Alberta, has an orthogonal lattice pattern of troughs up to 50 km long and 100 m deep between pairs of cross-cutting lineaments. These structures are interpreted to have been inherited from a similar pattern of dissolution collapse-subsidence troughs in the underlying Middle Devonian salt beds. Removal of more than 100 m of halite salt fragmented the overlying Upper Devonian strata into fault blocks and collapse breccias that subsided into the underlying dissolution troughs. The unusually low 1:2 to 1:3 thickness ratios of halite salts to the overlying strata resulted in the Upper Devonian strata collapse-subsidence into underlying salt dissolution troughs being more cataclysmic during the first phase of salt removal. The second phase of slower but complete salt removal between the earlier troughs resulted in a more gradual subsidence of the overlying strata. This obliterated the earlier pattern of giant cross-cutting dissolution troughs bounded by major lineaments. The collapse breccia fabrics underlying the earlier troughs differ from those from areas between the troughs. Collapse breccias underlying the large troughs often have crushed fabrics distributed in zones that rapidly pinched out between fault blocks. Breccias between troughs developed as giant mosaics of detached carbonate blocks that formed breccia pipe complexes. Multiple sinkholes up to 100 m deep aligned along multi-km linear valley trends that dissected the sub-Cretaceous paleotopography. These sinkhole trends formed orthogonal patterns inherited from underlying lattice of NW-SE and NE-SW salt structured lineaments. These cross-cutting sinkhole trends have a smaller 5 km scale reticulate pattern similar to the giant 50 km scale pattern of collapse-subsidence troughs. Other sinkholes developed as lower McMurray strata sagged when underlying Devonian fault blocks and breccia pipes differentially

  9. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R.

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  10. The Functional and Palaeoecological Implications of Tooth Morphology and Wear for the Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  11. Using Usability Evaluation to Inform Alberta's Personal Health Record Design.

    PubMed

    Price, Morgan; Bellwood, Paule; Davies, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Alberta Health is deploying the Personal Health Portal (PHP) (MyHealth.Alberta.ca) to all people in the province of Alberta, Canada. The PHP will include several components such as a Personal Health Record (PHR) where users can enter and access their own health data. For the first PHR of its kind in Canada, Alberta Health asked the University of Victoria's eHealth Observatory to evaluate the PHP, including the PHR. The evaluation includes pre-design, design, and adoption evaluation. This paper focuses on early usability evaluations of the PHR software. Persona-based usability inspection was combined with usability testing sessions using think aloud. These evaluations found that while people were familiar with the web-based technology, several aspects of the PHR information architecture, content, and presentation could be improved to better support and provide value to the users. The findings could be helpful to others designing and implementing similar PHR software. PMID:25676994

  12. Multicomponent seismic monitoring of stress arching in the overburden due to hydraulic fracturing in the Montney Shale at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinal, Irene

    Recent studies have shown convincing evidence that time-lapse changes in seismic data occur not only within the reservoir interval but also in the overburden. Observations that production at the reservoir level and subsequent decrease in pore pressure lead to modifications in the stress field and variations in the overburden have been documented (Hatchell et al., 2003; Hudson et al., 2005). The study of the opposite case, that is, the analysis of the effect in the overburden of an increase in pore pressure in the reservoir has not been so well documented yet and is the focus of this work; the possibility that the hydraulic fracturing process causes seismically detectable changes in the overburden in a time-lapse sense is studied at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, and the results are shown. The analysis is performed using multicomponent data from three seismic surveys acquired to evaluate the hydraulic stimulations of two horizontal wells in the Montney Shale. The time-lapse time shifts between the data of the two monitor surveys and the baseline have been calculated and constitute the main tool to study the injection-induced changes above the reservoir interval. The hypothesis is that the increase in the reservoir pressure due to the hydraulic well treatment might produce upward overburden compaction, leading to an increase in stresses that would be translated into an increase in the seismic velocities and therefore, into positive time shifts (considering monitor data subtracted from baseline data) if a time window for the overburden is analyzed. The study shows strong differences in the magnitude of the PS response to the stimulations compared to that of the PP data. The fact that mode-converted (PS) waves are more sensitive to azimuthal anisotropy than compressional waves explains the stronger character of the response observed in PS data, allowing for a more detailed interpretation of the stress-arching distribution. The time-lapse time shifts in the overburden

  13. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  14. Towards understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of stream, hillslope, and groundwater runoff processes in a Rocky Mountain headwater catchment in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Sheena; Anderson, Axel; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin; Collins, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains produce the majority of the surface water supplies for much of Alberta's population. Groundwater inputs to rivers constitutes a large component of flow in this headwater region, however limited knowledge of the interaction of groundwater-surface water sources limits the ability to predict impacts of climate and disturbance in this critical source water region. The objectives of this study are to explore the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface, hillslope, and deeper groundwater runoff processes using coupled tracer approaches to characterize their interaction in regulating streamflow dynamics at stream reach and catchment scales. The study was conducted in Star Creek (10.4 km2), which is representative of small-medium sized, front-range Rocky Mountain catchments. A network of climate stations and 6 nested hydrometric-water quality sampling stations were used to collect 5 years (2009 - 2013) of meteorological, discharge (Q), and stream water quality data. Nested stream gauging stations enabled characterization of the spatial and temporal pattern of Q and water geochemistry (cations: Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, and anions: Cl-, and SO42-) along a gradient of very steep, bedrock entrenched alpine stream reaches down through lower gradient mid-montane alluvial stream reaches. The initial phase of this work uses the stream gauging network to determine the difference in Q between stations, hydrograph baseflow separation, and mixing model analyses of geochemical parameters. These analyses suggest the runoff process is dominated by longer, deeper runoff flow pathways (groundwater). Geologic information and a conceptual model of topographic controls on hillslope-stream connectedness (after Jensco et al. 2009 and others) was used to identify sites where concentrated hillslope flow may be connected with the stream to aid in interpreting the spatial and temporal variation in Q and stream geochemistry. Strong longitudinal and seasonal

  15. Alberta Literacy Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Advanced Education, Calgary.

    This report presents results of a study to identify existing literacy programs and resource centers in Alberta and profile the individuals who hold a stake in Alberta's literacy programming efforts. It begins with highlights of project results related to programs, program administrators, instructors/tutors, and learners (all groups) and a summary…

  16. Magnetic susceptibility evolution and sedimentary environments on carbonate platform sediments and atolls, comparison of the Frasnian from Belgium and Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Anne-Christine; Potma, Ken; Weissenberger, John A. W.; Whalen, Michael T.; Humblet, Marc; Mabille, Cédric; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2009-02-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on carbonate rocks are considered as a proxy for impurities delivered to the carbonate environments. In the absence of strong climatic or tectonic variations, bulk MS values have been linked to sea level variations, because sea-level fall increases clastic supply and therefore increases in magnetic mineral deposition. In this paper we explore the relationship between the average magnitude of bulk MS, with shallowing-up sequences and facies evolution in different Devonian carbonate complexes. Similarities and differences between these parameters have been scrutinized in carbonate attached platform and detached platforms (mounds and/or atolls) from Belgium and Canada. In the carbonate attached platforms from Belgium and Canada, the MS patterns are directly related to depositional environment. Mean MS values increase from the most distal towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of the majority of fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. These trends are in agreement with theoretical background (MS increases with regression). In the Belgian detached platform, the average MS pattern generally shows an opposite behaviour to that observed in the attached carbonate platforms. Average MS decreases towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of a majority of the fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. This behaviour can be explained by the influence of sedimentary rate and water agitation during deposition. A high sedimentary rate will dilute the magnetic minerals in the atoll facies and the high water agitation during deposition may be expected to have prevented the deposition of the magnetic grains. So, the combination of these two effects will result in the observed low values in the atoll crown and lagoonal facies. In the Canadian detached platform, MS is mainly negative. This means that the limestones are very pure. The technique does not appear to be appropriate in these rocks. The variations of average MS

  17. Motivation Beliefs of Secondary School Teachers in Canada and Singapore: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison; Hannok, Wanwisa

    2008-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to explore secondary teachers' motivation beliefs in Canada and Singapore. Results from Study 1 revealed that socio-economic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of school climate in Canada, and that collective efficacy mediated the effect of SES on school climate in Singapore, but not in Canada. In Study 2,…

  18. Oil sands development and its impact on atmospheric wet deposition of air pollutants to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Mary M; Dvonch, J Timothy; Barres, James A; Morishita, Masako; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of air pollutant deposition resulting from Athabasca oil sands development is necessary to assess risk to humans and the environment. To investigate this we collected event-based wet deposition during a pilot study in 2010-2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest upgrading facility in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium deposition was (kg/ha) 1.96, 1.60 and 1.03, respectively. Trace element pollutant deposition ranged from 2 × 10(-5) - 0.79 and exhibited the trend Hg < Se < As < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < S. Crustal element deposition ranged from 1.4 × 10(-4) - 0.46 and had the trend: La < Ce < Sr < Mn < Al < Fe < Mg. S, Se and Hg demonstrated highest median enrichment factors (130-2020) suggesting emissions from oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires were deposited. High deposition of the elements Sr, Mn, Fe and Mg which are tracers for soil and crustal dust implies land-clearing, mining and hauling emissions greatly impacted surrounding human settlements and ecosystems. PMID:26277649

  19. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of individual depositional successions: Effects of marine/nonmarine sediment partitioning and longitudinal sediment transport, Mannville Group, Alberta Foreland Basin, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Cant, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    In the Falher Member of the Mannville Group (Aptian-Albian) of western Canada, two shoreline successions contain the reservoir conglomerates for the giant Elmworth gas field. The Falher B succession has basal sheetlike shoreface unit of hummocky cross-stratified sandstone that thins seaward and terminates about 30km north (seaward) of the landward limit of the transgression. Another 25 km farther basinward, the succession shows a 20-30-m-thick sandstone, unattached to the prograding shoreface, and an overlying coarsening-upward shoreface succession with thin muds and coals, interpreted as back-barrier deposits. In the upper (Falher A) succession, immediately landward (south) of the barriers, fluvial valleys were incised into nonmarine mudstones and coals during the base-level fall. As relative sea level subsequently rose, in nonmarine areas the valleys were filled by estuarine and fluvial sands, then a widespread sheet of fine-grained nonmarine sediment was deposited. At the same time, the shoreline migrated back across the shelf. As it reached the original shorezone (structurally controlled), reworking of underlying deposits successively generated three gravelly barrier islands superimposed on the sandy shoreface succession. The conglomeratic reservoirs all rest above the unconformities, in the transgressive depositional system. Westward (alongshore) toward the thrust belt, no falling or lowstand sea level succession developed. Instead, a wide regressive shoreface sandstone with a transgressive cap occurs. Subsidence rates were higher in this area, and relative sea level appears always to have risen, but at varying rates. Any two-dimensional sequence stratigraphic model, therefore, is inadequate to describe the lateral variation of the sequence and distribution of shoreface sandstones, because the subsidence gradient was not parallel to the direction of shoreface progradation.

  20. Amplitude inversion of fast and slow converted waves for fracture characterization of the Montney Formation in Pouce Coupe field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, Tyler L.

    The Montney Formation of western Canada is one of the largest economically viable gas resource plays in North America with reserves of 449TCF. As an unconventional tight gas play, the well development costs are high due to the hydraulic stimulations necessary for economic success. The Pouce Coupe research project is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) and Talisman Energy Inc. with the objective of understanding the reservoir to enable the optimization of well placement and completion design. The work in this thesis focuses on identifying the natural fractures in the reservoir that act as the delivery systems for hydrocarbon flow to the wellbore. Characterization of the Montney Formation at Pouce Coupe is based on time-lapse multicomponent seismic surveys that were acquired before and after the hydraulic stimulation of two horizontal wells. Since shear-wave velocities and amplitudes of the PS-waves are known to be sensitive to near-vertical fractures, I utilize isotropic simultaneous seismic inversions on azimuthally-sectored PS1 and PS2 data sets to obtain measurements of the fast and slow shear-velocities. Specifically, I analyze two orthogonal azimuths that are parallel and perpendicular to the strike of the dominant fracture system in the field. These volumes are used to approximate the shear-wave splitting parameter (gamma(s*)) that is closely related to crack density. Since crack density has a significant impact on defining the percolation zone, the work presented in this thesis provides information that can be utilized to reduce uncertainty in the reservoirs fracture model. Isotropic AVO inversion of azimuthally limited PS-waves demonstrates sufficient sensitivity to detect contrast between the anisotropic elastic properties of the reservoir and is capable of identifying regions with high crack density. This is supported by integration with spinner production logs, hydraulic stimulation history of the field

  1. A Financial Plan for Alberta Colleges and Universities: Recommendations and Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Bernard S.; And Others

    This is the final report of the Financial Plan Project for Colleges and Universities. Its primary purpose is to present proposals on a financial plan for Alberta universities and public colleges. Following a brief review of financing postsecondary education in Canada, it focuses on the last ten years of Alberta practice; the treatment is…

  2. Research and Development Project Behavior Management Services Northwest Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, S.; Stierhoff, K. A.

    The study examines the status of behavioral management services for disabled persons in Alberta, Canada, and offers recommendations regarding alternative service delivery models for the Northwest Region of Alberta. Existing systems are addressed in terms of centralized service models, outreach service models, and combined residential and outreach…

  3. Visions 2000. A Vision of Educational Technology in Alberta by the Year 2000. A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Arguing that technology should be incorporated into the curriculum so that students learn "about technology,""in technology," and "through technology," the Alberta Technology in Education Committee looks forward to the year 2000 and assesses ways in which technology can be applied both in the classroom and in distance education in Alberta, Canada.…

  4. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  5. Examination of mercury and organic carbon dynamics from a constructed fen in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada using in situ and laboratory fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, C.; Carey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region, mined landscapes must be reclaimed to a functioning natural ecosystem as part of the mine closure process. To test wetland construction techniques on oil sands tailings, 55 ha of mined landscape on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. property is being reclaimed to a watershed containing a graminoid fen. The 18 ha constructed fen consists of an approximately 50 cm thick peat-mineral soil layer separated from underlying tailings sand by a thin layer of clay till. The water table in the fen is maintained by pumping water into the fen from a nearby lake and controlling outflow with under-drains. The objective of this study was to assess total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentration dynamics in water exported from the fen in relation to organic carbon quantity and composition. Water quality data from summer 2012 when the fen pumps were first turned on show that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are on average twice as high in water flowing through the underlying tailings sand aquifer (median: 42.0 mg/L) compared to DOC concentrations in water flowing through the fen peat package (median: 20.3 mg/L). Given these DOC concentrations, filtered THg concentrations are very low (median values are 0.81 ng/L and 0.17 ng/L for water flowing through the fen peat and sand tailings, respectively) compared to concentrations reported for other boreal wetlands. Although a relationship was identified between filtered THg and DOC (r2=0.60), its slope (0.06 ng Hg/mg C) is an order-of-magnitude smaller than the typical range of slopes found at other wetland sites potentially suggesting a small pool of mercury in the peat and/or limited partitioning of mercury into solution. Filtered MeHg concentrations in all water samples are near the limit of detection and suggest that biogeochemical conditions conducive to methylation did not exist in the fen peat or tailings sand at the time of sampling. In addition to these baseline THg and Me

  6. Recognition of strong seasonality and climatic cyclicity in an ancient, fluvially dominated, tidally influenced point bar: Middle McMurray Formation, Lower Steepbank River, north-eastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Bryce V. J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Inclined heterolithic stratification in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, exposed along the Steepbank River in north-eastern Alberta, Canada, accumulated on point bars of a 30 to 40 m deep continental-scale river in the fluvial-marine transition. This inclined heterolithic stratification consists of two alternating lithologies, sand and fine-grained beds. Sand beds were deposited rapidly by unidirectional currents and contain little or no bioturbation. Fine-grained beds contain rare tidal structures, and are intensely bioturbated by low-diversity ichnofossil assemblages. The alternations between the sand and fine-grained beds are probably caused by strong variations in fluvial discharge; that are believed to be seasonal (probably annual) in duration. The sand beds accumulated during river floods, under fluvially dominated conditions when the water was fresh, whereas the fine-grained beds accumulated during the late stages of the river flood and deposition continued under tidally influenced brackish-water conditions during times of low-river flow (i.e. the interflood periods). These changes reflect the annual migration in the positions of the tidal and salinity limits within the fluvial-marine transition that result from changes in river discharge. Sand and fine-grained beds are cyclically organized in the studied outcrops forming metre-scale cycles. A single metre-scale cycle is defined by a sharp base, an upward decrease in sand-bed thickness and upward increases in the preservation of fine-grained beds and the intensity of bioturbation. Metre-scale cycles are interpreted to be the product of a longer term (decadal) cyclicity in fluvial discharge, probably caused by fluctuations in ocean or solar dynamics. The volumetric dominance of river-flood deposits within the succession suggests that accumulation occurred in a relatively landward position within the fluvial-marine transition. This study shows that careful observation can reveal much about the

  7. Distribution of Total Dissolved Solids in McMurray Formation Water in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada: Implications for Oil Sands Mining and In Situ Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, B.; Mayer, B.

    2013-12-01

    Saline water management is a significant environmental challenge for mining and in-situ resource development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada. In the AOSR, the Cretaceous aged McMurray formation that bears the majority of the oil sands resources is underlain by saline Devonian formations containing saline water. Vertical connectivity between Devonian and Cretaceous aquifer systems has been uncovered by mining operations in the AOSR over the past several years, inducing occasional and local saline water flow into mining areas. The observed upward flow of groundwater from Devonian to Cretaceous systems necessitates detailed characterization of the spatial extent of high salinity formation waters to improve water management decisions in the AOSR. This study used published data from recent government reports and Environmental Impact Assessments to map total dissolved solids (TDS) of 355 McMurray formation water samples across the Athabasca oil sands region (54 to 58° N and 110 to 114° W). McMurray formation waters varied from non-saline (TDS < 4 000 mg/L) to brine (TDS > 100 000 mg/L) with a locally high salinity formation waters trending parallel to the dissolution edge of the Devonian-aged Prairie evaporite formation across the AOSR. The simplest hydrogeological explanation for the observed formation water salinity data is that Devonian aquifers are locally connected to the McMurray formation via conduits in the sub-Cretaceous karst system in the region overlying the partial dissolution edge of the Prairie evaporite formation. The driving force for upward formation water flow was provided by the Pleistocene glaciation events that reversed the regional flow system in the Devonian strata over the past 2 Ma. This study demonstrates that a detailed approach to hydrogeological assessment is required to elucidate total dissolved solids concentrations in McMurray formation waters at an individual lease-area scale, and to manage potential impacts

  8. Evaluation of Enzyme Immunoassays and Real-Time PCR for Detecting Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Southern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Patterson-Fortin, Laura; Kuo, Julie; Li, Vincent; Boras, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Two immunoassays (Shiga Toxin Chek and Shiga Toxin Quik Chek) and real-time PCR were used to detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. For enriched culture, the sensitivity and specificity of the three methods ranged from 80.0% to 98.2% and 98.0% to 100.0%, respectively. STEC isolates were identified in 2.6% of the 784 samples. PMID:25588656

  9. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Consequences of a refuge for the predator-prey dynamics of a wolf-elk system in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joshua F; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bardsley, John

    2014-01-01

    Refugia can affect predator-prey dynamics via movements between refuge and non-refuge areas. We examine the influence of a refuge on population dynamics in a large mammal predator-prey system. Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized much of their former range in North America, and as a result, ungulate prey have exploited refugia to reduce predation risk with unknown impacts on wolf-prey dynamics. We examined the influence of a refuge on elk (Cervus elaphus) and wolf population dynamics in Banff National Park. Elk occupy the Banff townsite with little predation, whereas elk in the adjoining Bow Valley experience higher wolf predation. The Banff refuge may influence Bow Valley predator-prey dynamics through source-sink movements. To test this hypothesis, we used 26 years of wolf and elk population counts and the Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis Markov chain Monte Carlo method to fit five predator-prey models: 1) with no source-sink movements, 2) with elk density-dependent dispersal from the refuge to the non-refuge, 3) with elk predation risk avoidance movements from the non-refuge to the refuge, 4) with differential movement rates between refuge and non-refuge, and 5) with short-term, source-sink wolf movements. Model 1 provided the best fit of the data, as measured by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). In the top model, Banff and Bow Valley elk had median growth rates of 0.08 and 0.03 (95% credibility intervals [CIs]: 0.027-0.186 and 0.001-0.143), respectively, Banff had a median carrying capacity of 630 elk (95% CI: 471.9-2676.9), Bow Valley elk had a median wolf encounter rate of 0.02 (95% CI: 0.013-0.030), and wolves had a median death rate of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.146-0.335) and a median conversion efficiency of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.031-0.124). We found little evidence for potential source-sink movements influencing the predator-prey dynamics of this system. This result suggests that the refuge was isolated from the non-refuge. PMID:24670632

  11. Consequences of a Refuge for the Predator-Prey Dynamics of a Wolf-Elk System in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Joshua F.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bardsley, John

    2014-01-01

    Refugia can affect predator-prey dynamics via movements between refuge and non-refuge areas. We examine the influence of a refuge on population dynamics in a large mammal predator-prey system. Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized much of their former range in North America, and as a result, ungulate prey have exploited refugia to reduce predation risk with unknown impacts on wolf-prey dynamics. We examined the influence of a refuge on elk (Cervus elaphus) and wolf population dynamics in Banff National Park. Elk occupy the Banff townsite with little predation, whereas elk in the adjoining Bow Valley experience higher wolf predation. The Banff refuge may influence Bow Valley predator-prey dynamics through source-sink movements. To test this hypothesis, we used 26 years of wolf and elk population counts and the Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis Markov chain Monte Carlo method to fit five predator-prey models: 1) with no source-sink movements, 2) with elk density-dependent dispersal from the refuge to the non-refuge, 3) with elk predation risk avoidance movements from the non-refuge to the refuge, 4) with differential movement rates between refuge and non-refuge, and 5) with short-term, source-sink wolf movements. Model 1 provided the best fit of the data, as measured by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). In the top model, Banff and Bow Valley elk had median growth rates of 0.08 and 0.03 (95% credibility intervals [CIs]: 0.027–0.186 and 0.001–0.143), respectively, Banff had a median carrying capacity of 630 elk (95% CI: 471.9–2676.9), Bow Valley elk had a median wolf encounter rate of 0.02 (95% CI: 0.013–0.030), and wolves had a median death rate of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.146–0.335) and a median conversion efficiency of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.031–0.124). We found little evidence for potential source-sink movements influencing the predator-prey dynamics of this system. This result suggests that the refuge was isolated from the non-refuge. PMID:24670632

  12. A Comparison of Drug Coverage in Alberta Before and After the Introduction of the National Common Drug Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, John-Michael; Eurich, Dean T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The integration of the Common Drug Review (CDR) was a substantial change for Canada's public drug plans. Detailed comparisons of time-to-listing and proportion of medications covered by the province of Alberta's drug plans within the context of the CDR process have not been rigorously conducted. Methods: New drugs approved by Health Canada were identified five years prior to the CDR's first recommendation (May 2004) and five years after. The time-to-listing and proportion of new drugs covered on the Alberta Health and Wellness Drug Benefit List (AHWDBL) was compared between these periods. The level of agreement between CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was calculated using a kappa score. Results: Two hundred and twenty new drugs were identified and met the study eligibility criteria (118 pre-CDR, 102 post-CDR). The median time-to-listing was 312 vs. 524 days in the pre-CDR and post-CDR periods, respectively, with the difference largely driven by time from notice of compliance (NOC) to the CDR recommendation. The level of agreement between 73 drugs with CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was fair (kappa 0.55). Conclusion: Following the implementation of the CDR, the proportion of drugs covered has decreased and overall median time-to-listing of new drugs has increased in the province of Alberta. For drugs listed on the AHWDBL, the proportion of time attributable to the CDR process (NOC to CDR recommendation) was 63% of the overall time-to-listing. PMID:22043227

  13. Spaceborne Methane Observations by Airs Over Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from natural (e.g. wetland) and anthropogenic (e.g. oil and gas industry, and waste management) sources contribute to Alberta's GHG emission. The focus of this study is to examine the spatio-temporal variation of total column CH4 over Alberta, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite from 2003 to 2013. Spaceborne measurements by AIRS provide a global view of CH4 distribution in the mid-upper troposphere. This study demonstrates a significant rise of CH4 levels in Alberta in the last ten years. This ascending trend is consistent with the increase of global methane levels in the same time period. Monthly variations indicate a significant increase of CH4 levels in summer with maximum in August, which is probably driven by enhanced convection. Spatial distributions of CH4 reveal a strong west-east gradient with maximum levels in northern regions (55-65 N). The enhanced summer levels over northern and eastern regions suggest possible pathways for CH4 emitted from natural sources (wetlands, lakes and permafrost) in high northern latitude regions and Canadian wetlands (e.g. Hudson Bay wetland). However, the abrupt increase of CH4 concentration coincides with significant change in economic activities during that time period. Since some of the wetland CH4 fluxes are collocated with large anthropogenic source, it is difficult to account for different source contribution. Thus, further studies about CH4 emission and transport over Alberta are recommended to reduce the uncertainties about the natural and anthropogenic contributions of Alberta to Canada's CH4 emissions.

  14. Evaluation of the Alberta School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, S. C. T.; Nyberg, V. R.

    The report summarized a formative evaluation of the Alberta (Canada) School for the Deaf (ASD). Data were collected via observations by 12 consultants; interviews; and questionnaires completed by parents, teachers, students, and administrators. The evaluation was designed to focus on such aspects as instruction (including curriculum) and total…

  15. Some Aspects of Leadership in Independent Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoux, Bruce V.; Holdaway, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    A study used interviews, observations, and documents to examine perceptions of principals in eight accredited, independent schools in Alberta (Canada) about major factors affecting their leadership role. Factors included philosophical congruence enhanced by respect and trust, as well as personal relationships, school culture, symbolism, and…

  16. Locating Leadership: The Blind Spot in Alberta's Technology Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Charmaine

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, technology and education policy discourse in Alberta, Canada has been philosophically polarized and dominated by value-neutral ways of thinking about technology (Brooks, 2011). While technology policy implementation has significant ramifications for schools and systems, for much of this time, system leaders, specifically…

  17. Indian Tribes of Alberta. Revised, Expanded, and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Hugh A.

    This book recounts the story of the Indians in Alberta, Canada. Pictures and maps help in the explanation of these facts. The Indians described include the: (1) Blackfoot Nation (Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan Tribes); (2) Sarcee Tribe; (3) Stoney Indians; (4) Plains Cree; (5) Woodland Cree; (6) Chipewyan Indians; (7) Beaver Indians; (8) Slavey Indians;…

  18. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  19. Alberta Unites on Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Education policy in the province of Alberta is set by Alberta Education, a ministry led by the province's minister of education. There are two key policies or ministerial orders that guide professional learning in Alberta. The Teaching Quality Standard outlines the knowledge, skills, and attributes that teachers are expected to possess. The…

  20. Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2006 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (30th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Jun 3-7, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at the University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the…

  1. The Emotional Drama of Giftedness. Conference Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) (9th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, November 6-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This proceedings focuses on "state-of-the-art" knowledge regarding social-emotional development, parenting issues, achievement issues, accelerative practices, individualized program planning, Alberta Education policies, educational technology, Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration, and other issues as they related to the unique needs of…

  2. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (25th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 25-29, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG) held at the University of Alberta, May 25-39, 2000. The proceedings consist of two plenary lectures, four working groups, five topic sessions, new Ph.D. reports, an AD Hoc Session, and panel discussions. Papers include: (1)…

  3. The Socioeconomic Benefits Generated by 16 Community Colleges and Technical Institutes in Alberta. Executive Summary [and] Volume 1: Main Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Kjell A.; Robison, M. Henry

    This document contains an executive summary and main report that examine the ways in which the Alberta, Canada, economy benefits from the presence of the 16 community and technical colleges in the province. The colleges served an unduplicated headcount of 241,992 students in fiscal year 2001. The Alberta community colleges employed 8,374 full-time…

  4. "Fellow Travellers" and "True Believers": A Case Study of Religion and Politics in Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2001-01-01

    In Canada, the United States, and England, educational policies favoring greater parental choice have renewed interest in religion's place in public schools; conversely, religious parents' lobbying for school choice has influenced educational policy. This paper explores change dynamics in Alberta, Canada, focusing on micropolitical program and…

  5. Neo-Conservatism and Child Care Services in Alberta: A Case Study. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline

    The development and delivery of child care services in Canada has never been without controversy. This case study examines the development of the child care system in Alberta, Canada, showing how the role of the government proceeded through four distinct phases, each determining a different outcome for child care stakeholders. Power mechanisms and…

  6. The History of Post-Secondary Finance in Alberta - An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Calvin P.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2005-01-01

    Post-secondary systems throughout Canada and the United States have struggled with funding issues during most of the last decade of the 20th Century, and the new millennium did not open with great enthusiasm for change. This article examines the impact of post-secondary education funding changes in Alberta, Canada, by tracing the historical…

  7. Micro-seismicity in Alberta recorded by the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, R.; Gu, Y. J.

    2012-12-01

    Documented seismicity throughout Alberta, Canada has been relatively low in recent history, with fewer than fifteen events (ML > 3.5) recorded by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) since 1985. The notable lack of seismicity could be partially attributed to limited or intermittent station coverage in the province. For this reason, the Alberta Geological Survey (AGS) has been involved in a continued effort to maintain, improve and expand regional seismic networks. Broadband seismic data from the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE) and catalog excerpts from the Canadian National Seismic Network (CNSN) were analyzed. Micro-seismic hypocenters were located using Antelope, a software package from Boulder Real Time Technologies, Inc.. Analysis of data from September, 2006 to June, 2010 shows these events are typically naturally occurring or anthropogenic (e.g., mining blasts, which are not usually part of the earthquake catalogs). More than one hundred and twenty natural earthquakes were located in western and central Alberta, with the majority occurring along the Rocky Mountain foothills. During this period, earthquakes magnitudes (ML) ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 were measured and the magnitude of completeness is ~2.8 for this dataset. The substantial number of unreported events suggests that the existing earthquake catalogs, based exclusively on national seismic network stations, are incomplete. The addition of the CRANE dataset has improved the understanding of background seismicity by providing updated hypocenter locations and waveforms of more than thirty previously unrecorded earthquakes. Future endeavors to incorporate data from additional networks would prove invaluable for the identification of emergent trends or induced events.

  8. Motorcycle-related trauma in Alberta: a sad and expensive story

    PubMed Central

    Monk, John P.; Buckley, Richard; Dyer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma caused by motorcycle-related injuries is extensive, expensive and increasing. Recent American literature reported that in 2004 the chance of a motorcyclist dying was 34 times greater than that for someone using any other motor vehicle for every mile travelled. In the United Kingdom a motorcyclist is killed or seriously injured every 665 894 km, compared with 18 661 626 km for cars. If this pattern is repeated in Canada, then this information should be in the public domain to support initiatives for injury prevention. Methods We gathered and analyzed retrospective population data on the injury patterns of adult motorcyclists and other adult motor vehicle drivers and passengers across Alberta from Apr. 1, 1995, to Mar. 31, 2006. We collected data from 3 Alberta sources: the Alberta Trauma Registry, the Alberta Office of the Chief Medical Examiners and the Government of Alberta Department of Infrastructure and Transportation. We compared the numbers and causes of crashes, injuries and deaths, as well as the acute care costs on the roads, and specifically compared motorcycle-related injuries to all other motor vehicle–related injuries. Results There were 70 605 registered motorcycles and 2 748 204 other registered motor vehicles in Alberta during the study period. During these 11 years, there were 286 motorcyclists killed and 712 were severely injured, representing a total of 998 injuries and deaths. There was 5386 deaths related to other motor vehicles and 6239 severe injuries, for a total of 11 625 injuries and deaths. This represents a percentage of 1.4% of all registered motorcycles and 0.4% of all other registered motor vehicles (3.5 times more motorcyclist injuries). The impact on the health care system can be measured in several ways. During the period of this study, motorcyclists accounted for 10 760 bed days. Assuming the patient was not admitted to intensive care, each admission cost Can$9200 (average in 2008). Conclusion Analysis of the

  9. A Learning Alberta: Fostering Innovation in Alberta. A Discussion Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Minister has initiated a comprehensive exercise to establish a new direction for Alberta's advanced education system. Through "A Learning Alberta," a new vision and policy outcomes for the advanced education system will be articulated. The process provides an opportunity for government, stakeholders, and the public to consider how the advanced…

  10. Alberta's Acute Care Funding Project.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M; Lave, J R; Glendining, M

    1992-01-01

    Alberta initiated the Acute Care Funding Project (ACFP) in 1988, a new hospital funding system that institutes case mix budgeting adjustments to the global budget so that hospitals can be treated more equitably. The initiative is a significant departure in principle from the former method of funding. The ACFP is summarized and critiqued, and focuses on the inpatient side of the picture. The various elements of the project are discussed, such as the hospital performance index, the hospital performance measure, the Refined Diagnostic Related Group, case weights, typical and outlier cases, and the costing mechanisms. Since its implementation, the ACFP has undergone substantial changes; these are discussed, as well as some of the problems that still need to be addressed. Overall, the system offers incentives to reduce length of stay and to increase the efficiency with which inpatient care is provided. PMID:10121446

  11. Comparison of a Waveform Cross Correlation Detection Method to a Traditional STA/LTA Picker: Application to the Crooked Lake Sequence Near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, D. W.; Spriggs, N.

    2014-12-01

    Waveform cross correlation, or template matching as it is sometimes called, has long been known to be an effective method for finding occurrences of a known repeating signal within a waveform. Because seismic signals are rarely known a priori, waveform cross correlation is not often used as a detection method for seismic networks. However, past studies (e.g. Gibbons and Ringdal, 2006) have shown that cross correlation can be effective in identifying events with similar locations and focal mechanisms (and thus waveforms) to a pre-existing template. Because induced seismicity often satisfies these requirements the method is well-suited to induced seismicity monitoring. We apply the method of waveform cross correlation to a sequence of events between Nov. 29, 2013 and Dec. 13, 2013 occurring at Crooked Lake near Fox Creek, Alberta. These events are believed to be attributable to injection activities in the area. A total of 24 events were detected using traditional STA/LTA triggering methods. The largest event, measured at local magnitude 3.9, is used as a template to identify other events. We compare the effectiveness of the traditional STA/LTA detection method to the cross correlation technique. With a modest correlation threshold we identify all 24 of the original events and an additional 89 new events for a total of 113 events identified by waveform cross correlation. We estimate the magnitude of completeness using the maximum curvature method (Wiemer and Wyss, 2000) and compare the result for the STA/LTA catalogue and the cross correlation catalogue. We find that the magnitude of completeness is about 0.8 magnitude units lower for the cross correlation catalogue. We explore the possibility of determining a probability density function to describe the values of observed correlation between a template and a seismic signal and reconcile theoretical expectations with empirical data. We further suggest a trigger threshold for cross correlation detection algorithms

  12. Mixed methods immigrant mental health research in Canada: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farah; Oremus, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Canada is home to a growing immigrant population. However, immigrant mental health declines over time following arrival in Canada. Canada's Mental Health Strategy emphasizes the importance of research that gathers information from multiple sources of knowledge to identify the mental health challenges faced by diverse immigrant populations. Mixed methods research (MMR) is well suited for this task. However, a dearth of research exists on the application of MMR to the study of immigrant mental health. A systematic review of the published MMR literature in Canadian immigrant mental health was carried out. Overall, existing MMR studies failed to incorporate correct mixed methods terminology and fully integrate the quantitative and qualitative components of the research. A checklist of important elements to include in MMR studies is offered. PMID:24408048

  13. Swayback (Enzootic Ataxia) in Alberta Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Swayback (enzootic ataxia), a disease not previously described in Canada, occurred in newborn lambs in Alberta in 1972. Of 100 lambs born in one flock, over 60 succumbed in the enzootic. The diagnosis was based on the presence of a) gross cavitations and gelatinous lesions of the cerebral white matter in 16 of 24 (66.67%) lambs examined, b) central chromatolysis and hyalinization of neurons of the red and vestibular nuclei and reticular formation and of the lateral and ventral horns of the spinal cord, c) myelin deficiencies of the dorsolateral and sulcomarginal funiculi of the spinal cord and d) low hepatic and serum copper levels in affected lambs and low serum copper levels in the ewes. The feeding of sugar beet-(beta saccharifera) top silage to the ewes during pregnancy, lambing and lactation, and its relationship to the enzootic is discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4274817

  14. Evaluation of Restoration Methods to Minimize Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System has an active habitat restoration program and annually seeds thousands of hectares with native plant species. The noxious weed, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), plagues these restorations. This study evaluates planting methodology and seed mixes with the goal of recommending optimal methods to reduce infestation of noxious weeds, especially Canada thistle, in new restorations. Three planting methods (dormant season broadcast, growing season [summer] broadcast, and growing season [summer] drill) were fully crossed with three levels of seed diversity (10, 20, and 34 species [plus a fourth level, 58 species, on the three sites in Iowa]) in a completely randomized design replicated on nine sites in Minnesota and Iowa. The propagule bank of Canada thistle was evaluated at each site. Planting occurred in winter 2004 and spring-summer 2005. Here I report on results through summer 2007. None of the planting methods or seed mix diversities consistently resulted in reduced abundance of Canada thistle. Soil texture had the strongest influence; sites with greater proportions of clay had greater frequency and cover of Canada thistle than did sandy sites. At the Minnesota study sites, the dormant broadcast planting method combined with the highest seed diversity resulted in both the greatest cover of planted species as well as the greatest richness of planted species. At the Iowa sites, planted species richness was slightly greater in the summer drill plots, but cover of planted species was greatest in the dormant broadcast plots. Richness of planted species at the Iowa sites was maximized in the high diversity plots, with the extra-high diversity seed mix resulting in significantly lower species richness. Individual species responded to planting methods idiosyncratically, which suggests that particular species could be favored by tailoring planting methods to that species.

  15. Utility of telephone survey methods in population-based health studies of older adults: an example from the Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Random digit dialing is often used in public health research initiatives to accrue and establish a study sample; however few studies have fully described the utility of this approach. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the implementation and utility of using random digit dialing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for sampling, recruitment and data collection in a large population-based study of older adults [Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study]. Methods Using random digit dialing, older adults (> = 55 years) completed health behavior and outcome and demographic measures via CATI. After completing the CATI, participants were invited to receive a step pedometer and waist circumference tape measure via mail to gather objectively derived ambulatory activity and waist circumference assessments. Results Overall, 36,000 telephone numbers were called of which 7,013 were deemed eligible for the study. Of those, 4,913 (70.1%) refused to participate in the study and 804 (11.4%) participants were not included due to a variety of call dispositions (e.g., difficult to reach, full quota for region). A total of 1,296 participants completed telephone interviews (18.5% of those eligible and 3.6% of all individuals approached). Overall, 22.8% of households did not have an age 55+ resident and 13.6% of individuals refused to participate, Average age was 66.5 years, and 43% were male. A total of 1,081 participants (83.4%) also submitted self-measured ambulatory activity (i.e., via step pedometer) and anthropometric data (i.e., waist circumference). With the exception of income (18.7%), the rate of missing data for demographics, health behaviors, and health measures was minimal (<1%). Conclusions Older adults are willing to participate in telephone-based health surveys when randomly contacted. Researchers can use this information to evaluate the feasibility and the logistics of planned studies using a similar population

  16. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients’ examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Methods: Total number of patients’ charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Results: Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries. PMID:27398104

  17. Stress drop estimates and hypocenter relocations of induced seismicity near Crooked Lake, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Fiona; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    We use a sequence of induced earthquakes near Crooked Lake, Alberta, to investigate the physical differences between induced and tectonic earthquakes. Starting with the Natural Resources Canada earthquake catalogue, we use a spectral ratio method to calculate the static stress drops of a group of relocated earthquakes ranging from December 2013 to June 2015. We find that stress drops fall within the high side of the typical reported range of tectonic events and show no correlation with earthquake magnitude, depth, or distance from the well. The stress drops appear roughly constant for events with Mw 3 to 4. Relocated hypocenters cluster both spatially and temporally around corresponding injection wells and appear to migrate deeper with increasing time from injection. Fine-scale lineations apparent in relocated hypocenters could indicate the presence and orientation of fault planes, consistent with the published focal mechanism solutions of M 4+ events in the area.

  18. RACOL Project Delivers Distance Education to Rural Alberta Schools through Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Fort Vermilion School Division (FVSD) covers an area twice the size of Vermont, yet the school system only has 3,600 students. This region of northwestern Alberta, Canada, is a mixture of agriculture and oil exploration, with most towns having fewer than 5,000 people. The mandate of the school district is to provide the best possible education…

  19. The Required School Physical Education Program in Alberta. Planning and Research Study 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassford, R. G.; And Others

    Data obtained from a province-wide survey of compulsory physical education programs in Alberta, Canada, is presented (1) describing current parent and student perceptions of required physical education, (2) identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the program as it exists, (3) assessing areas of expressed or implied concerns, and (4) making…

  20. Manufacturing (Il)Literacy in Alberta's Classrooms: The Case of an Oil-Dependent State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines involvement of education-business "partnerships" presently occurring in the province of Alberta, Canada. Specific attention is paid to the promotion and sponsorship by oil multinational corporations (MNCs) of corporate propaganda masquerading as energy and environmental literacy programs targeted for the K-12 school system. The…

  1. Computing Services Planning, Downsizing, and Organization at the University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrametti, Monica

    1993-01-01

    In a six-month period, the University of Alberta (Canada) campus computing services department formulated a strategic plan, and downsized and reorganized to meet financial constraints and respond to changing technology, especially distributed computing. The new department is organized to react more effectively to trends in technology and user…

  2. Difficulties Associated with the Coding and Categorization of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Jahnukainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, there is a recent trend toward non-categorization of services of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities (EBD). Yet in Alberta, the coding of students with EBD provides opportunities to diagnose students' learning difficulties but is hindered in this process, in large part, by being tied into special needs funding. Current…

  3. Effects of Changes in the Recapture Provision on Equity of Education Funding: Evidence from Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhav, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Shows how reducing the recapture provision in a property-tax-dependent education-funding formula adversely affected fiscal equality in Alberta, Canada, from 1974 through 1992. An alternative plan would have recaptured .77 percent more of the funds in 1992. Another plan (full tax-base recapture) would ensure equitable distribution, compared to full…

  4. Principal Leadership: Blending the Historical Perspective with the Current Focus on Competencies in the Alberta Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mombourquette, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of the standards movement on the principalship in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2009 the minister of education approved a set of practice guidelines for school leaders. The "Guidelines" list seven practice standards called leadership competencies. In 2012 a review was conducted to see…

  5. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of a…

  6. Access and Funding for International Students in Alberta: Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta classrooms are a microcosm of the world, with students representing a diversity of language and cultural groups. Some students are Canadian born or have adopted Canadian citizenship, while others are permanent residents, children of temporary foreign workers, refugees or students who have come to Canada specifically to study. Given this…

  7. The People: A Historical Guide to the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Donald

    This book focuses on the history and culture of the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Canada). An introductory chapter briefly overviews the history of the First Nations, based on evidence found at archaeological sites in the plains and subarctic areas within the three provinces. Although there were many notable differences…

  8. Alberta Career Events: A Planning Guide and Workbook for Counsellors and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    Information on planning career events in Alberta, Canada, is presented in this guide. Information is divided into these 10 areas: (1) establishing a realistic timeline; (2) setting goals and clarifying one's purpose; (3) establishing support and selling the idea; (4) setting the budget and anticipating expenses with a sample budget; (5)…

  9. Corporate Competencies for Executive Women in Alberta: Oh, the Places You'll Go!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocchio, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to develop consensus opinion on the core competencies required to succeed as a female executive in the C-Suites of Alberta, Canada. The study was prompted by the significant under-representation of women in Canadian corporate executive positions and by a post-secondary institution's interest in determining whether a market exists…

  10. Access to Opportunity, 1905-80. The Development of Post-Secondary Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghofer, Desmond E.; Vladicka, Alan S.

    The history of postsecondary education in the province of Alberta (Canada) since its beginning in 1905 is chronicled, including its transformation from an agriculturally-based frontier society to a modern industrial state. Although little emphasis is placed on historical narrative, a number of time periods are identified to illustrate certain…

  11. Mapping the Continuing Professional Development Jungle: The University of Alberta Amazon Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.; Einsiedel, Albert A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    At the University of Alberta (Canada), the Amazon Project is identifying and mapping continuing-professional-development activities and resources available through the University. The project has met challenges related to definitions of terms, lack of relevant information and statistics, and faculty suspicion and resistance. (SV)

  12. The Atlee School Question: The Effects of School Consolidation in Rural Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, a bitter dispute broke out between parents in the Atlee-Jenner School District in Southern Alberta Canada, and the Medicine Hat School Board over the bussing of children for the first time to a new school a long distance away. The move was precipitated by the consolidation of several smaller school districts and the subsequent…

  13. A Demographic Overview of the Native Populations in Alberta. Background Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Native Affairs, Edmonton.

    Data from the 1981 Census of Canada were used to gain an overview of the demographic and social characteristics of the aboriginal populations in Alberta and to compare the situations of aboriginal and non-aboriginal peoples with regard to age and geographical distribution, educational attainment, labor force activity, and income. Census figures…

  14. The quantitative and qualitative recovery of Campylobacter from raw poultry using USDA and Health Canada methods.

    PubMed

    Sproston, E L; Carrillo, C D; Boulter-Bitzer, J

    2014-12-01

    Harmonisation of methods between Canadian government agencies is essential to accurately assess and compare the prevalence and concentrations present on retail poultry intended for human consumption. The standard qualitative procedure used by Health Canada differs to that used by the USDA for both quantitative and qualitative methods. A comparison of three methods was performed on raw poultry samples obtained from an abattoir to determine if one method is superior to the others in isolating Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses. The average percent of positive samples was 34.72% (95% CI, 29.2-40.2), 39.24% (95% CI, 33.6-44.9), 39.93% (95% CI, 34.3-45.6) for the direct plating US method and the US enrichment and Health Canada enrichment methods, respectively. Overall there were significant differences when comparing either of the enrichment methods to the direct plating method using the McNemars chi squared test. On comparison of weekly data (Fishers exact test) direct plating was only inferior to the enrichment methods on a single occasion. Direct plating is important for enumeration and establishing the concentration of Campylobacter present on raw poultry. However, enrichment methods are also vital to identify positive samples where concentrations are below the detection limit for direct plating. PMID:25084671

  15. Satisfaction with Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1998-01-01

    Annual Alberta surveys of parents, high school students, and the public are part of accountability processes and provide public consultation on policy issues and reform efforts. Selected results of the 1995 and 1996 surveys are presented, related to provincial educational objectives, and compared to similar U.S. and Ontario surveys and established…

  16. Bovine Stephanofilarial Dermatitis in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Dies, Ken H.; Pritchard, Jane

    1985-01-01

    The nematode, Stephanofilaria stilesi was recovered from two mature beef cattle in Alberta. The appearance of the skin and the histological lesions are described. The life cycle of the parasite and the development of lesions are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422593

  17. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  18. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  19. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Calvin P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2007-01-01

    This mixed method study used survey research, open-ended questions, and interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities among principals of publicly funded schools in the Province of Alberta, Canada. Five-hundred-nine teachers (37.7%) from a random sample of schools in the province completed the Multifactor leadership Questionnaire…

  20. Canada: irrational energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Paehlke, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    Despite energy shortages, recent weeks have seen the collapse or at least postponement of three major energy projects in Canada: the Cold Lake (Alberta) heavy oil plant, the Alsands oil sands plant, and the Alaska Highway natural gas pipeline. All have fallen victim to the combination of high interest rates and increasing doubts that oil prices will continue to rise at an annual rate of five percent in real terms. Current energy problems and policies are discussed including decline of oil reserves, expanded domestic use and export of Canadian natural gas, expansion of the nuclear energy program, demand for electricity, and energy conservation. (JMT)

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047). Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes than those who

  2. What Happened to Charter Schools in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, charter schools have held a precarious existence in Canada. Implemented in the province of Alberta in 1994, only a handful of charter schools remain in the entire nation. In this article, I explore the ideas of school choice and charter schooling and how they have largely disappeared as educational policy issues for Canadians. While…

  3. The economic adaptation of Vietnamese refugees in Alberta: 1979-84.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, R

    1987-01-01

    During 1979 and 1980, about 7500 South East Asian refugees entered Alberta. The number has been steadily rising since 1982 due to the sponsoring of family and relatives by those who came earlier; by mid-1984, there were an estimated 15,000 South East Asian immigrants in Alberta, 92% from Vietnam. Montgomery explores the situation of the Vietnamese in Alberta by administering a survey consisting of a structured interview schedule containing 249 questions. The actual field work took from mid-November 1983 to March 31, 1984. A quota of 500 was targeted; it was decided to apportion the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers were able to interview 148 of all the non-Edmonton Vietnamese; 389 interviews were conducted in Edmonton. All of the dependent variables used in the survey were cross-tabulated or correlated with English skill on arrival, current English skill, progress in English, education or training level on arrival, current marital status, escape trauma (where applicable), gender, age, population of municipality in which currently residing, ethnicity, level of involvement in ethnic social network, type of sponsorship, and length of residence in Canada. Montgomery compares Richmond's 1981 summary generalization from the 25 studies he reviewed of immigrant economic adaptation to Canada to his own study. Montgomery's findings are almost completely congruent with Richmond's. Richmond found that immigrants from the developing countries experienced the highest unemployment rates and the slowest economic integration; this is because they must contend with more, and more severe, obstacles than do other immigrants. This is precisely what has happened to the Vietnamese in Alberta. Richmond found that after 3 years, at least 1/3 of newcomers had not reached their intended occupations. In the present study, the Vietnamese had only hazy notions of what kinds of work

  4. The CADET Project: Computer Assisted Distance Education Telecommunication for Post Secondary Education in Alberta. A Report to the Program Planning and Development Branch, Alberta Department of Advanced Education, Program Services Division, February 28, 1985. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.; Goldberg, Jack

    Since its inception in 1984, the CADET (Computer-Assisted Distance Education Telecommunications), a micro to mainframe computer program developed by the University of Oklahoma but modified for use at the University of Alberta in Canada, has achieved major results. Its successful use in delivering a distance education graduate course in which both…

  5. Mind the Gap: How a Project in Alberta Attempted to Narrow the Gap between Classroom Teachers and Language Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…

  6. A Study of Private Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning Services Branch.

    This study was commissioned by Alberta Education to examine the development and organization of private schools in Alberta and to consider future directions. It examines the financial issues related to private schools, the effect of private schools on public school systems and on the education of children, and implications for public school…

  7. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  8. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada VI. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Western Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The final volume in a series on educational policy and planning in Canada, this review concentrates on the western provinces--British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Sections of the document discuss the educational foundations of the Canadian west; the educational system as it was in 1974--its purposes and institutions, attendance,…

  9. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  10. Evolving 50–50% bilingual pedagogy in Alberta: what does the research say?

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rahat; Schmidt, Elaine; Krickhan, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the provincial frameworks that define the Spanish bilingual program in Alberta, Canada, provides an historical overview of its pedagogic constraints and evolution, and proposes a framework for bilingual pedagogy. The framework is conceptualized from the research evidence of three local case studies, and is based on the centrality of cross-linguistic transfer, in relation to linguistic interdependence and bilingual learning. PMID:24987378

  11. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  12. Subglacial Lake McGregor, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    2003-08-01

    It is proposed that a lake, here named "Subglacial Lake McGregor", existed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet at, or near, the last glacial maximum. The lake resided in the ancient buried McGregor and Tee Pee preglacial valleys, which are now mostly filled with glacigenic deposits. The greatest thickness of sediment in the valleys is in the form of chaotically deposited lake beds that were laid down in a subaqueous environment by a number of process: gravity flow, water transport, and suspension settling. Topographic, sedimentary, and stratigraphic evidence point to a subglacial, not a proglacial, origin for the beds. During the early stages of lake existence, ice movement was significant as there are numerous sets of shear planes in the sedimentary beds. This indicates that the lake filled (lake sedimentation) and drained (shearing of the beds by overlying ice when ice contacted the bed) often. Thus, early in its history, the lake(s) was/were ephemeral. During the later stages of lake existence, the lake was relatively stable with no rapid draining or influx of sediment. Gradual drainage of the lake resulted in lowering of the ice onto the lake beds resulting in subglacial till deposition. Drainage was not a single continuous event. Rather it was characterized by multiple phases of near total drainage (till deposition), followed by water accumulation (lake sedimentation). Water accumulation events became successively less significant reflected by thinning of lake beds and thickening of till beds higher in the stratigraphic sequence. Since subglacial lake sedimentation appears to be restricted to the subglacial valleys, it is suggested that the valleys acted as a large-scale interconnected cavity system that both stored and transported water. It is also suggested that these acted as the main routes of water flow beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  13. Geochemistry of halogens in the Milk River aquifer, Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabryka-Martin, J.; Whittemore, D.O.; Davis, S.N.; Kubik, P.W.; Sharma, Prakash

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data are presented for Cl, Br and I on a regional scale for the Milk River aquifer. The three halides show strikingly similar spatial distributions and are highly correlated. Concentrations are low in the freshwater portions of the aquifer but increase by as much as two orders of magnitude along the margins. However, halide ratios reach nearly constant values moving down-gradient, suggesting the dominance of a common subsurface source for these ions. Ratios of Cl/I and Cl/Br are less than those of seawater and fit an origin derived from the diagenesis of organic matter in the sediments. Halide ratios rule out leakage and/or diffusion from the underlying Colorado Group as a major influence on the chemistry; the favored hypothesis is altered connate seawater diffusing from low-permeability units within the Milk River Formation as the primary source of salts. This hypothesis of an internal source has important implications for solute sources in other aquifers affected by saline waters because it does not require the importation of a distant fluid. The 129I/I ratio has a meteoric value in groundwater collected near the recharge area, but ratios for downflow waters are only 8-70% of this value. Due to the 16 Ma half-life of 129I, these data indicate that most of the increase in dissolved I cannot derive from concentration of a meteoric source by ion filtration, but must have a subsurface origin. Concentrations of 129I produced in situ by spontaneous fission of 238U attain measurable levels only in the oldest waters sampled (ages ??? 105 a), in which it may account for nearly 90% of the total dissolved 129I concentration. Water ages based upon 36Cl/Cl data range up to 2 Ma if uncorrected for any dilution by subsurface sources of dead Cl. If one assumes that the subsurface contributions of Cl contribute at least 90% of total Cl in the distal portion, then the 36Cl-based ages are reduced to ??? 1 Ma, somewhat greater than those estimated by hydrodynamic modeling. ?? 1991.

  14. Teacher Perspectives on Inclusive Education in Rural Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Irvine, Angela; Loreman, Tim; Cizman, Juna Lea; Lupart, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The results of 123 elementary-to-secondary teacher surveys and 14 in-depth qualitative interviews examining teachers' perspectives regarding inclusion in a rural school district are reported. Four features of inclusive education from the perspective of teachers are elaborated: (1) attitudes toward inclusion; (2) supportive communication and…

  15. WATER CHEMISTRY METHODS IN ACID DEPOSTION RESEARCH: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALYSES FROM CANADA, NORWAY, AND THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identical aliquots (split samples)from lakes in the southeastern United tates were analyzed in laboratories in the U.S. and Norway. econd set of split samples from lakes in the northeastern U.S. was analyzed in laboratories in the U.S. and Canada. Methods used by the laboratories...

  16. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  17. Alberta Soil Moisture Analyses using CaLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, S.; Carrera, M. L.; Belair, S.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Husain, S.; Bilodeau, B.; Gauthier, N.

    2012-12-01

    In order to improve soil moisture analyses, used to initialize numerical prediction systems, Environment Canada has developed the new Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS). CaLDAS uses the Global Environment Multi-scale (GEM) off-line land surface model and has been configured to assimilate Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) L-band soil moisture brightness temperatures using an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework and the Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform as the radiative transfer forward model. One of the biggest challenges so far has been to correct the systematic dry bias of the off-line land surface model in order to provide an accurate first guess in which to assimilate SMOS brightness temperatures. Using a network of soil moisture stations in Alberta [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development] we have improved and validated parameterizations using the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface scheme. Results will be presented for the off-line model both alone and with the assimilation of bias corrected SMOS brightness temperatures for the summers of 2010 and 2012.

  18. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  19. A Survey of the Use of the Tadoma Method in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Martin C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Results of a survey to document the character, extent, and effectiveness of Tadoma training (a means of teaching speechreading and speech production using vibrotactile information) and use in the United States and Canada are presented. (Author/CL)

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  1. Alberta's acute care funding plan: update to December 1994.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M; Plain, R H

    1995-01-01

    From 1990 until 1994 Alberta Health adjusted the acute care portion of hospital budgets based on a case mix index, initially called the Hospital Performance Index (HPI). The HPI formula method was a temporary measure; in November 1993, Alberta Health announced that, commencing in 1994, hospitals would be funded on a prospective basis, although they would still use the core of the HPI in the setting of funding rates. The creation of 17 health regions in June 1994 created the need for a new system of funding which would supplant the modified prospective system. In this paper we review the evolution of the HPI plan and its individual components-patient data, patient classification, funding weights, inpatient costs and adjustment factors. PMID:10144217

  2. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease. PMID:4541003

  3. A comparison of methods used to obtain age ratios of snow and Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Linder, R.L.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    The validity of group counts, cannon-net catches, and hunter-bag checks for estimating productivity of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii-parvipes complex) was studied at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge during the falls of 1965 and 1966. Age ratios of snow geese obtained from net-trapped samples were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than from group counts at the same site. Immature snow geese were shot in a significantly greater (P < 0.01) proportion than they existed in the population as determined by group counts. Cannon-net catches and hunter-bag checks of snow and Canada geese yielded age ratios which were biased because of behavioral characteristics of the geese. Immatures of both species were less wary of trap equipment and immature snow geese were more vulnerable to the gun than adults. It was believed that age ratios from group counts of snow geese were more representative of the population than those from net catches and hunter-bag checks. Sex ratios of net-trapped geese showed a preponderance of males for adult Canada and adult and immature snow geese, whereas females were predominant in the immature segment of Canada geese. Hunter selectivity of blue- or white-phase snow geese was not observed at Sand Lake Refuge. Differential vulnerability to hunting between snow and Canada geese resulted from differences m feeding-flight behavior.

  4. Defence R&D Canada research on nuclear methods of landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has an active research and development program on detection of landmines using nuclear methods. They are intended for confirmation by detection of characteristic radiation or imaging of back scattered intensity distributions. Both vehicle-mounted and person-portable systems are being developed. Research on thermal neutron analysis (TNA) was initiated in 1994 to provide a confirmation detector for the DRDC developed multisensor, teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, landmine detection system. A version is now commercially available and four units have been fielded by the Canadian Land Forces. A prototype next generation TNA, which uses an electronic neutron generator as a source, has been constructed. Preliminary tests have shown improved performance. Research is now ongoing to investigate the addition of a fast neutron analysis capability to the next generation TNA. Characterization studies and software improvements are being conducted. Related research is investigating whether fast inorganic scintillator materials can provide an improvement in energy resolution. For person-portable applications, both neutron and photon irradiation processes are being investigated. A prototype landmine detector based on neutron moderation imaging has been completed and preliminary images of antipersonnel mine simulants obtained. It consists of a novel thermal neutron imaging system, a unique neutron source to uniformly irradiate the underlying ground and hardware and software for image generation and enhancement. Simulations show that it should provide a significant improvement over non-imaging neutron backscatter systems. X-ray backscatter imaging research is concentrating on non-collimated approaches to enable it to be person-portable. One such method, coded aperture imaging, is being investigated and extensive simulations using Geant4 have demonstrated its merits. Initial joint experiments with UC San Diego, using their HEXIS detector, have been conducted.

  5. "All Methods--and Wedded to None": The Deaf Education Methods Debate and Progressive Educational Reform in Toronto, Canada, 1922-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the deaf education methods debate in the public schools of Toronto, Canada. The author demonstrates how pure oralism (lip-reading and speech instruction to the complete exclusion of sign language) and day school classes for deaf schoolchildren were introduced as a progressive school reform in 1922. Plans for further oralist…

  6. Probabilistic formulation of a method for the evaluation of petroleum resources. [Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.J.; Wang, P.C.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Canadian geological service has developed the HASP system for forecasting the hydrocarbon raw material resources of newly explored territories. The prospecting and exploration process is interpreted as a game situation for which the concepts of game potential and risk factor have been introduced. The sum of the risk factor and the probability of discovering a formation equals 1. This probability equals the product of the following quantities: presence of a structure according to the data of seismic exploration, presence of oil source deposits and hydrocarbon reservoirs, presence of caps, and also a set of tectonic and thermobaric factors promoting the conservation of the formation. For one of the real situations, this probability equals 6.5%, while the probability of the presence of a structure from data of seismic exploration equals 90%. Formulas are presented for distribution of the predictable formations by sizes, as well as formulas for the total potential of the territory (total forecasted reserves). The latter quantity is understood as the sum of random components (reserves in assigned classes), and the summation index (number of classes) is also a random quantity. An example is presented of using the method in evaluating the outlook of the eastern coast of Canada (so-called tenth game situation). The formation reserve is viewed as the product of the following quantities: area, thickness, coefficient of porosity and permeability, and also conversion factors. For each of these quantities, factual distributions are presented which were obtained from geological-geophysical sources, which were then approximated by log-normal distribution with different parameters. From the set of these data an empirical density was obtained for the distribution of formations by dimensions (reserves).

  7. Airborne wildfire intelligence system: a decision support tool for wildland fire managers in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Doug; Born, Wally G.; Beck, Judi; Bereska, Bill; Frederick, Kurt; Hua, Sun

    2002-03-01

    The Airborne Wildfire Intelligence System (AWIS) defines the state-of-the-art in remotely sensed wildfire intelligence. AWIS is a commercial, automated, intelligence service, delivering GIS integrated fire intelligence, classified interpretive and analysis layers, and higher level decision support products for wildfires in near real time via the Internet. The AWIS effort illustrates flexible and dynamic cooperation between industry and government to combine technology with field knowledge and experience into an effective, optimized end-user tool. In Alberta the Forest Protection Division of the department of Sustainable Resource Development uses AWIS for several applications: holdover and wildfire hotspot detection, fire front and burned area perimeter mapping, strategic and tactical support through 3D visualization, research into the effects of fire and its severity and to document burn patterns across the landscape. A discussion of all of the scientific themes behind the AWIS is outside the scope of this paper, however, the science of sub-element detection will be reviewed. An independent study has been conducted by the Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) to investigate the capability of a variety of thermal infrared remote sensing systems to detect small and subtle hotspots in an effort to identify the strengths and weaknesses thereof. As a result of this work, method suitability guidelines have been established to match appropriate infrared technology with a given wildfire management objective.

  8. Special Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodder, Clive

    The paper reviews the history and present status of special education in Canada (with particular emphasis on the province of Ontario) and identifies recommended future directions. The legislative authority for special education and current policies are summarized in sections on the following provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan,…

  9. "CanCore": In Canada and around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "CanCore," a learning resource metadata initiative funded by Industry Canada and supported by Athabasca University, Alberta, and TeleUniversite du Quebec, and describes the increasing range of international uses of the "CanCore" metadata for the indexing of learning objects. "CanCore" is designed to facilitate…

  10. Joint Geophysical Assessments of Geothermal Potential from a Deep Borehole in the Canadian Shield Rocks of NE Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kueck, J.; Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    based on the degree of anisotropy calculated at different depth zones. With the additional interpretation from the VSP data, the dipping reflectors interpreted from the 2D seismic reflection profile can be better understood and fracture zones can be identified with increased confidence. Knowledge in the zone of fractures is beneficial in outlining areas for the potential development of geothermal reservoir when the thermal conditions are also known. In addition, an understanding of seismic anisotropy can improve the velocity models used in seismic processing and inversion methods. (This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production.)

  11. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  12. The Soft-Spoken Way vs. the Outspoken Way: A Bicultural Approach to Teaching Speech Communication to Native People in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiordo, Richard

    The paper discusses bicultural education from two points of view, the soft-spoken way of Native people and the outspoken way of non-Native people with both groups examined in the context of a teacher training program in the field of education in Alberta. Canada's federal policy toward Native people and biculturalism and problems created by the…

  13. Evaluation of the CAPE and CORE Programs for Sensory-Impaired Multi-Handicapped Children in the Province of Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland Consulting Group Ltd.

    The report presents summaries of evaluations of the Coordinated Assessment and Program Planning for Education (CAPE) Program and the Coordinated Rehabilitation and Education (CORE) program for multi-handicapped sensory impaired and/or communication and behavior disordered children and their families in Alberta, Canada. Each program is evaluated…

  14. Living with inflammatory bowel disease: A Crohn’s and Colitis Canada survey

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Helen M; Grigat, Daniel; Ghosh, Subrata; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Dieleman, Levinus; Wine, Eytan; Fedorak, Richard N; Fernandes, Aida; Panaccione, Remo; Barkema, Herman W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), patient quality of life continues to be significantly impacted. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of IBD on patients and families with regard to leisure, relationships, mental well-being and financial security, and to evaluate the quality and availability of IBD information. METHODS: An online survey was advertised on the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website, and at gastroenterology clinics at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) and University of Calgary Hospital (Calgary, Alberta). RESULTS: The survey was completed by 281 IBD patients and 32 family members. Among respondents with IBD, 64% reported a significant or major impact on leisure activities, 52% a significant or major impact on interpersonal relationships, 40% a significant or major impact on financial security, and 28% a significant or major impact on planning to start a family. Patient information needs emphasized understanding disease progression (84%) and extraintestinal symptoms (82%). There was a strong interest in support systems such as health care insurance (70%) and alternative therapies (66%). The most common source of information for patients was their gastroenterologist (70%); however, most (70%) patients preferred to obtain their information from the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of IBD on interpersonal relationships and leisure activities was significant among IBD patients and their families. Understanding the disease, but also alternative treatment options, was of high interest. Currently, there is a discrepancy between interest in information topics and their availability. Respondents reported a strong desire to obtain information regarding disease progression, especially extraintestinal symptoms. PMID:25803017

  15. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006 contains…

  16. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  17. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  18. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  19. Assessment in Alberta: Six Areas of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Nola; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy; Scott, Shelleyann; Runte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report on the Alberta Student Assessment Study describes the context, methodology, and emergent themes. It outlines the purposes and uses of assessment according to the various stakeholder groups. Using both qualitative and quantitative data from students and parents, as well as educators at all levels, there were six areas or themes that…

  20. Rever d'une langue: Anthologie des ecoles d'immersion de l'Alberta de la maternelle a la 11e annee (Dreaming in One Language: An Anthology of Essays from Immersion Schools in Alberta from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Teachers Association, Edmonton.

    This publication, launched by the French Council of the Alberta Teachers' Association and prepared under the Millennium Partnership Program in Canada, presents a collection of essays written by French language immersion students in the elementary and secondary grades. Essay topics touch on the following themes: remembering, dreaming, celebrating,…

  1. Parametric Modelling (bim) for the Documentation of Vernacular Construction Methods: a Bim Model for the Commissariat Building, Ottawa, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fai, S.; Filippi, M.; Paliaga, S.

    2013-07-01

    Whether a house of worship or a simple farmhouse, the fabrication of a building reveals both the unspoken cultural aspirations of the builder and the inevitable exigencies of the construction process. In other-words, why buildings are made is intimately and inevitably associated with how buildings are made. Nowhere is this more evident than in vernacular architecture. At the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) we are concerned that the de-population of Canada's rural areas, paucity of specialized tradespersons, and increasing complexity of building codes threaten the sustainability of this invaluable cultural resource. For current and future generations, the quantitative and qualitative values of traditional methods of construction are essential for an inclusive cultural memory. More practically, and equally pressing, an operational knowledge of these technologies is essential for the conservation of our built heritage. To address these concerns, CIMS has launched a number of research initiatives over the past five years that explore novel protocols for the documentation and dissemination of knowledge related to traditional methods of construction. Our current project, Cultural Diversity and Material Imagination in Canadian Architecture (CDMICA), made possible through funding from Canada's Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), explores the potential of building information modelling (BIM) within the context of a web-based environment. In this paper, we discuss our work-to-date on the development of a web-based library of BIM details that is referenced to ''typical'' assemblies culled from 19C and early 20C construction manuals. The parametric potential of these ''typical'' details is further refined by evidence from the documentation of ''specific'' details studied during comprehensive surveys of extant heritage buildings. Here, we consider a BIM of the roof truss assembly of one of the oldest buildings in Canada's national

  2. Development, testing and implementation of an emergency services methodology in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Eliasoph, H; Ashdown, C

    1995-01-01

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to mandate reporting of hospital-based emergency services. This reporting is based on a workload measurement system that groups emergency visits into five discreet workload levels/classes driven by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Other related workload measurement variables are incorporated, including admissions, transfers, maintenance monitoring, nursing and non-nursing patient support activities, trips, staff replacement, and personal fatigue and delay. The methodology used to design the reporting system has been subjected to extensive testing, auditing and refinement. The results of one year of province-wide data collection yielded approximately 1.5 million emergency visits. These data reveal consistent patterns/trends of workload that vary by hospital size and type. Although this information can assist in utilization management efforts to predict and compare workload and staffing levels, the impetus for establishing this system derived from its potential for funding hospital-based emergency services. This would be the first time that such services would be funded on a systemic, system-wide basis whereby hospitals would be reimbursed in relation to workload. This proposed funding system would distribute available funding in a consistent, fair and equitable manner across all hospitals providing a similar set of services, thus achieving one of the key goals of the Alberta Acute Care Funding Plan. Ultimately, this proposed funding methodology would be integrated into a broader Ambulatory Care Funding system currently being developed in Alberta. PMID:10142620

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  5. Comparison between Canadian probabilistic safety assessment methods formulated by Atomic Energy of Canada limited and probabilistic risk assessment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, H.S.; Smith, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The procedures used by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to perform probabilistic safety assessments (PRAs) differ somewhat from conventionally accepted probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedures used elsewhere. In Canada, PSA is used by AECL as an audit tool for an evolving design. The purpose is to assess the safety of the plant in engineering terms. Thus, the PSA procedures are geared toward providing engineering feedback so that necessary changes can be made to the design at an early stage, input can be made to operating procedures, and test and maintenance programs can be optimized in terms of costs. Most PRAs, by contrast, are performed in plants that are already built. Their main purpose is to establish the core melt frequency and the risk to the public due to core melt. Also, any design modification is very expensive. The differences in purpose and timing between PSA and PRA have resulted in differences in methodology and scope. The PSA procedures are used on all plants being designed by AECL.

  6. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, G.L.; Scroggins, R.

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  7. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    PubMed Central

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece), to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants) and Canada (2,400 infants). Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care. PMID:24142318

  8. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS. PMID:21804836

  9. Subsurface Geophysical Characterization of the Crystalline Canadian Shield in NE Alberta: Implications to Geothermal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lee, M. D.; Moeck, I. S.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of a deep borehole offers an unprecedented opportunity to correlate surface seismic data to borehole measurements in the metamorphic rocks of northeastern Alberta, Canada. As part of the feasibility study for the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in Alberta under the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), this project provides a detailed subsurface characterization of the basement rocks by integrating the existing deep surface seismic profile with the borehole seismic and log measurements that were mostly acquired in July 2011. The purpose of geothermal energy research in Alberta is to implement alternative energy resources for water heating in oil sands processing toward minimizing greenhouse gas emissions in the province. Existing thermal gradient studies suggested that deep drilling into the crystalline basement rocks is needed to reach the desired temperature for the development of geothermal energy in northeastern Alberta. Crystalline basement rocks are known for their low porosity but the presence of highly-fractured rocks still provides an ideal environment for the development of any geothermal systems. As such, physical discontinuities including cracks, voids and joint systems, and major faults and fractures are features to target for geothermal exploration. The focus of this project is on identifying any geological features including zones of fractures in the basement rocks that could act as indicators of enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. By integrating the results from a comprehensive suite of geophysical borehole logs, seismic reflection surveys, zero-offset and walk-away vertical seismic profiles, the final results provide useful information on the in-situ physical properties of the rocks, depths to fracture zones and seismic reflectors, types of fractures, stress directions, and the acoustic responses of rock properties. Significant P-wave velocity anisotropy is also

  10. Research Funding at Alberta Universities. 2001/2002 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Innovation and Science, Edmonton. University Research and Strategic Investments Branch.

    This report summarizes sponsored research revenues at Alberta Universities. Sponsored research revenues are those that are received outside of regular university operating grant and include both research grants and research contracts. Research at Alberta universities is supported in part by the provincial government through a number of programs.…

  11. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  12. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  13. FOIPP and Technology Highlights: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The information in this document is based on a study that Alberta Education commissioned on establishing technology systems that are responsive to the requirements of Alberta's Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FOIPP). This document provides an overview of key issues and suggested strategies in the following areas: (1)…

  14. A Learning Alberta: Dialogue and Direction. The Forum Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Participants in "A Learning Alberta--Dialogue and Direction," the Minister's Forum on Advanced Learning are an important part of a process that has been underway across Alberta since January of 2005. Led by the Honourable Dave Hancock, Minister of Advanced Education, a new vision and policy framework is being developed to guide future directions…

  15. A Retrospective Survey of Diseases of Feedlot Cattle in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Church, T. L.; Radostits, O. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of feedlot managers was used to obtain information on disease occurrence, management practices and preventive techniques employed in feedlots in Alberta. Respiratory diseases were reported to be the most frequent causes of sickness and death. Costs associated with disease occurrence were estimated to be C $15.6 million in feedlots in Alberta annually during the period under study. PMID:7225993

  16. A Learning Alberta: Dialogue and Direction. Regional Discussions Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "A Learning Alberta: Framing the Challenge" is a comprehensive review of the advanced education system in Alberta. The review brought together thousands of Albertans to talk about and seek answers to the challenges of creating a knowledge-based province. In particular, Albertans were encouraged to comment on a proposed policy framework that will…

  17. The Provincial Educational Communications Organizations in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joy; And Others

    This paper examines the history, functions, and impact of the four existing educational communications organizations in Canada: (1) TVOntario; (2) Radio Quebec; (3) ACCESS Alberta; and (4) the Knowledge Network of the West in British Columbia. It is noted that, while broadcasting and communications have always fallen under federal jurisdiction,…

  18. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  19. Distinguishing phosphate from fertilizers and wastewater treatment plant effluents in Western Canada using oxygen isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fau, Veronique; Nightingale, Michael; Tamburini, Frederica; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for phosphate in aquatic ecosystems requires that different sources of phosphate are isotopically distinct. The objective of this study was to determine whether the oxygen isotope ratios of phosphate from fertilizers and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in Western Canada are isotopically distinct. Therefore, we carried out oxygen isotope analyses on phosphate in effluent from five different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Samples were collected directly from the final effluent (post-UV) in Banff and Canmore upstream of Calgary, and from effluents of Calgary's WWTPs at Bonnybrook, Fish Creek and Pine Creek. We also carried out oxygen isotope analyses on a variety of phosphate-containing fertilizers that are widely used in Western Canada. Historically, most of the phosphate contained in manufactured fertilizers sold in Alberta came from two distinct deposits: 1) a weathered Pliocene igneous carbonatite located in eastern Canada, and 2) the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the western USA. Phosphate (PO43-) contained in the water or the fertilizer was concentrated and quantitatively converted to pure silver phosphate (Ag3PO4). The silver phosphate was then reduced with carbon in an oxygen free environment using a TC/EA pyrolysis reactor linked to a mass spectrometer where 18O/16O ratios of CO were measured in continuous flow mode. Preparation of samples for δ18OPO4 analyses was conducted using the Magnesium Induced Coprecipitation (MAGIC) method. Expected oxygen isotope ratios for phosphate in equilibrium with water (δ18Oeq) were calculated using the Longinelli and Nuti equation: T (° C) = 111.4 - 4.3 (δ18Oeq - δ18Owater). Measured δ18O values of phosphate for fertilizer samples varied from 8 to 25 oÈ®n average, fertilizer samples of sedimentary origin had higher δ18O values (15.8) than those of igneous origin (11.5). Phosphate isotopic

  20. The geometry of folds in granitoid rocks of northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Langenberg, C.; Ramsden, John

    1980-06-01

    Granitoid rocks which predominate in the Precambrian shield of northeastern Alberta show large-scale fold structures. A numerical procedure has been used to obtain modal foliation orientations. This procedure results in the smoothing of folded surfaces that show roughness on a detailed scale. Statistical tests are used to divide the study areas into cylindrical domains. Structural sections can be obtained for each domain, and horizontal and vertical sections are used to construct block diagrams. The projections are performed numerically and plotted by computer. This method permits blocks to be viewed from every possible angle. Both perspective and orthographic projections can be produced. The geometries of a dome in the Tulip Lake area and a synform in the Hooker Lake area have been obtained. The domal structure is compared with polyphase deformational interference patterns and with experimental diapiric structures obtained in a centrifuge system. The synform in the Hooker Lake area may be genetically related to the doming in the Tulip Lake area.

  1. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  2. A Multi-Method Study of the Geriatric Learning Needs of Acute Care Hospital Nurses in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary T; Butler, Jeffrey I; Persaud, Malini; Tregunno, Deborah; Sidani, Souraya; McCague, Hugh

    2016-02-01

    Older people are at risk of experiencing functional decline and related complications during hospitalization. In countries with projected increases in age demographics, preventing these adverse consequences is a priority. Because most Canadian nurses have received little geriatrics content in their basic education, understanding their learning needs is fundamental to preparing them to respond to this priority. This two-phased multi-method study identified the geriatrics learning needs and strategies to address the learning needs of acute care registered nurses (RNs) and registered practical nurses (RPNs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. In Phase I, a survey that included a geriatric nursing knowledge scale was completed by a random sample of 2005 Ontario RNs and RPNs. Average scores on the geriatric nursing knowledge scale were in the "neither good nor bad" range, with RNs demonstrating slightly higher scores than RPNs. In Phase II, 33 RN and 24 RPN survey respondents participated in 13 focus group interviews to help confirm and expand survey findings. In thematic analysis, three major themes were identified that were the same in RNs and RPNs: (a) geriatric nursing is generally regarded as simple and custodial, (b) older people's care is more complex than is generally appreciated, and (c) in the current context, older people's care is best learned experientially and in brief on-site educational sessions. Healthcare providers, policy-makers, and educators can use the findings to develop educational initiatives to prepare RNs and RPNs to respond to the needs of an aging hospital population. PMID:26471253

  3. A bootstrap method for assessing classification accuracy and confidence for agricultural land use mapping in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, Catherine; McNairn, Heather; Daneshfar, Bahram; Shang, Jiali

    2014-06-01

    Land cover and land use classifications from remote sensing are increasingly becoming institutionalized framework data sets for monitoring environmental change. As such, the need for robust statements of classification accuracy is critical. This paper describes a method to estimate confidence in classification model accuracy using a bootstrap approach. Using this method, it was found that classification accuracy and confidence, while closely related, can be used in complementary ways to provide additional information on map accuracy and define groups of classes and to inform the future reference sampling strategies. Overall classification accuracy increases with an increase in the number of fields surveyed, where the width of classification confidence bounds decreases. Individual class accuracies and confidence were non-linearly related to the number of fields surveyed. Results indicate that some classes can be estimated accurately and confidently with fewer numbers of samples, whereas others require larger reference data sets to achieve satisfactory results. This approach is an improvement over other approaches for estimating class accuracy and confidence as it uses repetitive sampling to produce a more realistic estimate of the range in classification accuracy and confidence that can be obtained with different reference data inputs.

  4. A method for managing re-identification risk from small geographic areas in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A common disclosure control practice for health datasets is to identify small geographic areas and either suppress records from these small areas or aggregate them into larger ones. A recent study provided a method for deciding when an area is too small based on the uniqueness criterion. The uniqueness criterion stipulates that an the area is no longer too small when the proportion of unique individuals on the relevant variables (the quasi-identifiers) approaches zero. However, using a uniqueness value of zero is quite a stringent threshold, and is only suitable when the risks from data disclosure are quite high. Other uniqueness thresholds that have been proposed for health data are 5% and 20%. Methods We estimated uniqueness for urban Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs) by using the 2001 long form Canadian census data representing 20% of the population. We then constructed two logistic regression models to predict when the uniqueness is greater than the 5% and 20% thresholds, and validated their predictive accuracy using 10-fold cross-validation. Predictor variables included the population size of the FSA and the maximum number of possible values on the quasi-identifiers (the number of equivalence classes). Results All model parameters were significant and the models had very high prediction accuracy, with specificity above 0.9, and sensitivity at 0.87 and 0.74 for the 5% and 20% threshold models respectively. The application of the models was illustrated with an analysis of the Ontario newborn registry and an emergency department dataset. At the higher thresholds considerably fewer records compared to the 0% threshold would be considered to be in small areas and therefore undergo disclosure control actions. We have also included concrete guidance for data custodians in deciding which one of the three uniqueness thresholds to use (0%, 5%, 20%), depending on the mitigating controls that the data recipients have in place, the potential invasion of privacy if

  5. The impact of mandatory versus voluntary participation in the Alberta ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R; Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S

    2003-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that participation in an interlock program significantly reduces the likelihood of subsequent driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions at least so long as the interlock device is installed in the vehicle. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that allow interlock programs and the demonstrated success of these programs, the proportion of DWI offenders who actually have the device installed is minimal. In an effort to increase the proportion of offenders using interlocks, some jurisdictions require offenders to install an interlock as a condition of license reinstatement whereas others merely offer offenders a reduction in the period of hard suspension if they voluntarily participate in an interlock program. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which voluntary interlock participants are more or less successful in terms of subsequent recidivism than those for whom interlock program participation has been mandated. The issue was addressed using data from the interlock program in Alberta, Canada, which provides for both mandatory and voluntary participation. The recidivism experience of voluntary and mandatory interlock participants was examined both during and after the period of interlock installation. Cox regression revealed that, after controlling for (or equating) the number of prior DWI offenses, the survival rates of DWI offenders who were ordered to participate in the interlock program did not differ from those of voluntary participants. These results suggest that further use of mandatory interlock programs should be just as successful as voluntary programs when offenders share characteristics with those studied in Alberta. PMID:14522643

  6. The impact of mandatory versus voluntary participation in the Alberta ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R; Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S

    2003-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that participation in an interlock program significantly reduces the likelihood of subsequent driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions at least so long as the interlock device is installed in the vehicle. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that allow interlock programs and the demonstrated success of these programs, the proportion of DWI offenders who actually have the device installed is minimal. In an effort to increase the proportion of offenders using interlocks, some jurisdictions require offenders to install an interlock as a condition of license reinstatement whereas others merely offer offenders a reduction in the period of hard suspension if they voluntarily participate in an interlock program. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which voluntary interlock participants are more or less successful in terms of subsequent recidivism than those for whom interlock program participation has been mandated. The issue was addressed using data from the interlock program in Alberta, Canada, which provides for both mandatory and voluntary participation. The recidivism experience of voluntary and mandatory interlock participants was examined both during and after the period of interlock installation. Cox regression revealed that, after controlling for (or equating) the number of prior DWI offenses, the survival rates of DWI offenders who were ordered to participate in the interlock program did not differ from those of voluntary participants. These results suggest that further use of mandatory interlock programs should be just as successful as voluntary programs when offenders share characteristics with those studied in Alberta. PMID:16801126

  7. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2016-02-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC), by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect, surficial geology, plan curvature, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high-resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g. 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  8. Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982

    PubMed Central

    Rosatte, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

  9. Examining the relationship between social support availability, urban center size, and self-perceived mental health of recent immigrants to Canada: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Kathryn A; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The experiences of settlement in a new country (e.g., securing housing and employment, language barriers) pose numerous challenges for recent immigrants that can impede their health and well-being. Lack of social support upon arrival and during settlement may help to explain why immigrant mental health status declines over time. While most urban centers in Canada offer some settlement services, little is known about how the availability of social supports, and the health statuses of recent immigrants, varies by city size. The objective of this mixed-methods study was to examine the relationship between self-perceived mental health (SPMH), social support availability, and urban center size, for recent immigrants to Canada. The quantitative component involved analysis of 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey data, selecting for only recent immigrants and for those living in either large or small urban centers. The qualitative component involved in-depth interviews with managers of settlement service organizations located in three large and three small urban centers in Canada. The quantitative analysis revealed that social support availability is positively associated with higher SPMH status, and is higher in small urban centers. In support of these findings, our interviews revealed that settlement service organizations operating in small urban centers offer more intensive social supports; interviewees attributed this difference to personal relationships in small cities, and the ease with which they can connect to other agencies to provide clients with necessary supports. Logistic regression analysis revealed, however, that recent immigrants in small urban centers are twice as likely to report low SPMH compared to those living in large urban centers. Thus, while the scope and nature of settlements services appears to vary by city size in Canada, more research is needed to understand what effect settlement services have on the health status of recent immigrants to

  10. Composition, Diversity, and Stability of Microbial Assemblages in Seasonal Lake Ice, Miquelon Lake, Central Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, Anna; Han, Sukkyun; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The most familiar icy environments, seasonal lake and stream ice, have received little microbiological study. Bacteria and Eukarya dominated the microbial assemblage within the seasonal ice of Miquelon Lake, a shallow saline lake in Alberta, Canada. The bacterial assemblages were moderately diverse and did not vary with either ice depth or time. The closest relatives of the bacterial sequences from the ice included Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Cyanobacteria. The eukaryotic assemblages were less conserved and had very low diversity. Green algae relatives dominated the eukaryotic gene sequences; however, a copepod and cercozoan were also identified, possibly indicating the presence of complete microbial loop. The persistence of a chlorophyll a peak at 25–30 cm below the ice surface, despite ice migration and brine flushing, indicated possible biological activity within the ice. This is the first study of the composition, diversity, and stability of seasonal lake ice. PMID:24832796

  11. Source analysis of a potential hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquake near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Schultz, Ryan; Kim, Ahyi; Atkinson, Gail

    2016-01-01

    An earthquake with a reported magnitude of 4.4 (ML) was detected on 13 June 2015 in western central Alberta, Canada. This event was the third felt earthquake this year near Fox Creek, a shale gas exploration region. Our results from full moment tensor inversions of regional broadband data show a strong strike-slip mechanism with near-vertical fault plane solutions. The decomposition of the moment tensor solution is overwhelmingly double couple, while only a modest (˜20%) contribution is attributed to compensated-linear-vector-dipole. The depth of this earthquake is 3-4 km, near the base of the sedimentary layer, and the moment magnitude (M = 3.9) of this event is considerably smaller than the initial reported ML value. The hypocenter location, depth, and mechanism are favorable to a possible association between this earthquake and hydraulic fracturing operations within the Duvernay shale.

  12. Autoerotic asphyxial deaths: analysis of nineteen fatalities in Alberta, 1978 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Tough, S C; Butt, J C; Sanders, G L

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents an unusual form of sexual (masturbatory) activity and brings this unusual cause of death to wider medical attention and understanding. All 19 cases of autoerotic asphyxial death that occurred between 1978 and 1989 in the province of Alberta, Canada were reviewed. The fatal victim of autoerotic asphyxia is typically a single male aged 15 to 29 years. Autoerotic sexual activity is typically performed in isolation; often there is evidence of repetitive practice. The accidental death usually results when the "safety" mechanism designed to alleviate neck compression fails. Often the first sign of the activity (usually a surprise to family and friends) is death itself. Physicians who are alert to the practice may suggest counselling when patients present with sexual concerns, unusual marks around the neck or evidence of abrasions to limbs suggesting bondage or other masochistic practices. PMID:8033021

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from poultry in Alberta.

    PubMed

    St Amand, Joan A; Otto, Simon J G; Cassis, Rashed; Annett Christianson, Colleen B

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is one of the top three serovars implicated in human infections in Canada. In 2003, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance reported antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S. Heidelberg in Canada. The study objective was to investigate the AMR of S. Heidelberg isolated from poultry in Alberta. We examined 951 S. Heidelberg poultry isolates obtained during 1996 to 2010 and tested against 18 antibiotics using the Sensititre AVIAN1F system. Temporal resistance patterns were analysed using single-level logistic regression models. Continuous variables were included in the multivariable models. Multivariable models were built and variables and interactions were included in these final models. Data were analysed using Stata 11 Intercooled. Ceftiofur resistance ranged annually from 0 to 10.5% and gentamicin resistance ranged annually from 0 to 33.3%; no isolates were enrofloxacin resistant. Resistance to amoxicillin (annual range 0 to 42.6%) varied significantly by time and interaction with commodity type. Meat turkey S. Heidelberg isolates had higher ceftiofur resistance compared with chickens: layers plus layer breeders (odds ratio = 22.6, P < 0.01) and broiler breeders (odds ratio = 9.1, P < 0.01). Gentamicin resistance decreased significantly over the study period (odds ratio = 0.72 per year, P < 0.01). Tetracycline (TET) resistance changed significantly over time (annual range 0 to 39.6%), interacting with poultry commodity type. Meat turkey isolate TET resistance, higher overall than that of chicken, increased throughout the study. All turkey breeder isolates were resistant to TET. In conclusion, this study provides AMR data for S. Heidelberg isolates from the Alberta poultry industry and demonstrated significant trends in resistance, both temporal and between poultry commodities. PMID:23815674

  14. Isolated cases of remote dynamic triggering in Canada detected using cataloged earthquakes combined with a matched-filter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Yu, Hongyu; Carey, Alex; Elst, Nicholas J.

    2015-07-01

    Here we search for dynamically triggered earthquakes in Canada following global main shocks between 2004 and 2014 with MS > 6, depth < 100 km, and estimated peak ground velocity > 0.2 cm/s. We use the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) earthquake catalog to calculate β statistical values in 1° × 1° bins in 10 day windows before and after the main shocks. The statistical analysis suggests that triggering may occur near Vancouver Island, along the border of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, in western Alberta, western Ontario, and the Charlevoix seismic zone. We also search for triggering in Alberta where denser seismic station coverage renders regional earthquake catalogs with lower completeness thresholds. We find remote triggering in Alberta associated with three main shocks using a matched-filter approach on continuous waveform data. The increased number of local earthquakes following the passage of main shock surface waves suggests local faults may be in a critically stressed state.

  15. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  16. A bibliometric analysis of digestive health research in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tuitt, Désirée; Knight, Frank; Lipman, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor) and research influence (Influence factor) of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario), McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario), and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta) and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta), but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba), Western Ontario (London, Ontario) and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec). Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups. PMID:22059168

  17. A bibliometric analysis of digestive health research in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tuitt, Desiree; Knight, Frank; Lipman, Tara

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of the impact and influence of medical⁄scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor) and research influence (Influence factor) of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario), McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario), and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta) and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta), but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba), Western Ontario (London, Ontario) and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec). Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups. PMID:22059168

  18. Teacher Education Programs for Native People. Proceedings of a Conference on Native Teacher Education (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, November 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Myrtle, Ed.; And Others

    In an effort to pool information on the working operations of Indian teacher education programs in Canada and parts of the United States, a conference on Native teacher education was held in mid-October 1973 at Saskatoon. Nine programs sent delegates, including the University of Alaska, University of Alberta, Brandon University (Manitoba),…

  19. Discovering, Recovering, and Covering-up Canada: Tracing Historical Citizenship Discourses in K-12 and Adult Immigrant Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashby, Karen; Ingram, Leigh-Anne; Joshee, Reva

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, cultural diversity has always been a contested cornerstone of citizenship and of citizenship education. In the last decade, a number of provinces, including Alberta and Ontario, have published citizenship and character education documents and social studies curricula in which ideas of cultural diversity are central and shape dominant…

  20. Health care delivery for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta: a practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J.R.; Lau, H.; Surgeoner, B.V.; Chua, N.; Dobrovolsky, W.; Dort, J.C.; Kalaydjian, E.; Nesbitt, M.; Scrimger, R.A.; Seikaly, H.; Skarsgard, D.; Webster, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of head-and-neck cancer is complex and requires the involvement of various health care professionals with a wide range of expertise. We describe the process of developing a practice guideline with recommendations about the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta. Methods Outcomes of interest included composition of the health care team, qualification requirements for team members, cancer centre and team member volumes, infrastructure needs, and wait times. A search for existing practice guidelines and a systematic review of the literature addressing the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients were conducted. The search included the Standards and Guidelines Evidence (sage) directory of cancer guidelines and PubMed. Results One practice guideline was identified for adaptation. Three additional practice guidelines provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Members of the Alberta Provincial Head and Neck Tumour Team (consisting of various health professionals from across the province) provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations through an online and in-person review process. Selected experts in head-and-neck cancer from outside the province participated in an external online review. SUMMARY The recommendations outlined in this practice guideline are based on existing guidelines that have been modified to fit the Alberta context. Although specific to Alberta, the recommendations lend credence to similar published guidelines and could be considered for use by groups lacking the resources of appointed guideline panels. The recommendations are meant to be a guide rather than a fixed protocol. The implementation of this practice guideline will depend on many factors, including but not limited to availability of trained personnel, adequate funding of infrastructure, and collaboration with other associations of

  1. A new glacier inventory on southern Baffin Island, Canada, from ASTER data: I. Methods, challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, F.; Paul, F.

    2009-04-01

    According to recent climate scenarios, the Arctic regions will experience a particular strong increase in temperature in the coming decades. Thus, the strongly glacierized Canadian Arctic could then greatly contribute to global sea level rise. For a quantitative assessment of overall changes a glacier inventory based on vector outlines is required. This is lacking in many remote areas, or, in the case of Baffin Island, it has been made but the data have not been forwarded to the world data centres. Within the framework of the GLIMS initiative and the GlobGlacier project we used multispectral satellite data in combination with DEM information to map and inventory glaciers and icecaps for the southern part of Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island (Canada), with automated techniques. In this study two ASTER scenes from August 2000 are used for DEM generation and mapping of recent glacier outlines and LIA trimlines to generate detailed glacier inventory data. Additionally a change assessment with the freely available Landsat MSS (1975) and TM (1990) scenes from the GLCF has been made. The study is separated in two parts: In the first part the applied methods and the encountered challenges are described and discussed. The results of the new inventory, the change assessment and application of the obtained data are presented in part II. A major aim of both contributions is also to discuss common standards for glacier mapping and inventory data creation. In part I the extraction of the DEM from ASTER, its accuracy, regions of error, fields of application and possible corrections are discussed. We further describe the mapping of glacier outlines from MSS, TM and ASTER which have varying resolution and spectral bands. The required manual correction of the generated glacier outlines (debris, water, snow and shadow) and the challenges that have to be considered in this region are presented as well. A major and at the same time critical part is the delineation of glacier basins

  2. Stories from the trenches: Experiences of Alberta pharmacists in obtaining additional prescribing authority

    PubMed Central

    Charrois, Theresa; Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmacists in Alberta can apply to the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to obtain the designation of additional prescriber. This designation uniquely allows them to initiate therapy, in addition to other medication-related activities. Our objective was to examine specific experiences of pharmacists regarding the decision to apply and the application itself, and use this information to help inform other pharmacists who are considering additional prescribing. Methods: All pharmacists involved in a randomized, controlled trial being conducted in rural Alberta who had received their additional prescribing authorization (APA) were invited to participate. Pharmacists were contacted via e-mail and asked to respond to questions regarding their experiences in applying for APA. Responses were analyzed using content analysis and the identites of all respondents were kept anonymous. Results: Fourteen pharmacists were invited to participate. Review and examination of the responses revealed 3 main themes: motivation, hurdles and outcomes. Motivation can be understood as the reasons why they applied for their APA. Hurdles include any problems encountered of a personal, environmental or professional nature. Outcomes refer to how this designation has changed their practice. Discussion: Pharmacists had to address many factors that were unexpected during the application process; however, the eventual outcome of obtaining APA was deemed beneficial, both professionally and with regard to patient care. Conclusion: The information shared from these pharmacists will help other pharmacists, regardless of jurisdiction, overcome some of the challenges associated with obtaining advanced prescribing privileges. PMID:23509485

  3. Oil and gas developments in Western Canada in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1983-10-01

    In 1982, petroleum industry activity in western Canada continued to decline as a result of economic recession, dropping oil and gas prices, high interest rates, and a worldwide oil surplus. The total number of wells drilled dropped 9% to 6,285. Exploratory drilling decreased by 26% to 2,288 wells, whereas development drilling increased 4% to 3,997 wells. The exploratory success rate increased from 62 to 65% in 1982, with 761 oil discoveries and 732 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased slightly from 88 to 89%, with 1,742 oil completions and 1,823 gas completions. Downward exploratory drilling trends, which began in 1981, were accentuated in 1982. Alberta, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia activity dropped markedly, but Manitoba activity more than doubled. In Alberta, drilling was more cautious, with increased development drilling and fewer dry holes.

  4. Hydrogeology of formation waters, northwestern Alberta basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R. )

    1993-10-01

    Generally, temperature seems to be the main controlling factor on salinity distributions. The salinity of formation waters increases in the vicinity of evaporitic beds, and decreases close to the surface because of mixing with fresh meteoric water introduced through local flow systems. The Lower and Middle Devonian pre-Prairie aquifer systems, beneath the regionally extensive Prairie aquiclude, are characterized by regional topographically-driven flow updip to the northeast. The flow of formation waters in the northeastern Alberta played an important role in the formation of the huge Athabasca oil sands deposits. Hydrocarbons that migrated into the area from the west were trapped into local reservoirs, and biodegraded and washed by fresh meteoric water introduced by local flow systems. Environmentally, the subsurface hydrogeology in the area imposes specific constraints on waste disposal in deep formations mostly because of the absence of a thick, continuous regional aquitard and because most aquifers subcrop at shallow depth or crop out and discharge along the valleys of the Athabasca River system and at the basin edge.

  5. Primary Carcinoma of the Liver in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Nett, A. E.; Gilbert, J. A. L.

    1966-01-01

    A survey was made to determine the incidence and to elucidate the manifestations of primary carcinoma of the liver in Alberta. The findings were compared with other reported series. Ninety-six cases were identified: 69 hepatomas, 25 cholangiomas and two cholangiohepatomas. Seventy-four of the patients were male and 22 were female, a male preponderance of greater than 3:1. Ages ranged from 7 days to 92 years, but the majority of the patients (58%) were in the seventh and eighth decades. The incidence of associated cirrhosis (38.5%) was lower than that noted in most series. Hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, weight loss and ascites were the outstanding clinical features. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage was frequent and second only to hepatic failure as the immediate cause of death. An abdominal mass and pleural effusion occurred in higher frequency than that cited in the literature. Associated disorders included peptic ulceration and cholelithiasis. Surgical biopsy was superior to needle biopsy in establishing the diagnosis. Laboratory tests and routine radiographs may be of diagnostic aid. PMID:4287068

  6. Have infant gross motor abilities changed in 20 years? A re-evaluation of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale normative values

    PubMed Central

    Darrah, Johanna; Bartlett, Doreen; Maguire, Thomas O; Avison, William R; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the original normative data of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=2202) collected 20 years ago with a contemporary sample of Canadian infants. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study of 650 Canadian infants (338 males, 312 females; mean age 30.9wks [SD 15.5], range 2wks–18mo) assessed once on the AIMS. Assessments were stratified by age, and infants proportionally represented the ethnic diversity of Canada. Logistic regression was used to place AIMS items on an age scale representing the age at which 50% of the infants passed an item on the contemporary data set and the original data set. Forty-three items met the criterion for stable regression results in both data sets. Results The correlation coefficient between the age locations of items on the original and contemporary data sets was 0.99. The mean age difference between item locations was 0.7 weeks. Age values from the original data set when converted to the contemporary scale differed by less than 1 week. Interpretation The sequence and age at emergence of AIMS items has remained similar over 20 years and current normative values remain valid. Concern that the ‘back to sleep’ campaign has influenced the age at emergence of gross motor abilities is not supported. PMID:24684556

  7. A revised crustal stress orientation database for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Schmitt, Douglas; Haug, Kristine; Ziegler, Moritz; Moeck, Inga

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian database on contemporary crustal stress has not been revised systematically in the past two decades. Here we present the results of our new compilation that contains 514 new data records for the orientation data of maximum compressive horizontal stress and 188 data records that were re-assessed. In total the Canadian stress database has now 1667 data records, which is an increase of about 45%. From these data, a new Canadian Stress map as well as one for the Province of Alberta is presented. To analyse the stress pattern, we use the quasi median on the circle as a smoothing algorithm that generates a smoothed stress map of the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientation on a regular grid. The newly introduced quasi interquartile range on the circle estimates the spreading of the data and is used as a measure for the wave-length of the stress pattern. The result of the hybrid wavelength analysis confirms that long spatial wavelength stress patterns (≥ 1000 km) exist in large areas in Canada. The observed stress pattern is transmitted through the intra-plate regions. The results reveal that shorter spatial wave length variation of the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientation of less than 200 km, prevails particularly in south-eastern and western Canada. Regional stress sources such as density contrasts, active fault systems, crustal structures, etc. might have a significant impact in these regions. In contrast to these variations, the observed stress pattern in the Alberta Basin is very homogeneous and mainly controlled by plate boundary forces and body forces. The influence of curvature of the Rocky Mountains salient in southern Alberta is minimal. The present-day horizontal stress orientations determined herein have important implications for the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy in the Alberta Basin.

  8. Variations in treatment of femoral neck fractures in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Marilyn; Yang, Qian; Scharfenberger, Angela; Johnson, David; Carrière, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine, in the province of Alberta, temporal trends, regional variations in treatment options and in-hospital death rates after a femoral neck fracture. Design A retrospective cohort study. Patients Six years’ data were abstracted from the Alberta Morbidity File, the Alberta Health Stakeholder File and the Alberta Health Care Claims File. Patients were included if they were Alberta residents, aged 65 years or older, had sustained a femoral neck fracture and had undergone internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty. Main outcome measures Death rates, arthroplasty rates and hospital stay. Results In-hospital death rates were similar across hospitals, with risks being higher for men, patients aged 80 years or older and those with more comorbid conditions. Arthroplasty rates varied from 58% to 77% among hospitals, and hospital stays associated with arthroplasty were significantly longer than those associated with internal fixation. The chance of undergoing arthroplasty varied from hospital to hospital by gender and by the number of comorbid conditions. Conclusion Regional variations suggest lack of agreement among Alberta’s surgeons as to how best to treat femoral neck fractures. PMID:12174977

  9. Perceptions of Healthy Eating in Four Alberta Communities: A Photovoice Project

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brent A.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating are influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. Despite this general acceptance by health practitioners and social scientists, studies suggest that there remains a relative homogeneity around peoples’ perceptions that informs a hegemonic discourse around healthy eating. People often describe healthy eating in terms of learned information from sources that reflect societies’ norms and values, such as the Canada Food Guide and the ubiquitous phrase “fruits and vegetables”. Past research has examined how built environments shape people’s access to healthy living options, such as distribution of grocers versus convenience stores and fast food restaurants. Often overlooked is an in-depth understanding of how social contexts interact with built environments, molding peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating. This paper reports on perceptions of healthy eating in four communities across Alberta, Canada. A photovoice methodology was employed to elicit perceptions of healthy eating with 35 participants. This study illustrates how participants’ photographs and their stories convey multiple meanings about healthy eating within their own lives and communities. Findings suggest that a ‘local’ context is an important part of the discourse centered around the promotion of healthy eating practices in these and potential other communities. PMID:27390390

  10. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Nancy; Fahy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government's Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern…

  11. Those Who Care: A Report on Approved Family Day Home Providers in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Malcolm; LaGrange, Annette

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of approved family day home providers in Alberta. Family day home agency coordinators from across Alberta completed questionnaires, as did approved providers who contracted with 12 agencies in central Alberta. Typical providers were married, had children, and had lived in their present…

  12. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  13. 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey Employers of Alberta High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey was commissioned by Alberta Education and Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. Data collection for the survey was conducted by CCI Research Inc. between December 1st, 2007 and January 11th, 2008. The objective of the survey was to assess employer satisfaction with recent graduates from Alberta's…

  14. Inter-comparison of MAX-DOAS Retrieved Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Extinction, SO2 and NO2 in the Alberta Oil Sands with LIDAR Data and GEM-MACH Air Quality Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Zoe; Friess, Udo; Strawbridge, Kevin; Whiteway, James; Aggarwal, Monika; Makar, Paul; Li, Shao-Meng; O'Brien, Jason; Baray, Sabour; Schnitzler, Elijah; Olfert, Jason S.; Osthoff, Hans D.; Lobo, Akshay; McLaren, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Understanding industrial emissions of trace gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands is essential to maintaining air quality standards and informing public policy. Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of trace gases can improve knowledge of pollutant levels, vertical distribution and chemical transformation. During an intensive air measurement campaign to study emissions, transport, transformation and deposition of oil sands air pollutants from August to September of 2013, a MAX-DOAS instrument was deployed at a site north of Fort McMurray, Alberta to determine the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, NO2 and SO2 through retrieval from the MAX-DOAS spectral measurements using an optimal estimation method. The large complement of data collected from multiple instruments deployed during this field campaign provides a unique opportunity to validate and characterize the performance of the MAX-DOAS vertical profile retrievals. Aerosol extinction profiles determined from two Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments, one collocated and the other on a Twin Otter aircraft that flew over the site during the study, will be compared to the MAX-DOAS aerosol extinction profile retrievals. Vertical profiles of NO2 and SO2 retrieved from the MAX-DOAS measurements will be further compared with the composite vertical profiles measured from the flights of a second aircraft, the NRC-Convair 580, over the field site during the same measurement period. Finally, the MAX-DOAS retrieved tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of SO2 and NO2 will be compared to the predicted VCDs from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and Chemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality model over the grid cell containing the field site. Emission estimates of SO2 from the major oil mining facility Syncrude Mildred Lake using the MAX-DOAS VCD results, validated through the detailed characterization above

  15. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  16. End-stage renal disease in Canada: prevalence projections to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Schaubel, D E; Morrison, H I; Desmeules, M; Parsons, D A; Fenton, S S

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased greatly in Canada over the last 2 decades. Because of the high cost of therapy, predicting numbers of patients who will require dialysis and transplantation is necessary for nephrologists and health care planners. METHODS: The authors projected ESRD incidence rates and therapy-specific prevalence by province to the year 2005 using 1981-1996 data obtained from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register. The model incorporated Poisson regression to project incidence rates, and a Markov model for patient follow-up. RESULTS: Continued large increases in ESRD incidence and prevalence were projected, particularly among people with diabetes mellitus. As of Dec. 31, 1996, there were 17,807 patients receiving renal replacement therapy in Canada. This number was projected to climb to 32,952 by the end of 2005, for a relative increase of 85% and a mean annual increase of 5.8%. The increased prevalence was projected to be greatest for peritoneal dialysis (6.0% annually), followed by hemodialysis (5.9%) and functioning kidney transplant (5.7%). The projected annual increases in prevalence by province ranged from 4.4%, in Saskatchewan, to 7.5%, in Alberta. INTERPRETATION: The projected increases are plausible when one considers that the incidence of ESRD per million population in the United States and other countries far exceeds that in Canada. The authors predict a continued and increasing short-fall in resources to accommodate the expected increased in ESRD prevalence. PMID:10373996

  17. The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER) cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER) Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death. Methods/Design The AMBER Study will enroll 1500 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a 5 year period. Assessments will be made at baseline (within 90 days of surgery), 1 year, and 3 years consisting of objective and self-reported measurements of physical activity, health-related fitness, blood collection, lymphedema, patient-reported outcomes, and determinants of physical activity. A final assessment at 5 years will measure patient-reported data only. The cohort members will be followed for an additional 5 years for disease outcomes. Discussion The AMBER cohort will answer key questions related to physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors including: (1) the independent and interactive associations of physical activity and health-related fitness with disease outcomes (e.g., recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, overall survival), treatment completion rates, symptoms and side effects (e.g., pain, lymphedema, fatigue, neuropathy), quality of life, and psychosocial functioning (e.g., anxiety, depression, self-esteem, happiness), (2) the determinants of physical activity and health-related fitness

  18. Stress Damage in Borehole and Rock Cores; Developing New Tools to Update the Stress Map of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Q.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I. S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of in situ stress enables us to determine the optimum borehole trajectory, predict fluid migration, and plan appropriately for geothermal and hydrocarbon production. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the state of stress in the Earth in order to design and efficiently operate engineered geothermal systems. This need motivates us to develop a new 3D model of stress for Alberta. This project mainly consists of three categories: investigating the impacts of in situ stress on borehole stability, fracture trajectory modelling and determining the stress state over an area in the northern part of Alberta. To date, we have created a MATLAB based program to calculate the stress concentrations for an arbitrarily oriented borehole in an isotropic or an arbitrarily oriented anisotropic medium subject to stress. The input to this model comes from static rock properties provided by measurements on a shale sample in the laboratory of our group. The result helps us to study the effects of rock material anisotropy on stress distribution, and it also shows the direction in which borehole failure is likely to grow. However, as the in situ stress is almost impossible to measure directly, we studied how fracture orientations identified from the borehole image log helps us to constrain in situ stress magnitudes and orientations. Moreover, based on the Mohr-Column criteria, we further assessed the tendency for both borehole tensile failure and compressive failure to occur in an isotropic formation as a function of the upper bound of rock strength and borehole fluid pressure limitations under a variety of stress states. For a given stress state and borehole orientation, tensile fracture can be tracked in the MATLAB program based on the assumption that tensile fractures are formed under pure tension. (This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner

  19. Student Street. Students' Union Housing, University of Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, John Morris

    1974-01-01

    The world's longest skylighted galleria (main street for student residents at the University of Alberta) is the lifeline of a 950-foot long complex of apartments and shops sponsored by the student government and architecturally designed to fit over an existing street. (Author/MF)

  20. Principal Quality Practice in Alberta: Education 900 Introduction Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennest, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Alberta's Principal Quality Practice Standard as a framework for the roles and responsibilities of school principals. Methodology: Three principals participated in the study, and each principal had more than 25 years of teaching and school administration experience. Each…

  1. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  2. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  3. FOIPP and Technology: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, R. Peter; Whitemarsh, Judith

    This study provides suggestions and best practices for superintendents, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPP) coordinators and school information technologists in dealing with the impact of Alberta's FOIPP Act on the application of information technologies within their organizations. The study explores the relationship between…

  4. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  5. Educational Quality Indicators: Developing Indicator Systems in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    The Educational Quality Indicators (EQI) initiative, a collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school jurisdictions in the province, is described, and its implications are discussed. The EQIs developed are designed to provide information to assist practitioners in assessing the quality of educational programs and the delivery system by…

  6. Essential Inclusive Education-Related Outcomes for Alberta Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSAs) that Alberta preservice teachers need to develop over the course of their teacher preparation programs in order to work effectively in inclusive classrooms. Inclusive classrooms are those where all students regardless of diversity learn in the same contexts. These KSAs are…

  7. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of individual…

  8. Faculty Salaries in Alberta's Colleges & Institutes, 1993 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    This report outlines changes in salaries earned by full-time, permanent faculty members at Alberta's public colleges and technical institutes between September 1993 and September 2000. The Colleges Act and Technical Institutes Act create academic staff associations at each institution and mandate each institution's Board of Governors to negotiate…

  9. Biology and Life Science Classroom Teaching Environment in Southern Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Julian

    This study provides information about the biology and life science classroom teaching environments in Southern Alberta. Responses (N=53) to questionnaires sent to junior and senior high school teachers in rural and urban settings revealed information regarding school facilities, texts and reference materials, field trips, outdoor education…

  10. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  11. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  12. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  13. Noise correlation tomography of Southwest Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Shen, Luyi

    2015-07-01

    We analyse continuous recordings from 23 broadband seismic stations near Alberta, the southwestern sector of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Noise correlation tomo-graphy based on vertical-component seismograms reveals below-average shear velocities at shallow and middle crustal depths in central Alberta, spanning across Proterozoic accreted terranes and Archean microcontinents. This observation likely results from extensive plate convergence and crustal melting during the Proterozoic eon. The overall correlation between the crustal velocities and presumed basement domains is lower than expected, however. In the lower crust, the main pattern of shear velocities is relatively concordant with the reported domain boundaries and key Precambrian structures appear to be intact. The shear velocities beneath the Loverna Block, the largest constituent of the Hearne craton, are 10 per cent higher than the regional average. This prominent northeast striking seismic anomaly is moderately correlated with the regional heat flow and potentially represents the remnant core of the Archean Hearne province. The associated high velocities extend into the western part of the Medicine Hat Block, a possible Archean microcontinent with a debatable origin, and contribute to a strong east-west structural gradient in the lower crust. The presence and the continuity of this anomalous structure imply extensive communications among the various basement domains in southern Alberta during the assembly of the North American continent.

  14. Microcomputers in Alberta Schools--1985. A Final Report on the Results of a Resource Survey of Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruk, Milton W.

    To determine the number and current use of microcomputers in Alberta's elementary, junior, and senior high schools, a total of 1,509 schools were surveyed. The results, as reported by 1,271 schools (84.2%), showed the total number of microcomputers to be 13,748. To provide more in-depth information, schools were categorized by six instructional…

  15. Use of thermal infrared and colour infrared imagery to detect crop moisture stress. [Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. C.; Clark, N. F.; Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the presence of variable plant cover (primarily percent cover) and variable available water content, the remotely sensed apparent temperatures correlate closely with plant cover and poorly with soil water. To the extent that plant cover is not systematically related to available soil water, available water in the root zone values may not be reliably predicted from the thermal infrared data. On the other hand, if plant cover is uniform and the soil surface is shown in a minor way, the thermal data indicate plant stress and consequently available water in the soil profile.

  16. Cyclic development of permafrost in the peatlands of Northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Zoltai, S.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Vegetation in thermally subsided peatlands (collapse scars) grades from the wettest part near the collapsing peat bank with Sphagnum riparium to successively drier conditions with S. angustifolium and S. fuscum until the peat plateau surface is reached, covered with Picea mariana-lichen woodlands. The same sequence can be found in the peat stratigraphy, where the charred surface of the treed peat plateaus (sylvic peat) is overlain by a sequence of Sphagnum riparium, S. angustifolium, and S. fuscum, capped by sylvic peat. Often several such sequences occur in the peat stratigraphy, indicating periodic permafrost degradation, triggered by fires, and regeneration. Radiocarbon dates show that such cycles can be as short as 600 yr. The earliest incidence of permafrost in the study area was dated at 3700 yr BP, indicating the end of the mid-Holocene warm period and the onset of the current climatic regime. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Structure and Components of the Warning and Emergency Response System at Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese, C. R.; Moreno, F.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2003, a series of over eighty sensors have been installed at Turtle Mountain, site of the 1903 Frank Slide. The purpose of these instruments is both to characterize and provide warning for a second large rock avalanche from the eastern face of the mountain, where various unstable masses have been identified. Although studies continue on the mountain to better understand the deformation patterns and interpretations of the slope kinematics, significant effort has been expended to develop a structure for the warning and emergency response that clearly outlines not only responsibilities and communications protocols during an emergency, but also day-to-day operational responses and procedures to ensure that the system remains operational. From a day-to-day operational perspective, a systematic and repeatable set of procedures is required in order to ensure that not only are data trends reviewed and reported on, but that scheduled checks of system functionality are undertaken. An internal Roles and Responsibilities Manual has been developed to clearly outline responsibilities for geo-engineering, IT and management staff to ensure that system checks are completed and that support is in place on a 24/7 basis should components of the system cease to operate properly or should unacceptable deformations require review. In addition to that, a clear and concise troubleshooting manual was developed, this document provides simple diagnosis of problems within the system and a clear roadmap of how to fix each component. On the other hand, from a warning and emergency response perspective, a series of colour coded alert conditions has been developed should unacceptable deformations be observed. At each alert level, clear responsibilities for actions and communications have been identified for geo-engineering staff, provincial emergency management authorities, municipal official and first responders. This has been documented in the Emergency Response Protocol. All documents described here are ‘living" documents that are updated on a regular basis as changes to the system are made, with an annual mock warning exercise developed and run in order to test responses to a hypothetical emergency and generate updates to the system documentation.

  18. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. PMID:26921562

  19. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada. [Bow River below Carseland Dam in Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of transmitting hydrometric data to polar orbiting spacecraft and using these data for quasi-operational purposes was demonstrated.

  20. Remarkable preservation of undigested muscle tissue within a Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurid coprolite from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chin, Karen; Eberth, David A; Schweitzer, Mary H; Rando, Thomas A; Sloboda, Wendy J; Horner, John R

    2003-06-01

    Exceptionally detailed soft tissues have been identified within the fossilized feces of a large Cretaceous tyrannosaurid. Microscopic cord-like structures in the coprolitic ground mass are visible in thin section and with scanning electron microscopy. The morphology, organization, and context of these structures indicate that they are the fossilized remains of undigested muscle tissue. This unusual discovery indicates specific digestive and taphonomic conditions, including a relatively short gut-residence time, rapid lithification, and minimal diagenetic recrystallization. Rapid burial of the feces probably was facilitated by a flood event on the ancient coastal lowland plain on which the fecal mass was deposited. PMID:12866547

  1. Diagnostic study of job design in oil industry: Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.

    1986-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to diagnose the work situation of members of McMurray Independent Oil Workers (MIOW) Union, employed with Suncor, Inc., Fort McMurray and make recommendations for work improvements. Hackman and Oldham's Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and four scales of Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII were used to collect data from MIOW Union members with a sample size of 50% of the population. Ninety-eight usable questionnaires were received back by the investigator. The major concepts measured included job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback from job, feedback from agents, and dealing with others), affective outcomes (motivation, job satisfaction, and growth satisfaction), supervisory behaviors (initiating structure, consideration, production emphasis, persuasiveness) and demographic variables. Data were analyzed by using MINITAB and SPSSX statistical packages. Greater consideration and emotional support on the part of supervisors could increase affective outcomes and satisfaction with supervision and should result in greater organizational effectiveness. The overall pattern of quality of work life appeared to be production-oriented characterized by lack of supervisory considerations and less conducive for greater organizational performance.

  2. (PRESENTED IN ALBERTA, CANADA) A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE 2004 RELEASE OF MODELS-3 CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act and its Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O3 and particulate matter and to assess current and future air quality regulations designed to protect human health and...

  3. Improving SHAW long-term soil moisture prediction for continuous wheat rotations, Alberta, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer-Cropping System Model (DSSAT-CSM) is a widely used modeling package that often simulates wheat yield and biomass well. However, some previous studies reported that its simulation on soil moisture was not always satisfactory. On the other hand, ...

  4. Crystal structure of a birefringent andradite-grossular from Crowsnest Pass, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Klincker, Allison M.

    2014-02-20

    The structure of a birefringent andradite–grossular sample was refined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCD) and synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. Electron-microprobe results indicate a homogeneous composition of {Ca2.88Mn2+ 0.06Mg0.04Fe2+ 0.03}Σ3[Fe3+ 1.29Al0.49Ti4+ 0.17Fe2+ 0.06] Σ2(Si2.89Al0.11) Σ3O12. The Rietveld refinement reduced χ2 = 1.384 and overall R (F2) = 0.0315. The HRPXRD data show that the sample contains three phases. For phase-1, the weight %, unit-cell parameter (Å), distances (Å), and site occupancy factor (sof) are 62.85(7)%, a = 12.000 06(2), average = 2.4196, Fe–O = 1.9882(5), Si–O = 1.6542(6) Å, Ca(sof) = 0.970(2), Fe(sof) = 0.763(1), and Si(sof) = 0.954(2). The corresponding data for phase-2 are 19.14(9)%, a = 12.049 51(2), average = 2.427, Fe–O = 1.999(1), Si–O = 1.665(1) Å, Ca(sof) = 0.928(4), Fe(sof) = 0.825(3), and Si(sof) = 0.964(4). The corresponding data for phase-3 are 18.01(9)%, a = 12.019 68(3), average = 2.424, Fe–O = 1.992(2), Si–O = 1.658(2) Å, Ca(sof) = 0.896(5), Fe(sof) = 0.754(4), and Si(sof) = 0.936(5). The fine-scale coexistence of the three phases causes strain that arises from the unit-cell and bond distances differences, and gives rise to strain-induced birefringence. The results from the SCD are similar to the dominant phase-1 obtained by the HRPXRD, but the SCD misses the minor phases.

  5. Reconstruction of a Palaeo-Subglacial Lake Network in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. J.; Utting, D.; Clark, C.; Ruffell, A.; Pawley, S. M.; Atkinson, N.; Mallon, G.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial lakes have been widely documented since first being identified beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 1960s and comprise a significant component of the subglacial hydrological system (Wright & Siegert, 2011). However, their investigation is largely limited to contemporary ice masses despite critical information that could be gleaned from palaeo-subglacial lake studies, including: (i) their influence on meltwater drainage, ice flow and ice streams; (ii) details about how they relate to palaeo-floods, ice dynamics and sub-Milankovitch-scale climate events; and (iii) as archives of long-term Quaternary climate change. They are also readily available, we can sample the sediments and maps the landforms with ease and we have comprehensive information on the lake-bed properties. Output from numerical ice sheet models and the simple Shreve equation approach has been used to diagnose where subglacial lakes are likely to have occurred in the geological record (Livingstone et al. 2013). However, their identification remains controversial due to the difficulty in distinguishing their signature from proglacial lake deposits (see Livingstone et al. 2012). Here, we present new geomorphological, geophysical and sedimentological evidence for the existence of a palaeo-subglacial lake network beneath the suture zone of the former Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. These relatively small (~1 km diameter) palaeo-subglacial lakes manifest as flat-spots in a drumlin field and are perched in upland areas behind small ridges. The flat-spots, which comprise basins in-filled with diamicton, are associated with subglacial meltwater channels and eskers that we interpret to document lake drainage events. References: Livingstone, S.J., et al., 2012. Quaternary Science Reviews,55, 88-110. Livingstone, S.J., et al., 2013. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 375, 13-33. Wright A.P., Siegert M.J. 2011. In: Siegert, M.J., Kennicutt, C., Bindschadler, B. (Eds.). Subglacial Antarctic Aquatic Environments, AGU Monograph.

  6. Annual Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings (36th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 19-21, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collette, Pauline, Comp.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 54 papers and an abstract of a panel discussion on women's issues in adult education that were presented at a conference on adult education research. The following are among the papers included: "Reducing Dropout in Distance Education" (Belawati); "Examination of the Validity of the Education Participation Scale (EPS) and…

  7. Structurally controlled diagenesis of a carbonate ramp (Banff Formation, Alberta, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatellier, Jean-Yves D.

    1992-08-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Banff Formation represents a homoclinal carbonate ramp. Its layer-cake geometry and homogeneous lithology over a large area make it ideal to study palaeostructures and palaeofault systems. The study of 607 wells in the area east of Jasper Park outlines major diagenetic features that are probably structurally related. In each well, the average lithology has been broken down into limestone, dolomite and shale, with the dolomite content and the porosity being mapped. Because of the varying density of wells, an "anomaly mapping technique" has been used that is based on flagging anomalies (wells outside the norm) after searching in six out of eight octants. The contour maps indicate that anomalous zones of porosity and oil stain (migration pathways) are related to dolomitisation trends. Their linear geometry and their location indicate a structural control. Three major trends (NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW) are recognised; they have varying characteristics. Comparison of the anomaly maps for dolomite and porosity shows, locally, a typical pattern of overdolomitisation in the NE-SW trends. Assessment of the relative timing of the various dolomitisation and porosity phases has been tentatively made. In one case a lateral throw of a previously non-recognised fault has been measured (65 km). A comparison with known Devonian sedimentary and diagenetic features is tentatively made in order to validate the outlined trends and their interpretations.

  8. SOIL STRUCTURE, C, AND N CHANGES UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop management systems can alter soil quality, which is important for sustainable crop production. In 1992, we established a study on Albright silt loam (Mollic Cryoboralf) to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil structure, and the amount and quality of organic C and N in northwestern Cana...

  9. Evaluating the performance of a glacier erosion model applied to Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, R.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Menounos, B.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers are effective agents of erosion for many mountainous regions, but primary rates of erosion are difficult to quantify due to unknown conditions at the glacier bed. We develop a numerical model of subglacial erosion and passively couple it to a vertically integrated ice flow model (UBC regional glaciation model). The model accounts for seasonal changes in water pressure at the glacier bed which affect rates of abrasion and quarrying. We apply our erosion model to Peyto Glacier, and compare estimates of glacier erosion to the mass of fine sediment contained in a lake immediately down valley from the glacier. A series of experiments with our model and ones based on subglacial sliding rates are run to explore model sensitivity to bedrock hardness, seasonal hydrology, changes in mass balance, and longer-term dimensional changes of the glacier. Our experiments show that, as expected, erosion rates are most sensitive to bedrock hardness and changes in glacier mass balance. Silt and clay contained in Peyto Lake primarily originate from the glacier, and represent sediments derived from abrasion and comminution of material produced by quarrying. Average specific sediment yield during the period AD1917-1970 from the lake is 467×190 Mg km-2yr-1 and reaches a maximum of 928 Mg km-2yr-1 in AD1941. Converting to a specific sediment yield, modelled average abrasion and quarrying rates during the comparative period are 142×44 Mg km-2yr-1 and 1167×213 Mg km-2yr-1 respectively. Modelled quarrying accounts for approximately 85-95% of the erosion occurring beneath the glacier. The basal sliding model estimates combined abrasion and quarrying. During the comparative period, estimated yields average 427×136 Mg km-2yr-1, lower than the combined abrasion and quarrying models. Both models predict maximum sediment yield when Peyto Glacier reached its maximum extent. The simplistic erosion model shows higher sensitivity to climate, as seen by accentuated sediment yield peaks during the Little Ice Age. In all of our experiments to date, modelled sediment yield closely follow maximum ice cover. In contrast, sediment yields obtained from the lake indicate that maximum sediment delivery to the lake lagged maximum ice cover and occurred during a period of rapid glacier retreat. We interpret this lag to indicate removal of stored sediments beneath the glacier and subaerial erosion from recently exposed sediments in the glacier forefield rather than an increase in primary erosion of bedrock.

  10. Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings (29th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 6-8, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Catharine E., Ed.

    The following are among the 55 papers in this volume: "Implications of Person-Environment Congruence in Adult Learning Environments" (Agee); "Reliability and Validity of the Alternate Form of the Education Participation Scale" (Boshier); "Research and Developments in the Neurosciences" (Boucouvalas); "Professional Writing Activity among Professors…

  11. The Alberta Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team (HEART) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nationally, symptomatic heart failure affects 1.5-2% of Canadians, incurs $3 billion in hospital costs annually and the global burden is expected to double in the next 1–2 decades. The current one-year mortality rate after diagnosis of heart failure remains high at >25%. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed for this debilitating condition. Methods/Design The objective of the Alberta HEART program (http://albertaheartresearch.ca) is to develop novel diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We hypothesize that novel imaging techniques and biomarkers will aid in describing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, the development of new diagnostic criteria will allow us to: 1) better define risk factors associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 2) elucidate clinical, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved with the development and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 3) design and test new therapeutic strategies for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Additionally, Alberta HEART provides training and education for enhancing translational medicine, knowledge translation and clinical practice in heart failure. This is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with, or at risk for, heart failure. Patients will have sequential testing including quality of life and clinical outcomes over 12 months. After that time, study participants will be passively followed via linkage to external administrative databases. Clinical outcomes of interest include death, hospitalization, emergency department visits, physician resource use and/or heart transplant. Patients will be followed for a total of 5 years. Discussion Alberta HEART has the primary objective to define new diagnostic criteria for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. New criteria

  12. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 1: Context and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Côté, Gilles; Charette, Yanick; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    The National Trajectory Project examined longitudinal data from a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) to assess the presence of provincial differences in the application of the law, to examine the characteristics of people with serious mental illness who come into conflict with the law and receive this verdict, and to investigate the trajectories of NCRMD–accused people as they traverse the mental health and criminal justice systems. Our paper describes the rationale for the National Trajectory Project and the methods used to collect data in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, the 3 most populous provinces in Canada and the 3 provinces with the most people found NCRMD. PMID:25886685

  13. Data requirements for using combined conductivity mass balance and recursive digital filter method to estimate groundwater recharge in a small watershed, New Brunswick, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Xing, Zisheng; Danielescu, Serban; Li, Sheng; Jiang, Yefang; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of baseflow and groundwater recharge rates is important for hydrological analysis and modelling. A new approach which combines recursive digital filter (RDF) model with conductivity mass balance (CMB) method was considered to be reliable for baseflow separation because the combined method takes advantages of the reduced data requirement for RDF method and the reliability of CMB method. However, it is not clear what the minimum data requirements for producing acceptable estimates of the RDF model parameters are. In this study, 19-year record of stream discharge and water conductivity collected from the Black Brook Watershed (BBW), NB, Canada were used to test the combined baseflow separation method and assess the variability of parameters in the model over seasons. The data requirements and potential bias in estimated baseflow index (BFI) were evaluated using conductivity data for different seasons and/or resampled data segments at various sampling durations. Results indicated that the data collected during ground-frozen season are more suitable to estimate baseflow conductivity (Cbf) and data during snow-melting period are more suitable to estimate runoff conductivity (Cro). Relative errors of baseflow estimation were inversely proportional to the number of conductivity data records. A minimum of six-month discharge and conductivity data is required to obtain reliable parameters for current method with acceptable errors. We further found that the average annual recharge rate for the BBW was 322 mm in the past twenty years.

  14. Wait times for prostate cancer treatment and patient perceptions of care in Canada: a mixed-methods report

    PubMed Central

    Tran, K.; Sandoval, C.; Rahal, R.; Porter, G.; Siemens, R.; Hernandez, J.; Fung, S.; Louzado, C.; Liu, J; Bryant, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to cancer care is a significant concern for Canadians. Prolonged delays between cancer diagnosis and treatment have been associated with anxiety, stress, and perceived powerlessness for patients and their family members. Longer wait times can also be associated with poorer prognosis, although the evidence is inconclusive. Here, we report national wait times for radiation therapy and surgery for localized prostate cancer (pca) and the effect of wait time on patient perceptions of their care. Results Treatment wait times showed substantial interprovincial variation. The longest 90th percentile wait times for radiation therapy and surgery were, respectively, 40 days and 105 days. In all provinces, waits for radiation therapy were longer for pca patients than for patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer. In the focus groups and interviews conducted with 47 men treated for pca, many participants did not perceive that wait times for treatment were prolonged. Those who experienced delays between diagnosis and treatment voiced issues with a lack of communication about when they would receive treatment and a lack of support or information to make an informed decision about treatment. Minimizing treatment delays was an aspect of the cancer journey that participants would like to change because of the stress it caused. Conclusions Although wait time statistics are useful, a review of cancer control in Canada cannot be considered complete unless an effort is made to give voice to the experiences of individuals with cancer. The findings presented here are intended to provide a snapshot of national care delivery for localized pca and to identify opportunities for improvement in clinical practice. PMID:26628869

  15. Determining air pollutant emission rates based on mass balance using airborne measurement data over the Alberta oil sands operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M.; Li, S.-M.; Staebler, R.; Darlington, A.; Hayden, K.; O'Brien, J.; Wolde, M.

    2015-09-01

    Top-down approaches to measure total integrated emissions provide verification of bottom-up, temporally resolved, inventory-based estimations. Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring during a summer intensive field campaign between 13 August and 7 September 2013. The measurements contribute to knowledge needed in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples, based on the aircraft measurements. In this algorithm, the flight path around a facility at multiple heights is mapped to a two-dimensional vertical screen surrounding the facility. The total transport of SO2 and CH4 through this screen is calculated using aircraft wind measurements, and facility emissions are then calculated based on the divergence theorem with estimations of box-top losses, horizontal and vertical turbulent fluxes, surface deposition, and apparent losses due to air densification and chemical reaction. Example calculations for two separate flights are presented. During an upset condition of SO2 emissions on one day, these calculations are within 5 % of the industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. During a return to normal operating conditions, the SO2 emissions are within 11 % of industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. CH4 emissions calculated with the algorithm are relatively constant within the range of uncertainties. Uncertainty of the emission rates is estimated as less than 30 %, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.

  16. Modeling and mapping the effects of heat and pressure outside a SAGD steam chamber using time-lapse multicomponent seismic data, Athabasca oil sands, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, Loren Michelle

    The field of study is a bitumen producing reservoir within the McMurray Formation. The deposit is a part of the Athabasca oil sands trend in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. This field contains 16 well pads that are, combined, producing more than 41,000 BOPD. Bitumen reservoirs are unique as a result of their high viscosity, low API gravity oil. This oil in this field has been produced by means of a method called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), since 2007. In this method, two vertically stacked, horizontal wells are drilled. The upper well injects high temperature, high pressure steam and as the viscosity of the bitumen decreases it will begin to flow, via gravity, down to the lower producing well. Reservoir monitoring in this field is very important for multiple reasons, including the shallow depth and the large velocity changes that result from SAGD production. In order to map these changes, time-lapse multicomponent data were incorporated with rock physics modeling in order to map and interpret changes in Vp/Vs with production. When fluid substitution results and pressure estimations are combined, the resulting velocities are consistent with the core sample modeling done by Kato et al. (2008). These results were then compared with the seismic data in order to identify areas affected by steam, heat, and pressure within the reservoir through time-lapse Vp/Vs. PP time-lapse results show the location of the steam chamber within the reservoir, however these data do not give any information about the effects of pressure or heat. Converted-wave (PS) data can be used to image pressure and viscosity changes in the reservoir. When these data are combined into a Vp/Vs volume, the effects of steam, heat and pressure can be identified. Vp/Vs areas of little to no difference indicate steamed zones while the surrounding areas with large differences indicate heated and pressured zones.

  17. Cancer risk to First Nations’ people from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near in-situ bitumen extraction in Cold Lake, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alberta oil sands are an important economic resource in Canada, but there is growing concern over the environmental and health effects as a result of contaminant releases and exposures. Recent studies have shown a temporal and spatial trend of increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sediments and snowpack near the Athabasca oil sands operations (i.e., open pit mines), but thus far similar studies have not been done for the Cold Lake region where steam assisted gravity drainage (in situ) extraction is performed. Methods Many PAHs are known mutagenic carcinogens, and this study measured soil and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs in the Cold Lake region to assess the excess lifetime cancer risk posed to the First Nations’ inhabitants of the region. Using both deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods, excess lifetime cancer risks were calculated for exposures from inhalation or inadvertent soil ingestion. Results The mean excess cancer risk for First Nations’ people through ingestion who engage in traditional wilderness activities in the Cold Lake region was 0.02 new cases per 100,000 with an upper 95% risk level of 0.07 cases per 100,000. Exposure to PAHs via inhalation revealed a maximum excess lifetime cancer risk of less than 0.1 cases per 100,000. Conclusions Excess lifetime risk values below 1 case per 100,000 is generally considered negligible, thus our analyses did not demonstrate any significant increases in cancer risks associated with PAH exposures for First Nations people inhabiting the Cold Lake region. PMID:24520827

  18. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  19. InSAR Monitoring of Surface Deformation in Alberta's Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Shipman, T.; Froese, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Alberta's oil sands are among the world's largest deposits of crude oil, and more than 80% of it is too deep to mine, so unconventional in-situ methods are used for extraction. Most in situ extraction techniques, such as Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), use steam injection to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen, allowing it to flow into wells to be pumped to the surface. As part of the oil sands safety and environmental monitoring program, the energy regulator uses satellite radar to monitor surface deformation associated with in-situ oil extraction. The dense vegetation and sparse infrastructure in the boreal forest of northern Alberta make InSAR monitoring a challenge; however, we have found that surface heave associated with steam injection can be detected using traditional differential InSAR. Infrastructure and installed corner reflectors also allow us to use persistent scatterer methods to obtain time histories of deformation at individual sites. We have collected and processed several tracks of RADARSAT-2 data over a broad area of the oil sands, and have detected surface deformation signals of approximately 2-3 cm per year, with time series that correlate strongly with monthly SAGD steam injection volumes.

  20. ASA24-Canada-2014

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24-Canada-2014) Recall has been developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  1. Linking evapotranspiration to stormwater reduction and attenuation in green roofs in Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breach, P. A.; Robinson, C. E.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green roofs have been used for centuries to insulate buildings and beautify urban environments. European countries, especially Germany, have adopted green roofs use in modern buildings, helping raise awareness of their many potential benefits. Green roofs have been shown to: effectively reduce and filter stormwater thereby decreasing the burden on urban sewer systems; provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load and reduced sensible heat flux to the urban atmosphere; and to extend the life of a roof by decreasing the temperature fluctuations which cause roof damage. Given that green buildings can mitigate against the negative impacts of storm water runoff and reduce the heating and cooling demands, use of green roofs in Canada might prove extremely beneficial due to our intense climate. However, the implementation of green roofs in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines that are supported by scientific understanding of their performance in North American climates. The capacity of a green roof installation to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the rooting medium at the start of the rainfall event which in turn is constrained by roof loading. The influence of medium depth is investigated through comparison to 15 cm and 10cm deep planting modules. Storage capacity has a finite limit, making rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss essential to restore the retardation of a subsequent storm. Sustaining live plant cover requires avoidance of saturated conditions and retention of minimum soil moisture levels. These limits constrain the design options with distinctive climatic stresses. Here the performance of experimental green roof modules is investigated under particularly high climatic stressing at Calgary Alberta Canada. 10 cm modules show rapid drying to unacceptably low residual moisture content, whereas 15

  2. Potential role of soil properties in the spread of CWD in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Alsu; McKenzie, Debbie; Banser, Pamela; Siddique, Tariq; Aiken, Judd M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a horizontally transmissible prion disease of free ranging deer, elk and moose. Recent experimental transmission studies indicate caribou are also susceptible to the disease. CWD is present in southeast Alberta and southern Saskatchewan. This CWD-endemic region is expanding, threatening Manitoba and areas of northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, home to caribou. Soil can serve as a stable reservoir for infectious prion proteins; prions bound to soil particles remain infectious in the soils for many years. Soils of western Canada are very diverse and the ability of CWD prions to bind different soils and the impact of this interaction on infectivity is not known. In general, clay-rich soils may bind prions avidly and enhance their infectivity comparable to pure clay mineral montmorillonite. Organic components of soils are also diverse and not well characterized, yet can impact prion-soil interaction. Other important contributing factors include soil pH, composition of soil solution and amount of metals (metal oxides). In this review, properties of soils of the CWD-endemic region in western Canada with its surrounding terrestrial environment are described and used to predict bioavailability and, thus, potential spread of CWD. The major soils in the CWD-endemic region of Alberta and Saskatchewan are Chernozems, present in 60% of the total area; they are generally similar in texture, clay mineralogy and soil organic matter content, and can be characterized as clay loamy, montmorillonite (smectite) soils with 6-10% organic carbon. The greatest risk of CWD spread in western Canada relates to clay loamy, montmorillonite soils with humus horizon. Such soils are predominant in the southern region of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but are less common in northern regions of the provinces where quartz-illite sandy soils with low amount of humus prevail. PMID:24618673

  3. Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model "Seeking Safety" could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual, emotional, physical, and social realms of life. Their findings indicate that treatment interventions must honour the historical context and history of Indigenous peoples. Furthermore, there appears to be strong evidence that strengthening cultural identity, community integration, and political empowerment can enhance and improve mental health and substance use disorders in Aboriginal populations. In addition, Seeking Safety was highlighted as a well-studied model with most populations, resulting in healing. The provided recommendations seek to improve the treatment and healing of Aboriginal peoples presenting with intergenerational trauma and addiction. Other recommendations include the input of qualitative and quantitative

  4. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  5. Drilling of three horizontal hole pattern Fort McMurray, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Between Oct. 1980 and Feb. 1981, Texaco Canada Resources Ltd. drilled 3 horizontal holes in soft, shallow, unconsolidated Athabasca tar sands at their Fort McMurray Pilot Plant, Alberta, Can. Objectives of the project were to produce bitumen at very shallow depths with minimum drilling cost, lease cost, and environmental impact. The accomplishment is believed unique in that all 3 wells were drilled from the same drilling pad, each well being spudded in at a vertical angle of 45, and a horizontal attitude was achieved at a true vertical depth from surface of ca 125 m (410 ft). Over 350 m (1,000 ft) of horizontal hole was drilled to complete each well. A new, innovative, hydraulically operated drilling rig was built for this project with a 110,000 kg. (240,000 lb) hoist and 22,700 kg (50,000 lb) push-down capacity. New techniques were developed to drill, enlarge, and underream the horizontal hole up to 368.3 mm (14-1/2 in.) diameter. Mud motors were used to power the bit and the force on the bit was accomplished by pushing down on the drill pipe.

  6. InSAR Observations and Modeling of Anthropogenic Surface Deformation in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations over northern Alberta, Canada show persistent surface uplift occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/year, localized at several sites where the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technique is currently being used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use numerical reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion.

  7. A case study of pipeline route selection and design through discontinuous permafrost terrain in northwestern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Wiechnik, C.; Boivin, R.; Henderson, J.; Bowman, M.

    1996-12-31

    As the natural gas pipeline system in Western Canada expands northward, it traverses the discontinuous permafrost zone. As the ground temperature of the frozen soil in this zone is just below freezing, it can be expected that within the design life of a pipeline the permafrost adjacent to it will melt due to the disturbance of the insulating cover by construction activities. Differential settlement at the thawing frozen/unfrozen soil interfaces gives rise to pipeline strain. Based on the calculated settlement and resulting strain level, a cost effective mechanical or civil design solution can be selected to mitigate the differential settlement problem. Since these design solutions can be costly, it is desirable to combine them with a pipeline route that traverses the least amount of discontinuous permafrost terrain while minimizing the overall length of the pipeline. This paper will detail the framework utilized to select the routing for a package of pipeline projects in northwestern Alberta. It is believed that the increased front end effort will result in lower operating costs and an overall reduced life-cycle cost. This basic design methodology can be applied to any project that traverses discontinuous permafrost terrain.

  8. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  9. Measuring the progress of capacity building in the Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Raine, Kim D; Sosa Hernandez, Cristabel; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Reed, Shandy; Montemurro, Genevieve; Lytvyak, Ellina; MacLellan-Wright, Mary-Frances

    2014-07-01

    The Alberta Policy Coalition for Cancer Prevention (APCCP) represents practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and community organizations working together to coordinate efforts and advocate for policy change to reduce chronic diseases. The aim of this research was to capture changes in the APCCP's capacity to advance its goals over the course of its operation. We adapted the Public Health Agency of Canada's validated Community Capacity-Building Tool to capture policy work. All members of the APCCP were invited to complete the tool in 2010 and 2011. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A group process for reaching consensus provided context to the survey responses and contributed to a participatory analysis. Significant improvement was observed in eight out of nine capacity domains. Lessons learned highlight the importance of balancing volume and diversity of intersectoral representation to ensure effective participation, as well as aligning professional and economic resources. Defining involvement and roles within a coalition can be a challenging activity contingent on the interests of each sector represented. The participatory analysis enabled the group to reflect on progress made and future directions for policy advocacy. PMID:24334541

  10. Evaluation of cattle bedding and grazing BMPs in an agricultural watershed in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Olson, Barry M; Kalischuk, Andrea R; Casson, Janna P; Phelan, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental impacts of implementing beneficial management practices to address cattle bedding and direct access to the creek in a study watershed in southern Alberta, Canada. Approximately 35 cow-calf pairs grazed 194 ha of grass forage and had direct access to the creek in the spring and summer. During winter, the cattle were fed adjacent to the creek at an old bedding site. The practice changes included off-stream watering, bedding site relocation and fencing for rotational grazing. The cost was $15,225 and 60 h of labour. Four years of data were used in a before-and-after experimental design to evaluate the practice changes. After two years of post-implementation monitoring, riparian assessments showed an increase in plant diversity, but no change in the percent cover of the riparian species Salix exigua and Juncus balitus and a decrease in Carex sp. (P < 0.05). Water quality monitoring showed a decrease in the difference between upstream and downstream concentrations of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and Escherichia coli (P < 0.10). These results showed that improved environmental changes in riparian and water quality can be measured following the implementation of beneficial management practices for cattle bedding and grazing. PMID:22097003

  11. Role of Suspended Sediment in Irrigation Return Flow Chemistry, Southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Helen C.; Ongley, Edwin D.

    1986-05-01

    Chemical impact of irrigation return flows upon receiving waters has historically focussed on salt and sediment production. Transport of other agricultural pollutants which are preferentially associated with suspended sediment is largely unknown in western Canada and poorly addressed elsewhere because of the traditional emphasis upon whole and filtered water chemistry. This study examines the role of suspended sediment in the flux of phosphorus and metals from large-scale irrigation in semiarid southern Alberta. It establishes temporal patterns of chemical flux over the irrigation season, identifies the chemical species of phosphorus and metals, and assesses the potential for phosphorus and heavy metal impact from irrigation return flows upon receiving riverine systems. Whole and filtered water chemistry is found to be not especially useful in determining either chemical enrichment of return flows nor for evaluating impact upon receiving waters. Suspended sediment plays a major role in transport of phosphorus and heavy metals. Evidence from parent materials, prairie soils, chemical speciation, statistical relationships for metals and for phosphorus, and comparative data for suspended sediment during spring high flow in receiving rivers when sediments originate from eroding diffuse sources, all indicate that sediment-associated phosphorus and metals in irrigation return flows are not anthropogenically enriched and do not represent an impact beyond that which is naturally occurring in receiving rivers.

  12. Paleomagnetic studies of volcanic rocks in Siberia and sedimentary rocks in Southern Alberta: From long-term geomagnetic field variations to age determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Acuna, Dunia

    Paleomagnetism is a fundamental tool to understand the ancient variations of Earth's magnetic field through time. Important applications to geochronology and paleography come from interpreting the variations of the planetary magnetic vector. This dissertation explores the different applications of paleomagnetism to uncover important characteristics of the paleointensity magnetic field during the Permo-Triassic boundary and the nature of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Siberia, and to create geochronological frameworks for kimberlites in the Siberian platform and for sediments at the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Detailed absolute paleointensity measurements from Permo-Triassic sills at the Siberian platform are studied to determine the existence of a low dipole field, which has been previously reported in the area. We found a mean virtual dipolar moment value of 6.01 +/- 1.45 x 1022 Am 2 which is over 50% higher than the results previously obtained by other authors. Diamondiferous kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. The age of the magmatic activity cannot be clearly determined from isotopic age data---this is the reason why new paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes are obtained to study their paleomagnetic age. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian APWP, we estimate the age of the kimberlite magmatism. The acquired paleomagnetic ages span from the Early Silurian to the Middle Late Jurassic. Magnetostratigraphic analysis is used as a dating tool on three deep drilling cores that penetrate Santonian-Campanian strata in southern Alberta, Canada. Chrons 34n and 33r are clearly identified from the studied sections---providing a high-resolution age boundary that creates new age boundaries between adjacent stratigraphic units. In addition, normal polarity zones are observed within C33r, previously described as reverse polarity over its entire length. Siberian APWP contains long unresolved

  13. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: Report of four Alberta cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ameeta E; Werker, Denise H; Boychuk, Lesia R; Miedzinski, Lilly J

    1995-01-01

    Four Alberta cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are reported. Three cases required intensive care, with one experiencing a fulminant course resulting in death. A fourth case with milder illness was identified after epidemiological investigations. Ribavirin was used in one patient who experienced a successful outcome. A recent open label trial has not supported the efficacy of this drug. The epidemiology of Peromyscus maniculatus, the primary rodent host, and the clinical features of this syndrome are summarized. PMID:22514394

  14. Hospital reimbursement in Alberta: outcomes management is on the way.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, T A; Reynolds, D; Greenaway-Coates, A

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta government has initiated a process to alter fundamentally the way it pays hospitals. As with most provinces, Alberta has been paying hospitals for what they spend. The new Alberta model will initially pay hospitals for what they do and ultimately will pay hospitals for what they ought to do; that is, for the outcomes that should be achieved. This article describes the initial step of what is expected to be a lengthy journey. The principles underlying the model are: it should be a prospective case-based system; there should be performance linkages between types of hospitals; severity should be incorporated into the model; and cost or cost proxies should be used where possible in weight development and clinical concerns, both nursing and medical, should be addressed. For the past two years funding adjustments have been made on the basis of the calculation of a Hospital Performance Index (HPI). The HPI is the average predicted cost per case divided by the unweighted average actual cost per case. The HPI is intended as an interim measure only. Ultimately, the system will evolve into a true prospective case-based system with volume controlled via role statements and linked to clinical outcomes. PMID:10123272

  15. Comparing capture-recapture methods for estimation of the size of small and medium-sized populations using empirical data on commercial turkey farms in Canada.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were (1) to conduct a systematic review of the performance of capture-recapture methods; (2) to use empirical data to estimate population size in a small-sized population (turkey breeder farms) and a medium-sized population (meat turkey farms) by applying two-source capture-recapture methods (the Lincoln-Petersen, the Chapman, and Chao's lower-bound estimators) and multi-source capture-recapture methods (the log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches); and (3) to compare the performance of these methods in predicting the true population sizes (2007 data). Our set-up was unique in that we knew the population sizes for turkey breeder farms (99) and meat turkey farms (592) in Canada in 2007, which we applied as our true population sizes, and had surveillance data from the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (2008-2012). We defined each calendar year of sampling as a data source. We confirmed that the two-source capture-recapture methods were sensitive to the violation of the local independence assumption. The log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches yielded estimates that were closer to the true population sizes than were the estimates provided by the two-source methods for both populations. The performance of both multi-source capture-recapture methods depended on the number of data sources analyzed and the size of the population. Simulation studies are recommended to better understand the limits of each multi-source capture-recapture method. PMID:25542525

  16. Overview of enhanced oil recovery in Alberta and new government policies

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, D.

    1983-01-01

    Alberta has a history of employing methods of fluid displacement to improve oil recovery that covers 3 decades. From this early beginning, which saw an emphasis on the research and application of waterflooding stimulus, the industry in this province turned to the development of technology that would enable tertiary, or third stage, additional oil recovery. The Alberta government undertook to provide a fiscal regime that would foster these efforts. This led to the adoption, in 1977, of an amendment to the Petroleum Royalty Regulations under which the costs of these expensive recovery techniques could be applied against the revenues from an oil pool prior to assessment of royalty liability. With this additional stimulus, the industry was able to both continue with and develop new projects for the miscible displacement of residual oil, primarily by hydrocarbon injection. The original relief mechanism was revised in 1982 to allow higher allowances for capital write-offs and operating costs, a reduced discount on the injected materials that form the initial miscible slug, and a cost allowance for the remaining pressure maintenance material that attempts to stabilize cash flow and, at the same time, provide for expenditure recovery.

  17. Predator Bounties in Western Canada Cause Animal Suffering and Compromise Wildlife Conservation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Gilbert; Rodtka, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Although predation bounty programs (rewards offered for capturing or killing an animal) ended more than 40 years ago in Canada, they were reintroduced in Alberta in 2007 by hunting, trapping, and farming organizations, municipalities and counties, and in 2009 in Saskatchewan, by municipal and provincial governments and the Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Association. Bounty hunters use inhumane and non-selective killing methods such as shooting animals in non-vital regions, and killing neck snares and strychnine poisoning, which cause suffering and delayed deaths. They are unselective, and kill many non-target species, some of them at risk. Predator bounty programs have been found to be ineffective by wildlife professionals, and they use killing methods that cause needless suffering and jeopardize wildlife conservation programs. Our analysis therefore indicates that government agencies should not permit the implementation of bounty programs. Accordingly, they must develop conservation programs that will minimize wildlife-human conflicts, prevent the unnecessary and inhumane killing of animals, and ensure the persistence of all wildlife species. PMID:26479482

  18. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng; Gupta, Nishi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data sources Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. Study selection After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province’s EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Synthesis Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software’s available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Conclusion Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada. PMID:27035020

  19. Crustal Seismic Structure of Central Alberta from Receiver Function Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Dokht, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    It is widely believed that the basement structure of central Alberta represents the tectonic assembly and evolution of several Archean lithospheric fragments. These fragments underwent episodes of rifting, collision, subduction and melting during the Proterozoic, giving rise to a complex network of tectonic domains with considerable differences in the crustal magnetic and seismic signatures. Observational support for these episodes, e.g., the coeval subduction around the Hearne province, has been limited due to the lack of exposed geology and insufficient teleseismic data prior to 2006. Since mid 2007, the establishment of the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE) has greatly improved the broadband seismic data coverage in central and southern Alberta. Based on 5+ years of CRANE data, we systematically analyze crust and shallow mantle shear velocities through simultaneous inversions of low and high frequency receiver functions. P-to-S converted waves from several stations in central Alberta suggest a significant mid crustal low velocity zone (LVZ), where shear velocity could vary by as much as 35 percent in a depth range of 15-35 km. This structure is not required by the receiver functions from stations along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. While LVZ of notable magnitudes have been suggested previously in an overlapped part of the study region and attributed to the presence of serpentine or intrusive sill, the spatial dimensions of the anomaly reported in the current study is significantly larger: this anomaly spans hundreds of kilometers horizontally and is generally thicker than 10 km. The presence of mid/lower crustal LVZ in central Alberta is supported by recent group velocity maps based on noise correlation tomography, and the southeastward orientation of this LVZ is consistent with the proposed direction of the subducted oceanic microplate beneath the northwestern Hearne province during the Proterozoic. Still, the cause of the LVZ remains

  20. Development and assessment of the Alberta Context Tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The context of healthcare organizations such as hospitals is increasingly accepted as having the potential to influence the use of new knowledge. However, the mechanisms by which the organizational context influences evidence-based practices are not well understood. Current measures of organizational context lack a theory-informed approach, lack construct clarity and generally have modest psychometric properties. This paper presents the development and initial psychometric validation of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), an eight dimension measure of organizational context for healthcare settings. Methods Three principles guided the development of the ACT: substantive theory, brevity, and modifiability. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework and related literature were used to guide selection of items in the ACT. The ACT was required to be brief enough to be tolerated in busy and resource stretched work settings and to assess concepts of organizational context that were potentially modifiable. The English version of the ACT was completed by 764 nurses (752 valid responses) working in seven Canadian pediatric care hospitals as part of its initial validation. Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis, analysis of variance, and tests of association were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Results Factor analysis indicated a 13-factor solution (accounting for 59.26% of the variance in 'organizational context'). The composition of the factors was similar to those originally conceptualized. Cronbach's alpha for the 13 factors ranged from .54 to .91 with 4 factors performing below the commonly accepted alpha cut off of .70. Bivariate associations between instrumental research utilization levels (which the ACT was developed to predict) and the ACT's 13 factors were statistically significant at the 5% level for 12 of the 13 factors. Each factor also showed a trend of increasing mean score ranging

  1. Estimates of dark ecosystem respiration of CO 2 from the city of Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahey, D. M.; Hansen, M. C.

    Carbon dioxide flux can be used as a criterion of the metabolism of terrestrial communities. A method has been developed to estimate this flux from urban areas during nocturnal periods characterized by stable air. The method assumes that biogenic and anthropogenic CO 2 emissions are proportional to one another. This assumption appears to be acceptable for average conditions in Calgary, Alberta, which is an "urban forest" situated in a prairie setting. Application of the method for estimating the CO 2 flux from Calgary's terrestrial ecosystem shows that dark respiration is absent during autumn and winter seasons. It is twice as great in summer as in spring. Its summer level is less than half that observed for an oak—pine forest in New York state. The lesser value is explainable in terms of Calgary's colder climate and the fact that a significant portion of the city is occupied by streets, houses, high-rise buildings and parking lots.

  2. Geoscience Garden: an outdoor teaching installation at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, J. W.; Locock, A.

    2009-05-01

    Spatial awareness, and the abilities to position observations and inferences on a two-dimensional map and within the three-dimensional environment of the Earth's crust, are some of the the larger challenges facing beginning Earth Science students. Studies have shown that outdoor observations of outcrops are vital in the development of these spatial skills. However, teaching the techniques of field geology to Earth Science students is challenging in many parts of the continental interior, where nearly flat-lying, weakly consolidated, poorly exposed sedimentary rocks may be concealed beneath recent soils and Quaternary sediments. At the University of Alberta, these problems are offset by field courses at distant locations in more varied terrains during the spring and summer, but the distances (~300 km) and climate make fieldwork difficult during a busy teaching year that extends from September to April. The Geoscience Garden will be a unique landscaped area within the University of Alberta campus in which large (1 - 5 m), boulders and rock slabs will be built into oriented, simulated outcrops. These will be arranged in a layout that represents the geology of western and northern Canada in condensed form. The Garden, currently in the process of installation, will provide an artificial field environment in which Earth Science students can develop observational skills, and construct a simple geological map. They will be able to interpret the mapped area in terms of a three-dimensional structure, and make stratigraphic inferences about the order of deposition of the units and the environmental changes that occurred during the geologic history of the simulated area. In addition to more common rock types, the Garden will also display specimens of mineral deposits in geological context, and illustrate their importance to rural and northern communities. A buried boulder that has high magnetic susceptibility will provide a target for introductory geophysical field surveys

  3. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  4. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  5. Coal in Canada: raining on the king's parade

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.

    1982-02-01

    Use of coal as a fuel in homes in Canada is reviewed. It is pointed out that the greatest irritant in Canadian - USA relations is the belief by Canadians that acid rain (coming from coal-fired plants in the USA) is killing off lakes in Canada. As a result, the widespread belief that coal causes acid rain, coupled with the notion that coal is a dirty and old-fashioned fuel, has dampened enthusiasm for coal among many Canadians. In Toronto, Vancouver, and northern Alberta use of coal stoves is almost non existant. In other areas, particularly where coal stoves have been tried, use of coal is quite extensive (Cape Breton Islands is an example). It is pointed out that Canada has only one proven source of anthracite coal; over 95% of Canada's 50 billion ton coal reserve is low quality bituminous or lignite. Overall, it is estimated that only 18,000 households (0.2%) currently use coal. Changes from oil heating is usually to gas. It is emphasized, however, that the potential for coal use is great if the spectre of acid rain could be lifted. (MJJ)

  6. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective. PMID:20057258

  7. The Principal Quality Practice Guideline: Promoting Successful School Leadership in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Principal Quality Practice Guideline (PQPG) represents a first step in a process to develop a framework for quality school leadership in Alberta. It includes a statement on Principal Quality Practice and seven leadership dimensions, with supporting descriptors, reflecting the Alberta context. The PQPG is to be used as a basis for many…

  8. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Applications, Benefits, and Barriers of Alberta's SuperNet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Christiansen, Jo-An

    2007-01-01

    The Alberta SuperNet, a very high speed, broadband network, was built to bring high-speed connectivity to every school, library, and municipal office in Alberta. This CDN $294 million investment was made based on the perceived need for high-speed connectivity to stimulate economic and community development and to enhance government services,…

  9. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISA Handbook for Cycle 4. 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) is a bold approach to improving student learning by encouraging teachers, parents, and the community to work collaboratively to introduce innovative projects that address local needs. Initiated in 1999 by the Alberta Government and its partners, AISI provides targeted funding to school…

  10. Government Policy and Postsecondary Education in Alberta: A "Field Theory" Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, David; Wimmer, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    While the landscape of postsecondary education in Alberta continues to expand and diversify, there seems to be very little written about the organization of postsecondary education in the province over the past 15 to 20 years (Wimmer & Schmaus, 2010). This paper provides an analysis of postsecondary education in Alberta over the past 15 to 20…

  11. Maintaining the Momentum. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    Alberta's apprenticeship system offers training in 50 designated trades and 4 designated occupations and includes 40,398 registered apprentices and 11,1984 employers. The main components of Alberta's apprenticeship and training system are as follows: (1) a network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated occupations; (2)…

  12. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  13. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  14. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2003/2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November of 2005, Alberta Advanced Education contracted Insightrix Research Services to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from four Alberta universities, eight university colleges, fifteen public colleges and two technical institutes in the fall of 2003 or the spring of 2004 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed…

  15. The Support Service Approach to University Education for Native Students in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Eyman, Evelyn

    Of the four universities within the Province of Alberta, the University of Calgary has most effectively met the bicultural needs of Native students. Athabasca University's correspondence courses are usually not effective for Native students. The University of Alberta's "Morningstar" program allows teacher certification before completion of degrees…

  16. Satisfaction with Education in Alberta Survey, 2007/08. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Alberta Education conducts a set of annual telephone surveys to obtain feedback from education system stakeholders regarding their perceptions of Alberta's education system. Respondents for the survey include senior high school students, parents of children in the K-12 education system, parents of children with severe special needs, teachers in…

  17. Deformation analysis of terrestrial monitoring observations on Turtle Mountain, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Axel; Chow, Jacky; Teskey, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    Deformation monitoring has been carried out in two epochs on Turtle Mountain, Alberta, using a high-precision total station and a terrestrial laser scanner. From the total station observations, coordinates have been computed for seven signalized target points in a least-squares network adjustment. Then, a deformation analysis using a Multi-Parameter Transformation has been performed to derive movements between epochs. The two point clouds obtained with the laser scanner were registered using the iterative closest point algorithm. Differences in elevation between the two point clouds were then derived for the entire scene. Results indicate a downward movement of South Peak, and no significant horizontal deformations were found.

  18. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  19. Selected Alberta science and research success stories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication provides a sampling of the value of science and research to Albertans, to the Alberta economy, and to the global community as revealed in stories of successful science and research activities in the province. Each story includes name of developer, inventor, company, and/or supporter; names of co-operating agencies, if any; contact name and address for further information; and a list of expected or realized benefits. The stories are organized under subject areas relating to agriculture and agri-food, arts and culture, biotechnology, construction, education, energy, environment, forest sector, health and medicine, human and community development, information and communications, manufacturing, mineral sector, tourism, and transportation.

  20. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  1. Impacts of climate and catastrophic forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC (Hydrologiska Byråns attenbalansavdelning, Environment Canada), in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (global climate model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). The GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. Flow also decreased in July and August, when irrigation is important; these reduced river flows during this season could impact agriculture production. The amplification in the streamflow is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, resulting in lower water availability during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty in streamflows were higher in spring and summer than in winter and fall. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing the winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  2. Estimating spatial variation in Alberta forest biomass from a combination of forest inventory and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, S.; Hogg, E. H.; Lieffers, V.; Qin, Y.; He, F.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties in the estimation of tree biomass carbon storage across large areas pose challenges for the study of forest carbon cycling at regional and global scales. In this study, we attempted to estimate the present biomass carbon storage in Alberta, Canada, by taking advantage of a spatially explicit dataset derived from a combination of forest inventory data from 1968 plots and spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) canopy height data. Ten climatic variables together with elevation, were used for model development and assessment. Four approaches, including spatial interpolation, non-spatial and spatial regression models, and decision-tree based modelling with random forests algorithm (a machine-learning technique), were compared to find the "best" estimates. We found that the random forests approach provided the best accuracy for biomass estimates. Non-spatial and spatial regression models gave estimates similar to random forests, while spatial interpolation greatly overestimated the biomass storage. Using random forests, the total biomass stock in Alberta forests was estimated to be 3.11 × 109 Mg, with the average biomass density of 77.59 Mg ha-1. At the species level, three major tree species, lodgepole pine, trembling aspen and white spruce, stocked about 1.91 × 109 Mg biomass, accounting for 61% of total estimated biomass. Spatial distribution of biomass varied with natural regions, land cover types, and species. And the relative importance of predictor variables on determining biomass distribution varied with species. This study showed that the combination of ground-based inventory data, spaceborne LiDAR data, land cover classification, climatic and environmental variables was an efficient way to estimate the quantity, distribution and variation of forest biomass carbon stocks across large regions.

  3. Estimating spatial variation in Alberta forest biomass from a combination of forest inventory and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, S.; Hogg, E. H.; Lieffers, V.; Qin, Y.; He, F.

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties in the estimation of tree biomass carbon storage across large areas pose challenges for the study of forest carbon cycling at regional and global scales. In this study, we attempted to estimate the present aboveground biomass (AGB) in Alberta, Canada, by taking advantage of a spatially explicit data set derived from a combination of forest inventory data from 1968 plots and spaceborne light detection and ranging (lidar) canopy height data. Ten climatic variables, together with elevation, were used for model development and assessment. Four approaches, including spatial interpolation, non-spatial and spatial regression models, and decision-tree-based modeling with random forests algorithm (a machine-learning technique), were compared to find the "best" estimates. We found that the random forests approach provided the best accuracy for biomass estimates. Non-spatial and spatial regression models gave estimates similar to random forests, while spatial interpolation greatly overestimated the biomass storage. Using random forests, the total AGB stock in Alberta forests was estimated to be 2.26 × 109 Mg (megagram), with an average AGB density of 56.30 ± 35.94 Mg ha-1. At the species level, three major tree species, lodgepole pine, trembling aspen and white spruce, stocked about 1.39 × 109 Mg biomass, accounting for nearly 62% of total estimated AGB. Spatial distribution of biomass varied with natural regions, land cover types, and species. Furthermore, the relative importance of predictor variables on determining biomass distribution varied with species. This study showed that the combination of ground-based inventory data, spaceborne lidar data, land cover classification, and climatic and environmental variables was an efficient way to estimate the quantity, distribution and variation of forest biomass carbon stocks across large regions.

  4. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  5. Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Gizaw, Mesgana

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events in the Oldman (ORB), Bow, (BRB) and Red Deer (RRB) River Basins of southern Alberta, Canada, was assessed using six extreme climate indices for the rainy period of May-August (MJJA), and 9-km resolution Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and A1B climate scenarios of four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Models (GCMs) dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model, MM5. R95p of the three study sites showed an increase of 4% for the 2050s (2041-2070) and 10% for the 2080s (2071-2100) period, whereas R99p increased by 39% (2050s) and 42% (2080s) which suggest a projected increase in the volume of precipitation expected in future very wet and particularly extremely wet days. Similarly, R20mm, P30yr, RX1day and RX5day are also projected to increase by about 15% by the mid- and late 21st century in the three study sites. However, compared to BRB and RRB, ORB located in the southernmost part of the study site is projected to undergo a relatively higher increase in both temperature and precipitation intensity, which is assessed in terms of indices such as P30yr, RX1day and RX5day. On the other hand, RRB and BRB are projected to experience higher increase in R20mm, which suggest a relatively higher increase in the number of very heavy precipitation days projected for these two basins. Overall, these results suggest that in the 2050s and 2080s, southern Alberta will be expected to experience more frequent and severe intensive storm events in the MJJA season that could potentially increase the risk of future flooding in this region. Ref: Gizaw, M., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta, Int. Journal Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.4338

  6. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  7. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  8. Canada: Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Canada emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and graphs. Aspects of the country depicted include: geography, population, resources, international trade, government, and energy. Short texts on multiculturalism, the Canadian economy, the country's history, and U.S.-Canada relations also are included.…

  9. Canada and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights Canada's high marks in a poll on its international image in 20 countries. Asks how Canada should take advantage of its positive international image. Notes areas where Canadian foreign policy is most admired: advancement of global peace and human rights, provision of aid, and participation in international peacekeeping. (DSK)

  10. Canada's iron creek meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    An iron mass, of meteoritical origin, found on a hilltop in the southern Canadian prairies, is unique to Canadian scientific history. It is the third largest meteorite to have been found in Canada (at one time it was reported to be Canada's largest single meteorite mass). A brief historical account, and a corrected official weight (145 kilograms), of this interesting meteorite is presented.

  11. Space-Time Modeling of Climate Change Effects on the Water Balance of Southwestern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutulu, P.; Blais, J.

    2005-12-01

    Changes and variabilities in space and time characteristics of hydro-climatic processes play a major role in the water balance of a watershed. Formulating suitable spatio-temporal models for interactive behavior of such processes is crucial in understanding and investigating potential climate change effects on hydrology of a watershed. Historical climatic and hydrologic data are herein used to calibrate a conceptual stochastic monthly water balance for southwestern Alberta watersheds in Canada for the present day climate. The inputs to the model are monthly precipitation, evapotranspiration and temperature time series and the outputs are monthly soil moisture storages and streamflow. To account for vegetation influence on the precipitation-runoff transformation, a moisture index parameter based on the Jansen-Haise formulation and HDF-EOS data is incorporated into the hydrologic model. An adaptive technique is used to describe time evolution and uncertainties in the moisture index parameter. To simulate the effects of global warming due to the doubling of CO2, outputs from the Canadian Global Coupled Model 1 (CGCM1) are used to provide inputs that are downscaled to drive the hydrologic model. Spatial estimation of unknown data are performed using a modified Kriging approach combined with Canonical Correlation analysis. Preliminary results indicate that the formulated model is statistically adequate for estimating monthly streamflow at the 95% level. It is also shown that a temperature based approach can be used to estimate the evapotranspiration time series as an immediate process when data for the latter are either unavailable or insufficient. This result is attractive in the sense that only temperature and precipitation are needed to drive the hydrologic model. Finally, the sensitivity of moisture index and streamflow to potential climate changes is briefly discussed.

  12. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds. PMID:26421621

  13. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  14. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  15. Exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites: review of controls.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2013, Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training, and Labour (JSTL) conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica and assess controls to protect workers. Information on exposure results has been previously reported; this article discusses the data collected on workplace controls. Information on work site controls was collected during exposure assessments consisting of qualitative information on controls in place and used by workers at the time of the assessments. Where there was sufficient data, the information was further analyzed to evaluate the impact of a particular control. While many types of controls were observed, they were not always effective or in use. The control available most often was respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Generally, when respirators were used, they were correctly selected for the level of measured exposure. However, not all workers who were potentially overexposed wore respirators at the time of the assessments. When the use of respirators was taken into account, about one-third of workers were still potentially exposed over the Alberta occupational exposure limit. The industries with the highest levels of exposure tended to be those with the most unprotected workers. Issues were identified with the use of improper work practices such as dry cleaning methods, lack of documented work procedures, poor housekeeping, and lack of training which may have contributed to worker exposure levels. There is a wide range in the efficacy of controls, particularly engineering controls. Most of the literature focuses on engineering controls; however administrative controls also play a role in reducing worker exposure. Data collected in this work indicated that simple changes to work procedures and behavior (such as improved housekeeping) may be effective, low-cost ways to reduce workplace exposure. More study is required to evaluate the impact and efficacy of administrative controls such as housekeeping and training. Employers

  16. Empirical Estimation of R0 for Unknown Transmission Functions: The Case of Chronic Wasting Disease in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Alex; Merrill, Evelyn; Pybus, Margo; Lewis, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the basic reproduction number R0 from data on prevalence dynamics at the beginning of a disease outbreak. We derive discrete and continuous time models, some coefficients of which are to be fitted from data. We show that prevalence of the disease is sufficient to determine R0. We apply this method to chronic wasting disease spread in Alberta determining a range of possible R0 and their sensitivity to the probability of deer annual survival. PMID:26452231

  17. Springtime Arctic ground-based spectroscopy of O3 and related trace gases at Eureka, Canada - Part 1: Evaluation of the analysis method and comparison with infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, E.; Strong, K.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Fast, H.; van Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.

    2009-02-01

    For the first time in spring 1999 the ground-based UV-visible zenith-sky measurements of stratospheric gases were performed at Environment Canada's Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Observatory (ASTRO) located at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80.05° N, 86.42° W, 610 m a.s.l.). The University of Toronto UV-visible ground-based spectrometer (UT-GBS) has been deployed for nine years afterwards at Eureka to measure ozone and NO2 total columns by using sunlight scattered from the zenith sky during spring, when the conditions leading to polar ozone depletion develop. During spring 2000, elevated OClO slant column densities were also measured for the first time. First dedicated analysis of UT-GBS measurements applying two independent differential optical absorption spectroscopy algorithms was performed on spectra recorded during spring 2000. The resulting ozone and NO2 total columns agreed to 4% and 5% or better, respectively. Also, first four years of UT-GBS results (1999-2003) were compared with those made by ozonesondes and by the Meteorogical Service of Canada Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (MSC FTS) at ASTRO, which has been operated by Canada's Department of Environment for measuring the total columns of several stratospheric gases. The comparison of UT-GBS and MSC FTS ozone total columns proved to be better than 5% for the periods when both instruments were viewing similar air masses.

  18. Western Canada basin conventional gas resource estimated at 232 tcf

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J.; Barclay, J.E.; Bird, T.D.; Osadetz, K.G. )

    1993-10-25

    An estimate of 232 tcf of conventional undiscovered gas resources for the entire Western Canada Sedimentary basin indicates that more than half of the total gas resource remains to be discovered. This preliminary figure results from the main resource potential study, Conventional Gas Resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, being conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada. The study is the most comprehensive project of its kind undertaken by GSC because of the enormity of the pool database, the number of plays, and the geological complexities of those plays. The basin encompasses practically all of Alberta, Northeast British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba. Hence it was necessary to divide the overall assessment into play groups using geological criteria, primarily major stratigraphic time/rock units, and structural/tectonic provinces. Although the Cretaceous--Tertiary play groups have not yet been subjected to the same Petrimes methodological assessment as the other play groups, it is believed that the overall assessment of 232 tcf presented here is reasonable, perhaps even somewhat conservative.

  19. Advancing Methods for Hydrogeological Characterization of Deep Aquifers in Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Palombi, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Groundwater Program at the Alberta Geological Survey is focused on identifying, characterizing and quantifying Alberta's groundwater resources. Characterization of deep groundwater resources is becoming increasingly important as the Government of Alberta implements its Water Conservation Policy seeking to minimize freshwater use. Conducting an inventory of saline water (non-traditional) resources for source water in various energy development scenarios, at basin scales, pose significant challenges given the potential competing uses and demand for groundwater resources. Current research activities are seeking to improve our methods to characterize deep aquifers in data-rich sedimentary basins. Two methods are discussed here: 1) identifying production/injection influenced Drill Stem Test (DST) measurements for mapping distributions of hydraulic heads (both present-day and prior to development) in deep units; and 2) analyzing variable density flow effects. DSTs are transient pressure tests usually performed for assessing potential oil and gas productivity. These tests measure pressures using gauges at the surface and down-hole. The measured pressures can be strongly influenced in cases where the test interval is located in the vicinity of a production or injection well, which generally happens in mature sedimentary basins such as the Alberta basin. To identify production influences this study utilized a cumulative inference index (CII) based approach. A new application was developed in C-code to implement the CII and will be demonstrated on a sample DST dataset from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Fluid flow in sedimentary basins is often inferred using freshwater hydraulic heads, reference formation water densities and pressure-depth plots. Previous studies in the Alberta basin have often neglected density variations. Effects of density driven flow needs to be taken into account in cases where dense brines are present, a large aquifer dip or small hydraulic

  20. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  1. Top income shares in Canada: recent trends and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Veall, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    According to Canadian taxfiler data, over the last thirty years there has been a surge in the income shares of the top 1%, top 0.1% and top 0.01% of income recipients, even with longitudinal smoothing by individual using three- or five-year moving averages. Top shares fell in 2008 and 2009, but only by a fraction of the overall surge. Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario have much more pronounced surges than other provinces. Part of the Canadian surge is likely attributable to U.S. factors, but a comprehensive explanation remains elusive. Even so, I draw implications for policies that might achieve some support from across the political spectrum, including the elimination of tax preferences that favour those with high incomes, the promotion of shareholder democracy and, to maintain Canada's relatively high intergenerational mobility, continued wide accessibility to healthcare and education. PMID:23335814

  2. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM): Interpretation of imagery over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator); Dixon, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Visual analysis of HCMM images acquired over two sites in Canada and supporting aircraft and ground data obtained at a smaller subsite in Alberta show that nightime surface temperature distribution is primarily related to the near-surface air temperature; the effects of topography, wind, and land cover were low or indirect through air temperature. Surface cover and large altitudinal differences were important parameters influencing daytime apparent temperature values. A quantitative analysis of the relationship between the antecedent precipitation index and the satellite thermal IR measurements did not yield statistically significant correlation coefficients, but the correlations had a definite temporal trend which could be related to the increasing uniformity of vegetation cover. The large pixel size (resulting in a mixture of cover types and soil/canopy temperatures measured by the satellite) and high cloud cover frequency found in images covering both Canadian sites and northern U.S. were considered the main deficiencies of the thermal satellite data.

  3. Adoption, Use, and Impact of E-Booking in Private Medical Practices: Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Two-Year Showcase Project in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Managing appointments in private medical practices and ambulatory care settings is a complex process. Various strategies to reduce missed appointments can be implemented. E-booking systems, which allow patients to schedule and manage medical appointments online, represents such a strategy. To better support clinicians seeking to offer an e-booking service to their patients, health authorities in Canada recently invested in a showcase project involving six private medical clinics. Objective The objectives pursued in this study were threefold: (1) to measure adoption and use of the e-booking system in each of the clinics over a 2-year period, (2) to assess patients’ perceptions regarding the characteristics and benefits of using the system, and (3) to measure the impact of the e-booking system on the number of missed appointments in each clinic. Methods A mixed-methods approach was adopted in this study. We first extracted and analyzed raw data from the e-booking system deployed in each of the medical practices to monitor adoption and use of the system over time and to assess the impact of the system on the number of missed appointments. Second, we conducted a Web-based survey of patients’ perceptions in the spring of 2013. Results The patients and physicians targeted by this showcase project showed a growing interest in the e-booking system as the number of users, time slots made available by physicians, and online appointments grew steadily over time. The great majority of patients said that they appreciated the system mainly because of the benefits they derived from it, namely, scheduling flexibility, time savings, and automated reminders that prevented forgotten appointments. Importantly, our findings suggest that the system’s automated reminders help significantly reduce the number of missed appointments. Conclusions E-booking systems seem to represent a win-win solution for patients and physicians in private medical practices. We encourage

  4. Short communication: Herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is not associated with participation in a voluntary Alberta Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Wolf, R; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Pickel, C; Mason, S; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2016-03-01

    Johne's disease (JD) control programs for dairy farms have the general objective of reducing both cow- and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). An important aspect of many programs is herd testing for MAP to determine the infection status of participating farms. However, it is uncertain whether MAP herd-level prevalence on farms voluntarily participating in a JD control program is different from that on nonparticipating farms. Therefore, the aim was to compare MAP infection status of participants and nonparticipants in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI), a voluntary JD control program initiated in 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Between September 2012 and August 2013, environmental fecal samples were collected from 93 randomly selected farms not enrolled in the AJDI. Additionally, 81 farms that initially enrolled in the AJDI during the same time interval were also sampled. Samples were collected from 6 defined locations on each farm and cultured for MAP. Results were confirmed using conventional IS900 PCR and F 0285 quantitative PCR. Overall, 51% of participating and 51% of nonparticipating farms were identified as being MAP-infected. Furthermore, based on multivariable logistic regression, the number of MAP-positive samples was not associated with AJDI participation (taking herd size into account as a potentially modifying or confounding variable). In conclusion, there was no indication that voluntary participation in the AJDI was associated with herd-level MAP prevalence. PMID:26778309

  5. Modeling an exhumed basin: A method for estimating eroded overburden

    SciTech Connect

    Poelchau, H.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The Alberta Deep basin in western Canada has undergone a large amount of erosion after deep burial in the Eocene. Basin modeling and simulation of burial and temperature history require estimates of maximum overburden for each gridpoint in the basin. Erosion generally is estimated with shale compaction trends. For instance, the commonly used Magara technique attempts to establish a sonic log gradient for shales and uses the intercept with uncompacted shale values as a first indication of overcompaction and amount of erosion. Since such gradients are difficult to establish in many wells, an extension of this method was devised to help map erosion over a large area. Sonic values of shales are calibrated with compaction gradients to give an equation for amount of total restored overburden for the same formation in several wells. This equation then can be used to estimate and map total restored overburden for all wells in which this formation has been logged. The example from the Alberta Deep basin shows that trend and magnitudes of erosion or overburden agree with independent estimates using vitrinite maturity values.

  6. Care of the elderly program at the University of Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lesley; Dobbs, Bonnie; Triscott, Jean; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed The population is aging rapidly and there are implications for health care delivery in the face of few physicians specializing in care of the elderly (COE). Objective of program To train physicians wishing to provide COE services. Program description The COE program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton is an enhanced skills diploma program lasting 6 months to 1 year, with core program requirements including geriatric inpatient care, geriatric psychiatry, ambulatory care, continuing care, and outreach. There is a longitudinal clinic component and a research project requirement. The program is designed to cover the 85 core competencies in the CanMEDS– Family Medicine roles. Conclusion There is a need for COE physicians to provide clinical care as well as fill educational, administrative, and research roles to meet the health care needs of medically complex seniors. These physicians require alternative funding and a departmental home within a university if they are to provide an academic service. PMID:25551143

  7. NUANCE: Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In this article, we describe the Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer (NUANCE), a computer program for data exploration and analysis. NUANCE is specialized for finding nonlinear relations between any number of predictors and a dependent value to be predicted. It searches the space of possible relations between the predictors and the dependent value by using natural selection to evolve equations that maximize the correlation between their output and the dependent value. In this article, we introduce the program, describe how to use it, and provide illustrative examples. NUANCE is written in Java, which runs on most computer platforms. We have contributed NUANCE to the archival Web site of the Psychonomic Society (www.psychonomic.org/archive), from which it may be freely downloaded. PMID:16817509

  8. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  9. Nutrition Education Practices and Opinions of Alberta Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, S. Ann; Joffres, Michel R.

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 532 members of the Alberta Chapter of the College of Family Physicians in order to assess the role of physicians in providing nutrition education to their patients. Of the 255 respondents (53% response rate), over 97% agreed that “educating patients about nutrition is an important role for physicians.” Physicians most often gave nutrition information on obesity, constipation, heart disease and hypertension, alcohol, coffee, infant feeding, osteoporosis, and prenatal nutrition. Female physicians gave nutrition information significantly more often than male physicians on four maternal and child health topics. Perceived barriers to nutrition education included lack of reimbursement for physicians (86%), lack of time (48%), and limited access to patient information (42%). Most physicians often informed patients on the seven most common nutrition topics despite these concerns. PMID:21249103

  10. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  11. Isolated cases of remote dynamic triggering in Canada detected using cataloged earthquakes combined with a matched-filter approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bei, Wang; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Yu, Hongyu; Carey, Alex; van der Elst, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Here we search for dynamically triggered earthquakes in Canada following global main shocks between 2004 and 2014 with MS > 6, depth < 100 km, and estimated peak ground velocity > 0.2 cm/s. We use the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) earthquake catalog to calculate β statistical values in 1° × 1° bins in 10 day windows before and after the main shocks. The statistical analysis suggests that triggering may occur near Vancouver Island, along the border of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, in western Alberta, western Ontario, and the Charlevoix seismic zone. We also search for triggering in Alberta where denser seismic station coverage renders regional earthquake catalogs with lower completeness thresholds. We find remote triggering in Alberta associated with three main shocks using a matched-filter approach on continuous waveform data. The increased number of local earthquakes following the passage of main shock surface waves suggests local faults may be in a critically stressed state.

  12. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  13. Canada thistle phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the establishment year for the experimental population. Other...

  14. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  15. Anomalous surface heave induced by enhanced oil recovery in northern Alberta: InSAR observations and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, Jill; Singhroy, Vern; Samsonov, Sergey; Li, Junhua

    2014-08-01

    Recent interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations over northern Alberta, Canada, show persistent surface heave occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/yr, localized at sites where the steam-assisted gravity drainage technique is currently used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion. We also observe an unexpected localized uplift, of magnitude equal to or greater than the heave above the sites of steaming but located at clusters of wellheads which are outside the region of influence of the steam chambers. We show that this "wellhead" deformation can be explained by thermal expansion of rock near the injector wells.

  16. The Relationship Between Seismicity and the Oil and Gas Industry in Western Alberta and Eastern B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Ghofrani, H.; Walker, D.; Cheadle, B.; Schultz, R.; Shcherbakov, R.; Tiampo, K. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Significantly increased production of hydrocarbons in North America is being driven by the development of unconventional resources whose commercial viability, in many cases, depends upon massive subsurface injection of fluids. Although relatively uncommon, elevated pore pressure from fluid injection of any kind can induce earthquake activity by activating slip on a proximal fault. In the western Canada sedimentary basin (which follows the Rocky Mountain foothills region and straddles the border between Alberta and B.C.), we find that hydraulic fracture treatment, wherein fluids are injected under high pressure in long laterally-drilled wells in order to induce localized fracturing of a rock formation, is the primary triggering mechanism of induced seismicity. This contrasts with the central U.S., where most induced seismicity has been attributed to large-scale wastewater injection into deep disposal wells. Our findings are based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of seismicity at the M≥3 level since 1985, along with a complete well database for the region, containing information on many thousands of oil and gas wells. Since 2010, most of the regional earthquakes of M≥3 are correlated in both time and space with hydraulic fracturing. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the observed correlations are extremely unlikely (<<1%) to have been obtained by chance. Improved understanding of regional variability in fault activation processes, accounting for operational and geological factors, will aid in the development and validation of predictive models for the time-dependent hazards from induced earthquakes.

  17. PFC2D Analysis of Frank Slide rockfall deposit (Turtle Mountain, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Maria Güell I.; Charrière, Marie; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Froese, Corey; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    The eastern slope of Turtle Mountain collapse (Frank Slide, Alberta, Canada) involved a total of 30 M m3 of material and caused 70 fatalities in 1903. At the moment Turtle Mountain is one of the most monitored rock-slope sites in the world and several studies and simulations have been published. Detailed field work on the structural characteristics of the deposit has been performed (block size and lithology distribution, geomorphologic map of the deposit…). As an alternative to traditional numerical analysis, such as finite element methods or discontinuum methods, we analyze Frank Slide by means of the distinct element numerical model PFC2D, which considers the rock mass as an assembly of circular particles which can be bonded together and interact with each other and with the boundaries by contact laws. Assuming an initial configuration (given failure surface) several tests are made; firstly the movement is simulated as a granular flow (with no bonding between particles), secondly rock clusters are defined to match detached blocks identified in the field and thirdly the bonds between particles are enabled in order to account for first failure processes and block fragmentation. In order to simulate fracture, heterogeneity is implemented on bond resistance properties by a statistical function. Mechanic properties such as stresses, velocities and energy are monitored during the propagation process. Color markers for each lithology enable to identify internal deformation in the rockslide during emplacement. Results permit to compare the run-out distance and deposit configuration with spatial patterns observed in field work and might give insight to the nature of Frank Slide propagation.

  18. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true

  19. A case study in Gantt charts as historiophoty: A century of psychology at the University of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael R W

    2013-05-01

    History is typically presented as historiography, where historians communicate via the written word. However, some historians have suggested alternative formats for communicating and thinking about historical information. One such format is known as historiophoty, which involves using a variety of visual images to represent history. The current article proposes that a particular type of graph, known as a Gantt chart, is well suited for conducting historiophoty. When used to represent history, Gantt charts provide a tremendous amount of information. Furthermore, the spatial nature of Gantt charts permits other kinds of spatial operations to be performed on them. This is illustrated with a case study of the history of a particular psychology department. The academic year 2009-2010 marked the centennial of psychology at the University of Alberta. This centennial was marked by compiling a list of its full-time faculty members for each year of its history. This historiography was converted into historiophoty by using it as the source for the creation of a Gantt chart. The current article shows how the history of psychology at the University of Alberta is revealed by examining this Gantt chart in a variety of different ways. This includes computing simple descriptive statistics from the chart, creating smaller versions of the Gantt to explore departmental demographics, and using image processing methods to provide measures of departmental stability throughout its history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23527536

  20. Improving health equity: the promising role of community health workers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sara; Labonté, Ronald; Spitzer, Denise L; Andrew, Caroline; Amaratunga, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from an applied case study of collaboration between a community-based organization staffed by community health workers/multicultural health brokers (CHWs/MCHBs) serving immigrants and refugees and a local public health unit in Alberta, Canada. In this study, we explored the challenges, successes and unrealized potential of CHWs/MCHBs in facilitating culturally responsive access to healthcare and other social services for new immigrants and refugees. We suggest that health equity for marginalized populations such as new immigrants and refugees could be improved by increasing the role of CHWs in population health programs in Canada. Furthermore, we propose that recognition by health and social care agencies and institutions of CHWs/MCHBs, and the role they play in such programs, has the potential to transform the way we deliver healthcare services and address health equity challenges. Such recognition would also benefit CHWs and the populations they serve. PMID:25410697

  1. Improving Health Equity: The Promising Role of Community Health Workers in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sara; Labonté, Ronald; Spitzer, Denise L.; Andrew, Caroline; Amaratunga, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from an applied case study of collaboration between a community-based organization staffed by community health workers/multicultural health brokers (CHWs/MCHBs) serving immigrants and refugees and a local public health unit in Alberta, Canada. In this study, we explored the challenges, successes and unrealized potential of CHWs/MCHBs in facilitating culturally responsive access to healthcare and other social services for new immigrants and refugees. We suggest that health equity for marginalized populations such as new immigrants and refugees could be improved by increasing the role of CHWs in population health programs in Canada. Furthermore, we propose that recognition by health and social care agencies and institutions of CHWs/MCHBs, and the role they play in such programs, has the potential to transform the way we deliver healthcare services and address health equity challenges. Such recognition would also benefit CHWs and the populations they serve. PMID:25410697

  2. The Alberta Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Ambassador Program: The Development of a Contextually Relevant, Multidisciplinary Clinical Practice Guideline for Non-specific Low Back Pain: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Aaron; Taenzer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the development of a contextually relevant multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline (CPG) for non-specific low back pain (LBP) and to discuss its value to the management of LBP and the practice of physiotherapy. Method: To mitigate an identified knowledge gap for Alberta primary-care practitioners in the management of non-specific LBP, a collaborative process was developed to engage multidisciplinary health care providers in designing a primary-care CPG for non-specific LBP. A comprehensive review of published LBP guidelines identified the seven highest-quality CPGs; these were used to inform a multidisciplinary guideline development group (GDG) as they developed the CPG. Results: The GDG constructed a CPG for non-specific LBP along with point-of-care decision-support and patient-education tools. Conclusions: The Ambassador Program on Low Back Pain worked with front-line clinicians from across Alberta to review the best available evidence in developing a CPG responsive to the Alberta context. This CPG is intervention specific and provides a wide range of primary-care practitioners with the best available evidence to inform their clinical decisions in managing non-specific LBP. PMID:22654233

  3. Global change and rampant land and water resource development a case study in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J.; Kienzle, S.; Schindler, D.

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews the impacts of global and regional change on the land and water resources in Alberta, Canada. Alberta contains most of Canada's fossil fuel energy resources, including: extensive conventional crude oil and natural gas fields; widespread coal deposits over the southern half of the province with potential for mining and coal bed methane extraction (CBM); and the Athabasca oil sands a crude oil supply of at least several hundred billion barrels entangled in extensive sand deposits lying along the Athabasca River. The province is also a focal point for intensive agriculture in the form of irrigation that has led to over allocated rivers in the south, and a booming economy associated with rapid population growth and associated urban sprawl in support of rapid resource development. All this development is occurring in a region where global climate change is expected to have substantial impacts on land and water in the next few decades. This work outlines the potential impacts of a range of human activities associated with some of the most intensive and extensive resource development plans in North America focused on one region - Alberta. Oil sands investments alone in the next few decades are forecast to exceed one hundred billion dollars! There are plans to double and triple primary and secondary agricultural production; expand coal mining in support of conventional coal fired power plants; and establish CBM well networks over much of the southern half of the province, including extensive development of CBM on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, the principal source of water for most of the semi-arid Canadian plains. The development pace and direction will likely result in widespread environmental contamination of regional and global consequence.

  4. Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: the Alberta Oil Sands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E A; Miyanishi, K

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of oil from the Alberta Oil Sands through surface mining involves the removal of the overburden and oil sand to a depth of up to 100 m and over extremely large areas. While the operation of the bitumen processing plants has serious environmental impacts on downstream habitats, this article focuses on the reclamation of areas from which the oil sands have been removed, processed, and returned. This reclamation following closure of the mines will entail the complete re-creation of landforms and ecosystems at a landscape scale, with the goal of producing suitable habitats for plants, animals, and people. Such projects will require a reasonable understanding of the geophysical and ecological processes that operate at a wide range of scales. Some information is provided on the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and land use (past and current) of the Oil Sands area, situated within the Boreal Plain ecozone, to provide a framework for discussion of issues to be addressed in, and proposed guidelines for, such large-scale reclamation. Although none of the mines has yet closed, numerous consultant reports have been produced with recommendations for various aspects of such reclamation projects (e.g., wetland hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitat). The scientific basis of such reports is found to vary with respect to depth of understanding of the relevant processes. PMID:18566092

  5. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  6. Simulation modelling of a hypothetical introduction of foot-and-mouth disease into Alberta.

    PubMed

    Sanson, R L; Dubé, C; Cork, S C; Frederickson, R; Morley, C

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the use of simulation modelling to evaluate the predicted benefits of an effective livestock traceability system in responding to a hypothetical introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in to the province of Alberta, Canada, and whether or not the implementation of emergency ring vaccination in addition to a standard stamping-out (SO) strategy would lead to smaller and shorter epidemics. Three introduction scenarios were defined, with the primary case in either an intensive beef feedlot operation, an extensive cow-calf operation or in a swine operation. Disease spread was simulated using, three levels of tracing effectiveness, five types of vaccination zone, three different vaccination start times, three lengths of vaccination campaigns, two levels of culling resource and using FMD strains with two different virulence levels. Using standard SO procedures (without vaccination), improving traceability effectiveness from a level whereby only 65% of movements were traced within 5-7 days, to a capability whereby all movements were traced within 1 day, led to a reduction in the number of infected premises (IPs) between 18.7 and 64.5%, an average saving of CAN$29,000,000 in livestock compensation costs alone, and a reduction in the length of epidemics ranging from 1 to 22 days. The implementation of emergency vaccination also led to a reduction in the number of IPs and a shortening of epidemics. The effects were more pronounced when the higher virulence settings were used, with a predicted reduction in IPs of 16.6-68.7% (mean=48.6%) and epidemics shortened by up to 37 days. Multi-variable analyses showed these effects were highly significant, after accounting for the incursion location, virulence of virus and time of first detection. The results clearly demonstrated the benefits of having effective traceability systems with rapid query and reporting functionality. The results also supported the value of early vaccination as an adjunct to SO in

  7. Combined Tree-Ring Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes to infer past atmospheric deposition in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America is significantly younger than the emitting activities themselves. Attention should be placed on SOx and NOx emissions as they have been increasing over the last 15 years in western Canada. In Northeastern Alberta in particular, two distinct diffuse pollution contexts deserve attention: the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands (OS) district (north of Fort McMurray), and the coal fired power plant (CFPP) area (west of Edmonton). The NOx and SO2 emissions started in 1967 and 1956, but the direct air quality monitoring has been initiated in 1997 and 1985, in these respective contexts. In an attempt to address the gap in emission and deposition monitoring, we explored the δ13C and δ15N patterns of spruce trees (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) growing in four stands in the OS district and one stand, in the CFPP area. Tree-ring series collected from these five sites all covering the 1880-2010 period were analyzed and their δ13C and δ15N values examined along with the climatic parameters and SOx and NOx emission proxies. For two stands in the OS district where soil drainage was poor δ15N series did not vary significantly, but the intermediate and long-term δ13C and δ15N trends inversely correlate in the three other studied stands. For these three sites statistical analyses for the pre-operation calibration periods (1910-1961 and 1900-1951) allowed developing transfer functions and predicting the natural δ13C and δ15N responses to climatic conditions for the operation periods. The measured series all depart from the modeled natural trends, depicting anomalies. Interestingly, the anomalies in the two regions can be nicely reproduced by multiple-regression models combining local climatic parameters with acidifying emissions. Notwithstanding the significant inverse correlations between the δ13C and δ15N series for the three well drained sites and their link to acidifying emissions, it is too early to

  8. Methane stable isotope distribution at a Carex dominated fen in North Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Trevor J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.; Grant, Nick

    1999-12-01

    The methane stable isotope distribution was characterized at a Carex dominated fen in boreal Alberta, Canada, over three growing seasons to examine methane production, oxidation, and transport to the atmosphere; processes which are strongly tied to emergent vegetation and the influence of the rhizosphere (upper 20 cm of peat in this system]. At times when standing floodwater was present, δ13C values of emitted methane averaged -63.6 ± 2.3, -66.3 ± 1.6, and -65.4 ± 1.3‰ for the 1994, 1995, and 1996 seasons, respectively. These emissions were significantly 13C depleted relative to the belowground methane dissolved in rhizospheric pore waters, indicating that gas transport in Carex is dominated by passive diffusion. The rhizosphere was 13CH4 enriched relative to depths below the rhizosphere, consistent with the occurrence of root associated methane oxidation, preferential mobilization of 13CH4, and a relatively greater role of acetate fermentation type methane production. Dual isotope tracers, δ13C and δD, help qualify the role of each of these processes and aid in describing the distribution of production pathways, CO2 reduction, and acetate fermentation. Inverse trends in δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 depth profiles are consistent with an interpretation suggesting an evolution toward methane production by CO2 reduction with increasing depth. A shift in production mechanisms appears to be the dominate process affecting the stable isotope distribution below 10 cm in the peat column, while oxidation and transport isotope effects are dominant above 10 cm. To test several hypotheses regarding the effects of transport, oxidation, and production on methane isotope distributions, we also present measurements from sites fertilized and sites devegetated (continually clipped) over the 3 year period. Removal of vegetation quickly halted rhizospheric methane oxidation and gas transport while gradually increasing the relative role of CO2 reduction in net methane production as

  9. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 μm and a 1 μm mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume

  10. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  11. Family physician practice visits arising from the Alberta Physician Achievement Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Licensed physicians in Alberta are required to participate in the Physician Achievement Review (PAR) program every 5 years, comprising multi-source feedback questionnaires with confidential feedback, and practice visits for a minority of physicians. We wished to identify and classify issues requiring change or improvement from the family practice visits, and the responses to advice. Methods Retrospective analysis of narrative practice visit reports data using a mixed methods design to study records of visits to 51 family physicians and general practitioners who participated in PAR during the period 2010 to 2011, and whose ratings in one or more major assessment domains were significantly lower than their peer group. Results Reports from visits to the practices of family physicians and general practitioners confirmed opportunities for change and improvement, with two main groupings – practice environment and physician performance. For 40/51 physicians (78%) suggested actions were discussed with physicians and changes were confirmed. Areas of particular concern included problems arising from practice isolation and diagnostic conclusions being reached with incomplete clinical evidence. Conclusion This study provides additional evidence for the construct validity of a regulatory authority educational program in which multi-source performance feedback identifies areas for practice quality improvement, and change is encouraged by supplementary contact for selected physicians. PMID:24010980

  12. The Canadian Adverse Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Baker, G. Ross; Norton, Peter G.; Flintoft, Virginia; Blais, Régis; Brown, Adalsteinn; Cox, Jafna; Etchells, Ed; Ghali, William A.; Hébert, Philip; Majumdar, Sumit R.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Reid, Robert J.; Sheps, Sam; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    Background Research into adverse events (AEs) has highlighted the need to improve patient safety. AEs are unintended injuries or complications resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay that arise from health care management. We estimated the incidence of AEs among patients in Canadian acute care hospitals. Methods We randomly selected 1 teaching, 1 large community and 2 small community hospitals in each of 5 provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia) and reviewed a random sample of charts for nonpsychiatric, nonobstetric adult patients in each hospital for the fiscal year 2000. Trained reviewers screened all eligible charts, and physicians reviewed the positively screened charts to identify AEs and determine their preventability. Results At least 1 screening criterion was identified in 1527 (40.8%) of 3745 charts. The physician reviewers identified AEs in 255 of the charts. After adjustment for the sampling strategy, the AE rate was 7.5 per 100 hospital admissions (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7– 9.3). Among the patients with AEs, events judged to be preventable occurred in 36.9% (95% CI 32.0%–41.8%) and death in 20.8% (95% CI 7.8%–33.8%). Physician reviewers estimated that 1521 additional hospital days were associated with AEs. Although men and women experienced equal rates of AEs, patients who had AEs were significantly older than those who did not (mean age [and standard deviation] 64.9 [16.7] v. 62.0 [18.4] years; p = 0.016). Interpretation The overall incidence rate of AEs of 7.5% in our study suggests that, of the almost 2.5 million annual hospital admissions in Canada similar to the type studied, about 185 000 are associated with an AE and close to 70 000 of these are potentially preventable. PMID:15159366

  13. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition Enhances the Net CO2 Sink Strength in Alberta Bogs along a Post-fire Chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    About 30% of the landscape of northern Alberta, Canada is occupied by peatlands, which persist at the low end range of both mean annual precipitation (<500 mm/yr) and mean annual atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition (< 1 kg/ha/yr) across which peatlands are found globally. Ombrotrophic bogs in this region function as a net sink for atmospheric CO2 of over 75 g/m2/yr, taking into consideration changes in CO2 sink strength as a function of time since fire. In addition to fire, a new disturbance is emerging in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, where development of the oil sands resource has increased atmospheric N deposition to as much as 2.5 kg/ha/yr. To examine the effects of elevated N deposition on bog C cycling, we experimentally applied N (as NH4NO3 solutions) to replicated plots at levels equivalent to 0 (water added with no N), 10, and 20 kg/ha/yr, and controls (no waher, no N added) at five bog sites, aged at 2, 12, 32, 73, and 113 years since fire in 2013 (6 plots per N treatment per site). Understory net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was measured repeatedly throughout the 2013 and 2014 growing season (and in 2011 and 2012 at the most recently burned site) using the closed chamber approach. Using a rectangular hyperbola equation to characterize NEE as a function of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and near-surface air temperature (T), monthly and annual NEE was estimated based on hourly measurements of PAR and T at each site. Across all sites, a general pattern emerged that N additions enhanced the net CO2 sink strength of the bogs, with no effect on ecosystem respiration. Net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, the dominant peat-forming moss, was not affected by N addition, suggesting that the overall response of NEE to N addition is the result of enhanced growth of ericaceous shrubs. These findings suggest that while elevated N deposition in the AOSR may enhance the strength of the overall CO2 sink of bogs in the short

  14. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  15. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  16. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  17. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  18. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  19. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  20. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…