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Sample records for alberta context tool

  1. Translating and testing the Alberta context tool for use among nurses in Swedish elder care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that context is important for successful transfer of research knowledge into health care practice. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) is a Canadian developed research-based instrument that assesses 10 modifiable concepts of organizational context considered important for health care professionals’ use of evidence. Swedish and Canadian health care have similarities in terms of organisational and professional aspects, suggesting that the ACT could be used for measuring context in Sweden. This paper reports on the translation of the ACT to Swedish and a testing of preliminary aspects of its validity, acceptability and reliability in Swedish elder care. Methods The ACT was translated into Swedish and back-translated into English before being pilot tested in ten elder care facilities for response processes validity, acceptability and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha). Subsequently, further modification was performed. Results In the pilot test, the nurses found the questions easy to respond to (52%) and relevant (65%), yet the questions’ clarity were mainly considered ‘neither clear nor unclear’ (52%). Missing data varied between 0 (0%) and 19 (12%) per item, the most common being 1 missing case per item (15 items). Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha > .70) was reached for 5 out of 8 contextual concepts. Translation and back translation identified 21 linguistic- and semantic related issues and 3 context related deviations, resolved by developers and translators. Conclusion Modifying an instrument is a detailed process, requiring time and consideration of the linguistic and semantic aspects of the instrument, and understanding of the context where the instrument was developed and where it is to be applied. A team, including the instrument’s developers, translators, and researchers is necessary to ensure a valid translation. This study suggests preliminary validity, reliability and acceptability evidence for the ACT when

  2. Factor Structure, Reliability and Measurement Invariance of the Alberta Context Tool and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale, for German Residential Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing

  3. Assessment of variation in the alberta context tool: the contribution of unit level contextual factors and specialty in Canadian pediatric acute care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few validated measures of organizational context and none that we located are parsimonious and address modifiable characteristics of context. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to meet this need. The instrument assesses 8 dimensions of context, which comprise 10 concepts. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence to further the validity argument for ACT. The specific objectives of this paper are to: (1) examine the extent to which the 10 ACT concepts discriminate between patient care units and (2) identify variables that significantly contribute to between-unit variation for each of the 10 concepts. Methods 859 professional nurses (844 valid responses) working in medical, surgical and critical care units of 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals completed the ACT. A random intercept, fixed effects hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) strategy was used to quantify and explain variance in the 10 ACT concepts to establish the ACT's ability to discriminate between units. We ran 40 models (a series of 4 models for each of the 10 concepts) in which we systematically assessed the unique contribution (i.e., error variance reduction) of different variables to between-unit variation. First, we constructed a null model in which we quantified the variance overall, in each of the concepts. Then we controlled for the contribution of individual level variables (Model 1). In Model 2, we assessed the contribution of practice specialty (medical, surgical, critical care) to variation since it was central to construction of the sampling frame for the study. Finally, we assessed the contribution of additional unit level variables (Model 3). Results The null model (unadjusted baseline HLM model) established that there was significant variation between units in each of the 10 ACT concepts (i.e., discrimination between units). When we controlled for individual characteristics, significant variation in the 10 concepts remained. Assessment of the contribution of

  4. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  5. An audit of health products and services marketed on chiropractic websites in Alberta and consideration of these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stacey A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Chiropractic’s success as a health care profession is evidenced in part by the rising number of practitioners. Paradoxically, this success may start to cost the profession, as the number of consumers may not be increasing proportionally. Fewer patients mean less income for practitioners. Some chiropractors are responding to these pressures by marketing health products, and services Objectives To describe the extent to which Alberta chiropractors with websites sold health products and the extent to which fee discounts/service inducements were advertised. To consider these practices in the context of chiropractic codes of conduct and ethics. Methods Chiropractic websites in the province of Alberta were identified using the online Telus Business Finder and cross-referenced with the Yellow Pages print directories. The websites were searched and an inventory of the health products for sale was recorded. Fee discounts and service inducements were also recorded. Results 56 websites were identified and reviewed. Just under two-thirds of the chiropractic websites surveyed contained information on health products for sale. Orthotics were sold most often (N = 29 practices; 51.8%), followed by pillows and supports (N = 15: 26.8%), vitamins/nutritional supplements (N = 15; 26.8%) and exercise/rehabilitation products (N = 10; 17.9%). Nine practices (16.1%) offered some type of inducement to potential customers. These included discounts on treatment packages (N = 2; 3.6%), free gait/ posture analyses (N = 2; 3.6%) and free general consultations with the chiropractors (N = 3; 5.4%) Conclusions The marketing of health care products and services by chiropractors in Alberta is common. Such practices raise ethical considerations for the profession. Professional guidelines vary on the acceptability of these practices. Consumer and practitioner perspectives and practices regarding retailing need to be further examined. PMID:17657302

  6. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln,…

  7. Charter Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn

    At the heart of the controversy over public education in a democratic system is the tension between majority rules and minority rights, and public and individual interests. This contextual framework sets the stage for the emergence of charter schools in Alberta, Canada. This paper describes the establishment and characteristics of the first…

  8. Content Area Vocabulary Videos in Multiple Contexts: A Pedagogical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, C. Lorraine; Kapavik, Robin Robinson

    2015-01-01

    The authors challenged pre-service teachers to digitally define a social studies or mathematical vocabulary term in multiple contexts using a digital video camera. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. How will creating a video for instruction affect pre-service teachers' attitudes about teaching with technology, if at all?…

  9. Alberta Demographics and the Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Shepard

    University education in Alberta during the next two decades is addressed in relation to the increasing in-migration and uncertain participation. Although Alberta has the highest rate of net population gain among all provinces due to in-migration, it is not clear how many of the 18-24-year-old cohort will be job-seekers rather than potential…

  10. Ovine Brucellosis in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Niilo, Leo; MacDonald, Donald W.; Godkin, Gordon F.; Stone, M. William

    1986-01-01

    Two parallel surveys of rams from Alberta sheep flocks were conducted to determine the presence of infection with Brucella ovis. In a retrospective study over a period of 24 months, using complement fixation test, 12 flocks out of 142 tested were considered infected. In another 17-month survey of slaughter rams by serology and culture methods 11 flocks out of 124 were found to be infected. The overall prevalence of ovine brucellosis was 8.6% of the flocks tested which represented 12.5% of the estimated sheep flocks in Alberta. Up to 67% of rams in infected flocks reacted to complement fixation test. The complement fixation test was evaluated for its efficiency in the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis and compared with a limited number of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and clinical criteria. The complement fixation test as well as ELISA identified all culture positive rams. Both serological tests appeared satisfactory for the diagnosis of B. ovis epididymitis when the results could be interpreted in the light of flock history and clinical findings. PMID:17422669

  11. Context and hand posture modulate the neural dynamics of tool-object perception.

    PubMed

    Natraj, Nikhilesh; Poole, Victoria; Mizelle, J C; Flumini, Andrea; Borghi, Anna M; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has linked visual perception of tools with plausible motor strategies. Thus, observing a tool activates the putative action-stream, including the left posterior parietal cortex. Observing a hand functionally grasping a tool involves the inferior frontal cortex. However, tool-use movements are performed in a contextual and grasp specific manner, rather than relative isolation. Our prior behavioral data has demonstrated that the context of tool-use (by pairing the tool with different objects) and varying hand grasp postures of the tool can interact to modulate subjects' reaction times while evaluating tool-object content. Specifically, perceptual judgment was delayed in the evaluation of functional tool-object pairings (Correct context) when the tool was non-functionally (Manipulative) grasped. Here, we hypothesized that this behavioral interference seen with the Manipulative posture would be due to increased and extended left parietofrontal activity possibly underlying motor simulations when resolving action conflict due to this particular grasp at time scales relevant to the behavioral data. Further, we hypothesized that this neural effect will be restricted to the Correct tool-object context wherein action affordances are at a maximum. 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 16 right-handed subjects while viewing images depicting three classes of tool-object contexts: functionally Correct (e.g. coffee pot-coffee mug), functionally Incorrect (e.g. coffee pot-marker) and Spatial (coffee pot-milk). The Spatial context pairs a tool and object that would not functionally match, but may commonly appear in the same scene. These three contexts were modified by hand interaction: No Hand, Static Hand near the tool, Functional Hand posture and Manipulative Hand posture. The Manipulative posture is convenient for relocating a tool but does not afford a functional engagement of the tool on the target object. Subjects were instructed to visually

  12. The Medicine Wheel: A Versatile Tool for Promoting Positive Change in Diverse Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, David; Kopera-Frye, Karen; Woodard, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes the utility of employing the medicine wheel with university students in both counselling and instructional contexts. A brief description of the medicine wheel, its history, symbolic significance, and use in diverse contexts is discussed. The preliminary data suggest this to be a valuable tool in addressing both the academic…

  13. A Tool for Intersecting Context-Free Grammars and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for intersecting context-free grammars. Since this problem is undecidable the tool follows a refinement-based approach and implements a novel refinement which is complete for regularly separable grammars. We show its effectiveness for safety verification of recursive multi-threaded programs.

  14. Context-dependent ‘safekeeping’ of foraging tools in New Caledonian crows

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Barbara C.; van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; St Clair, James J. H.; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Several animal species use tools for foraging, such as sticks to extract embedded arthropods and honey, or stones to crack open nuts and eggs. While providing access to nutritious foods, these behaviours may incur significant costs, such as the time and energy spent searching for, manufacturing and transporting tools. These costs can be reduced by re-using tools, keeping them safe when not needed. We experimentally investigated what New Caledonian crows do with their tools between successive prey extractions, and whether they express tool ‘safekeeping’ behaviours more often when the costs (foraging at height), or likelihood (handling of demanding prey), of tool loss are high. Birds generally took care of their tools (84% of 176 prey extractions, nine subjects), either trapping them underfoot (74%) or storing them in holes (26%)—behaviours we also observed in the wild (19 cases, four subjects). Moreover, tool-handling behaviour was context-dependent, with subjects: keeping their tools safe significantly more often when foraging at height; and storing tools significantly more often in holes when extracting more demanding prey (under these conditions, foot-trapping proved challenging). In arboreal environments, safekeeping can prevent costly tool losses, removing a potentially important constraint on the evolution of habitual and complex tool behaviour. PMID:25994674

  15. Culture as a Tool: Facilitating Knowledge Construction in the Context of a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge construction is regarded as an effective learning model in practice. When more and more learning communities are organized to promote knowledge construction, it is necessary to know how to use different tools to support knowledge construction in the learning community context. In the literature, few researchers discuss how to construct…

  16. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  17. Female Teachers' Perception of Reflective Teaching as a Teacher Development Tool in the Saudi Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukri, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Teacher development in the EFL context has been well-established in Western educational institutions. However, although there are some limited studies in the Middle East, it is still under-researched in Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the EFL teachers' perceptions of reflective teaching as a tool for teacher development and its challenges in…

  18. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  19. EFT fitter: a tool for interpreting measurements in the context of effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nuno; Erdmann, Johannes; Grunwald, Cornelius; Kröninger, Kevin; Rosien, Nils-Arne

    2016-08-01

    Over the past years, the interpretation of measurements in the context of effective field theories has attracted much attention in the field of particle physics. We present a tool for interpreting sets of measurements in such models using a Bayesian ansatz by calculating the posterior probabilities of the corresponding free parameters numerically. An example is given, in which top-quark measurements are used to constrain anomalous couplings at the Wtb-vertex.

  20. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) in Alberta: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Wide Area Measurement of Particulates, CO2, and CH4 Emissions from Energy Extraction and Production Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Crowther, B. G.; Valupadas, P.; Fu, L.; Yang, Z.; Huda, Q.; Leung, B.; Chambers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency (AEMERA) in cooperation with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) of Utah State University, have developed a mobile DIAL sensor designed specifically for particle, CO2 and CH4 emissions measurement. Rapid expansion of the oil and gas industry in Alberta, including the oil sands, has challenged the Alberta Government to keep pace in its efforts to monitor and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. The limitations of current monitoring systems has pushed the provincial government to seek out advanced sensing technologies such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to help assess the impact of energy development and industrial operations. This instrument is housed inside a 36' trailer and can be quickly staged and used to characterize source emissions and to locate fugitive leaks. DIAL is capable of measuring concentrations for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at ranges of up to 3 km with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m. DIAL can map both CO2 and CH4, as well as particulate matter (PM) in a linear fashion; by scanning the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation, DIAL can create images of emissions concentrations and ultimately can be used to determine emission factors, locate fugitive leaks, assess plume dispersion and confirm air dispersion modeling. The DIAL system has been deployed at a landfill, a coal-fired power plant, and an oil sands production area. A system overview of the DIAL instrument and recent results will be discussed.

  1. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  2. NFFinder: an online bioinformatics tool for searching similar transcriptomics experiments in the context of drug repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Setoain, Javier; Franch, Mònica; Martínez, Marta; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Sorzano, Carlos O. S.; Bakker, Annette; Gonzalez-Couto, Eduardo; Elvira, Juan; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Drug repositioning, using known drugs for treating conditions different from those the drug was originally designed to treat, is an important drug discovery tool that allows for a faster and cheaper development process by using drugs that are already approved or in an advanced trial stage for another purpose. This is especially relevant for orphan diseases because they affect too few people to make drug research de novo economically viable. In this paper we present NFFinder, a bioinformatics tool for identifying potential useful drugs in the context of orphan diseases. NFFinder uses transcriptomic data to find relationships between drugs, diseases and a phenotype of interest, as well as identifying experts having published on that domain. The application shows in a dashboard a series of graphics and tables designed to help researchers formulate repositioning hypotheses and identify potential biological relationships between drugs and diseases. NFFinder is freely available at http://nffinder.cnb.csic.es. PMID:25940629

  3. A methodologic framework to evaluate the number of cancers attributable to lifestyle and environment in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research to estimate population attributable risks for cancer in Alberta has been limited. Attributable burden estimates are important for planning and implementing population-based cancer prevention strategies. This article describes a methodologic framework to estimate the number of incident cancers attributable to modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors in Alberta. Methods: We estimated population attributable risks for cancer for exposures to 24 established cancer risk factors including tobacco consumption and environmental tobacco exposure, environmental factors, infectious agents, hormone therapies, dietary intake, obesity and physical inactivity. We used risk estimates to quantify the association between individual exposures and cancer sites as well as prevalence estimates for individual exposures in Alberta to estimate the proportion of cancer in Alberta that could be attributed to each exposure. These estimations were conducted in the context of a theoretical minimum risk principle, whereby exposures corresponding to the lowest levels of population risk were used as the comparisons for alternative exposure levels. Inte rpretation: We outline the main methodologic principles for the protocol used in evaluating population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors for cancer in Alberta. The data produced by this project will provide important information concerning which known cancer risk factors are responsible for the largest proportions of cancer in Alberta and could inform future cancer prevention strategies. PMID:27730111

  4. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  5. GEOGLE: context mining tool for the correlation between gene expression and the phenotypic distinction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yao; Tu, Kang; Zheng, Siyuan; Li, Yun; Ding, Guohui; Ping, Jie; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue

    2009-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era, the development of high-throughput gene expression detection technology provides huge amounts of experimental data, which challenges the traditional pipelines for data processing and analyzing in scientific researches. Results In our work, we integrated gene expression information from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), biomedical ontology from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and signaling pathway knowledge from sigPathway entries to develop a context mining tool for gene expression analysis – GEOGLE. GEOGLE offers a rapid and convenient way for searching relevant experimental datasets, pathways and biological terms according to multiple types of queries: including biomedical vocabularies, GDS IDs, gene IDs, pathway names and signature list. Moreover, GEOGLE summarizes the signature genes from a subset of GDSes and estimates the correlation between gene expression and the phenotypic distinction with an integrated p value. Conclusion This approach performing global searching of expression data may expand the traditional way of collecting heterogeneous gene expression experiment data. GEOGLE is a novel tool that provides researchers a quantitative way to understand the correlation between gene expression and phenotypic distinction through meta-analysis of gene expression datasets from different experiments, as well as the biological meaning behind. The web site and user guide of GEOGLE are available at: PMID:19703314

  6. Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastko, Paul Anthony

    This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to "manufacture" oil from the Alberta tar sands at less than $10 U.S. per barrel.

  7. Dendritic Cells in the Context of Human Tumors: Biology and Experimental Tools.

    PubMed

    Volovitz, Ilan; Melzer, Susanne; Amar, Sarah; Bocsi, József; Bloch, Merav; Efroni, Sol; Ram, Zvi; Tárnok, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. DC have an exceptional ability to comprehend the immune context of a captured antigen based on molecular signals identified from its vicinity. The analyzed information is then conveyed to other immune effector cells. Such capability enables DC to play a pivotal role in mediating either an immunogenic response or immune tolerance towards an acquired antigen. This review summarizes current knowledge on DC in the context of human tumors. It covers the basics of human DC biology, elaborating on the different markers, morphology and function of the different subsets of human DC. Human blood-borne DC are comprised of at least three subsets consisting of one plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and two to three myeloid DC (mDC) subsets. Some tissues have unique DC. Each subset has a different phenotype and function and may induce pro-tumoral or anti-tumoral effects. The review also discusses two methods fundamental to the research of DC on the single-cell level: multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) and image-based cytometry (IC). These methods, along with new genomics and proteomics tools, can provide high-resolution information on specific DC subsets and on immune and tumor cells with which they interact. The different layers of collected biological data may then be integrated using Immune-Cytomics modeling approaches. Such novel integrated approaches may help unravel the complex network of cellular interactions that DC carry out within tumors, and may help harness this complex immunological information into the development of more effective treatments for cancer.

  8. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A School-Wide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information, strategies, stories from schools and sample tools for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour. This integrated system of school-wide, classroom management, and…

  9. Supporting Small-Group Learning Using Multiple Web 2.0 Tools: A Case Study in the Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laru, Jari; Naykki, Piia; Jarvela, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    In this single-case study, small groups of learners were supported by use of multiple social software tools and face-to-face activities in the context of higher education. The aim of the study was to explore how designed learning activities contribute to students' learning outcomes by studying probabilistic dependencies between the variables.…

  10. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006…

  11. Precipitation Processes in the New Growth Zone of Alberta Hailstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Terrence William

    1981-06-01

    An investigation was made into the precipitation processes operating within the convective zone located upwind (with respect to the mid-level winds) of four severe Alberta hailstorms which occurred on 12 August 1978, 7 July 1979, 21 July 1979, and 22 July 1979. The main research tools employed were the University of Wyoming instrumented Queen-Air aircraft and the Alberta Research Council S-Band polarization diversity meteorological radar. The microphysical observations suggested that: (1) The hydrometeors in the shelf cloud were typically cloud droplets only. (2) Ice appeared only after turrets (feeder clouds) grew to temperatures colder than approximately -10 C. (3) Embryo sized particles formed as a result of the accretional growth of ice particles. (4) The first radar echo greater than 20 dBZ was due to 1 to 2 mm size graupel particles in concentrations from about 0.1 to .01 L('-1). A conceptual model was developed for each storm by synthesizing the aircraft data with the radar data. Evidence exists for a two stage hail growth process i.e. the embryos developed in the feeder clouds and then interacted with the weak-echo region (WER) of the main storm to grow to large hail. Observations showed that graupel particles produced by the feeder clouds were transported by the mid-level winds towards the WER of the main storm. Feeder clouds which merged with the storm produced fine-scale reflectivity patterns. The transfer of melted graupel particles from the feeder clouds to the WER at levels warmer than 0 C is thought to be the source of the frozen drop embryos found within some of the hailstones from these Alberta storms.

  12. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  13. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak.

  14. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide")…

  15. An Evaluation of Alberta Education's Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloitte Haskins & Sells Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The report presents the findings, analysis, and conclusions of the external evaluation of the effectiveness of Alberta Education Library Services conducted between September 1985 and March 1986 under the guidance of the Library Services Evaluation Steering Committee (Phase 2 of the evaluation and planning process initiated in 1985 to clarify the…

  16. Alberta's Funding Program for School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulba, John W.; Hathaway, Warren E.

    1983-01-01

    A capital funding plan was introduced in Alberta in 1979 to more effectively control school construction and ensure that provincial priorities were being achieved. The formula includes factors to adjust for financial equity, district utilization of space, approved areas, and changes in construction costs. (MLF)

  17. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  18. Spaceborne Methane Observations by Airs Over Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from natural (e.g. wetland) and anthropogenic (e.g. oil and gas industry, and waste management) sources contribute to Alberta's GHG emission. The focus of this study is to examine the spatio-temporal variation of total column CH4 over Alberta, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite from 2003 to 2013. Spaceborne measurements by AIRS provide a global view of CH4 distribution in the mid-upper troposphere. This study demonstrates a significant rise of CH4 levels in Alberta in the last ten years. This ascending trend is consistent with the increase of global methane levels in the same time period. Monthly variations indicate a significant increase of CH4 levels in summer with maximum in August, which is probably driven by enhanced convection. Spatial distributions of CH4 reveal a strong west-east gradient with maximum levels in northern regions (55-65 N). The enhanced summer levels over northern and eastern regions suggest possible pathways for CH4 emitted from natural sources (wetlands, lakes and permafrost) in high northern latitude regions and Canadian wetlands (e.g. Hudson Bay wetland). However, the abrupt increase of CH4 concentration coincides with significant change in economic activities during that time period. Since some of the wetland CH4 fluxes are collocated with large anthropogenic source, it is difficult to account for different source contribution. Thus, further studies about CH4 emission and transport over Alberta are recommended to reduce the uncertainties about the natural and anthropogenic contributions of Alberta to Canada's CH4 emissions.

  19. Regional Geophysical Reconnaissance for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D.; Bown, T.; Chan, J.; Idowu, S.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; van der Baan, M.; Bauer, K.; Moeck, I.; Pussak, M.; Weides, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), a major initial goal is to undertake a critical study of the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) as a source of thermal energy in northern Alberta. The geology of this area consists to first order as westward thickening wedge of Cretaceous siliclastics overlying Devonian carbonates and evaporites all of which lies upon the metamorphic Canadian Shield craton. Generally, the north eastern of Alberta is characterized by low geothermal gradients (near 20 mK/m) and temperatures; and deep drilling to as much as 4-5 km into the craton will be necessary to obtain requisite conditions (i.e. 80-100 C water at the source). Consequently, at this early stage it is important to search for zones with the greatest potential; and in the context of EGS this can mean finding greater fracture permeability through pre-existing faults and joint systems. State of stress information is also being considered as this will be an important constraint on fluid flow in such fractured systems. Current studies are integrating reprocessed legacy industrial and LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and existing borehole and core data are used to develop regional geophysical and geological models of Northern Alberta. Particular areas will focus on structural and tectonic linkages between the sedimentary basin and the underlying craton that are possibly related to, for example, Devonian reef complexes, extensive karsting, or evaporite collapse.

  20. Response process and test-retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duc, Duong M; Bergström, Anna; Eriksson, Leif; Selling, Katarina; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Wallin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources , community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment) through 49 items. Objective The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. Designs To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test-retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percent agreement) and dimensions (ICC and Bland-Altman plots). Results In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test-retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5-0.7), demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify some items and to further

  1. Storytelling as an Insightful Tool for Understanding Educational Leadership in Indigenous Yukon Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakesley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This article is based upon a 2006 review of the research methodologies identified in the articles of two educational leadership journals. It found the use of narrative and biographical approaches specific to the field of educational leadership appears rare. This article examines the stories told by Yukon school principals in Indigenous contexts to…

  2. Nova is an old hand at big deals in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.

    1980-09-10

    Nova, an Alberta Corporation, formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd., and Shell Canada Resources Ltd. will build a 600 million lb/yr styrene plant near Edmonton, Alberta. For feedstock, 5000 bbl/day of benzene will come from a $350 million, 100,000 bbl/day refinery that will be built by Shell at Edmonton. Husky Oil Ltd., which is controlled by Nova, will take a 40% equity in the refinery. According to Nova, which has a monopoly on gas transmission in Alberta, continued collaboration with Shell could lead to the spending of an additional $2 billion in the next few years. Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd. and Nova will put together an ethane extraction system in Alberta which will feed their jointly owned 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene plant near Red Deer, Alberta. Dow uses the entire output of the ethylene plant at its recently completed Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, complex. Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. Ltd., a Nova subsidiary, has begun work on a second 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene unit scheduled for completion in early 1984, and will soon start work on a third ethylene unit at Red Deer. According to J. Sutherland (Nova, Alberta Corp.), Nova is rapidly expanding its ethylene capacity because, for at least a certain period of time, world-scale plants using Alberta natural gas will be very competitive.

  3. Use of Genomic Tools to Improve Cattle Health in the Context of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raszek, Mikolaj M.; Guan, Le L.; Plastow, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Although infectious diseases impose a heavy economic burden on the cattle industry, the etiology of many disorders that affect livestock is not fully elucidated, and effective countermeasures are often lacking. The main tools available until now have been vaccines, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs. Although these have been very successful in some cases, the appearance of parasite and microbial resistance to these treatments is a cause of concern. Next-generation sequencing provides important opportunities to tackle problems associated with pathogenic illnesses. This review describes the rapid gains achieved to track disease progression, identify the pathogens involved, and map pathogen interactions with the host. Use of novel genomic tools subsequently aids in treatment development, as well as successful creation of breeding programs aimed toward less susceptible livestock. These may be important tools for mitigating the long term effects of combating infection and helping reduce the reliance on antibiotic treatment. PMID:27014337

  4. Contexts, Collaboration, and Cultural Tools: A Sociocultural Perspective on Researching Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Sociocultural theorists recognise that cognition is not an individual construction, but is distributed across people as they participate in culturally relevant activities. Thus, rather than being a universal skill, thinking is very much contextually specific, guided by others, and mediated by particular cultural tools and artefacts. Yet there is a…

  5. High School Students' Use of Digital Tools for Learning English Vocabulary in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cojocnean, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Romanian high school students' use of digital tools for learning vocabulary in English. Although students have a wide range of technological affordances at their disposal, little is known about how they make use of them or the extent to which they are aware of how to use them in their vocabulary learning. The study features…

  6. Deweyan Tools for Inquiry and the Epistemological Context of Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Peter; Seaman, Jayson

    2011-01-01

    This article develops the notion of resistance as articulated in the literature of critical pedagogy as being both culturally sponsored and cognitively manifested. To do so, the authors draw upon John Dewey's conception of tools for inquiry. Dewey provides a way to conceptualize student resistance not as a form of willful disputation, but instead…

  7. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  8. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS.

  9. Digital Health Services and Digital Identity in Alberta.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Aiden; Cholewa, David

    2017-01-01

    The Government of Alberta continues to improve delivery of healthcare by allowing Albertans to access their health information online. Alberta is the only province in Canada with provincial electronic health records for all its citizens. These records are currently made available to medical practitioners, but Alberta Health believes that providing Albertans access to their health records will transform the delivery of healthcare in Alberta. It is important to have a high level of assurance that the health records are provided to the correct Albertan. Alberta Health requires a way for Albertans to obtain a digital identity with a high level of identity assurance prior to releasing health records via the Personal Health Portal. Service Alberta developed the MyAlberta Digital ID program to provide a digital identity verification service. The Ministry of Health is leveraging MyAlberta Digital ID to enable Albertans to access their personal health records through the Personal Health Portal. The Government of Alberta is advancing its vision of patient-centred healthcare by enabling Albertans to access a trusted source for health information and their electronic health records using a secure digital identity.

  10. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  11. The Pedometer as a Tool to Enrich Science Learning in a Public Health Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rye, James A.; Zizzi, Samuel J.; Vitullo, Elizabeth A.; Tompkins, Nancy O'hara

    2005-12-01

    The United States is experiencing an obesity epidemic: A science-technology-society public health issue tied to our built environment, which is characterized by heavy dependence on automobiles and reduced opportunities to walk and bicycle for transportation. This presents an informal science education opportunity within "science in personal and social perspectives'' to use pedometer technology for enhancing students' understandings about human energy balance. An exploratory study was conducted with 29 teachers to investigate how pedometers could be used for providing academic enrichment to secondary students participating in after-school Health Sciences and Technology Academy clubs. Frequency analysis revealed that the pedometer activities often investigated kilocalorie expenditure and/or incorporated hypothesis testing/experimenting. Teachers' perspectives on learning outcomes most frequently conveyed that students increased their awareness of the importance of health habits relative to kilocalorie intake and expenditure. Pedometers have considerable merit for the regular science curriculum as they allow for numerous mathematics applications and inquiry learning and target concepts such as energy and equilibrium that cut across the National Science Education Standards. Pedometers and associated resources on human energy balance are important tools that science teachers can employ in helping schools respond to the national call to prevent childhood obesity.

  12. Surveillance tools and strategies for animal diseases in a shifting climate context.

    PubMed

    Salman, Mo D

    2013-12-01

    Animal disease surveillance is watching an animal population closely to determine if a specific disease or a group of diseases makes an incursion so that a prior plan of action can be implemented. The purpose of this paper is to review existing tools and techniques for an animal disease-surveillance system that can incorporate the monitoring of climate factors and related data to enhance understanding of disease epidemiology. In recent decades, there has been interest in building information systems by combining various data sources for different purposes. Within the field of animal health, there have only been limited attempts at the integration of surveillance data with relevant climate conditions. Statistical techniques for data integration, however, have been explored and used by several disciplines. Clearly the application of available techniques for linking climate data with surveillance systems should be explored with the aim of facilitating prevention, mitigation, and adaptation responses in the surveillance setting around climate change and animal disease risks. Drawing on this wider body of work, three of the available techniques that can be utilized in the analysis of surveillance data with the available climate data sets are reviewed.

  13. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  14. A Learning Alberta: Dialogue and Direction. The Forum Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Participants in "A Learning Alberta--Dialogue and Direction," the Minister's Forum on Advanced Learning are an important part of a process that has been underway across Alberta since January of 2005. Led by the Honourable Dave Hancock, Minister of Advanced Education, a new vision and policy framework is being developed to guide future…

  15. Evolving Nature of School Psychology in Alberta: Politics and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Coranne; Zwiers, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the practice of school psychology in the province of Alberta reflects the entrenchment of assessment with the emerging possibility of a broader service provider role. This article articulates the influence that politics and government has had on the role of school psychologists in Alberta schools as special education…

  16. Fostering a Provincial Identity: Two Eras in Alberta Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Heyking, Amy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyse how schools in Alberta have defined the province's identity and its role in Confederation. During two eras, the 1930s and the 1980s, social studies curriculum and teaching resources contained assertions of provincial uniqueness. In the late 1930s, the progressive curriculum implemented in Alberta's schools represented…

  17. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  18. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  19. Vocational Training and Education in Alberta. Coombe Lodge Case Study. Information Bank Number 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, D. T.

    This paper describes the provision of vocational education in the Province of Alberta, especially the education provided by Alberta Vocational Centres (AVCs). The paper is organized in two sections. The first, introductory section describes the Province of Alberta and its educational system. The second section focuses on Alberta Vocational Centres…

  20. The Alberta Cardiac Access Collaborative: improving the cardiac patient journey.

    PubMed

    Blackadar, Robyn; Houle, Mishaela

    2009-01-01

    The Alberta Cardiac Access Collaborative (ACAC) is a joint initiative of Alberta's health system to improve access to adult cardiac services across the patient journey. ACAC has created new care delivery models and implemented best practices across Alberta in four streams across the continuum: heart attack, patient navigation, heart failure and arrhythmia. Emergency medical providers, nurses, primary care physicians, hospitals, cardiac specialists and clinicians are all working together to integrate services, bridge jurisdictions and geography with one aim--improving the patient journey for adults in need of cardiac care.

  1. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Cancer incidence attributable to tobacco in Alberta, Canada, in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Abbey E.; Grundy, Anne; Khandwala, Farah; Tamminen, Sierra; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Strong and consistent epidemiologic evidence shows that tobacco smoking causes cancers at various sites. The purpose of this study was to quantify the proportion and total number of site-specific cancers in Alberta attributable to tobacco exposure. Methods: The proportion of incident cancer cases attributable to active and passive tobacco exposure in Alberta was estimated with population attributable risks. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) for 2000-2007 were used to estimate prevalence of active (current or former smoker) and passive (second-hand smoke) tobacco exposure in Alberta. Results: According to the 2000/01 CCHS, 29.1% and 38.6% of Albertans were estimated to be current and former smokers, respectively. According to the 2003 CCHS, 23.7% of Albertans who had never smoked reported regular second-hand exposure to tobacco. Population attributable risk estimates for tobacco-related cancer sites ranged from about 4% for ovarian cancer to 74% for laryngeal cancer. About 5% of incident lung cancers in men and women who never smoked could be attributed to passive tobacco exposure. Overall, 37.0% of tobacco-related cancers in Alberta (or 15.7% of all cancers) were estimated to be attributable to active tobacco smoking in 2012. Interpretation: A notable proportion of cancers associated with tobacco use were estimated to be attributable to active smoking in Alberta. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of active tobacco smoking in Alberta could have a considerable impact on future cancer incidence. PMID:28018870

  3. The Use of Web 2.0 Tools by Students in Learning and Leisure Contexts: A Study in a Portuguese Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Carolina; Alvelos, Helena; Teixeira, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses and compares the use of Web 2.0 tools by students in both learning and leisure contexts. Data were collected based on a questionnaire applied to 234 students from the University of Aveiro (Portugal) and the results were analysed by using descriptive analysis, paired samples t-tests, cluster analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests.…

  4. A Comparison of Drug Coverage in Alberta Before and After the Introduction of the National Common Drug Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, John-Michael; Eurich, Dean T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The integration of the Common Drug Review (CDR) was a substantial change for Canada's public drug plans. Detailed comparisons of time-to-listing and proportion of medications covered by the province of Alberta's drug plans within the context of the CDR process have not been rigorously conducted. Methods: New drugs approved by Health Canada were identified five years prior to the CDR's first recommendation (May 2004) and five years after. The time-to-listing and proportion of new drugs covered on the Alberta Health and Wellness Drug Benefit List (AHWDBL) was compared between these periods. The level of agreement between CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was calculated using a kappa score. Results: Two hundred and twenty new drugs were identified and met the study eligibility criteria (118 pre-CDR, 102 post-CDR). The median time-to-listing was 312 vs. 524 days in the pre-CDR and post-CDR periods, respectively, with the difference largely driven by time from notice of compliance (NOC) to the CDR recommendation. The level of agreement between 73 drugs with CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was fair (kappa 0.55). Conclusion: Following the implementation of the CDR, the proportion of drugs covered has decreased and overall median time-to-listing of new drugs has increased in the province of Alberta. For drugs listed on the AHWDBL, the proportion of time attributable to the CDR process (NOC to CDR recommendation) was 63% of the overall time-to-listing. PMID:22043227

  5. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in the immunocompromised host in northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Crocket, Jennifer A; Chaput, Michelle R; Lien, Dale C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic utility of bronchoscopy in a population of immunocompromised hosts in northern Alberta. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Results from bronchoscopy in 86 immunocompromised patients who underwent a total of 101 procedures were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield was 57% with the highest yield in patients on immunosuppressive drug therapy (80%) and the lowest yield in the group of bone marrow transplant patients (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopy is a valuable tool for the evaluation of pulmonary disease in the immunocompromised host. Overall diagnostic yield of 57% is comparable with that reported in the literature. PMID:22550406

  6. Making patient values visible in healthcare: a systematic review of tools to assess patient treatment priorities and preferences in the context of multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, Dee; Stephen, Gaibrie; Bismah, Verdah; Risdon, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify studies of existing instruments available for clinicians to record overall patient preferences and priorities for care, suitable for use in routine primary care practice in patients with multimorbidity. To examine the data for all identified tools with respect to validity, acceptability and effect on health outcomes. Design Systematic Review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, each with a predefined search strategy. Eligibility criteria Citations were included if they reported a tool used to record patient priorities or preferences for treatment, and quantitative or qualitative results following administration of the tool. Results Our search identified 189 potential studies of which 6 original studies and 2 discussion papers were included after screening for relevance. 5 of 6 studies (83%) were of cross-sectional design and of moderate quality. All studies reported on the usability of a tool in order to elicit patient preferences. No studies reported on changes to patient-specific healthcare outcomes as a consequence of recording preferences and priorities. 1 of 6 studies reported on eliciting patient preference in the context of multimorbidity. No studies incorporated patient preferences into an electronic medical record. Conclusions Given the importance of eliciting patient priorities and preferences in providing patient-centred care in the context of multimorbidity and polypharmacy, we found surprisingly few relevant tools. Some aspects of the tools used for single-disease contexts may also be useful in the context of multimorbidity. There is an urgent need to develop ways to make patient priorities explicitly visible in the clinical record and medical decision-making and to test the effect on patient-relevant outcomes. PMID:27288377

  7. Geology and quaternary environments of the first preglacial palaeolithic sites found in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlachula, Jiří

    A pebble-tool industry, including two chronologically different stone artifact assemblages reminiscent of the Eurasian Palaeolithic, has been recorded in Late Pleistocene sections at two locations in the Bow River valley, southwestern Alberta. Authenticity and provenance of the deeply buried archaeological record is evidenced by culture-diagnostic percussion-flaked artifacts incorporated in preglacial fluvial gravels and overlying glacial diamictons and by identical textural patterns on stone tools found in and eroded from the exposures. Geological context suggests a fluctuating braided river setting during the earlier occupation. Discarded ( lower series) quartzite and hard carbonate rock artifacts, subglacially entrained into the Cordilleran Bow Valley till, document distortion of the earlier site (Silver Springs) by a valley glacier emerging from the Rocky Mountain ice-lobe. Following the valley deglaciation, a later occupation episode is manifested by a formally analogous flaked lithic assemblage excavated in situ on top of the till at a nearby site (Varsity Estates). This more recent occupation surface was subsequently buried under 24 m of glaciolacustrine sediments after submergence of the river valley by a proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Calgary) dammed by the Laurentide ice advance into the eastern Calgary area, implying a minimum early Late Wisconsinan age (ca. >21,000 BP) for the lithic industry. The presence of the later ( upper series) artifact assemblage and the associated palynological data do not support the view that envisages an extremely cold, inhospitable glacial environment on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains throughout the Late Wisconsinan. Their stratigraphic position also indicates temporal asynchroneity between Cordilleran and Laurentide ice during the last glacial maximum in the Bow River valley, the area of presumed coalescence of the two ice-masses. Although a more rapid response of the western mountain glacier to climatic

  8. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    electricity prices is developed, estimated for the pre-restructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the post-restructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would have been likely to have occurred anyway. Information from US jurisdictions is used to account for this endogeneity issue through simulation analyses. Results suggest that for 2001 to 2004, residential electricity prices in Alberta would generally have been lower under continued regulation. Since electricity market restructuring is not necessarily directed only at lowering the electricity price, its impact in Alberta on carbon emissions is also investigated. Specifically, the approach developed in the context of electricity prices is applied to determine counterfactual carbon emissions. While it is found that carbon emissions would have been lower under continued regulation, this result should be viewed cautiously given model estimation issues. However, the approach developed to construct both counterfactual electricity prices and carbon emissions is an improvement to that observed in the literature.

  9. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  10. Chimpanzees' Context-Dependent Tool Use Provides Evidence for Separable Representations of Hand and Tool Even during Active Use within Peripersonal Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; Reaux, James E.; Frey, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to behaviors in which tools are used to perform actions in extrapersonal space by extending the reach. Evidence suggests that these behaviors result in an expansion of the body schema and peripersonal space. However, humans often use tools to perform tasks within peripersonal space that cannot be…

  11. A New Tool for Assessing Context Conditioning Induced by US-Unpredictability in Humans: The Martians Task Restyled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulders, Ann; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Unpredictability of an unconditioned stimulus (US) typically produces context conditioning in animals and humans. We modified the Martians task--a computer game measuring learning of Pavlovian associations through conditioned suppression--for assessing context conditioning in humans. One between-subjects and one within-subjects study are reported.…

  12. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  13. Occurrence of foodborne bacteria in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 Alberta feedlots. In cattle manure, generic E. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and Campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; E. coli O157 (7%, 143/2100) and Salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. Samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point interventions yielded only 1 isolate each of generic E. coli and Campylobacter (1/1653) and no Salmonella (0/1653). Catch basin water specimens were positive for generic E. coli in both the spring (62%, 13/21) and the fall (52%, 11/21). Other bacteria were detected only in the spring water specimens, including E. coli O157 (29%, 6/21), Salmonella (5%, 1/21), and Campylobacter (52%, 11/21). Generic E. coli was frequently isolated from soil specimens (30%, 27/88), but E. coli O157 was not found in soil samples obtained in the spring and was only occasionally detected in the fall samples (9%, 3/32). Salmonella were occasionally found in the soil specimens collected in the spring (3%, 2/56), but not in the fall season (0/32). Campylobacter jejuni was frequent in cattle manure (66%, 1070/1623), but rare in carcass and environmental samples. E. coli O157 and Salmonella were rarely detected in cattle or the environment. Generic E. coli and Salmonella were rarely detected on carcasses.

  14. Planning to meet the care need challenge in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Stephen; Bloom, Judy; Robertson, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian province of Alberta faces challenges in ensuring an adequate supply of nurses to meet care needs. This paper describes the approach adopted by Alberta Health Services (the public health care provider in Alberta) to address this challenge. Planning was undertaken on the basis of care needs rather than starting from a particular professional perspective and highlighted that the needs could be met by Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses or Healthcare Aides. Six scenarios, representing different potential mixes of Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses and Healthcare Aides were identified and used as the basis of stakeholder consultations. The paper identifies the workforce outcomes and needs for the different scenarios and the outcomes of the workforce planning process.

  15. Those Who Care: A Report on Approved Family Day Home Providers in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Malcolm; LaGrange, Annette

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of approved family day home providers in Alberta. Family day home agency coordinators from across Alberta completed questionnaires, as did approved providers who contracted with 12 agencies in central Alberta. Typical providers were married, had children, and had lived in their present…

  16. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Nancy; Fahy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government's Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern…

  17. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples).

  18. Literacy Proposal for the Community of Nose Creek, Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Pat

    This paper overviews a proposal for implementing an adult literacy program in a small tribal community in northern Alberta (Canada). The program would enhance participants' ability to manage change affecting the community's economic, social, and educational circumstances. Recent data indicate that 24 percent of Native Americans in northern Alberta…

  19. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  20. Alberta Children and Youth: Trends and Issues, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy & Planning Branch.

    Education is part of a complex and dynamic system in which family, social, economic, and other factors have a tremendous influence on students. This environmental scanning report for Alberta, Canada is intended to draw attention to societal trends and issues that may be relevant to educators and to disseminate information that will support…

  1. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  2. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  3. Research Funding at Alberta Universities, 1999/2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Innovation and Science, Edmonton. University Research and Strategic Investments Branch.

    This report presents facts related to the funding of research at the four universities in Alberta, Canada. During fiscal year 1999-2000, $300 million Canadian dollars in direct external funding was received by the four universities to support research, an increase from 1998-1999 of 29.9%. Total sponsored research funding from all sources to…

  4. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of…

  5. FOIPP and Technology: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, R. Peter; Whitemarsh, Judith

    This study provides suggestions and best practices for superintendents, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPP) coordinators and school information technologists in dealing with the impact of Alberta's FOIPP Act on the application of information technologies within their organizations. The study explores the relationship between…

  6. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A Classroom Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaya-Moore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this second part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour in the classroom. A proactive approach to classroom management is designed to…

  7. Retrospective review of pharyngeal gonorrhea treatment failures in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Bergman, Joshua; Egan, Cari; Drews, Steven J; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2013-11-01

    Our review of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pharyngeal treatment failures from sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta suggests that treatment failures with oral cefixime monotherapy were not related to elevated cefixime minimum inhibitory concentrations. Dual therapy with oral cefixime and azithromycin may be a suitable alternate for the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhea.

  8. Towards a Research Agenda on Child Care in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    In this study, a Delphi Method was used to collect and collate opinions of 24 Alberta child care professionals regarding the creation of a research agenda on child care. Findings indicated that the 25 research questions (out of an original list of 80 questions) considered important or very important by at least three-quarters of the participants…

  9. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  10. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  11. Indian Tribes of Alberta. Revised, Expanded, and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Hugh A.

    This book recounts the story of the Indians in Alberta, Canada. Pictures and maps help in the explanation of these facts. The Indians described include the: (1) Blackfoot Nation (Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan Tribes); (2) Sarcee Tribe; (3) Stoney Indians; (4) Plains Cree; (5) Woodland Cree; (6) Chipewyan Indians; (7) Beaver Indians; (8) Slavey Indians;…

  12. Managing Technology Funding: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussome, Webb; Rozmahel, Kathleen

    This study examined how technology funding is planned, deployed and managed in six Alberta school jurisdictions and identified best practices and recommended strategies. Specific objectives were to research and examine, via interviews with technology personnel in each jurisdiction, the funding frameworks in place, and to report on commonalties,…

  13. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  14. Principal Quality Practice in Alberta: Education 900 Introduction Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennest, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Alberta's Principal Quality Practice Standard as a framework for the roles and responsibilities of school principals. Methodology: Three principals participated in the study, and each principal had more than 25 years of teaching and school administration experience. Each principal…

  15. Development of an interactive model for planning the care workforce for Alberta: case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In common with other jurisdictions, Alberta faces challenges in ensuring a balance in health worker supply and demand. As the provider organization with province-wide responsibility, Alberta Health Services needed to develop a forecasting tool to inform its position on key workforce parameters, in the first instance focused on modeling the situation for Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses and health care aides. This case study describes the development of the model, highlighting the choices involved in model development. Case description A workforce planning model was developed to test the effect of different assumptions (for instance about vacancy rates or retirement) and different policy choices (for example about the size of intakes into universities and colleges, different composition of the workforce). This case study describes the choices involved in designing the model. The workforce planning model was used as part of a consultation process and to develop six scenarios (based on different policy choices). Discussion and evaluation The model outputs highlighted the problems with continuation of current workforce strategies and the impact of key policy choices on workforce parameters. Conclusions Models which allow for transparency of the underlying assumptions, and the ability to assess the sensitivity of assumptions and the impact of policy choices are required for effective workforce planning. PMID:22905726

  16. Mitigating Information Overload: The Impact of "Context-Based Approach" to the Design of Tools for Intelligence Analysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    14 Keith Järvelin, Peter Ingerwesen and Nick Belkin, "Information Retrieval in Contexts" (Sheffield, England, SIGIR 2004 IRiX...interruption on individual decision making: An information overload perspective,” Decision Sciences, 30: 337-359, 1999. Peter J. Denning...accessed January 9, 2008) 39 Peter H. Hopewell, Assessing the Acceptance and Functional Value of the Asymmetrical Software Kit (ASK) at the Tactical Level

  17. Teachers' Views on Digital Educational Tools in English Language Learning: Benefits and Challenges in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Servet; Aytin, Kübra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear benefits provided by digital educational tools, Turkish teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) are often seen as failing to take advantage of computing technologies in the classroom. Deficiencies in terms of teachers' digital literacies are often faulted for this omission. The majority of studies concerning Turkish EFL…

  18. Source Apportionment of VOCs in Edmonton, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; Aklilu, Y.; Lyder, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Regional emissions at Edmonton, Alberta, are complex, containing emissions from (1) transportation sources, such as cars, trucks, buses, and rail; (2) industrial sources, such as petroleum refining, light manufacturing, and fugitive emissions from holding tanks or petroleum terminals; and (3) miscellaneous sources, such as biogenic emissions and natural gas use and processing. From 2003 to 2009, whole air samples were collected at two sites in Edmonton and analyzed for over 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs were sampled in the downtown area (Central) and the industrial area on the eastern side of the city (East). Concentrations of most VOCs were highest at the East site. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was used to apportion ambient concentration measurements of VOCs into eleven factors, which were associated with emissions source categories. Factors of VOCs identified in the final eleven-factor solution include transportation sources (both gasoline and diesel vehicles), industrial sources, a biogenic source, and a natural-gas-related source. Transportation sources accounted for more mass at the Central site than at the East site; this was expected because Central is in a core urban area where transportation emissions are concentrated. Transportation sources accounted for nearly half of the VOC mass at the Central site, but only 6% of the mass at the East site. Encouragingly, mass from transportation sources has declined by about 4% a year in this area; this trend is similar to the decline found throughout the United States, and is likely due to fleet turnover as older, more highly polluting cars are replaced with newer, cleaner cars. In contrast, industrial sources accounted for ten times more VOC mass at the East site than at the Central site and were responsible for most of the total VOC mass observed at the East site. Of the six industrial factors identified at the East site, four were linked to petrochemical industry production

  19. Library Management; Papers Presented at a Workshop Sponsored by The Library Association of Alberta, March 1969, Red Deer, Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomahac, Gertrude C., Ed.

    The first of the Occasional Papers issued by the Library Association of Alberta is a record of the papers delivered at the Association's Workshop on Library Management held in March 1969. The papers, both formal and informal, are presented as they were given. Titles of the papers are: (1) Management of Small College Libraries, (2) Management of…

  20. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Tyler

    . In an effort to discern the overall status of reclamation in the oil sands this study explores several factors essential to policy capacity: work environment, training, employee attitudes, perceived capacity, policy tools, evidence based work, and networking. Data was collected through key informant interviews with senior policy professionals in government and non-government agencies in Alberta. The following are agencies of interest in this research: Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP); Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (AESRD); Alberta Energy Regulator (AER); Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA); Alberta Environment Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting Agency (AEMERA); Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA). The aim of this research is to explain how and why reclamation policy is conducted in Alberta's oil sands. This will illuminate government capacity, NGO capacity, and the interaction of these two agency typologies. In addition to answering research questions, another goal of this project is to show interpretive analysis of policy capacity can be used to measure and predict policy effectiveness. The oil sands of Alberta will be the focus of this project, however, future projects could focus on any government policy scenario utilizing evidence-based approaches.

  1. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  2. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  3. Genome context as a predictive tool for identifying regulatory targets of the TetR family transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sang Kyun; Cuthbertson, Leslie; Nodwell, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    TetR family transcriptional regulators (TFRs) are found in most bacteria and archea. Most of the family members that have been investigated to date are repressors of their target genes, and the majority of these, like the well-characterized protein TetR, regulate genes that encode transmembrane efflux pumps. In many cases repression by TFR proteins is reversed through the direct binding of a small-molecule ligand. The number of TFRs in the public database has grown rapidly as a result of genome sequencing and there are now thousands of family members; however virtually nothing is known about the biology and biochemistry they regulate. Generally applicable methods for predicting their regulatory targets would assist efforts to characterize the family. Here, we investigate chromosomal context of 372 TFRs from three Streptomyces species. We find that the majority (250 TFRs) are transcribed divergently from one neighboring gene, as is the case for TetR and its target tetA. We explore predicted target gene product identity and intergenic separation to see which either correlates with a direct regulatory relationship. While intergenic separation is a critical factor in regulatory prediction the identity of the putative target gene product is not. Our data suggest that those TFRs that are <200 bp from their divergently oriented neighbors are most likely to regulate them. These target genes include membrane proteins (26% of which 22% are probable membrane-associated pumps), enzymes (60%), other proteins such as transcriptional regulators (1%), and proteins having no predictive sequence motifs (13%). In addition to establishing a solid foundation for identifying targets for TFRs of unknown function, our analysis demonstrates a much greater diversity of TFR-regulated biochemical functions.

  4. The distribution of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada) and associated aqueous geochemistry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Nightingale, Michael; Becker, Veith; Kingston, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas and coalbed methane has generated some public concern with regard to the protection of groundwater and surface water resources from leakage of stray gas from the deep subsurface. In terms of environmental impact to and risk assessment of shallow groundwater resources, the ultimate challenge is to distinguish: (a) natural in-situ production of biogenic methane, (b) biogenic or thermogenic methane migration into shallow aquifers due to natural causes, and (c) thermogenic methane migration from deep sources due to human activities associated with the exploitation of conventional or unconventional oil and gas resources. We have conducted a NSERC-ANR co-funded baseline study investigating the occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater of Alberta (Canada), a province with a long record of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and sources of methane in shallow groundwaters and to also characterize the hydrochemical environment in which the methane was formed or transformed through redox processes. Ultimately our aim was to determine whether methane was formed in-situ or whether it migrated from deeper formations into shallow aquifers. Combining hydrochemical and dissolved and free geochemical gas data from 372 groundwater samples obtained from 186 monitoring wells of the provincial groundwater observation well network (GOWN) in Alberta, it was found that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater in Alberta and is predominantly of biogenic origin. The highest concentrations of dissolved biogenic methane (> 0.01 mM or > 0.2 mg/L), characterized by δ13CCH4 values < -55‰, occurred in anoxic Na-Cl, Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type groundwater with negligible concentrations of nitrate and sulfate suggesting that methane was formed in-situ under methanogenic conditions consistent with the redox ladder concept. Despite quite variable gas concentrations and a

  5. Documentary analysis of risk-assessment and safety-planning policies and tools in a mental health context.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Agnes; Doyle, Louise; Morrissey, Jean; Downes, Carmel; Gill, Ailish; Bailey, Sive

    2016-08-01

    Despite the articulated need for policies and processes to guide risk assessment and safety planning, limited guidance exists on the processes or procedures to be used to develop such policies, and there is no body of research that examines the quality or content of the risk-management policies developed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the policies of risk and safety management used to guide mental health nursing practice in Ireland. A documentary analysis was performed on 123 documents received from 22 of the 23 directors of nursing contacted. Findings from the analysis revealed a wide variation in how risk, risk assessment, and risk management were defined. Emphasis within the risk documentation submitted was on risk related to self and others, with minimal attention paid to other types of risks. In addition, there was limited evidence of recovery-focused approaches to positive risk taking that involved service users and their families within the risk-related documentation. Many of the risk-assessment tools had not been validated, and lacked consistency or guidance in relation to how they were to be used or applied. The tick-box approach and absence of space for commentary within documentation have the potential to impact severely on the quality of information collected and documented, and subsequent clinical decision-making. Managers, and those tasked with ensuring safety and quality, need to ensure that policies and processes are, where possible, informed by best evidence and are in line with national mental health policy on recovery.

  6. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  7. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  8. Perceptions of Healthy Eating in Four Alberta Communities: A Photovoice Project

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brent A.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating are influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. Despite this general acceptance by health practitioners and social scientists, studies suggest that there remains a relative homogeneity around peoples’ perceptions that informs a hegemonic discourse around healthy eating. People often describe healthy eating in terms of learned information from sources that reflect societies’ norms and values, such as the Canada Food Guide and the ubiquitous phrase “fruits and vegetables”. Past research has examined how built environments shape people’s access to healthy living options, such as distribution of grocers versus convenience stores and fast food restaurants. Often overlooked is an in-depth understanding of how social contexts interact with built environments, molding peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating. This paper reports on perceptions of healthy eating in four communities across Alberta, Canada. A photovoice methodology was employed to elicit perceptions of healthy eating with 35 participants. This study illustrates how participants’ photographs and their stories convey multiple meanings about healthy eating within their own lives and communities. Findings suggest that a ‘local’ context is an important part of the discourse centered around the promotion of healthy eating practices in these and potential other communities. PMID:27390390

  9. Images in Transition. Proceedings of the Annual Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) Conference (3rd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 24-26, 1992) and the Canadian Symposium on Gifted Education (6th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This document presents the conference proceedings of the primary stakeholders in gifted education in Alberta (Canada): "Activities in Math for the Gifted Student" (Ballheim); "The Self Awareness Growth Experiences Approach" (Balogun); "Computer Simulations: An Integrating Tool" (Bilan); "The Portrayal of Gifted…

  10. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  11. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  12. The Conceptual Approach Study in Secondary Physical Education in Alberta-1975. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, W. Geoffrey; Cooney, Daniel

    The overall purpose of this study is to evaluate the methods by which the Physical Education Committee Pilot Teachers institute the "Conceptual Guide" (Alberta 1974) in teaching secondary school physical education in experimental classes in Alberta schools. The study evaluates the impact of the conceptual guide and discovery approach…

  13. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISA Handbook for Cycle 4. 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) is a bold approach to improving student learning by encouraging teachers, parents, and the community to work collaboratively to introduce innovative projects that address local needs. Initiated in 1999 by the Alberta Government and its partners, AISI provides targeted funding to school…

  14. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective.

  15. English as a Second Language (ESL) in Alberta Schools. Parent Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Schools in Alberta provide English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program support to immigrant students while they are adjusting to Canadian culture and learning the English language. This booklet is for parents who are new to Alberta, whose children are learning ESL and/or who need more information about ESL program support. A description of the…

  16. Evaluating Student Achievement in Alberta Social Studies: Report to MACOSA Committee on Social Studies Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, James B.

    This bibliographic essay discusses evaluation instruments that could be used to evaluate the K-12 social studies program in Alberta, Canada. The author points out the difficulty of evaluating the Alberta social studies program because its objectives are ill defined and it relies heavily on values and the inclusion of the affective domain. While…

  17. Maintaining the Momentum. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    Alberta's apprenticeship system offers training in 50 designated trades and 4 designated occupations and includes 40,398 registered apprentices and 11,1984 employers. The main components of Alberta's apprenticeship and training system are as follows: (1) a network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated occupations; (2)…

  18. Funding Mechanisms, Cost Drivers, and the Distribution of Education Funds in Alberta: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Dean; Taylor, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Critical analysis of historical financial data of the Calgary Board of Education (CBE) examined the impact of Alberta's 1994 funding changes on the CBE and the distribution of Alberta's education funding. Findings illustrate how funding mechanisms are used to govern from a distance and how seemingly neutral accounting/funding techniques function…

  19. Government Policy and Postsecondary Education in Alberta: A "Field Theory" Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, David; Wimmer, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    While the landscape of postsecondary education in Alberta continues to expand and diversify, there seems to be very little written about the organization of postsecondary education in the province over the past 15 to 20 years (Wimmer & Schmaus, 2010). This paper provides an analysis of postsecondary education in Alberta over the past 15 to 20…

  20. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  1. Selected Alberta science and research success stories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication provides a sampling of the value of science and research to Albertans, to the Alberta economy, and to the global community as revealed in stories of successful science and research activities in the province. Each story includes name of developer, inventor, company, and/or supporter; names of co-operating agencies, if any; contact name and address for further information; and a list of expected or realized benefits. The stories are organized under subject areas relating to agriculture and agri-food, arts and culture, biotechnology, construction, education, energy, environment, forest sector, health and medicine, human and community development, information and communications, manufacturing, mineral sector, tourism, and transportation.

  2. Glaciotectonism and landsliding in Little Sandhill Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian A.; Evans, David J. A.

    1990-11-01

    Slope failure and gully erosion along Little Sandhill Creek, a tributary of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada, has exposed large stratigraphic sections in which the effects of glaciotectonism and landsliding are clearly revealed. Six main units are identified ranging from a deposit of coarse fluvial sands, through various glacial diamictons and gravels and sands, to postglacial fluvial and lacustrine (pond) and aeolian sediments. Incision by Little Sandhill Creek since late Wisconsinan deglaciation ca. 12,500 B.P., resulted in periodic landslides culminating in the main slope failure which occurred post ca. 5400 B.P. The slide was reactivated by irrigation water return flow from the adjacent prairie surface.

  3. Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature.

    PubMed

    Beaubien, E G; Freeland, H J

    2000-08-01

    Warmer winter and spring temperatures have been noted over the last century in Western Canada. Earlier spring plant development in recent decades has been reported for Europe, but not for North America. The first-bloom dates for Edmonton, Alberta, were extracted from four historical data sets, and a spring flowering index showed progressively earlier development. For Populus tremuloides, a linear trend shows a 26-day shift to earlier blooming over the last century. The spring flowering index correlates with the incidence of El Niño events and with Pacific sea-surface temperatures.

  4. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  5. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Nguyen X; Ohinmaa, Arto; Yan, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning) in Alberta in 2005. Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years), who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism) and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism), adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses. Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688) in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9) in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624) to 533 (313–753) thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99) to $84 ($49–$119) million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%. Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a significant economic impact in Alberta and that presenteeism plays an important role in asthma

  6. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  7. Literacy, More Than Words: Summary of Input on a Literacy Framework for Alberta. Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes comments from 539 individuals on a literacy framework for Alberta, provided during the Alberta Literacy Forum held in Edmonton from April 14 to 16, 2008. The Forum was Alberta's contribution to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum, which involved all of Canada's…

  8. Numerical Modeling of Hailstorms and Hailstone Growth. Part III: Simulation of an Alberta Hailstorm--Natural and Seeded Cases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Richard D.

    1987-07-01

    This paper reports on simulations of a multicellular hailstorm case observed during the 1983 Alberta Hail Project. The field operations on that day concentrated on two successive feeder cells which were subjected to controlled seeding experiments. The fist of these cells received the placebo treatment and the second was seeded with dry ice. The principal tool of this study is a modified version of the two-dimensional, time dependent hail category model described in Part I of this series of papers. It is with this model that hail growth processes are investigated, including the simulated effects of cloud seeding techniques as practiced in Alberta.The model simulation of the natural case produces a very good replication of the observed storm, particularly the placebo feeder cell. This is evidenced, in particular, by the high degree of fidelity of the observed and modeled radar reflectivity in terms of magnitudes, structure, and evolution. The character of the hailfall at the surface and the scale of the storm are captured nicely by the model, although cloud-top heights are generally too high, particularly for the mature storm system.Seeding experiments similar to those conducted in the field have also been simulated. These involve seeding the feeder cell early in its active development phase with dry ice (CO2) or silver iodide (AgI) introduced near cloud top. The model simulations of these seeded cases capture some of the observed seeding signatures detected by radar and aircraft. In these model experiments, CO2 seeding produced a stronger response than AgI seeding relative to inhibiting hail formation. For both seeded cases, production of precipitating ice was initially enhanced by the seeding, but retarded slightly in the later stages, the net result being modest increases in surface rainfall, with hail reduced slightly. In general, the model simulations support several subhypotheses of the operational strategy of the Alberta Research Council regarding the earlier

  9. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  11. Applying the RE-AIM framework to the Alberta's Caring for Diabetes Project: a protocol for a comprehensive evaluation of primary care quality improvement interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Lisa; Rees, Sandra; Soprovich, Allison; Al Sayah, Fatima; Johnson, Steven T; Majumdar, Sumit R; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes represents a major public health and health system burden. As part of the Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) Project, two quality-improvement interventions are being piloted in four Primary Care Networks in Alberta. Gaps between health research, policy and practice have been documented and the need to evaluate the impact of public health interventions in real-world settings to inform decision-making and clinical practice is paramount. In this article, we describe the application of the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the interventions beyond effectiveness. Methods and analysis Two quality-improvement interventions were implemented, based on previously proven effective models of care and are directed at improving the physical and mental health of patients with type-2 diabetes. Our goal is to adapt and apply the RE-AIM framework, using a mixed-methods approach, to understand the impact of the interventions to inform policy and clinical decision-making. We present the proposed measures, data sources and data management and analysis strategies used to evaluate the interventions by RE-AIM dimension. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for the ABCD Project has been granted from the Health Research Ethics Board (HREB #PRO00012663) at the University of Alberta. The RE-AIM framework will be used to structure our dissemination activities by dimension. Results It will be presented at relevant conferences and prepared for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Various products, such as presentations, briefing reports and webinars, will be developed to inform key stakeholders of the findings. Presentation of findings by RE-AIM dimension will facilitate discussion regarding the public health impact of the two interventions within the primary care context of Alberta and lessons learned to be used in programme planning and care delivery for patients with type-2 diabetes. It will also promote the application of evaluation models to better assess the impact

  12. Cancer incidence attributable to insufficient fibre consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insufficient fibre consumption has been associated with a increased risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancers in Alberta that could be attributed to insufficient fibre consumption in 2012. Methods: The number and proportion of colorectal cancers in Alberta attributable to insufficient fibre consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from the World Cancer Research Fund's 2011 Continuous Update Project on colorectal cancer, and the prevalence of insufficient fibre consumption (< 23 g/d) was estimated using dietary data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: Between 66% and 67% of men and between 73% and 78% of women reported a diet with insufficient fibre consumption. Population attributable risk estimates for colorectal cancer were marginally higher in men, ranging from 6.3% to 6.8% across age groups, whereas in women they ranged from 5.0% to 5.5%. Overall, 6.0% of colorectal cancers or 0.7% of all cancers in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to insufficient fibre consumption. Interpretation: Insufficient fibre consumption accounted for 6.0% of colorectal cancers in Alberta in 2012. Increasing fibre consumption in Alberta has the potential to reduce to the future burden of colorectal cancer in the province.

  13. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  14. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Monserud, Robert A; Huang, Shongming; Yang, Yuqing

    2006-06-01

    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), the major forest tree species of Alberta. The PSP network is densest in stands aged between 70 and 100 years and is well-represented by stands of all ages to 150 years of age. Stand biomass (Mg ha(-1)) was estimated for each PSP plot as the sum of the respective biomass components for each tree (live and standing dead). The biomass components for live trees were stem, bark, branches, foliage and roots. The components for standing dead trees excluded foliage. Equations from previous biomass studies were used for biomass component estimation. Biomass estimates of additional non-tree components were attempted, but without much success. Biomass of the soil organic layer was estimated once on 452 PSPs and a mean estimate of total dead fuels on the ground (28.4 Mg ha(-1)) was available only for the entire distribution of lodgepole pine. However, values of these two components were essentially constant over time and therefore did not alter the analysis or conclusions obtained by analyzing total tree biomass alone. We then used this spatial network of 1549 plots as the basis for mapping biomass across Alberta. Mapping methods were based on Australian National University SPLINe (ANUSPLIN) software, Hutchinson's thin-plate smoothing spline in four dimensions (latitude, longitude, elevation and biomass). Total tree biomass (mean = 172 Mg ha(-1)) was dominated by stem biomass (mean = 106 Mg ha(-1)), which was an order of magnitude greater than the mean estimates for the bark (11 Mg ha(-1)), branch (12 Mg ha(-1)) and foliage (12 Mg ha(-1)) components. A close relationship was found between total tree biomass and stand stem volume (R(2) = 0

  15. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  16. Translating global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context: the development of culturally sensitive counselling tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leshabari, Sebalda C; Koniz-Booher, Peggy; Åstrøm, Anne N; de Paoli, Marina M; Moland, Karen M

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids) by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF) among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT) of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory based approach to

  17. The geometry of folds in granitoid rocks of northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Langenberg, C.; Ramsden, John

    1980-06-01

    Granitoid rocks which predominate in the Precambrian shield of northeastern Alberta show large-scale fold structures. A numerical procedure has been used to obtain modal foliation orientations. This procedure results in the smoothing of folded surfaces that show roughness on a detailed scale. Statistical tests are used to divide the study areas into cylindrical domains. Structural sections can be obtained for each domain, and horizontal and vertical sections are used to construct block diagrams. The projections are performed numerically and plotted by computer. This method permits blocks to be viewed from every possible angle. Both perspective and orthographic projections can be produced. The geometries of a dome in the Tulip Lake area and a synform in the Hooker Lake area have been obtained. The domal structure is compared with polyphase deformational interference patterns and with experimental diapiric structures obtained in a centrifuge system. The synform in the Hooker Lake area may be genetically related to the doming in the Tulip Lake area.

  18. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  19. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  20. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim.

  1. Geoscience Garden: an outdoor teaching installation at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, J. W.; Locock, A.

    2009-05-01

    Spatial awareness, and the abilities to position observations and inferences on a two-dimensional map and within the three-dimensional environment of the Earth's crust, are some of the the larger challenges facing beginning Earth Science students. Studies have shown that outdoor observations of outcrops are vital in the development of these spatial skills. However, teaching the techniques of field geology to Earth Science students is challenging in many parts of the continental interior, where nearly flat-lying, weakly consolidated, poorly exposed sedimentary rocks may be concealed beneath recent soils and Quaternary sediments. At the University of Alberta, these problems are offset by field courses at distant locations in more varied terrains during the spring and summer, but the distances (~300 km) and climate make fieldwork difficult during a busy teaching year that extends from September to April. The Geoscience Garden will be a unique landscaped area within the University of Alberta campus in which large (1 - 5 m), boulders and rock slabs will be built into oriented, simulated outcrops. These will be arranged in a layout that represents the geology of western and northern Canada in condensed form. The Garden, currently in the process of installation, will provide an artificial field environment in which Earth Science students can develop observational skills, and construct a simple geological map. They will be able to interpret the mapped area in terms of a three-dimensional structure, and make stratigraphic inferences about the order of deposition of the units and the environmental changes that occurred during the geologic history of the simulated area. In addition to more common rock types, the Garden will also display specimens of mineral deposits in geological context, and illustrate their importance to rural and northern communities. A buried boulder that has high magnetic susceptibility will provide a target for introductory geophysical field surveys

  2. Olfactory deficits in frontotemporal dementia as measured by the Alberta Smell Test.

    PubMed

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Golden, Charles J; McCue, Robert B; Scarisbrick, David M; Linck, John F; Zlatkin, Nancy I

    2014-01-01

    The study of olfaction in neurodegeneration has primarily focused on Alzheimer's disease. Research of olfaction in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has generally not been empirically studied. The current study compared olfaction in FTD to major depressive disorder (MDD) using the Alberta Smell Test (AST). Independent-samples t test results suggested olfaction in FTD was impaired when compared with participants diagnosed with MDD. The AST Total score (out of 20 trials) significantly predicted the diagnostic group and accounted for 40% of the variance in diagnostic group status with an odds ratio of 20.08. Results suggested that a cutoff of ≤2/20 differentiated FTD from MDD with 94% accuracy (91% sensitivity, 97% specificity) and a cutoff of ≤1/20 differentiated the groups with a 95.5% hit rate (91% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Results confirmed olfactory identification deficits in FTD and suggested that the AST is an effective tool for the demarcation of FTD from MDD. This is especially important due to the potential for significant overlap in the behavioral/emotional phenotype and cognitive deficits between the two disorders when presented with early stages of FTD.

  3. Generative Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  4. Cancer incidence attributable to red and processed meat consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of red and processed meats has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancers in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to the consumption of red and processed meat. Methods: The number and proportion of colorectal cancers in Alberta that were attributable to red and processed meat consumption were estimated using population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from the World Cancer Research Fund's 2011 Continuous Update Project on Colorectal Cancer, and the prevalence of red and processed meat consumption was estimated using dietary data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: Among participants in Alberta's Tomorrow Project, 41%-61% of men and 14%-25% of women consumed more than 500 g of red and processed meat per week, which exceeds World Cancer Research Fund cancer prevention guidelines. For red meat consumption, population attributable risks for colorectal cancer were substantially higher for men (13.6%-17.9%) than for women (1.6%-2.1%). For processed meat consumption, the population attributable risks were also higher for men (3.2%-4.8%) than for women (1.5%-2.1%). Overall, about 12% of colorectal cancers, or 1.5% of all cancers, in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to the consumption of red and processed meat. Interpretation: Red and processed meat consumption is estimated to acount for about 12% of colorectal cancers in Alberta. Decreasing its consumption has the potential to reduce to Alberta's cancer burden. PMID:28018893

  5. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  6. Caliper Context Annotation Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-30

    To understand the performance of parallel programs, developers need to be able to relate performance measurement data with context information, such as the call path / line numbers or iteration numbers where measurements were taken. Caliper provides a generic way to specify and collect multi-dimensional context information across the software stack, and provide ti to third-party measurement tools or write it into a file or database in the form of context streams.

  7. Bring Your Own Toy: Socialisation of Two-Year-Olds through Tool-Mediated Activities in an Australian Early Childhood Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultti, Anne; Pramling, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on how young children are socialised in early childhood education practice in activities with and around toys. A premise of this study is the theoretical notion of sociocultural theory that people do things with artefacts and other cultural tools, and tools do things with people. This is captured in the unit of analysis,…

  8. Peer Assessment among Secondary School Students: Introducing a Peer Feedback Tool in the Context of a Computer Supported Inquiry Learning Environment in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsivitanidou, Olia; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Hovardas, Tasos; Nicolaou, Aphrodite

    2012-01-01

    In this study we introduced a peer feedback tool to secondary school students while aiming at investigating whether this tool leads to a feedback dialogue when using a computer supported inquiry learning environment in science. Moreover, we aimed at examining what type of feedback students ask for and receive and whether the students use the…

  9. Urbanization and Urban Life in Alberta. Report of the Urban Studies Symposium Sponsored by the Alberta Human Resources Research Council, November 21, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, R. Gordon, Ed.; And Others

    This volume attempts first to take stock of the process of urbanization in Alberta and second to identify areas in which research may be required to guide urban development policies in the years ahead. Contents include the following papers: "An Economic Perspective," Eric J. Hanson; "A Goegraphic Perspective," Dennis B. Johnson…

  10. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  11. A characterization of solution gas flaring in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Kostiuk, L W; Spangelo, J L

    2001-08-01

    Information reported here is the result of a detailed analysis of data on flared and vented solution gas in the Province of Alberta in 1999. A goal of characterizing these flares was to aid in the improved management of solution gas flaring. In total, 4499 oil and bitumen batteries reported flaring or venting with a combined gas volume of 1.42 billion m3. There was significant site-to-site variation in volumes of gas flared or vented, gas composition, and flare design. Approximately 5% of physical batteries generate 35.7% of the gas flared and vented from oil and bitumen batteries. Therefore, if one were to attempt to mitigate flaring, significant progress could be made by starting with only the largest sites. The monthly variability of gas volumes was considered because high variability could affect implementation of alternative technologies. It was found that slightly more than 40% of the sites were reasonably steady and had monthly deviations of 100% or less from the average flared volume. The variability in monthly volumes was less for the larger batteries. Data from individual well sites show significant variability in the relative concentrations of each of the major species contained in solution gas.

  12. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  13. Identifying sources, formation pathways and geological controls of methane in shallow groundwater above unconventional natural gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Kingston, A. W.; Clarkson, C.; Cahill, A.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Millot, R.; Kloppmann, W.; Osadetz, K.; Lawton, D.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of shale gas development facilitated by hydraulic fracturing it has become increasingly important to develop tracer tools to scientifically determine potential impacts of stray gases on shallow aquifers. To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development, it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta (Canada) between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with often low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1 ‰ in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9 ‰ in dissolved gas. δ13C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that the methane in Alberta groundwater was formed via a similar mechanism. The low δ13C values in concert with average δ2H values of -289 ± 44 ‰ suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by gas dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Novel approaches of in-situ concentration and isotope measurements for methane during drilling of a 530 m deep well yielded a mud-gas profile characterizing natural gas occurrences in the intermediate zone. Comparison with mudgas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the Western

  14. Combined Tree-Ring Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes to infer past atmospheric deposition in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America is significantly younger than the emitting activities themselves. Attention should be placed on SOx and NOx emissions as they have been increasing over the last 15 years in western Canada. In Northeastern Alberta in particular, two distinct diffuse pollution contexts deserve attention: the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands (OS) district (north of Fort McMurray), and the coal fired power plant (CFPP) area (west of Edmonton). The NOx and SO2 emissions started in 1967 and 1956, but the direct air quality monitoring has been initiated in 1997 and 1985, in these respective contexts. In an attempt to address the gap in emission and deposition monitoring, we explored the δ13C and δ15N patterns of spruce trees (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) growing in four stands in the OS district and one stand, in the CFPP area. Tree-ring series collected from these five sites all covering the 1880-2010 period were analyzed and their δ13C and δ15N values examined along with the climatic parameters and SOx and NOx emission proxies. For two stands in the OS district where soil drainage was poor δ15N series did not vary significantly, but the intermediate and long-term δ13C and δ15N trends inversely correlate in the three other studied stands. For these three sites statistical analyses for the pre-operation calibration periods (1910-1961 and 1900-1951) allowed developing transfer functions and predicting the natural δ13C and δ15N responses to climatic conditions for the operation periods. The measured series all depart from the modeled natural trends, depicting anomalies. Interestingly, the anomalies in the two regions can be nicely reproduced by multiple-regression models combining local climatic parameters with acidifying emissions. Notwithstanding the significant inverse correlations between the δ13C and δ15N series for the three well drained sites and their link to acidifying emissions, it is too early to

  15. Rates of disturbance vary by data resolution: implications for conservation schedules using the Alberta boreal forest as a case study.

    PubMed

    Komers, P E; Stanojevic, Z

    2013-09-01

    Investigations of biophysical changes on earth caused by anthropogenic disturbance provide governments with tools to generate sustainable development policy. Canada currently experiences one of the fastest rates of boreal forest disturbance in the world. Plans to conserve the 330 000 km(2) boreal forest in the province of Alberta exist but conservation targets and schedules must be aligned with rates of forest disturbance. We explore how disturbance rate, and the accuracy with which we detect it, may affect conservation success. We performed a change detection analysis from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and SPOT satellite image data processing. Canada's recovery strategy for boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) states that ≤35% of a caribou range can be either burned or within 500 m of a man-made feature for caribou to recover. Our analyses show that by 2008 78% of the boreal forest was disturbed and that, if the current rate continues, 100% would be disturbed by 2028. Alberta plans to set aside 22% for conservation in a region encompassing oil sands development to balance economic, environmental, and traditional indigenous land-use goals. Contrary to the federal caribou recovery strategy, provincial conservation plans do not consider wildfire a disturbance. Based on analyses used in the provincial plan, we apply a 250 m buffer around anthropogenic footprints. Landsat image analysis indicates that the yearly addition of disturbance is 714 km(2) (0.8%). The higher resolution SPOT images show fine-scale disturbance indicating that actual disturbance was 1.28 times greater than detected by Landsat. If the SPOT image based disturbance rates continue, the 22% threshold may be exceeded within the next decade, up to 20 years earlier than indicated by Landsat-based analysis. Our results show that policies for sustainable development will likely fail if governments do not develop time frames that are grounded by accurate calculations of disturbance rates.

  16. Subsurface temperature signature of a large Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in the North Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, J.; Gosnold, W.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent results from a 2.3km deep temperature log in northern Alberta, Canada acquired as part of the University of Alberta Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) geothermal energy project in 2010-2011shows that there is a significant increase in thermal gradient in the granites. Inversion of the measured T-z profile between 550 - 2320 m indicates a temperature increase of 9.6 ± 0.3 °C, at 13.0 ± 0.6 ka and that the glacial base surface temperature was - 4.4± 0.3 °C. This inversion computation accounted for granite heat production of 3 µW/m3. This is the largest amplitude of Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in Canada inferred from borehole temperature logs, and is compatible with the results of similar studies in Eurasia (KTB, Outokumpu, Torun-1 etc.) reported previously. Reference: Majorowicz, J., Unsworth, M., Chacko, T., Gray, A., Heaman L., Potter, D., Schmitt, D., and Babadagli, T., 2011. Geothermal energy as a source of heat for oilsands processing in northern Alberta, Canada, in: Hein, F. J., Leckie, D., Suter , J., and Larter, S., (Eds), Heavy Oil/Bitumen Petroleum Systems in Alberta and beyond, AAPG Mem., in press.

  17. Nos Eleves, Notre Avenir. Une Introduction a L'education en Alberta. De la Maternelle a la 12e Annee (Our Students, Our Future: An Introduction to Education in Alberta. Kindergarten to Grade 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Under the Canadian Constitution, each province and territory has exclusive jurisdiction over education. This French language publication explains the ABCs of Alberta's school system. The text details Alberta's goals, various levels of responsibility, funding, public and private schooling, academic core and optional programs, home education,…

  18. Poetry Writing as Expressive Pedagogy in an EFL Context: Identifying Possible Assessment Tools for Haiku Poetry in EFL Freshman College Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iida, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Japanese poetry, haiku, has been widely accepted in western countries. While previous studies have reported on the applicability of haiku poetry to teaching practices in a variety of contexts, few researchers have discussed assessment which is one of the most important factors in language teaching. The aim of this study is to produce assessment…

  19. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15 IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15 IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  20. Lower Cretaceous Viking Barrier island, southwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Amajor, L.C.

    1984-04-01

    A subsurface study of cores and electric well logs from the lower Cretaceous (Albian) Viking reservoir sandstone near Calgary, Alberta, reveals its deposition as a regressive barrier island along the shores of the Haplophragmoides gigas sea. The barrier island trends northwest-southeast parallel to the paleostrandline for more than 120 km (75 mi) and attained a maximum thickness of more than 30 m (100 ft). Swales characterized by isopach thinning suggest that the island was probably breached by two tidal channels. Bentonite chronostratigraphy indicates that the barrier island prograded in a northeasterly and/or easterly direction for up to 24 km (15 mi). This seaward growth was briefly interrupted by an isostatic transgression. Thus, sandstone depositional pattern is of the imbricate type with younger units successively displaced seaward in the direction of progradation. The barrier-island facies sequence comprises eleven intergradational facies, i.e., ebb-tidal delta, marginal (spillover) channel, middle shoreface, marine shales, upper shoreface beach, dune, back-barrier mud flat, marshy lagoon and overwash, mixed tidal creek channel, and overbank. This sequence differs slightly from that of the Recent classic regressive Galveston Island, Texas, and the ancient Muddy barrier island, Montana, in the presence of an ebb-tidal delta and marine shelf shales beneath and above the middle shorefacies, respectively. On this basis the South Carolina Recent barrier islands are considered closer modern analogs. The writer suggests that this sand body be explored further for oil and/or gas accumulations because of its excellent reservoir properties and the generally low well density.

  1. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  2. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  3. Static and Dynamic Anisotropic Muduli of a Shale Sample from Southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez Martinez, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kofman, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in unconventional reservoirs broadly motivates our work in laboratory measurements of seismic anisotropy. Seismic anisotropy is the variation in speed of a wave as a function of its direction of propagation and particle polarization. When assuming an isotropic model of Earth during conventional seismic processing in areas with evidence of anisotropy a poor resolution images or erroneous localization of geological structures with strong dipping is produced. Ignoring anisotropy in unconventional reservoirs leads, for example, leads to erroneous estimation of horizontal stresses, wellbore stress as well as wellbore stability during hydraulic fracturing In this sense, laboratory measurements are an important tool to study seismic anisotropy since they provide information on the anisotropy intrinsic to the rock material itself. This is important to know as this contributes to the observed seismic anisotropy that is influenced by stress states and fractures. In this work, assuming a transversally isotropic medium (VTI), elastic anisotropic moduli of a dry shale from Southern Alberta are estimated as a function of confining pressure. Estimation of elastic constants and dynamic bulk moduli in a VTI medium involves recording P and S travel times by using pulse transmission method in a minimum of three different directions. These are often taken for the sake of convenience to be perpendicular (P0o and S0o), parallel (P90o and SH90o), and oblique (P45o and SH45o) to the layering of the material with the assumption that the perpendicular and parallel directions align with the principal anisotropic axes. The pulse transmission method involves generating and recording P and S ultrasonic waves traveling through a sample. Static Bulk moduli is estimated by measuring the volumetric deformation (strain) for a given confining pressure (stress) by using strain gauges directly bonded on the sample in two different directions: perpendicular to bedding and parallel to

  4. A Critical Review of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score for Evaluation of Acute Stroke Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Thomalla, Götz

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of ischemic stroke lesions on computed tomography (CT) or MRI using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is widely used to guide acute stroke treatment. We aimed to review the current evidence on ASPECTS. Originally, the score was developed for standardized lesion assessment on non-contrast CT (NCCT). Early studies described ASPECTS as a predictor of functional outcome and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after iv-thrombolysis with a threshold of ≤7 suggested to identify patients at high risk. Following studies rather pointed toward a linear relationship between ASPECTS and functional outcome. ASPECTS has also been applied to assess perfusion CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Cerebral blood volume ASPECTS proved to be the best predictor of outcome, outperforming NCCT-ASPECTS in some studies. For DWI-ASPECTS varying thresholds to identify patients at risk for poor outcome were reported. ASPECTS has been used for patient selection in three of the five groundbreaking trials proving efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy published in 2015. ASPECTS values predict functional outcome after thrombectomy. Moreover, treatment effect of thrombectomy appears to depend on ASPECTS values being smaller or not present in low ASPECTS, while patients with ASPECTS 5–10 do clearly benefit from mechanical thrombectomy. However, as patients with low ASPECTS values were excluded from recent trials data on this subgroup is limited. There are several limitations to ASPECTS addressed in a growing number of studies. The score is limited to the anterior circulation, the template is unequally weighed and correlation with lesion volume depends on lesion location. Overall ASPECTS is a useful and easily applicable tool for assessment of prognosis in acute stroke treatment and to help guide acute treatment decisions regardless whether MRI or CT is used. Patients with low ASPECTS values are unlikely to achieve good outcome. However, methodological constraints of

  5. Identifying sources and processes controlling the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Michael; Mayer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Sources and processes affecting the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed in Alberta (Canada) were investigated. The catchment is important for water supply and recreational activities and is also a source of oil and natural gas. Water was collected from 10 locations along an 8 km stretch of Canyon Creek including three so-called sulphur pools, followed by the chemical and isotopic analyses on water and its major dissolved species. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of the water plotted near the regional meteoric water line, indicating a meteoric origin of the water and no contribution from deeper formation waters. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate were the dominant ions in the upstream portion of the watershed, whereas sulphate was the dominant anion in the water from the three sulphur pools. The isotopic composition of sulphate (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) revealed three major sulphate sources with distinct isotopic compositions throughout the catchment: (1) a combination of sulphate from soils and sulphide oxidation in the bedrock in the upper reaches of Canyon Creek; (2) sulphide oxidation in pyrite-rich shales in the lower reaches of Canyon Creek and (3) dissolution of Devonian anhydrite constituting the major sulphate source for the three sulphur pools in the central portion of the watershed. The presence of H(2)S in the sulphur pools with δ(34)S values ∼30 ‰ lower than those of sulphate further indicated the occurrence of bacterial (dissimilatory) sulphate reduction. This case study reveals that δ(34)S values of surface water systems can vary by more than 20 ‰ over short geographic distances and that isotope analyses are an effective tool to identify sources and processes that govern the sulphur cycle in watersheds.

  6. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  7. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  8. Cancer incidence attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption (≥ 5 servings/d) has been associated with a probable decreased risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach and lung (fruit only). The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: The numbers and proportions of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from international collaborative panels and peer-reviewed literature. Prevalence data for insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003, 2004, 2005, 2007/08). Age-, site- and sex-specific cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: The proportion of men consuming 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day ranged from 25.9%-30.4% across age groups; the range among women was 46.8%-51.5% across age groups. The proportion of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta was highest for esophageal cancer (40.0%) and lowest for lung cancer (3.3%). Overall, 290 cancer cases (1.8%) in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Interpretation: Almost 2% of cancers in Alberta can be attributed to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has benefits for the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases; thus, increasing the proportion of Albertans who meet cancer prevention guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption is a priority. PMID:28018892

  9. Cancer incidence attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grevers, Xin; Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Feldman, Matthew; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies are classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We sought to estimate the proportion and total number of cancers attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Population attributable risks were used to estimate the proportion of attributable cases for each associated cancer site. Relative risk estimates were obtained from the most relevant and recent epidemiologic literature. Prevalences of the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta were collected from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Specific cancer incidence data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry for the year 2012. Results: Overall, 6.3% of breast cancers (n = 135) diagnosed in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to the use of oral contraceptives, and the exposure potentially prevented about 57.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 276) and 29.1% of ovarian cancers (n = 52). About 15.5% of breast cancers (n = 258) and 8.9% of ovarian cancers (n = 13) were estimated to be attributable to the use of hormone therapy, whereas 11.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 48) were possibly prevented by the exposure. Interpretation: Based on our estimates, oral contraceptive use resulted in a net protective effect among the cancer sites studied, thus reducing the cancer burden in Alberta in 2012. The use of hormone therapy was estimated to increase the cancer burden in the province, therefore the risk and benefit of hormone therapy should be carefully considered before use. PMID:28018891

  10. Leilani Muir versus the philosopher king: eugenics on trial in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, D

    1997-01-01

    The Province of Alberta in Canada was the only jurisdiction in the British Empire where a eugenic sterilization law was passed (in 1928) and vigorously implemented. The pace of sterilization orders accelerated during the Nazi era and remained high after World War II, terminating only in 1972 when the Sexual Sterilization Act was repealed. The Alberta Eugenics Board operated away from public and legislative scrutiny, and many things done in the name of eugenics were clearly illegal. Eugenics was put on trial in Alberta in 1995 and a judge of the Court of Queen's Bench ruled in 1996 that the government had wrongly sterilized Leilani Muir. After hearing evidence about the history of the eugenics movement, the origins of Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act, the operation of the Eugenics Board, and details of Muir's life, Madam Justice Joanne B. Veit found that 'the damage inflicted by the operation was catastrophic', the 'wrongful stigmatization of Ms. Muir as a moron ... has humiliated Ms. Muir every day of her life', and 'the circumstances of Ms. Muir's sterilization were so high-handed and so contemptuous of the statutory authority to effect sterilization, and were undertaken in an atmosphere that so little respected Ms. Muir's human dignity that the community's, and the court's, sense of decency is offended'. Veit awarded Muir damages of $740,780 CAD and legal costs of $230,000 CAD. The order for Muir's sterilization was signed by John M. MacEachran, founder of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Alberta and chairman of the Eugenics Board from 1929 to 1965. An exponent of Platonic idealism, MacEachran believed sterilization of children with a low IQ test score was a means of 'raising and safeguarding the purity of the race'. However, the Alberta Sterilization Act was passed and implemented with cavalier disregard for the principles of genetics as well as the rights of children.

  11. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  12. DNA typing in populations of mule deer for forensic use in the Province of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Richard M; Patterson, Denise; Zhang, Youfang

    2008-06-01

    The present study involves the development of forensic DNA typing tests and databases for mule deer in the Province of Alberta. Two multiplex PCR reactions interrogating 10 loci were used to analyze samples from three populations of mule deer. Additionally, an amelogenin based sex-typing marker was used to determine the gender of samples. Results show that the tests and databases are appropriate for use in forensic applications. Additionally, the results indicate that there is little population structure in mule deer in Alberta and that no changes to management of this game species are suggested.

  13. An Examination of the Changes in Science Teaching Orientations and Technology-Enhanced Tools for Student Learning in the Context of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Zuwallack, Rebecca; Longhurst, Max; Shelton, Brett E.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how science teaching orientations and beliefs about technology-enhanced tools change over time in professional development (PD). The primary data sources for this study came from learning journals of 8 eighth grade science teachers at the beginning and conclusion of a year of PD. Based on the analysis completed, Information…

  14. A subtle diagenetic trap in the Cretaceous Glauconite Sandstone of Southwest Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meshri, I.D.; Comer, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the long history of research which documents many studies involving extensive diagenesis, there are a few examples of a fully documented diagenetic trap. In the context of this paper, a trap is a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with a seal; because a reservoir without a seal acts as a carrier bed. The difficulty in the proper documentation of diagenetic traps is often due to the lack of: (a) extensive field records on the perforation and production histories, which assist in providing the depth of separation between hydrocarbon production and non-hydrocarbon or water production; and (b) the simultaneous availability of core data from these intervals, which could be studied for the extent and nature of diagenesis. This paper provides documentation for the existence of a diagenetic trap, based on perforation depths, production histories and petrologic data from the cored intervals, in the context of the geologic and stratigraphic setting. Cores from 15 wells and SP logs from 45 wells were carefully correlated and the data on perforated intervals was also acquired. Extensive petrographic work on the collected cores led to the elucidation of a diagenetic trap that separates water overlying and updip from gas downdip. Amoco's Berrymore-Lobstick-Bigoray fields, located near the northeastern edge of the Alberta Basin, are prolific gas producers. The gas is produced from reservoir rock consisting of delta platform deposits formed by coalescing distributary mouth bars. The overlying rock unit is composed of younger distributary channels; although it has a good reservoir quality, it contains and produces water only. The total thickness of the upper, water-bearing and lower gas-bearing sandstone is about 40 ft. The diagenetic seal is composed of a zone 2 to 6 ft thick, located at the base of distributary channels. This zone is cemented with 20-30% ankerite cement, which formed the gas migration and is also relatively early compared to other cements formed in the water

  15. An Examination of the Changes in Science Teaching Orientations and Technology-Enhanced Tools for Student Learning in the Context of Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Todd; Zuwallack, Rebecca; Longhurst, Max; Shelton, Brett E.; Wolf, Paul G.

    2014-07-01

    This research examines how science teaching orientations and beliefs about technology-enhanced tools change over time in professional development (PD). The primary data sources for this study came from learning journals of 8 eighth grade science teachers at the beginning and conclusion of a year of PD. Based on the analysis completed, Information Transmission (IT) and Struggling with Standards-Based Reform (SSBR) profiles were found at the beginning of the PD, while SSBR and Standards-Based Reform (SBR) profiles were identified at the conclusion of PD. All profiles exhibited Vision I beliefs about the goals and purposes for science education, while only the SBR profile exhibited Vision II goals and purposes for science teaching. The IT profile demonstrated naïve or unrevealed beliefs about the nature of science, while the SSBR and SBR profiles had more sophisticated beliefs in this area. The IT profile was grounded in more teacher-centered beliefs about science teaching and learning as the other two profiles revealed more student-centered beliefs. While no beliefs about technology-enhanced tools were found for the IT profile, these were found for the other two profiles. Our findings suggest promising implications for (a) Roberts' Vision II as a central support for reform efforts, (b) situating technology-enhanced tools within the beliefs about science teaching and learning dimension of science teaching orientations, and (c) revealing how teacher orientations develop as a result of PD.

  16. Performance management tools motivate change at the frontlines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher; Christiansen, Tanya; Dick, Don; Howden, Jane Squire; Wasylak, Tracy; Werle, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Performance management tools commonly used in business, such as incentives and the balanced scorecard, can be effectively applied in the public healthcare sector to improve quality of care. The province of Alberta applied these tools with the Institute for Health Improvement Learning Collaborative method to accelerate adoption of a clinical care pathway for hip and knee replacements. The results showed measurable improvements in all quality dimensions, including shorter hospital stays and wait times, higher bed utilization, earlier patient ambulation, and better patient outcomes.

  17. The History of Post-Secondary Finance in Alberta - An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Calvin P.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2005-01-01

    Post-secondary systems throughout Canada and the United States have struggled with funding issues during most of the last decade of the 20th Century, and the new millennium did not open with great enthusiasm for change. This article examines the impact of post-secondary education funding changes in Alberta, Canada, by tracing the historical…

  18. "Fellow Travellers" and "True Believers": A Case Study of Religion and Politics in Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2001-01-01

    In Canada, the United States, and England, educational policies favoring greater parental choice have renewed interest in religion's place in public schools; conversely, religious parents' lobbying for school choice has influenced educational policy. This paper explores change dynamics in Alberta, Canada, focusing on micropolitical program and…

  19. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Role in Educational Marketing: Insights from the Case of Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2006-01-01

    Based on semi-structured interviews with high school teachers in Edmonton, Alberta, the reported study examined teachers' attitudes towards their roles and responsibilities in marketing their school, and the perceived impact of educational markets upon teachers' well-being. The teachers define marketing negatively and narrowly, resist any…

  1. Report of the Progress Review Committee, Task Force on Mature Students, The University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Univ., Edmonton. The Senate.

    Responses by various University of Alberta offices to recommendations of the Senate Task Force on Mature Students are detailed. "Mature student" is used to refer to students 23 years old or older. Attention is directed to: support services (library, offices, bookstore); choice of courses in the evening; residency requirements;…

  2. The Alberta K-9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Alberta K-9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators" has been derived from "The Common Curriculum Framework for K-9 Mathematics: Western and Northern Canadian Protocol," May 2006 (the Common Curriculum Framework). The program of studies incorporates the conceptual framework for Kindergarten to Grade 9…

  3. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISI Handbook for Cycle 3, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the AISI (Alberta Initiative for School Improvement) Handbook for Cycle 3, 2006-2009 is to provide school authorities with the provincial and local requirements and processes for planning, funding, implementing, managing, evaluating, reporting and sharing school improvement projects. The handbook provides a framework for the…

  4. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Normative data collected for the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test from children (ages 7-14) in urban and rural Alberta and for Inuit children in the Northwest Territories, Canada, were consistently below the Harris norms particularly for the Draw-a-Woman test. Alternate sets of Draw-a-Person norms are proposed for use with these groups. (Author/VW)

  5. Institutional Development Plan. Presented to the Department of Advanced Education, Government of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Community Coll. (Alberta).

    At Lethbridge Community College (LCC) in Lethbridge, Alberta, widely acknowledged as Canada's first community college, personal and professional development is stressed for all staff and students. The mission of LCC is to meet the needs of adults throughout their lives by providing excellent learning opportunities through high quality programs and…

  6. Supporting Democratic Discourses of Teacher Professionalism: The Case of the Alberta Teachers' Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond-Johnson, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores understandings related to teacher professionalism amongst a sample of highly engaged members of the Alberta Teacher's Association (ATA). Highlighting the many ways in which the Association supported members in their bid to embody roles as leaders, learners, advocates, and policy actors, I argue that the ATA serves as a platform…

  7. A Diet of English Language Arts Outcomes: Alberta and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Laurie

    This paper critically examines outcomes-based education (OBE), focusing on the two widely differing jurisdictions of the Province of Alberta in Western Canada and the Republic of South Africa. The paper begins by explaining the nature of OBE, including the topics: principles and origin of OBE; research findings; resistance to OBE in the United…

  8. From Community College to University: Institutionalization and Neoliberalism in British Columbia and Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Aliyeva, Aida; Walker, Laurencia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation of higher education institutional development addresses new universities that were former community colleges in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Stemming from an original study conducted nearly two decades earlier, this investigation's data were collected from the same institutions and from similar…

  9. The Atlee School Question: The Effects of School Consolidation in Rural Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, a bitter dispute broke out between parents in the Atlee-Jenner School District in Southern Alberta Canada, and the Medicine Hat School Board over the bussing of children for the first time to a new school a long distance away. The move was precipitated by the consolidation of several smaller school districts and the subsequent…

  10. Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

  11. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy; Martin, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the…

  12. Availability of Non-Nutritious Foods in Alberta Schools. Research Bulletin 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    School authorities in a total of 68 Alberta school jurisdictions (representing 82 percent of the student population of the province) responded to a request for details about the availability in schools of nonnutritious foods--defined as food that contains minimal nutrients in proportion to number of calories. Foods that are commonly consumed at…

  13. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of…

  14. Alberta Education Curriculum Review, Part 1. Publications of the Curriculum Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, G. H.

    This report contains a description of the first part of the Curriculum Branch's audit of the program of studies, curriculum guides, textbooks, and other learning resources in Alberta, Canada, which was undertaken for three purposes: (1) to determine the adequacy of the ways in which tolerance, understanding, and respect for minority groups and…

  15. Those Who Care: A Report on Child Caregivers in Alberta Daycare Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of child care personnel employed by 80 day care centers throughout Alberta. Findings indicated that, on average, child care staff had higher levels of education than the general adult population in the province. Considerable mobility within the child care field was found. Staff with…

  16. Nanometre-size diamonds in the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, David B.; Braman, Dennis R.

    1991-08-01

    Evidence is presented that the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay of the Red Deer Valley of Alberta contains diamonds, which strengthens the case for an extraterrestrial impact at the end of the Cretaceous. The diamond/iridium ratio is close to the value found in type C2 chondritic meteorites.

  17. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  18. Manufacturing (Il)Literacy in Alberta's Classrooms: The Case of an Oil-Dependent State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines involvement of education-business "partnerships" presently occurring in the province of Alberta, Canada. Specific attention is paid to the promotion and sponsorship by oil multinational corporations (MNCs) of corporate propaganda masquerading as energy and environmental literacy programs targeted for the K-12 school…

  19. Mapping mean annual water yield and other hydrological variables for Alberta, Canada, 1971-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    In Alberta, Canada, as in many other regions in the world, water is a limiting factor to population growth, economic development and environmental protection. The methods presented here were developed under a broader research project aimed to provide a water resources inventory for the province of Alberta. For 287 sub-watersheds, mean annual water yield, runoff coefficients, and actual evapotranspiration were computed from streamflow records and high resolution precipitation maps (PRISM) for the period 1971-2000. The analysis of the mean annual water yield is based on the association between the 287 gauged watershed areas and the respective streamflow production. Runoff coefficients were computed based on a spatial overlay of watershed boundaries and precipitation. Actual evapotranspiration was then computed by subtracting the mean annual water yield from the mean annual precipitation. Figure 1 shows a low resolution map example. The resulting maps are also available on the internet for 3 x 4' printouts and can be found by searching for "Alberta water yield". For 16 major watersheds in Alberta, the percent contribution of each sub-watershed is also listed.

  20. Professional Development for Teaching Technology across the Curriculum: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W. Bruce

    This report focuses on promising practices in professional development as they relate to implementation of Alberta Education's 1998 "Information and Communication Technology, Interim Program of Studies." The first chapter examines fundamental issues, challenges some assumptions, and offers suggestions related to professional development…

  1. The Whole Economy: Resource Allocation of Alberta Farm Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Norah C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 326 women and 392 men who operate Alberta grain farms responded to a questionnaire concerning participation in the whole economy. Findings show gender differences in participation in certain economic segments. Findings are discussed in relation to farms' and families' allocation of human resources. (Author/CH)

  2. Responding to a Strong Economy. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    In 2001-2002, the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board continued its collaboration with industry, government, and educators to maintain high standards of training and improve access to technical training. The board continued to strengthen the network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees, occupational committees, and…

  3. Using Cognitive Coaching to Build School Leadership Capacity: A Case Study in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Hauserman, Cal P.; Skytt, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Cognitive Coaching? included as part of the Leader2Leader (L2L) Leadership Pilot Program for beginning principals in Alberta, Canada, was evaluated in the present study. Fifteen qualified principals (coaches) and 23 new principals completed the L2L Pilot Program that took place over 18 months. Questionnaires for coaches and new…

  4. DETAILED ENDOCRINE ASSESSMENTS IN WILD FISH DOWNSTREAM OF PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    2001. Detailed Endocrine Assessments in Wild Fish Downstream of Pulp and Paper Mills in Northern Alberta, Canada (Abstract). In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, N...

  5. Performance Indicators in Postsecondary Education in Alberta: An Analysis. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, I. Chris

    This paper analyzes the current proposals by the government of Alberta, Canada, to implement an accountability framework for the province's postsecondary institutions using performance indicators. The paper develops a conceptual framework for performance indicators based on a discrepancy model of evaluation using three metaphors: mechanical,…

  6. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  7. Difficulties Associated with the Coding and Categorization of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Jahnukainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, there is a recent trend toward non-categorization of services of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities (EBD). Yet in Alberta, the coding of students with EBD provides opportunities to diagnose students' learning difficulties but is hindered in this process, in large part, by being tied into special needs funding. Current…

  8. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn.

    PubMed

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R; Bauer, Bianca S; Allen, Andrew L; Grahn, Bruce H

    2015-03-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin.

  9. The Same But Different: Social Studies Curriculum in Saskatchewan and Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Jeff; Smit, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the social studies curricula in two Canadian provinces. Saskatchewan has adopted a student-centered approach emphasizing transformative knowledge and transactional strategies. Alberta is focusing more on knowledge acquisition and traditional assessment. Considers the reasons for these differences and proposes some directions…

  10. Computing Services Planning, Downsizing, and Organization at the University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrametti, Monica

    1993-01-01

    In a six-month period, the University of Alberta (Canada) campus computing services department formulated a strategic plan, and downsized and reorganized to meet financial constraints and respond to changing technology, especially distributed computing. The new department is organized to react more effectively to trends in technology and user…

  11. WiFi in Schools, Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Phones: Alberta Health Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Wireless devices and the networks that support them are becoming more common in Alberta schools. WiFi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. Typically the signal is carried by radio waves over an area of up to 100 meters. Through the implementation of a WiFi network,…

  12. Cultural Competence in Alberta Schools: Perceptions of ESL Families in Four Major School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Hieu V.

    2012-01-01

    Complex linguistic, acculturative, and social needs of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners challenge the K-12 education system to develop cultural competence in working with culturally diverse families. This study surveyed 242 self-identified ESL students and their parents from four of Alberta's major school boards. Results of the survey…

  13. Review of ESL K-12 Program: Implementation in Alberta. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Factors that influence and predict academic success of ESL students were studied to assist the Ministry with decisions related to curriculum development, resource allocation, and support provision. The comprehensive nature of this study is unique in that it presents the state of affairs of K-12 ESL education in Alberta. Best practice information…

  14. Housing and Living Arrangements of South Asian Immigrant Seniors in Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Cheuk Fan; Northcott, Herbert C.; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian population is aging and becoming more ethnically diverse. This paper focuses on South Asian immigrant seniors and examines differences in housing and living arrangements among seniors who immigrated at different life stages. We interviewed a convenience sample of 161 immigrant seniors of South Asian descent in Edmonton, Alberta, to…

  15. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  16. Temporal and Spatial Changes of the Agroclimate in Alberta, Canada, from 1901 to 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S. S. P.; Yin, H.; Cannon, K.; Howard, A.; Chetner, S.; Karl, T. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term (1901-2002) temporal trends in the agroclimate of Alberta, Canada, and explores the spatial variations of the agroclimatic resources and the potential crop-growing area in Alberta. Nine agroclimatic parameters are investigated: May-August precipitation (PCPN), the start of growing season (SGS), the end of the growing season (EGS), the length of the growing season (LGS), the date of the last spring frost (LSF), the date of the first fall frost (FFF), the length of the frost-free period (FFP), growing degree-days (GDDs), and corn heat units (CHUs). The temporal trends in the agroclimatic parameters are analyzed by using linear regression. The significance tests of the trends are made by using Kendall's tau method. The results support the following conclusions. 1) The Alberta PCPN has increased 14% from 1901 to 2002, and the increment is the largest in the north and the northwest of Alberta, then diminishes (or even becomes negative over two small areas) in central and southern Alberta, and finally becomes large again in the southeast corner of the province. 2) No significant long-term trends are found for the SGS, EGS, and LGS. 3) An earlier LSF, a later FFF, and a longer FFP are obvious all over the province. 4) The area with sufficient CHU for corn production, calculated according to the 1973-2002 normal, has extended to the north by about 200-300 km, when compared with the 1913-32 normal, and by about 50-100 km, when compared with the 1943-72 normal; this expansion implies that the potential exists to grow crops and raise livestock in more regions of Alberta than was possible in the past. The annual total precipitation follows a similar increasing trend to that of the May-August precipitation, and the percentile analysis of precipitation attributes the increase to low-intensity events. The changes of the agroclimatic parameters imply that Alberta agriculture has benefited from the last century's climate change.

  17. QSAR Modelling of CYP3A4 Inhibition as a Screening Tool in the Context of DrugDrug Interaction Studies.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Véronique; Horvath, Dragos; Gaudin, Cédric; Desrivot, Julie; Junges, Céline; Arrault, Alban; Bertrand, Marc; Vayer, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Drugdrug interaction potential (DDI), especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibition potential, is one of the most important parameters to be optimized before preclinical and clinical pharmaceutical development as regard to the number of marketed drug metabolized mainly by this CYP and potentially co-administered with the future drug. The present study aims to develop in silico models for CYP3A4 inhibition prediction to help medicinal chemists during the discovery phase and even before the synthesis of new chemical entities (NCEs), focusing on NCEs devoid of any inhibitory potential toward this CYP. In order to find a relevant relationship between CYP3A4 inhibition and chemical features of the screened compounds, we applied a genetic-algorithm-based QSAR exploratory tool SQS (Stochastic QSAR Sampler) in combination with different description approaches comprising alignment-independent Volsurf descriptors, ISIDA fragments and Topological Fuzzy Pharmacophore Triplets. The experimental data used to build models were extracted from an in-house database. We derived a model with good prediction ability that was confirmed on both newly synthesized compound and public dataset retrieved from Pubchem database. This model is a promising efficient tool for filtering out potentially problematic compounds.

  18. The microstructure of selected, small, isolated, cumulus clouds near Red Deer, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochtubajda, B.

    Physical experiments designed to explore the potential of rain augmentation through airborne glaciogenic seeding on small, isolated non-precipitating cumuliform clouds near Red Deer, Alberta were carried out during the period 1982-1985. The microstructure of 90 cumulus congestus clouds have been documented through repeated in-situ sampling using a cloud physics instrumented aircraft platform. Observations from the inspection passes of 57 clouds seeded with either dry ice pellets or silver iodide pyrotechnics, and all the passes of 33 natural clouds are presented. Measurements of the cloud droplet concentration indicate that Alberta cumulus clouds are typically continental in nature, with an average droplet concentration of 535 cm -3 and an average droplet diameter of 10.6 μm. Alberta clouds have average liquid water contents of 0.57 g m -3, with a peak 1-sec value of 3.17 g m -3. The 1-km average liquid water contents are 0.83 g m -3, with a peak value of 2.81 g m -3. Cloud lifetimes vary between 11 and 20 minutes. Concentrations of naturally occurring ice crystals are found to be low. The average maximum 1-km ice concentration was 31 -1, and the peak 1-km concentration was 73.11 -1 in the natural cloud dataset. Evidence of precipitation-sized particles was detected in 21% (7 of 33) of the clouds, and precipitation below cloud base was detected in 6% (2 of 33) of the clouds. A comparison of the Alberta cloud characteristics to the cumulus clouds from different locations showed that there are some distinct differences between Alberta clouds and the clouds from the other regions.

  19. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    PubMed

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  20. Smoke-free spaces over time: a policy diffusion study of bylaw development in Alberta and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Eyles, John; Campbell, H Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Policy diffusion is a process whereby political bodies 'learn' policy solutions to public health problems by imitating policy from similar jurisdictions. This suggests that diffusion is a critical element in the policy development process, and that its role must be recognised in any examination of policy development. Yet, to date, no systematic work on the diffusion of smoke-free spaces bylaws has been reported. We examined the diffusion of municipal smoke-free bylaws over a 30-year period in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario, Canada, to begin to address this gap and to determine whether spatial patterns could be identified to help explain the nature of policy development. Bylaw adoption and change were analysed within local, regional, and provincial contexts. Geographical models of hierarchical and expansion diffusion in conjunction with the diffusion of innovations framework conceptually guided the analyses. Study findings contribute to a broader understanding of how and why health policies diffuse across time and place. Policy development can be a powerful mechanism for creating environments that support healthy decisions; hence, an understanding of policy diffusion is critical for those interested in policy interventions aimed at improving population health in any jurisdiction.

  1. Bringing together hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users through the WebGIS tool SPIDER in the context of the SIRIUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Jesús; Osann, Anna; Calera, Alfonso; Moreno-Rivera, Juan Manuel; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Fernández, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Scientific expertise on irrigated agriculture or hydrological modelling has achieved advance models with tested results. However, real connexions between this knowledge and its applications, and water end-users (either water managers on the field, or water policy makers) need a meeting point. According with the main aim of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) in order to provide global, timely and easily accessible information in applications like land and water management, the EU-project SIRIUS (Sustainable Irrigation water management and River-basin governance: Implementing User-driven Services, www.sirius-gmes.es), is linking hydrologic models and Earth Observation data with water users, through the webGIS tool SPIDER (System of Participatory Information, Decision support and Expert knowledge for River basin water management). The models employed are AQUATOOL (http://www.upv.es/aquatool/) and HidroMORE+® (http://www.hidromore.es/). AQUATOOL is a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of the water resources in a river basin which integrates in a comprehensive way all relevant water elements and its interactions, in order to provide different scenarios that incorporate water offers and demands. On the other hand, HidroMORE+® computes spatially distributed water balance components remote sensing driven, in large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution. Mainly applied to irrigation practices, HidroMORE+® is aimed to monitories the crop evolutions and water demands. Either AQUATOOL products such scenario reports, or HidroMORE+® products such time series of the water balance components can be integrated in SPIDER, which has been designed to display all these types of products. However, a general feature of models is that they often provide too many parameters, which makes it very difficult for non-experts to understand. Then, it is needed to select among the output variables those that provide maximum useful information, according

  2. Identifying phonological processing deficits in Northern Sotho-speaking children: The use of non-word repetition as a language assessment tool in the South African context.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2016-05-20

    Diagnostic testing of speech/language skills in the African languages spoken in South Africa is a challenging task, as standardised language tests in the official languages of South Africa barely exist. Commercially available language tests are in English, and have been standardised in other parts of the world. Such tests are often translated into African languages, a practice that speech language therapists deem linguistically and culturally inappropriate. In response to the need for developing clinical language assessment instruments that could be used in South Africa, this article reports on data collected with a Northern Sotho non-word repetition task (NRT). Non-word repetition measures various aspects of phonological processing, including phonological working memory (PWM), and is used widely by speech language therapists, linguists, and educational psychologists in the Western world. The design of a novel Northern Sotho NRT is described, and it is argued that the task could be used successfully in the South African context to discriminate between children with weak and strong Northern Sotho phonological processing ability, regardless of the language of learning and teaching. The NRT was piloted with 120 third graders, and showed moderate to strong correlations with other measures of PWM, such as digit span and English non-word repetition. Furthermore, the task was positively associated with both word and fluent reading in Northern Sotho, and it reliably predicted reading outcomes in the tested population. Suggestions are made for improving the current version of the Northern Sotho NRT, whereafter it should be suitable to test learners from various age groups.

  3. Investigation of Geothermal Energy as a Heat Source for Oilsands Extraction in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; Tayfun, B.; Chacko, T.; Currie, C. A.; Gray, A.; Grobe, M.; Heaman, L. M.; Huenges, E.; Moeck, I.; Ritter, O.; Rostron, B. J.; Schmitt, D.; Vanderbaan, M.; Weides, S.

    2010-12-01

    The extraction of the Northern Alberta oil sands requires a significant amount of thermal energy which is currently supplied through the burning of natural gas. Geothermal energy could replace some of this demand. The feasibility of developing geothermal energy production in Northern Alberta is being evaluated through the Helmholtz Alberta Initiative, which is a collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada. The geology of Northern Alberta is characterized by 500-2000 m of sedimentary rocks overlying Precambrian crystalline basement rocks of the Canadian Shield. Where the sedimentary cover is thin (e.g the Athabasca oilsands at Fort McMurray), geothermal energy production would require the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) within the crystalline basement rocks. Where the sedimentary basin is thicker (Peace River), heat sources may be found with the sedimentary rocks and natural geothermal reservoirs may be developed. The first stage of this research has involved a re-evaluation of the existing thermal data from boreholes. Precambrian temperature profiles are available only from two deep wells and point to large spatial variations in heat flow (30-70 mW/m**2), that are likely due to variations in the concentrations of radiogenic elements in the crust. Thermal data is also available in a large number of shallow wells, and these data shows a significant depth dependence of heat flow. Shallow temperature gradients are up to two times higher than gradients measured in deeper wells, which implies that shallow temperature data can overestimate the projected temperatures in the Precambrian rocks at depths of 4-5 km. Revised thermal gradient maps have been computed and will be presented in this poster, including extrapolation to the depths required for economically significant temperatures. The second stage of the research will involve detailed characterization of the sedimentary and basement rocks. Geophysical surveys will used combined

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  6. Computer Network Security: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This paper provides a snapshot of the computer network security industry and addresses specific issues related to network security in public education. The following topics are covered: (1) security policy, including reasons for establishing a policy, risk assessment, areas to consider, audit tools; (2) workstations, including physical security,…

  7. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Aerosol and Ozone Above the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, M.; Whiteway, J. A.; Seabrook, J.; Gray, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. The field campaign was carried out with a total of five flights out of Fort McMurray, Alberta during the period between August 22 and August 26, 2013. Significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to a height of 1.6 km, but the ozone concentration remained at or below background levels. On August 24th the lidar observed a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 1.8 km, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppbv. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, in the pollution from the oil sands industry, the measured ozone mixing ratio was lower than the background levels (≤35 ppbv).

  8. Mid-Wisconsinan vertebrates and their environment from January Cave, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James A.

    1991-01-01

    January Cave, in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, has yielded vertebrate remains from a coprocenosis of mid-Wisconsinan-age. Taphonomic analysis indicates accumulation by raptors, mostly owls, and mammalian carnivores. The vertebrate record, together with pollen analysis, indicates that cool, dry conditions prevailed in an extensive tundra-like environment, with prairie elements in the valleys below. Thirty-four mammalian taxa have been recovered from January Cave. Today, some of these species (e.g., Lemmus sibiricus and Dicrostonyx torquatus) do not coexist with others (e.g., Cynomys sp., Mustela nigripes, Vulpes velox, and Lagurus curtatus). Therefore, the January Cave local fauna represents a "nonanalog" mammalian community characteristic of the late Pleistocene. It suggests that the region enjoyed an equable climate, with reduced climatic extremes but still cool, further supporting a mid-Wisconsinan age estimate for the fauna. It is the first major, small vertebrate fauna of its age to be reported from Alberta.

  9. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  10. Peat bogs in northern Alberta, Canada reveal decades of declining atmospheric Pb contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William; Appleby, Peter G.; Bicalho, Beatriz; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Krachler, Michael; Magnan, Gabriel; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Shannon, Bob; Bellen, Simon; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Peat cores were collected from six bogs in northern Alberta to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of Pb, a valuable tracer of human activities. In each profile, the maximum Pb enrichment is found well below the surface. Radiometric age dating using three independent approaches (14C measurements of plant macrofossils combined with the atmospheric bomb pulse curve, plus 210Pb confirmed using the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am) showed that Pb contamination has been in decline for decades. Today, the surface layers of these bogs are comparable in composition to the "cleanest" peat samples ever found in the Northern Hemisphere, from a Swiss bog ~ 6000 to 9000 years old. The lack of contemporary Pb contamination in the Alberta bogs is testimony to successful international efforts of the past decades to reduce anthropogenic emissions of this potentially toxic metal to the atmosphere.

  11. Flexure of lithosphere beneath the Alberta Foreland Basin: Evidence of an eastward stiffening continental lithosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The flexure of the Mississippian Unconformity (MU) is used to constrain the stiffness of the lithosphere beneath the Alberta Foreland Basin (AFB). This flexure supports the sedimentological evidence for the absence of a forebulge in the AFB and implies that the peak of the forebulge lies further east of the Alberta Saskatchewan border. It is demonstrated that an eastwards stiffening lithosphere is required in order to fit the flexure of the MU. When flexural stiffness is expressed in terms of effective thickness, it varies from about 38km west of the Rocky Mountains to more than 200km underneath the North American craton. This variation of stiffness indicates that there is a strong lateral temperature and chemical variation underneath. Eastwards stiffening also implies an eastwards thickening of the elastic lithosphere. Such a model is in good agreement with recent petrological and geophysical evidences in the west and underneath the craton.

  12. Design, methods and demographics from phase I of Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort: a prospective cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Paula J.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Whelan, Heather K.; Vena, Jennifer E.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Rosner, William K.; Brenner, Darren R.; Cook, Linda S.; Csizmadi, Ilona; Kopciuk, Karen A.; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. Methods: Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling. Participants were enrolled if they returned a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Past year diet and physical activity questionnaires were mailed 3 months after enrolment. Consent was sought for active follow-up and linkage with administrative databases. Depending on enrolment date, participants were invited to complete up to 2 follow-up questionnaires (2004 and 2008). Results: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 (39% men) participants (mean age 50.2 [± 9.2] yr) were enrolled and 99% consented to linkage with administrative databases. Participants reported a wide range of educational attainment and household income. Compared with provincial surveillance data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants had higher body mass index, lower prevalence of smoking and similar distribution of chronic health conditions. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 83% and 72% of participants in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Robust quality control measures resulted in low frequencies of missing data. Interpretation: Alberta's Tomorrow Project provides a robust platform, based on a prospective cohort design, to support research into risk factors for cancer and chronic disease. PMID:27730115

  13. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1.

  14. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population. PMID:26837668

  15. Evolving 50–50% bilingual pedagogy in Alberta: what does the research say?

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rahat; Schmidt, Elaine; Krickhan, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the provincial frameworks that define the Spanish bilingual program in Alberta, Canada, provides an historical overview of its pedagogic constraints and evolution, and proposes a framework for bilingual pedagogy. The framework is conceptualized from the research evidence of three local case studies, and is based on the centrality of cross-linguistic transfer, in relation to linguistic interdependence and bilingual learning. PMID:24987378

  16. Health care reform comes to Alberta: "we're making this up as we go along".

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, R

    1995-01-01

    Alberta left physicians out in the cold when Premier Ralph Klein's government began to slash the province's health care budget. Frustrated and angered at being excluded from the restructuring of the province's health care system, physicians rallied in protest, and now have some input into the new regional health authorities, at least in Edmonton and Calgary. Still, some physicians who feel the restructuring is an uncontrolled social experiment have opted to leave for positions in the US. Images p1862-a PMID:7773904

  17. Evidence for Early Pleistocene Glaciation obtained from borecores collected in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Andriashek, L. D.; Jackson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Borecores collected from the east-central region of Alberta, Canada have recently been sub-sampled and studied for paleomagnetic remanence characteristics. A preliminary magnetostratigraphy has been established for sediments previously assumed to represent multiple continental (Laurentide) glaciations, but for which no geochronology was available for the pre-late Wisconsin units. Comprised primarily of tills and lesser thicknesses of interbedded glacio-lacustrine and outwash sediments, the record is extensive, reaching to thicknesses of 300 metres within buried valleys. Most of the sampled units are not accessible from outcrop, and their sedimentology and stratigraphy is derived from core data only. The lowermost tills are reversely magnetized in the majority of borecores sampled to date. These tills are underlain by Empress Formation sediments and/or Colorado Group shales, and overlain by normally magnetized sediments. Both tills contain substantial weathering horizons at their surface, suggesting that interglacial or nonglacial conditions persisted for some time after each period of till deposition. Whether these tills represent a single Early Pleistocene glaciation, or perhaps two, will require additional borecore measurements. This new record of Early Pleistocene glaciation(s) in east-central Alberta places the westernmost extent of earliest Laurentide ice some 300 km farther westward from its previously established limit in the Saskatoon to Regina region of the western Canadian prairies, but still well short of the all-time limit and elevation reached during the Late Wisconsin (Late Pleistocene) in the foothills of the Alberta and Montana Rocky Mountains. Key Words: East-Central Alberta glacial history, Early Pleistocene (Laurentide) glaciation, till magnetostratigraphy, Quaternary history of Western Canadian Prairies, continental glaciations of North America.

  18. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed.

  19. A survey of the selenium status of beef cows in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J R; Jim, G K; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T

    1995-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Alberta to measure the selenium status in blood of beef cows during the fall and to determine the risk of selenium deficiency among specific geographic regions of Alberta. Three census divisions of Alberta based on the Statistics Canada Census of Agriculture were chosen as the study areas for the project. Soils and plants in area A (Edmonton area) and area B (Calgary area) were known to be deficient in selenium, while soils and plants in area C (southeast corner of Alberta) were known to have adequate levels of selenium. Blood samples were collected from 335 cows on 29 farms from the 3 study areas. These samples were collected from cows that had recently been removed from pasture in October and November 1992. Answers to a short questionnaire pertaining to various herd characteristics and management practices were also obtained for each herd. The average value of selenium for all cows sampled was 2.20 mumol/L. The average value of selenium of cows in areas A and B was 1.93 mumol/L. The average value of selenium of cows in area C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at 2.70 mumol/L. Nine percent of the cows in the study were considered marginal or deficient in selenium (< 1.27 mumol/L selenium). Herds located in area C, herds that were provided with supplemental feed on pasture, and herds that were pregnancy checked had higher average herd selenium values than did other herds. Cow-calf producers located in areas with selenium-deficient soils should pay particular attention to selenium supplementation for their cows. Some of the negative "geographic" effects on selenium values can be overcome by more progressive management practices. Images Figure 1. PMID:8590424

  20. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in Alberta: Two years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Lilley, Margaret; Christian, Susan; Hume, Stacey; Scott, Patrick; Montgomery, Mark; Semple, Lisa; Zuberbuhler, Peter; Tabak, Joan; Bamforth, Fiona; Somerville, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, Alberta became the first province in Canada to introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) to its newborn screening program. The Alberta protocol involves a two-tier algorithm involving an immunoreactive trypsinogen measurement followed by molecular analysis using a CF panel for 39 mutations. Positive screens are followed up with sweat chloride testing and an assessment by a CF specialist. Of the 99,408 newborns screened in Alberta during the first two years of the program, 221 had a positive CF newborn screen. The program subsequently identified and initiated treatment in 31 newborns with CF. A relatively high frequency of the R117H mutation and the M1101K mutation was noted. The M1101K mutation is common in the Hutterite population. The presence of the R117H mutation has created both counselling and management dilemmas. The ability to offer CF transmembrane regulator full sequencing may help resolve diagnostic dilemmas. Counselling and management challenges are created when mutations are mild or of unknown clinical significance. PMID:22043142

  1. Off-grid in a cold city: The Alberta sustainable home

    SciTech Connect

    Rieger, T.; Byrne, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Alberta Sustainable Home is a new suburban three-bedroom house and office that will soon be independent of the sewer, electric, and water systems. Located in the cold, dry, sunny climate of Calgary, AB, the home is now demonstrating the feasibility of environmentally sustainable, cost-saving devices-from Eco-studs in the framework to graywater heat recovery devices. Although it was built for about the same price as a comparable conventional home, the Alberta Sustainable Home has received a preferential mortgage rate, is expected to have an unusually high resale value, and will cost about $1,500 per year (Canadian) less for utilities. The Alberta Sustainable Home was built privately by Autonomous and Sustainable Housing Incorporated (ASH), in partnership with some 215 companies worldwide. Construction began in September 1993, and the designers and builders have lived and worked in the building since April 1994. Topics include the following: space and water heating; airtight construction; insulation; windows; refrigeration; saving water; low embodied energy; retrofitting; pollutant control; less power.

  2. Alberta Healthy Living Program--a model for successful integration of chronic disease management services.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Louise; Britten, Judith; Davachi, Shahnaz; Knight, Holly

    2013-08-01

    The most common presentation of chronic disease is multimorbidity. Disease management strategies are similar across most chronic diseases. Given the prevalence of multimorbidity and the commonality in approaches, fragmented single disease management must be replaced with integrated care of the whole person. The Alberta Healthy Living Program, a community-based chronic disease management program, supports adults with, or at risk for, chronic disease to improve their health and well being. Participants gain confidence and skills in how to manage their chronic disease(s) by learning to understand their health condition, make healthy eating choices, exercise safely and cope emotionally. The program includes 3 service pillars: disease-specific and general health patient education, disease-spanning supervised exercise and Better Choices, Better Health(TM) self-management workshops. Services are delivered in the community by an interprofessional team and can be tailored to target specific diverse and vulnerable populations, such as Aboriginal, ethno-cultural and francophone groups and those experiencing homelessness. Programs may be offered as a partnership between Alberta Health Services, primary care and community organizations. Common standards reduce provincial variation in care, yet maintain sufficient flexibility to meet local and diverse needs and achieve equity in care. The model has been implemented successfully in 108 communities across Alberta. This approach is associated with reduced acute care utilization and improved clinical indicators, and achieves efficiencies through an integrated, disease-spanning patient-centred approach.

  3. Rural Alberta thrombolysis study. Survey of practice patterns for managing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, H.; Norheim, J. K.; Renger, R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine current practice patterns for managing acute myocardial infarction in rural Alberta, particularly to examine the availability of thrombolytic therapy. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire based on a clinical vignette. SETTING: All 104 acute care hospitals in rural Alberta with fewer than 100 beds. PARTICIPANTS: The Chief of Staff at each hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of hospitals providing thrombolytic therapy, choice of thrombolytic agent, rates of elective transfer after thrombolysis, and barriers preventing universal use of thrombolytic therapy. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 101 physicians. Three hospitals had no medical staff. Thrombolytic therapy was available in 80.8% of the hospitals. Hospitals that did not offer thrombolysis were smaller (average bed capacity 21.9 versus 37.7, P < 0.001), had fewer medical staff (average number 2.4 versus 5.5, P < 0.001), and had fewer nurses holding Advanced Cardiac Life Support certification (P = 0.015) than hospitals providing thrombolysis. Physicians identified inadequate nursing resources as the greatest barrier to providing thrombolysis. Of physicians using thrombolysis, 71.4% chose streptokinase. Half of the physicians preferred elective transfer after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction is standard practice in small hospitals in Alberta. PMID:7647623

  4. Utilization of a molecular serotyping method for Salmonella enterica in a routine laboratory in Alberta Canada.

    PubMed

    Ferrato, Christina; Chui, Linda; King, Robin; Louie, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common enteric pathogens related to foodborne illness. Alberta's Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) provides Outbreak and Surveillance support by performing serotyping. The Check&Trace Salmonella™ (CTS) assay (Check-Points, Netherlands), a commercial DNA microarray system, can determine the serotype designation of a Salmonella isolate with automated interpretation. Here we evaluate 1028 Salmonella isolates of human clinical or environmental sources in Alberta, Canada with the CTS assay. CTS was able to assign a serovar to 98.7% of the most frequently occurring human clinical strains in Alberta (82.5% overall), and 71.7% of isolates which were inconclusive by conventional methods. There was 99.7% concordance in environmental isolates. The CTS database has potential to expand to identify rare serovars. With the anticipated shift to molecular methods for identification, CTS provides an easy transition and demonstrates ease-of-use and reduces the turn-around-time of a reported result significantly compared to classical serotyping.

  5. Development, testing and implementation of an emergency services methodology in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Eliasoph, H; Ashdown, C

    1995-01-01

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to mandate reporting of hospital-based emergency services. This reporting is based on a workload measurement system that groups emergency visits into five discreet workload levels/classes driven by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Other related workload measurement variables are incorporated, including admissions, transfers, maintenance monitoring, nursing and non-nursing patient support activities, trips, staff replacement, and personal fatigue and delay. The methodology used to design the reporting system has been subjected to extensive testing, auditing and refinement. The results of one year of province-wide data collection yielded approximately 1.5 million emergency visits. These data reveal consistent patterns/trends of workload that vary by hospital size and type. Although this information can assist in utilization management efforts to predict and compare workload and staffing levels, the impetus for establishing this system derived from its potential for funding hospital-based emergency services. This would be the first time that such services would be funded on a systemic, system-wide basis whereby hospitals would be reimbursed in relation to workload. This proposed funding system would distribute available funding in a consistent, fair and equitable manner across all hospitals providing a similar set of services, thus achieving one of the key goals of the Alberta Acute Care Funding Plan. Ultimately, this proposed funding methodology would be integrated into a broader Ambulatory Care Funding system currently being developed in Alberta.

  6. An investigation of risk factors for nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Gerald W.; Schoonderwoerd, Matthew; Schipper, Casey

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken during the summer of 1989 in central Alberta dairy herds to identify independent predictors of nocardial mastitis. Thirty-seven herds with nocardial mastitis were matched with control herds based on herd size, milk production, and enrolment in Alberta Dairy Herd Improvement Services. Control herds were considered free of nocardial mastitis based on negative cultures of four weekly bulk tank milk samples and one composite milk sample collected during the same period from each lactating cow in the herd. A detailed questionnaire on herd management was completed during farm visits. The use of blanket dry cow therapy was not found to be a risk factor for nocardial mastitis. Dry cow therapy with intramammary products containing neomycin and the use of multidose vials of dry cow medications were the only predisposing factors identified as being significantly associated with nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds. Use of neomycin as a dry cow therapy increased the odds of nocardial mastitis occurring in these dairy herds by 169 times. PMID:17423768

  7. Exploration potential of the Mesozoic section in the outer Foothills, Waterton area, southwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, D.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Waterton Foothills (T1-8, R27W4-3W5M) indicates that the Alberta and lower Blairmore Groups hold hydrocarrbon potential near the south of the international border. Prospective units are sublitharenites-litharenties and lithic pebble conglomerates that range in thickness from 5 to 25 m. Thrust faults duplicate all or part of these units and can account for up to six repetitions of sandstone and conglomerate at one locality. Surface geological mapping at a scale of 1:50,000 formed the basis for the subsurface study. Subsurface information included 150 well logs, eight cores, and chip sampels from 18 wells. These data were used in a structural interpretation along with projected surface data and seismic. Structural geometires are shown by two balanced and palinspastically restored structural cross sections. Units within the Alberta and Blairmore groups have tested/showed oil, condensate, and gas throughout the study area. When put into a structural and stratigraphic framework, potential areas for hydrocarbon exploration can be delineated in the footwall of the Harland Lakes/Livingstone thrust where the Cardium sandstone has been shown to be well developed. Key hydrocarbon shows are confined to the same structural level in the Blairmore and Alberta groups (including the Beaver Mines, Cardium, and Blacksone formations and possibly the Cadomin Formation).

  8. Statistical Analysis of Drought Indices and Drought Monitoring for Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Dai, Q.; Yin, H.; Howard, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation discusses a statistical analysis of six drought indices for monitoring Alberta drought events from 1901 to 2000. The data used are the interpolated daily precipitation data on the 149 ecodistrict polygons over Alberta. The analyzed indices are standardized precipitation index, rainfall anomaly index, rainfall decile index, standardized anomaly index, principal component index, and optimal index. The historically documented drought records of five sites (Beaver Lodge, Lacombe, Lethbridge, Vegreville, and Swift Current [in Saskatchwan]) are classified into drought categories D4, D3, ?, D0, and wet categories D1, -D2, and D3. The thresholds of the drought categories for different indices are calculated. The wheat drought of Canada's Palliser Triangle was used as a validation analysis of the drought indices. The transitional probability of drought categories from one week to the next is calculated. Some discussions on the theory of calculating SPI are included. It has been found that the while all the drought indices are highly correlated with precipitation, the PCI has the highest correlation. The transitional probability analysis for the south Alberta agricultural region shows that the chance of transition from normal to extremely dry is highest in the mid May, hence this region's spring seeding is extremely vulnerable to precipitation and an effective irrigation system is of great importance to the early stages of crop development.

  9. Geothermal investigation of Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin/Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weides, S.; Moeck, I.; Majorowicz, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study explores Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin with regard to their usability as geothermal reservoirs. The research area of this regional scale study is approx. 150 km * 200 km in size and located around the city of Edmonton. A 3D geological model is developed based on stratigraphic picks of more than 7000 wells from the Alberta general well data file. The model consists of 20 different geological units, of which 14 belong to the Paleozoic succession. Spatial distribution and thickness of formations is analysed with help of the 3D modelling study. Due to its depth and its distribution throughout the whole study area, the Cambrian Basal Sandstone formation is the most promising horizon for a geothermal development. Porosity and horizontal permeability of four Devonian carbonate formations - Cooking Lake, Leduc, Nisku and Wabamun - is mapped by reinvestigation of more than 50,000 core analyses from the Alberta general well data file. Average porosity of the Devonian ranges from 5.2 % (Nisku) to 10.4 % (Wabamun), average horizontal permeability is between 5 mD (Cooking Lake) and 142 mD (Leduc). In parts of the Devonian formations a vuggy porosity exists, as analysis of cores has shown. This locally high porosity and permeability zones are not fully covered by the core measurements. Since logging and core analysis data of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone are rare, properties of this formation are measured on core samples with probe permeametry, gas permeametry and helium pycnometry. First results show an average porosity of 11.1 % and an average horizontal permeability of 1.4 mD. Further investigation of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone in Central Alberta is planned, including analysis of thin sections and geomechanical testing. Surface temperatures of Cambrian and Devonian strata are calculated, based on a newly calculated geothermal gradient and the reservoir depth range derived from the 3D model. Temperature in the Cambrian Basal Sandstone

  10. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  11. Do “Virtual” and “Outpatient” Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard; Heffernan, Courtney; Gao, Zhiwei; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Talbot, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB) elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a “virtual” model is attractive. However, whether “virtual” clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the “virtual” and “outpatient” public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population. Methods In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators. Findings In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively. Conclusions Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise

  12. Demand-supply dynamics in tourism systems: A spatio-temporal GIS analysis. The Alberta ski industry case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertazzon, Stefania

    The present research focuses on the interaction of supply and demand of down-hill ski tourism in the province of Alberta. The main hypothesis is that the demand for skiing depends on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the population living in the province and outside it. A second, consequent hypothesis is that the development of ski resorts (supply) is a response to the demand for skiing. From the latter derives the hypothesis of a dynamic interaction between supply (ski resorts) and demand (skiers). Such interaction occurs in space, within a range determined by physical distance and the means available to overcome it. The above hypotheses implicitly define interactions that take place in space and evolve over time. The hypotheses are tested by temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal regression models, using the best available data and the latest commercially available software. The main purpose of this research is to explore analytical techniques to model spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal dynamics in the context of regional science. The completion of the present research has produced more significant contributions than was originally expected. Many of the unexpected contributions resulted from theoretical and applied needs arising from the application of spatial regression models. Spatial regression models are a new and largely under-applied technique. The models are fairly complex and a considerable amount of preparatory work is needed, prior to their specification and estimation. Most of this work is specific to the field of application. The originality of the solutions devised is increased by the lack of applications in the field of tourism. The scarcity of applications in other fields adds to their value for other applications. The estimation of spatio-temporal models has been only partially attained in the present research. This apparent limitation is due to the novelty and complexity of the analytical methods applied. This opens new

  13. Use of Seismic and Magnetic Surveys in a Regional Geophysical Study for Geothermal Exploration in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I.

    2012-12-01

    NE Alberta hosts many producing oil sand projects. These projects require large amounts of thermal energy to produce most of which is currently provided by burning natural gas; and this increases the greenhouse gas footprint to producing such hydrocarbons. One possible solution is to instead use geothermal heat directly with hot fluids produced using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). Geothermal exploration always starts with broad geological structure reconnaissance of the area. Unfortunately, the larger geological context particularly beneath those relatively shallow depths (typically less than 400 m) of interest to hydrocarbon exploration, is still poorly understood. As such, we have selected a rectangular area of 22000 km2 extending across 56.25 to 57.12N and 111.92 to 113.52W that we refer to as the Athabasca region. . The main two categories of data which are in used consist of over 600 km seismic reflection profiles and 22,000 km2 high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. Also there is a large amount of available well-logs from 1,000 boreholes in this area that have a key role in interpretation of seismic profiles. These integrated data sets are used for outlining sedimentary basin, mapping geological formation tops, locating fault zones and other structural lineaments, finding true depth of metamorphic basement and Curie point, and finally building a geological model of the region. To date all the formation tops are mapped through the area and picked on the seismic profiles. HRAM data is gridded using minimum curvature method. Some structural lineaments are picked on the HRAM data including a great NE-SW fault zone which is in agreement with seismic and well-logs. Additionally, the region hosts interesting geological features such as channels, pinnacle reefs and unconformities that are distinguishable on seismic profiles. Any of these findings help us to get a better view of the region for geothermal exploration.

  14. A Comprehensive Land-Use/Hydrological Modeling System for Scenario Simulations in the Elbow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J.

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km2 and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  15. Historical and potential changes of precipitation and temperature of Alberta subjected to climate change impact: 1900-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao

    2017-02-01

    We investigated changes to precipitation and temperature of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate change on precipitation and temperature of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and temperature were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed temperature showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 °C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could change from -25 to 36 %, while the temperature would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 °C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while temperature is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and temperature. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for

  16. Historical and potential changes of precipitation and temperature of Alberta subjected to climate change impact: 1900-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes to precipitation and temperature of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate change on precipitation and temperature of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and temperature were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed temperature showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 °C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could change from -25 to 36 %, while the temperature would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 °C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while temperature is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and temperature. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for

  17. Cattle and the oil and gas industry in Alberta: A literature review with recommendations for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to bring together a review of published information on the potential effects of upstream oil and gas industry operations on the cattle industry in Alberta, some indication of the probability of occurrence of these effects, and recommendations on how they might be avoided or mitigated. Based on reviews of scientific papers and industry good-practice manuals, the report describes: The sources and quantities of environmental contaminants generated by Alberta`s oil and gas industry, including normal operations, accidental releases, and the effects of aging infrastructure; the chemical composition of the products, materials, and wastes associated with the industry; the fate and transport of the contaminants through air, water, and soil; cattle operations in Alberta; the toxicology of oil and gas industry contaminants in cattle; and selected Alberta case studies of accidental releases and planned experiments. Conclusions and recommendations deal with critical information gaps and strategies for the sustainable management of cattle and oil/gas operations in the province.

  18. Deep 3-D seismic reflection imaging of Precambrian sills in the crystalline crust of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welford, Joanna Kim

    2005-07-01

    Using deep 3-D seismic reflection datasets collected by the Canadian petroleum exploration industry in southwestern and northwestern Alberta, the Head-Smashed-In and Winagami Precambrian sill complexes within the crystalline upper crust, previously identified on Lithoprobe 2-D multichannel reflection lines, are investigated to determine their 3-D geometries and reflective characteristics. During seismic processing of the dataset in southwestern Alberta, a recently developed wavelet-based method, Physical Wavelet Frame Denoising, is applied and shown to successfully suppress ground roll contamination while preserving low frequency signals from deeper structures. A new 3-D empirical trace interpolation scheme, DSInt, is developed to address the problem of spatial aliasing associated with 3-D data acquisition. Results from applying the algorithm to both datasets are comparable to available interpolation codes while allowing for greater flexibility in the handling of irregular acquisition geometries and interpolated trace headers. Evidence of the Head-Smashed-In reflector in southwestern Alberta is obtained using a dataset acquired to 8 s TWTT (approx. 24 km depth). From locally coherent, discontinuous pockets of basement reflectivity, the dataset appears to image the tapering western edge of the deep reflections imaged by Lithoprobe. A statistical approach of tracking reflectivity is developed and applied to obtain the spatial and temporal distribution of reflections. Simple 1-D forward modelling results reveal that the brightest reflections likely arise from a 50 to 150 m thick body of high density/high velocity material although variations in the amplitudes and lateral distribution of the reflections indicate that the thickness of the sills is laterally variable. Thus, the results are consistent with imaging the tapering edge of the sill complex. Clear evidence of the Winagami reflection sequence in northwestern Alberta, emerges from the second dataset acquired to 5

  19. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  20. Mapping groundwater storage variations with GRACE: a case study in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Rivera, Alfonso; Palombi, Dan; Smerdon, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The applicability of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to adequately represent broad-scale patterns of groundwater storage (GWS) variations and observed trends in groundwater-monitoring well levels (GWWL) is examined in the Canadian province of Alberta. GWS variations are derived over Alberta for the period 2002-2014 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models. Twelve mean monthly GWS variation maps are generated from the 139 monthly GWS variation grids to characterize the annual GWS variation pattern. These maps show that, overall, GWS increases from February to June, and decreases from July to October, and slightly increases from November to December. For 2002-2014, the GWS showed a positive trend which increases from west to east with a mean value of 12 mm/year over the province. The resulting GWS variations are validated using GWWLs in the province. For the purpose of validation, a GRACE total water storage (TWS)-based correlation criterion is introduced to identify groundwater wells which adequately represent the regional GWS variations. GWWLs at 36 wells were found to correlate with both the GRACE TWS and GWS variations. A factor f is defined to up-scale the GWWL variations at the identified wells to the GRACE-scale GWS variations. It is concluded that the GWS variations can be mapped by GRACE and the GLDAS models in some situations, thus demonstrating the conditions where GWS variations can be detected by GRACE in Alberta.

  1. Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

    1999-01-01

    Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of subbituminous coals from the Red Deer River Valley, Alberta Plains, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.

    1998-11-01

    Coals and associated carbonaceous strata along the Red Deer River Valley in Alberta have a wide variation in boron concentrations (10--628 ppm). Boron concentrations decrease from bottom to top of the coal-bearing succession, closely reflecting changes in depositional environment conditions. These changes range from subaquatic deposition in the delta plain area and influence of brackish waters due to a marine transgression, to deposition in areas removed from any brackish water influence. There is good agreement between boron variation and depositional environment as interpreted from regional geology. However, the relation between boron and sulfur is not clear; samples with high boron concentrations are high in sulfur while low boron samples also have high sulfur. Compared to mean concentrations in world coals, some of the highest elemental concentrations measured in coals of this study are: As (38.0 ppm), Ba (2800 ppm), Cr (91.0 ppm), Mn (232 ppm), and V (209 ppm). There is a similarity in the vertical variation of the elements Th and Hf, while bentonite layers are enriched in Ba and Sr, pointing to the presence of gorceixite. No enrichment of REEs was observed in the bentonite layers. A comparison of elemental concentration to world mean values for coals shows that the RDRV coals are elevated in As (up to 4{times}), Cr (up to 12 {times}), Mn (up to 4 {times}), Mo (up to 12 {times}), Th (up to 5 {times}), V (up to 12 {times}) and Zn (up to 5 {times}). Compared to coals from the eastern Alberta Plains of similar rank, age, and depositional environment, the RDRV coals have higher or similar concentrations of all elements of environmental significance, with the exception of Be and Pb. When compared to coals of similar rank in the western Alberta plains deposited under freshwater conditions, the RDRV coals have higher concentration of As, B, Ba, Sb, and Sr, similar concentrations of Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Th, and U, and lower concentrations of Ni.

  3. A Hybrid Ground-Motion Prediction Equation for Earthquakes in Western Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spriggs, N.; Yenier, E.; Law, A.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of ground-motion amplitudes that may be produced by future earthquakes constitutes the foundation of seismic hazard assessment and earthquake-resistant structural design. This is typically done by using a prediction equation that quantifies amplitudes as a function of key seismological variables such as magnitude, distance and site condition. In this study, we develop a hybrid empirical prediction equation for earthquakes in western Alberta, where evaluation of seismic hazard associated with induced seismicity is of particular interest. We use peak ground motions and response spectra from recorded seismic events to model the regional source and attenuation attributes. The available empirical data is limited in the magnitude range of engineering interest (M>4). Therefore, we combine empirical data with a simulation-based model in order to obtain seismologically informed predictions for moderate-to-large magnitude events. The methodology is two-fold. First, we investigate the shape of geometrical spreading in Alberta. We supplement the seismic data with ground motions obtained from mining/quarry blasts, in order to gain insights into the regional attenuation over a wide distance range. A comparison of ground-motion amplitudes for earthquakes and mining/quarry blasts show that both event types decay at similar rates with distance and demonstrate a significant Moho-bounce effect. In the second stage, we calibrate the source and attenuation parameters of a simulation-based prediction equation to match the available amplitude data from seismic events. We model the geometrical spreading using a trilinear function with attenuation rates obtained from the first stage, and calculate coefficients of anelastic attenuation and site amplification via regression analysis. This provides a hybrid ground-motion prediction equation that is calibrated for observed motions in western Alberta and is applicable to moderate-to-large magnitude events.

  4. Thermal history of Alberta deep basin: a comparative study of fluid inclusion and vitrinite reflectance data

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, B.J.; Nesbitt, B.E.; Longstaffe, F.J.

    1989-03-01

    The thermal history of the Alberta Deep basin, the gas-saturated westernmost part of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, has been studied by analyzing fluid inclusions in diagenetic cements and comparing the results with coal maturity data. Analyses of fluid inclusions in diagenetic quartz and calcite cements from Lower Cretaceous conglomerates and sandstones indicate that the fluids which precipitated these minerals attained temperatures of at least 190/degree/C. These fluids had salinities of 2-3 wt % equivalent NaCl and were CH/sub 4/ saturated. Time-temperature calculations for vitrinite reflectance data from coal interbeds using the Lopatin-Waples method indicate maximum burial temperatures of only 145/degree/-155/degree/C. The discrepancy in the results from the two types of temperature determinations suggests that either fluids in the conglomerates were 40/degree/C hotter than the ambient rock temperature or the correlation of coal maturity with maximum burial temperature is inaccurate. If the first scenario is correct, hot fluids would have had to have moved through permeable conglomerate beds and bedding plane fractures at a rate fast enough such that their heat was not substantially dissipated along the pathway. If the second scenario is correct, a paleogeothermal gradient of 38/degree/c/km (vs. the present-day 27/degree/C/km) is indicated and a time-temperature index can be calibrated to vitrinite reflectance data specifically for the Alberta Deep basin (1.4 % R/sub 0/ correlates to 190/degree/C). With the available data, neither scenario can be conclusively proven. In either case, unexpectedly high temperatures (190/degree/C) indicate the redistribution of heat by fluid flow in the Falher and Cadotte Members in the Alberta Deep basin.

  5. The upper Bow Island (Blackleaf) Formation of southwestern Alberta: Geological aspects and exploration approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.; Christensen, S.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The upper parts of the Bow Island Formation (Albian) of southwestern Alberta are significant gas reservoirs. The main westernmost reservoir zone is part of a complex package of interbedded lenticular sandstones, mudstones, and localized chert pebble conglomerates. The depositional setting for these sediments comprised a wave-dominated shoreline with conglomerates found proximal to drowned river mouths. The coarse nature of the upper Bow Island is related to tectonic movements associated with Crowsnest (Vaughn) volcanism. Conglomerates form the most impressive Bow Island reservoirs because of their thickness (up to 25 m) and petrophysical properties (17% porosity, 24 d permeability). Diagenesis dominantly comprises compaction features within grain-supported conglomerates. Increasing quartz content is related to decreasing grain size and is associated with porosity occlusion by quartz overgrowths. Bow Island reservoirs in southwestern Alberta are cool (under 50C) and significantly underpressured (0.2 psi). The high permeabilities and low pressures at depths of 1,000 to 1,500 m suggest the potential for formation damage is high, and many wells in the region were targeted for deeper, high-pressure zones. In spite of the low pressures, however, many Bow Island wells are capable of excellent gas deliveries with individual well recoveries of up to 10 bcf. All significant Bow Island porosity in the deepest, undisturbed parts of southwestern Alberta is gas saturated with updip aquifers flanking the gas. Seismic definition of the thickest Bow Island targets is feasible but has been hampered, in part, by difficult surface conditions and a prior emphasis on deeper targets.

  6. Short-Term Influence of Revised Provincial Accreditation Standards on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Weight Status in Alberta, Canada Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, revised Alberta child care accreditation standards were released by the Alberta Government in Canada that included a new standard for physical activity and sedentary behavior in accredited child care settings. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the new accreditation standard in increasing physical…

  7. Probable Ankylosaur Ossicles from the Middle Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of Northwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michael E.; Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    A sample of six probable fragmentary ankylosaur ossicles, collected from Cenomanian deposits of the Dunvegan Formation along the Peace River, represent one of the first dinosaurian skeletal fossils reported from pre-Santonian deposits in Alberta. Specimens were identified as ankylosaur by means of a palaeohistological analysis. The primary tissue is composed of zonal interwoven structural fibre bundles with irregularly-shaped lacunae, unlike the elongate lacunae of the secondary lamellar bone. The locality represents the most northerly Cenomanian occurrence of ankylosaur skeletal remains. Further fieldwork in under-examined areas of the province carries potential for additional finds. PMID:24816807

  8. Application of business case analysis in planning a province-wide telehealth network in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Weaver, L; Spence, D

    2000-01-01

    A strategy for implementing telemedicine throughout Alberta was developed. The model was based on a comprehensive evaluation of the four clinical specialties chosen as representative telemedicine services--radiology, psychiatry, emergency services and continuing education. The goals of the telemedicine network were to improve access to health services, provide support for rural health-care providers and increase the efficiency of specialized services. The findings showed that the success factors in a national telemedicine programme depend on a clear organizational structure, with appropriate technical standards and support.

  9. Eugenics in the community: gendered professions and eugenic sterilization in Alberta, 1928-1972.

    PubMed

    Samson, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Scholarship on Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act (1928-1972) has focused on the high-level politics behind the legislation, its main administrative body, the Eugenics Board, and its legal legacy, overlooking the largely female-dominated professions that were responsible for operating the program outside of the provincial mental health institutions. This paper investigates the relationship between eugenics and the professions of teaching, public health nursing, and social work. It argues that the Canadian mental hygiene and eugenics movements, which were fundamentally connected, provided these professions with an opportunity to maintain and extend their professional authority.

  10. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel; Van Niekerk, Drew; Gagné, France; Gilleard, John; Kutz, Susan; Lobingier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. PMID:22654137

  11. Report from the 17th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Edmonton, Alberta; 11–12 September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, K.E.; Ahmed, S.; Davies, J.D.; Doll, C.M.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Lim, H.; McFadden, A.; McGhie, J.P.; Park, J.; Wong, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 17th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference (wcgccc) was held in Edmonton, Alberta, 11–12 September 2015. The wcgccc is an interactive multidisciplinary conference attended by health care professionals from across Western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) who are involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of gastric cancer. PMID:28050139

  12. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients’ examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Methods: Total number of patients’ charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Results: Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries. PMID:27398104

  13. Soil moisture dynamics and forest fire risk in the Upper North Saskatchewan Watershed, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Vicenza, S. A.; Byrne, J. M.; Letts, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    The key objective of this research is to assess soil moisture dynamics and forest fire risk as part of an ongoing study assessing water quantity and quality in the Upper North Saskatchewan watershed. The 20, 000 km2 watershed is located in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Alberta. Forest fires are becoming an increasing concern as climate change advances along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, as well as for mountain landscapes worldwide. Global climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns and intensities and increase temperatures. Rising temperatures can cause decreases in soil moisture and as a result, drier forests and organic soils. The hypothesis to be tested is - will global warming lead to greater forest fire index values (greater risk) and greater duration of high risk index values? A range of climate change scenarios has been chosen to predict potential effects on future forest fire risk for over 900 distinct terrain categories (TC) in the watershed. The goal of this research is to further develop a methodology for predicting the potential frequency or probability of forest fire occurrence. The GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) hydrometeorology model and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System are being combined to assess possible changes in forest fire occurrence and extent in mountain environments.

  14. Concurrent Validity Between Live and Home Video Observations Using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Ellen; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Nuysink, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Serial assessment of gross motor development of infants at risk is an established procedure in neonatal follow-up clinics. Assessments based on home video recordings could be a relevant addition. Methods: In 48 infants (1.5-19 months), the concurrent validity of 2 applications was examined using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: (1) a home video made by parents and (2) simultaneous observation on-site by a pediatric physical therapist. Parents' experiences were explored using a questionnaire. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient agreement between live and home video assessment was 0.99, with a standard error of measurement of 1.41 items. Intra- and interrater reliability: intraclass correlation coefficients were more than 0.99. According to 94% of the parents, recording their infant's movement repertoire was easy to perform. Conclusion: Assessing the Alberta Infant Motor Scale based on home video recordings is comparable to assessment by live observation. The video method is a promising application that can be used with low burden for parents and infants. PMID:28350771

  15. InSAR Monitoring of Surface Deformation in Alberta's Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Shipman, T.; Froese, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Alberta's oil sands are among the world's largest deposits of crude oil, and more than 80% of it is too deep to mine, so unconventional in-situ methods are used for extraction. Most in situ extraction techniques, such as Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), use steam injection to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen, allowing it to flow into wells to be pumped to the surface. As part of the oil sands safety and environmental monitoring program, the energy regulator uses satellite radar to monitor surface deformation associated with in-situ oil extraction. The dense vegetation and sparse infrastructure in the boreal forest of northern Alberta make InSAR monitoring a challenge; however, we have found that surface heave associated with steam injection can be detected using traditional differential InSAR. Infrastructure and installed corner reflectors also allow us to use persistent scatterer methods to obtain time histories of deformation at individual sites. We have collected and processed several tracks of RADARSAT-2 data over a broad area of the oil sands, and have detected surface deformation signals of approximately 2-3 cm per year, with time series that correlate strongly with monthly SAGD steam injection volumes.

  16. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  17. Lagoon and tidal flat sedimentation of the Upper Devonian Nisku Formation in southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Slingsby, A. ); Kissling, D.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Since 1985, 26 oil pools containing 64 million bbl of oil in place have been discovered in the Nisku Formation in southern Alberta. The thoroughly dolomitized Nisku Formation varies from 20 to 30 m thick in southern Alberta and northern Montana. It overlies anhydrites and shaly carbonates of the Southesk or Duperow formations and underlies anhydrites of the Stettler or Potlatch formation. Burrowed, nodular-bedded skeletal wackestone, deposited over a shallow marine shelf, forms the basal Nisku Formation. These strata are succedded diachronously and unconformably by several tidal-flat and lagoon facies that include (1) southeast-thinning washover fans of cross-bedded peloidal grainstone; (2) laminated mudstone to current-bedded peloidal and intraclastic grainstone sourced within the lagoon; (3) stromatolitic mudstones; (4) laminated anhydrite beds precipitated during salina episodes; (5) Amphipora and brachiopod wackestones and thrombolites containing Renalcis, serpulids, and ostracoes, marking a brief marine invasion; and (6) brackish or freshwater shale and mudstone containing fragmented lycopod leaves and antiarch fish remains. These sediments are overlain by cross-bedded, peloidal, and calcisiltite grainstone and stromatolitic mudstone deposited in tidal channels and over shoals. All facies have been subjected to periodic subareal exposure which has produced leaching, solution collapse brecciation, teepee structures, and nodular-mosaic and void-filling anhydrite. Permeable reservoirs exist where leached, dolomitized tidal flat and lagoon sediments contain intercrystalline and pelmoldic porosity and little anhydrite cement.

  18. Nasal bots and lice from white-tailed deer in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Douglas D; Gray, Dawn; Morton, Kim; Pybus, Margo

    2008-07-01

    Heads of 64 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, harvested in the vicinity of Magrath, Alberta, Canada, (49 degrees 24'782''N, 112 degrees 52'113''W) were examined for the presence of nasal bots and lice. The deer were collected between 8-30 January 2004 as part of a government-approved herd reduction protocol. The entire surface of each head was scanned visually for the presence of lice. Each head was split longitudinally, and the nasal passages, sinuses, and ethmoid region were washed for recovery of nasal bots. First instar Cephenemyia spp. were recovered from 17 heads (27%). Intensity of infestation ranged from 1-18 larvae (mean intensity 4.8). Among fawns, there were no significant differences in prevalence or mean intensity between the sexes. Two species of nasal bots were identified. Smaller larvae, tentatively identified as C. jellisoni, were present in 16 of 17 infested deer while larger specimens, tentatively identified as C. phobifera, were found in four deer; and in three of the four it co-occurred with C. jellisoni. The presence of C. phobifera in Alberta would represent a range extension for this species, which has not been known to occur west of North Dakota. Thirty-one fawns (48%) were infested with the sucking louse Solenopotes ferrisi. One infested fawn also had one specimen of the chewing louse, Tricholiopeurus lipeuroides.

  19. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species.

  20. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  1. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  2. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  3. Making Technology Work in Adult Education: PLATO Computer-Managed Learning at the Alberta Vocational Centre, Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.

    Because of the increasingly diversified population and needs of adult students at the Alberta Vocational Centre, a more flexible and responsible learning environment was needed. A brief effort using PLATO hardware and Basic Skills courseware for grades 3-8, and then for high school equivalency programs, was successful. However, it would have been…

  4. Mind the Gap: How a Project in Alberta Attempted to Narrow the Gap between Classroom Teachers and Language Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…

  5. Is There a Future for Nuclear Power? Wind and Emission Reduction Targets in Fossil-Fuel Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jun; Lynch, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capacity wind turbines are spread across the province. Using wind regimes for the years 2006 through 2015, we find that available wind power is less than 60% of installed capacity 98% of the time, and below 30% of capacity 74% of the time. There is only a small amount of correlation between wind speeds at different locations, but yet it remains necessary to rely on fossil fuel generation. Then, based on the results from a grid allocation model, we find that CO2 emissions can be reduced by about 30%, but only through a combination of investment in wind energy and reliance on purchases of hydropower from British Columbia. Only if nuclear energy is permitted into the generation mix would Alberta be able to meet its CO2-emissions reduction target in the electricity sector. With nuclear power, emissions can be reduced by upwards of 85%. PMID:27902712

  6. The Impact of Wildland and Structure Fire Smoke on Ambient Pollution Levels in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    An unprecedented wildfire impacted the northern Alberta city of Fort McMurray in May 2016 causing a mandatory evacuation of all residents and resulted in the loss of over 2,400 homes and businesses. An estimated two hectare wildfire was first discovered on May 1 by a fire patrol...

  7. Is There a Future for Nuclear Power? Wind and Emission Reduction Targets in Fossil-Fuel Alberta.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, G Cornelis; Duan, Jun; Lynch, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capacity wind turbines are spread across the province. Using wind regimes for the years 2006 through 2015, we find that available wind power is less than 60% of installed capacity 98% of the time, and below 30% of capacity 74% of the time. There is only a small amount of correlation between wind speeds at different locations, but yet it remains necessary to rely on fossil fuel generation. Then, based on the results from a grid allocation model, we find that CO2 emissions can be reduced by about 30%, but only through a combination of investment in wind energy and reliance on purchases of hydropower from British Columbia. Only if nuclear energy is permitted into the generation mix would Alberta be able to meet its CO2-emissions reduction target in the electricity sector. With nuclear power, emissions can be reduced by upwards of 85%.

  8. Report from the 13th annual Western canadian gastrointestinal cancer consensus conference; calgary, alberta; september 8-10, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vickers, M M; Pasieka, J; Dixon, E; McEwan, S; McKay, A; Renouf, D; Schellenberg, D; Ruether, D

    2012-12-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8-10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  9. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  10. Comprehensive survey of household radon gas levels and risk factors in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Fintan K.T.; Zarezadeh, Siavash; Dumais, Colin D.; Dumais, Karin; MacQueen, Renata; Clement, Fiona; Goodarzi, Aaron A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The inhalation of naturally occurring radon (222Rn) gas from indoor air exposes lung tissue to α-particle bombardment, a highly mutagenic form of ionizing radiation that damages DNA and increases the lifetime risk of lung cancer. We analyzed household radon concentrations and risk factors in southern Alberta, including Calgary, the third-largest Canadian metropolis. Methods: A total of 2382 residential homes (2018 in Calgary and 364 in surrounding townships) from an area encompassing 82% of the southern Alberta population were tested for radon, per Health Canada guidelines, for at least 90 days (median 103 d) between 2013 and 2016. Participants also provided home metrics (construction year, build type, foundation type, and floor and room of deployment of the radon detector) via an online survey. Homes that were subsequently remediated were retested to determine the efficacy of radon reduction techniques in the region. Results: The average indoor air radon level was 126 Bq/m3, which equates to an effective absorbed radiation dose of 3.2 mSv/yr. A total of 1135 homes (47.6%) had levels of 100 Bq/m3 or higher, and 295 homes (12.4%) had levels of 200 Bq/m3 or higher; the range was less than 15 Bq/m3 to 3441 Bq/m3. Homes built in 1992 or later had radon levels 31.5% higher, on average, than older homes (mean 142 Bq/m3 v. 108 Bq/m3). For 90 homes with an average radon level of 575 Bq/m3 before mitigation, radon suppression successfully reduced levels to an average of 32.5 Bq/m3. Interpretation: Our findings show that radon exposure is a genuine public health concern in southern Alberta, suggest that modern building practices are associated with increased indoor air radon accumulation, legitimatize efforts to understand the consequences of radon exposure to the public, and suggest that radon testing and mitigation are likely to be impactful cancer prevention strategies.

  11. Evaluation of air quality indicators in Alberta, Canada - An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada and an overall increase in economic activity in the province in recent years. An evaluation of the state of air quality was conducted in four Alberta locations - urban centers of Calgary and Edmonton, and smaller communities of Fort McKay and Fort McMurray in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). Concentration trends, diurnal hourly and monthly average concentration profiles, and exceedances of provincial, national and international air quality guidelines were assessed for several criteria air pollutants over the period 1998 to 2014. Two methods were used to evaluate trends. Parametric analysis of annual median 1h concentrations and non-parametric analysis of annual geometric mean 1h concentrations showed consistent decreasing trends for NO2 and SO2 (<1ppb per year), CO (<0.1ppm per year) at all stations, decreasing for THC (<0.1ppm per year) and increasing for O3 (≤0.52ppb per year) at most stations and unchanged for PM2.5 at all stations in Edmonton and Calgary over a 17-year period. Little consistency in trends was observed among the methods for the same air pollutants other than for THC (increasing in Fort McKay <0.1ppm per year and no trend in Fort McMurray), PM2.5 in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray (no trend) and CO (decreasing <0.1ppm per year in Fort McMurray) over the same period. Levels of air quality indicators at the four locations were compared with other Canadian and international urban areas to judge the current state of air quality. Median and annual average concentrations for Alberta locations tended to be the smallest in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray. Other than for PM2.5, Calgary and Edmonton tended to have median and annual average concentrations comparable to and/or below that of larger populated Canadian and U.S. cities, depending upon the air pollutant.

  12. 3-D Magnetotelluric studies of Pre-Cambrian basement beneath southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuis, G.; Unsworth, M.; Pana, D.; Craven, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Pre-Cambrian basement rocks beneath Alberta record the tectonic events that led to the assembly of Laurentia in the Proterozoic. Since these rocks are covered with younger sedimentary rocks, they must be investigated with geophysical methods. In the 1990s, these basement rocks were studied with a number of long-period magnetotelluric (MT) profiles collected by the Lithoprobe project. Dimensionality analysis of these data show that they appear to be two dimensional (2-D) in the period band 1-1000 s. However 2-D inversion models were unable to reproduce these MT data with a realistic resistivity model. The inversion models were very rough and characterized by many closely spaced conductors. Since the Lithoprobe data gave indications of 3-D resistivity structure, especially in the Archean Loverna block, additional MT data were collected by the University of Alberta from 2006-2010 using NIMS instruments. The goal was to develop an array that would constrain a fully 3-D model of crustal and upper mantle resistivity. The data at periods 1-10,000 s were inverted using a 3-D inversion algorithm. Comparisons between 2-D and 3-D inversions show that both models fit the measured MT data equally well. The 3-D model shows that the structure is dominated by an upper mantle conductor beneath the Loverna Block (the Loverna conductor). This conductor was previously imaged by the 2-D inversion of the Lithoprobe data. Our 3-D model shows that the Loverna conductor extends throughout the Archean Loverna block (part of the Hearne Domain) and is bounded to the south by a potential field anomaly known as the Vulcan Structure. Initial interpretations of the Vulcan Structure explained it as an intracontinental rift zone, while more recent studies show that it is more likely a north dipping subduction zone between two Archean blocks. This interpretation is supported by our 3-D resistivity model, which shows a good correlation between north dipping reflectors and the top of conductivity

  13. Geomorphology and sedimentology of hummocky terrain, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    The landscape in south-central Alberta, Canada, is dominated by a suite of landforms that formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This thesis explores the origins of those landforms, specifically hummocky terrain. Sediments in the hummocks, hummock form, and associations with other landforms are examined to determine hummock genesis. Sediment was examined from over one hundred exposures through the "Buffalo Lake Moraine" at Travers Reservoir, McGregor Reservoir, and the Little Bow River. This belt of hummocky terrain (like most hummocky terrain regions) is traditionally interpreted as forming at, or near, the stagnating margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by supraglacial letdown. However, hummocks in south-central Alberta contain a complex variety of sediments and materials atypical of supraglacial letdown: in situ bedrock, thrust bedrock, lodgement till, melt-out till, sorted sand and gravel, rippled sand, rhythmically-bedded sand, silt, and clay, and pervasively sheared beds. All sediment types and deformation structures were deposited, or formed, subglacially. Also, the deposits make up in situ stratigraphies that record the history of initial Laurentide Ice Sheet advance into the area (lodgment till and thrust bedrock), the extensive accumulation of water at the bed (glaciolacustrine beds), and ice stagnation (melt-out till). Regardless of the genesis of sediments in hummocks, sedimentary units and structures are abruptly truncated by the surface that represents the hummock and trough morphology, demonstrating that the hummocks are erosional forms and that they represent a landscape unconformity. Subglacial sediments predating the erosion and subglacial eskers overlying the erosion surface strongly suggest that hummock erosion was subglacial. Also, hummock morphology, lithostratigraphy correlated from hummock to hummock, abrupt truncation at the land surface, and widespread boulder lags support meltwater erosion for hummocky terrain in the region. Well

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  15. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  16. Deaths from exposure to paramethoxymethamphetamine in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Yarema, Mark C.; Jones, Graham R.; Martz, Walter; Purssell, Roy A.; MacDonald, Judy C.; Wishart, Ian; Durigon, Monica; Tzemis, Despina; Buxton, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine similar in structure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”), but substantially more toxic. We describe the clinical features of fatal exposures in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series on deaths in Alberta and BC between June 2011 and April 2012 for which forensic toxicologic analysis was positive for PMMA and the drug was implicated as the primary toxic agent. Data collected included patient demographics, exposure history, clinical features, investigations, therapy provided and postmortem toxicologic findings. Results A total of 27 PMMA-associated deaths (20 in Alberta, 7 in BC) were reported in the 11-month period. The median age was 24 (range 14–52) years, and 22 (81%) were male. Ten patients were pronounced dead at the scene, and 17 died in hospital. The median time from exposure to death was 17 (range 5–264) hours. The median first-recorded vital signs (and ranges) were: heart rate 160 (86–201) beats/min, blood pressure 89/43 (69/30–162/83) mm Hg, respiratory rate 40 (26–48) breaths/min, oxygen saturation 81% (68%–100%) and temperature 39.4°C (34–43.8°C). Sixteen of the 17 people who died in hospital presented with clinical features consistent with serotonin syndrome. End-organ dysfunction included hepatic (30%) and acute kidney injury (85%), rhabdomyolysis (54%), coagulopathy (61%) and cardiac ischemia (15%). Other drugs identified on toxicologic analysis were MDMA (n = 27), cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine (n = 14) and methamphetamine (n = 12). Interpretation Exposure to PMMA was characterized by multiorgan dysfunction and serotonin syndrome, followed by cardiovascular collapse. In addition to PMMA, multiple synthetic amphetamines were present on toxicologic analysis. When evaluating patients suspected of exposure to sympathomimetic drugs of abuse, clinicians must

  17. Relationship Between Interpregnancy Interval and Adverse Perinatal and Neonatal Outcomes in Northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Innie; Jhangri, Gian S; Lacasse, Michelle; Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sujata

    2015-07-01

    Contexte : Bien qu’il soit reconnu que les issues de grossesse sont associées aux intervalles intergrossesses, certaines différences sont constatées d’une population à l’autre. Cette étude avait pour objectif d’examiner l’association entre les intervalles intergrossesses et les issues périnatales et néonatales au sein d’une population canadienne, au cours des années suivant la décision qui a rendu obligatoire l’enrichissement des aliments en folate. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude auprès de 46 243 femmes qui ont mené deux grossesses monofœtales consécutives à terme dans le nord de l’Alberta entre 1999 et 2007, en utilisant un ensemble de données liées provinciales. L’accouchement préterme, le faible poids de naissance (FPN), l’hypotrophie fœtale et le décès périnatal ont été les issues périnatales sur lesquelles nous nous sommes penchés. Pour ce qui est des issues néonatales, nous nous sommes penchés sur le faible indice d’Apgar, le faible pH mis au jour par gazométrie du sang artériel, la nécessité de procéder à une réanimation néonatale ou à une admission à l’UNSI et le décès néonatal. Une régression logistique multivariée a été utilisée pour neutraliser l’effet des caractéristiques démographiques et obstétricales maternelles. Résultats : Nous avons constaté que de multiples intervalles intergrossesses ont été marqués par une hausse du risque d’accouchement préterme : un intervalle de 0 à 5 mois était associé à un rapport de cotes corrigé (RCc) de 1,37 (IC à 95 %, 1,18 - 1,59), un intervalle de 6 à 11 mois était associé à un RCc de 1,18 (IC à 95 %, 1,04 - 1,34), un intervalle de 24 à 35 mois était associé à un RCc de 1,16 (IC à 95 %, 1,02 - 1,31) et un intervalle de plus de 36 mois était associé à un RCc de 1,36 (IC à 95 %, 1,20 - 1,53), par comparaison avec l’intervalle de référence (de 12 à 17 mois). Le risque de FPN a connu une

  18. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  19. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  20. Source analysis of a potential hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquake near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Schultz, Ryan; Kim, Ahyi; Atkinson, Gail

    2016-01-01

    An earthquake with a reported magnitude of 4.4 (ML) was detected on 13 June 2015 in western central Alberta, Canada. This event was the third felt earthquake this year near Fox Creek, a shale gas exploration region. Our results from full moment tensor inversions of regional broadband data show a strong strike-slip mechanism with near-vertical fault plane solutions. The decomposition of the moment tensor solution is overwhelmingly double couple, while only a modest (˜20%) contribution is attributed to compensated-linear-vector-dipole. The depth of this earthquake is 3-4 km, near the base of the sedimentary layer, and the moment magnitude (M = 3.9) of this event is considerably smaller than the initial reported ML value. The hypocenter location, depth, and mechanism are favorable to a possible association between this earthquake and hydraulic fracturing operations within the Duvernay shale.

  1. Skull Ecomorphology of Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6–8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4–7 million km2) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which–dietary niche partitioning–forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  2. Risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in reported Campylobacter infections in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J Y M; McMullen, L M; Hasselback, P; Louie, M; Jhangri, G; Saunders, L D

    2008-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study examining risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter infections that were reported in 2004 and 2005 in two health regions in southern Alberta. The study questionnaire included questions about recent travel and antibiotic use, food consumption frequency, use of household and personal hygiene products with antibacterial agents, contact with animals, and potential misuse of antibiotics. Of the 210 patients who participated, 31.0% had ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infections. Foreign travel was the strongest predictor of resistance. Surprisingly, possession of antibiotics for future use was identified as a risk factor for resistance. We also examined the potential for participation bias and resistance misclassification to affect the resulting multivariable models. Participation bias appears to have had a substantial effect on the model results, but the estimated misclassification effect due to the use of different ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing methods was only slight.

  3. Stress drop estimates and hypocenter relocations of induced seismicity near Crooked Lake, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Fiona; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    We use a sequence of induced earthquakes near Crooked Lake, Alberta, to investigate the physical differences between induced and tectonic earthquakes. Starting with the Natural Resources Canada earthquake catalogue, we use a spectral ratio method to calculate the static stress drops of a group of relocated earthquakes ranging from December 2013 to June 2015. We find that stress drops fall within the high side of the typical reported range of tectonic events and show no correlation with earthquake magnitude, depth, or distance from the well. The stress drops appear roughly constant for events with Mw 3 to 4. Relocated hypocenters cluster both spatially and temporally around corresponding injection wells and appear to migrate deeper with increasing time from injection. Fine-scale lineations apparent in relocated hypocenters could indicate the presence and orientation of fault planes, consistent with the published focal mechanism solutions of M 4+ events in the area.

  4. Air quality over the Alberta oil sands: Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

    2011-12-01

    A vast reserve of bitumen - oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as oil sands - resides in northern Alberta, Canada. Extraction of bitumen and its upgrade to liquid fuel is very energy intensive and generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities have been used to assess the magnitude and distribution of these pollutants throughout the oil sands. Preliminary results indicate a statistically significant enhancement in both species over an area (~30 x 30 km2) of intensive surface mining. Quantifying the burden of these enhancements and their recent changes over such a small area, comparable to the resolution of the best air quality satellite instruments, represents a significant challenge. The methodology used to meet this challenge will be presented, as will initial results including trends over the past decade, comparisons with other large industrial operations, and an assessment of consistency with emission inventories.

  5. Poroelastic stress triggering of the December 2013 Crooked Lake, Alberta, induced seismicity sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kai; Liu, Yajing; Harrington, Rebecca M.

    2016-08-01

    The Crooked Lake area in Central Alberta, Canada, became seismically active in December 2013 with a sequence of earthquakes Mw 2.0 and higher. The earthquakes are suspected to be induced by hydraulic fracturing in nearby horizontal wells due to their strong spatiotemporal correlation. To investigate the physical mechanism of the induced seismicity near Crooked Lake, we calculate stress and pore pressure perturbations resulting from high-rate multistage fluid injection in the framework of linear poroelasticity. The calculated perturbations are used for seismic risk analysis based on the Coulomb failure criterion. Results show that most seismicity is within a positive Coulomb stress change regime, indicating that failure is promoted by injection of fluid. By comparing Coulomb stress results for different parameter settings, we show that elastic response of the solid matrix, instead of fluid diffusion, is more likely the dominant factor for the induced earthquakes shortly after fluid injection.

  6. Enigmatic Post-Glacial Degradation and Aggradation of Rivers on the Alberta Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowany, K. S.; osborn, G.; Wu, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers flowing eastward from the Canadian Rockies across the Alberta plains are situated in narrow flat-bottomed valleys on the order of 50 to 100 m below the plains surface. Post-Laurentide Ice Sheet river history is characterized by (a) incision into the general plains surface following deglaciation, (b) aggradation, soon thereafter, in which up to 25 m of alluvial fill was deposited in the new valleys, and (c) Holocene reincision into the fill, down to depths at least as great as those of the pre-fill valleys. This complicated history probably results from an interplay of (a) isostatic depression/ rebound, which is considered here using a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model that incorporates the RF2 and RF3 earth models described by Wang et al. (2008) with the ICE4G deglaciation model of Peltier (1994), and (b) variations in sediment flux. The initial incision post-dates the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet eastward across Alberta, ca. 14 ka, and pre-dates the ca. 11 ka alluvial fill. Incision cannot have resulted from general uplift provided by post-glacial isostatic rebound, because rebound was and is generally greater downstream where ice was thicker. Hence river gradients have generally decreased because of rebound. Incision more likely resulted from increased gradients provided by isostatic depression under the center of the ice sheet, relative to the plains gradient that would exist without ice effects. Temporary increased gradients on particular reaches of rivers were provided by the passage across Alberta of the slope of a peripheral bulge on the margin of the isostatic depression. However, some reaches of the rivers have orientations that preclude an obvious connection to bulge gradients. The switch from degradation to aggradation in early post-glacial time was proposed to be a result of decreasing river gradients due to rebound, by Kellerhals and Shaw (1982), but later considered to be a result of influx of paraglacial sediments from the Canadian

  7. Composition, Diversity, and Stability of Microbial Assemblages in Seasonal Lake Ice, Miquelon Lake, Central Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, Anna; Han, Sukkyun; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The most familiar icy environments, seasonal lake and stream ice, have received little microbiological study. Bacteria and Eukarya dominated the microbial assemblage within the seasonal ice of Miquelon Lake, a shallow saline lake in Alberta, Canada. The bacterial assemblages were moderately diverse and did not vary with either ice depth or time. The closest relatives of the bacterial sequences from the ice included Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Cyanobacteria. The eukaryotic assemblages were less conserved and had very low diversity. Green algae relatives dominated the eukaryotic gene sequences; however, a copepod and cercozoan were also identified, possibly indicating the presence of complete microbial loop. The persistence of a chlorophyll a peak at 25–30 cm below the ice surface, despite ice migration and brine flushing, indicated possible biological activity within the ice. This is the first study of the composition, diversity, and stability of seasonal lake ice. PMID:24832796

  8. "Our power to remodel civilization": the development of eugenic feminism in Alberta, 1909-1921.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race." As "mothers of the race," women in Alberta were responsible for the physical and moral betterment of the nation, and were directly engaged in concepts of intelligent motherhood, healthy childhood, and an overarching moral philosophy that was politically driven.

  9. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  10. Pesticides in fresh potatoes sold in farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Thomas S; Dimock, Rick; Bradbury, Robert W; Rieve, Richard; Fehr, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Fresh potatoes (228 samples) from 34 farmers' markets in Alberta were analyzed for 29 pesticides. Residues of three different pesticides were found in the samples tested with chlorpropham being most frequently detected (n = 13) at concentrations ranging from 15 to 7,600 μg kg(-1). Azoxystrobin (n = 11) and imidacloprid (n = 8) were found at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 5.1 and 15-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. All pesticide concentrations were below Canadian maximum residue limits as established for potatoes. No pesticide residues were detected in 23 potato samples obtained from certified organic farmers.

  11. Beginnings: The Occupational Health Program at the University of Alberta, 1984-1999.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2012-01-01

    The Occupational Health Program (OHP) at the University of Alberta played an important and pioneering role in the specialty of occupational medicine in Canada between 1984 and 1999. Its history illustrates the opportunities and obstacles in one of the smallest and most unusual medical specialties in Canada. After an auspicious beginning in 1984, with support from industry, labour, government, and the university, the OHP encountered, but overcame, many problems subsequently as a result of underfunding, organizational placement, and, after changes in leadership, interference from the provincial government department responsible for occupational health. The history of the OHP illustrates problems of small training programs and the unique problems of occupational medicine but also its potential as a model for medical training out of hospital that responds to population health as well as individual care.

  12. Tool use as adaptation.

    PubMed

    Biro, Dora; Haslam, Michael; Rutz, Christian

    2013-11-19

    Tool use is a vital component of the human behavioural repertoire. The benefits of tool use have often been assumed to be self-evident: by extending control over our environment, we have increased energetic returns and buffered ourselves from potentially harmful influences. In recent decades, however, the study of tool use in both humans and non-human animals has expanded the way we think about the role of tools in the natural world. This Theme Issue is aimed at bringing together this developing body of knowledge, gathered across multiple species and from multiple research perspectives, to chart the wider evolutionary context of this phylogenetically rare behaviour.

  13. Tool use as adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Dora; Haslam, Michael; Rutz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Tool use is a vital component of the human behavioural repertoire. The benefits of tool use have often been assumed to be self-evident: by extending control over our environment, we have increased energetic returns and buffered ourselves from potentially harmful influences. In recent decades, however, the study of tool use in both humans and non-human animals has expanded the way we think about the role of tools in the natural world. This Theme Issue is aimed at bringing together this developing body of knowledge, gathered across multiple species and from multiple research perspectives, to chart the wider evolutionary context of this phylogenetically rare behaviour. PMID:24101619

  14. Variation in management of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to Alberta, Canada hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y.; Marrie, T. J.; Carriere, K. C.; Predy, G.; Houston, C.; Ness, K.; Johnson, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown small area variation in the rate of admission to hospital for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We determined the rates of admission and length of stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Alberta and the factors influencing admission rates and length of stay. Using hospital abstracts, hospital admissions for community-acquired pneumonia from 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1999 were compared. We classified Alberta hospitals according to geographical regions, by the number of beds, and by number of community-acquired pneumonia cases. There were 12,000 annual hospital discharges for community-acquired pneumonia costing over $40 million per year. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the 1 year mortality rate was 26%. Compared with rural hospitals, regional and metropolitan hospitals admitted patients with greater severity of illness as demonstrated by greater in-hospital mortality, cost per case and comorbidity. Age-sex adjusted hospital discharge rates were significantly below the provincial average in both urban regions. Hospital discharge rates for residents in all rural regions and 4 of 5 regions with a regional hospital were significantly higher than the provincial average. After adjusting for comorbidity, the relative risk for a longer length of stay was 22% greater in regional hospitals and about 30% greater in urban hospitals compared to rural hospitals. Seasonal variation in the admission rate was evident, with higher rates in the winter of each year. We conclude that rural hospitals would be likely to benefit from a protocol to help with the admission decision and urban hospitals from a programme to reduce length of stay. PMID:12613744

  15. The Impact of Roads on the Demography of Grizzly Bears in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal factors that have reduced grizzly bear populations has been the creation of human access into grizzly bear habitat by roads built for resource extraction. Past studies have documented mortality and distributional changes of bears relative to roads but none have attempted to estimate the direct demographic impact of roads in terms of both survival rates, reproductive rates, and the interaction of reproductive state of female bears with survival rate. We applied a combination of survival and reproductive models to estimate demographic parameters for threatened grizzly bear populations in Alberta. Instead of attempting to estimate mean trend we explored factors which caused biological and spatial variation in population trend. We found that sex and age class survival was related to road density with subadult bears being most vulnerable to road-based mortality. A multi-state reproduction model found that females accompanied by cubs of the year and/or yearling cubs had lower survival rates compared to females with two year olds or no cubs. A demographic model found strong spatial gradients in population trend based upon road density. Threshold road densities needed to ensure population stability were estimated to further refine targets for population recovery of grizzly bears in Alberta. Models that considered lowered survival of females with dependant offspring resulted in lower road density thresholds to ensure stable bear populations. Our results demonstrate likely spatial variation in population trend and provide an example how demographic analysis can be used to refine and direct conservation measures for threatened species. PMID:25532035

  16. Understanding Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions Using a Paired Tracer Approach in Alberta's Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, S. A.; Silins, U.; Anderson, A.; Collins, A.; Williams, C.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains produce the majority of Alberta's surface water supply. While land disturbance affects hydrologic processes governing runoff and water quality, groundwater-surface water interactions may be an important component of catchment resistance to hydrological change. The objectives of this study were to describe reach and sub-catchment coupling of groundwater and surface water processes and to characterize the role of groundwater contribution to surface discharge across spatial and temporal scales. This research is part of Phase II of the Southern Rockies Watershed Project investigating the hydrological effects of three forest harvest treatments (clear-cutting with retention, strip cutting, and partial-cutting) in the front-range Rocky Mountains in the Crowsnest Pass, Alberta. Six nested hydrometric stations in Star Creek (10.4 km2) were used to collect pre-disturbance stream discharge and water quality data (2009-2014). Instantaneous differential streamflow gauging was conducted on reaches ~700 m in length to define stream reaches that were gaining or losing water. Constant rate tracer injection was conducted on gaining reaches to further refine regions of groundwater inputs during high flows, the recession limb of the annual hydrograph, and summer baseflows. Despite being a snow-dominated catchment, groundwater is a major contributor to annual streamflow (60 - 70 %). In general, locations of gaining and losing reaches were consistent across spatial and temporal scales of investigation. A strong losing reach in one sub-basin was observed where underflow may be responsible for the loss of streamflow along this section of the stream. However, strong groundwater upwelling was also observed in a reach lower in the catchment likely due to a "pinch-point" in topographic relief. Spatial and temporal variations in groundwater-surface water interactions are likely important factors in hydrologic resistance to land disturbance.

  17. Evaluation of the antipsychotic medication review process at four long-term facilities in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Birney, Arden; Charland, Paola; Cole, Mollie; Aslam Arain, Mubashir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this evaluation was to understand how four long-term care (LTC) facilities in Alberta have implemented medication reviews for the Appropriate Use of Antipsychotics (AUA) initiative. We aimed to determine how interprofessional (IP) collaboration was incorporated in the antipsychotic medication reviews and how the reviews had been sustained. Methods Four LTC facilities in Alberta participated in this evaluation. We conducted semistructured interviews with 18 facility staff and observed one antipsychotic medication review at each facility. We analyzed data according to the following key components that we identified as relevant to the antipsychotic medication reviews: the structure of the reviews, IP interactions between the staff members, and strategies for sustaining the reviews. Results The duration of antipsychotic medication reviews ranged from 1 to 1.5 hours. The number of professions in attendance ranged from 3 to 9; a pharmacist led the review at two sites, while a registered nurse led the review at one site and a nurse practitioner at the remaining site. The number of residents discussed during the review ranged from 6 to 20. The process at some facilities was highly IP, demonstrating each of the six IP competencies. Other facilities conducted the review in a less IP manner due to challenges of physician involvement and staff workload, particularly of health care aides. Facilities that had an nurse practitioner on site were more efficient with the process of implementing recommendations resulting from the medication reviews. Conclusion The LTC facilities were successful in implementing the medication review process and the process seemed to be sustainable. A few challenges were observed in the implementation process at two facilities. IP practice moved forward the goals of the AUA initiative to reduce the inappropriate use of antipsychotics. PMID:27785044

  18. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  19. Check the score: Field validation of Street Smart Walk Score in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; McGetrick, Jennifer Ann; Crick, Katelynn; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-12-01

    Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada. In 2015, using street-level systematic observations collected in Bonnyville, Medicine Hat, and North Central Edmonton in 2008 (part of the Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project), we reverse engineered 2181 scores with the network Walk Score® algorithm. We computed means, 95% confidence intervals, and t-tests (α = 0.05) for both sets of scores. Applying the Clifford-Richardson adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, we calculated Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients (rho, rs) and adjusted p-values to measure the strength of association between the derived scores and original network scores provided by Walk Score®. Spearman's rho for scores were very high for Bonnyville (rs = 0.950, adjusted p < 0.001), and high for Medicine Hat (rs = 0.790, adjusted p < 0.001) and North Central Edmonton (rs = 0.763, adjusted p < 0.001). High to very high correlations between derived scores and Walk Scores® field validated this metric across small, medium, and large population centres in Alberta, Canada. However, we suggest caution in interpreting Walk Score® for planning and evaluating health promotion interventions, since the strength of association between destinations and walking may vary across different municipal types.

  20. Tectonic history of Sweetgrass Arch, Montana and Alberta-key to finding new hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W. Shepard, B.

    1985-05-01

    The Sweetgrass arch of northwestern Montana and southern Alberta is a major ancient structural feature. Initial anticlinal emplacement occurred during the early Paleozoic and was parallel with the cratonic margin. Strong uplift followed by peneplanation occurred during the Late Jurassic and basal Cretaceous during the westward drifting of the North American plate following the breakup of Pangea. During Cretaceous and early Tertiary times, the Sweetgrass arch was quiescent, but was rejuvenated in mid to late Tertiary, upwarped by a basement flexure to its present structural configuration: a 200 mi (322 km) long, north-plunging anticline showing 10,000 ft (350 m) of structural relief. Midway down its plunge, the anticline is offset 30 mi (48 km) by a right-lateral transcurrent fault. During Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, plutonic uplifts were emplaced on the east flank, forming traps for oil then migrating updip from the Williston and Alberta basins. Oil and gas accumulated in Mississippian, Jurassic, and basal Cretaceous reservoirs in structural and stratigraphic traps around these plutonic uplifts. Subsequent late Tertiary doming of the Sweetgrass arch tilted the earlier structural traps and drained them, resulting in remigration of much of the oil and gas to the crest of the arch. The tilting failed to destroy many of the stratigraphic traps. As a result, down the flanks of the Sweetgrass arch are many frozen stratigraphic traps including Cut Bank field, the largest single-pay stratigraphic trap in the north Rockies. On the crest are large structure accumulations of remigrated oil at Kevin Sunburst and Pondera. Evidence of remigration is recorded by live oil show tracks in the reservoirs and remnant gas caps throughout the area of earlier accumulations. A potential exists for finding new frozen traps on the flanks and remigrated oil accumulations on or near the crest of the Sweetgrass arch.

  1. Seismic Interpretation and Well Logging Results of a Deep Borehole into the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; van der Baan, M.; Sahay, P. N.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing awareness of the need for the reduction of carbon emissions globally, geothermal energy, which offers a potential for cleaner energy generation, is one potential new source. In Alberta, these geothermal resources are likely to be found in the sedimentary basin, or in the deeper crystalline basement rocks. Alberta exhibits a very low geothermal gradient compared to other existing geothermal fields located in areas of volcanic and tectonic activity. To mitigate this effect, the focus in Alberta will involve the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in the target resource. This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production. The first goal for EGS research and development is to develop a detailed geological-geophysical characterization of selected sites to delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in Northern Alberta. One of the selected sites is in the Fort McMurray area. Using an existing deep borehole that reaches a depth of 2.3 km into the crystalline basement, our aim is to identify geological features such as zones of fractures in the basin and/or basement that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The earlier stage of our research involves re-processing of surface seismic data. This helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the geological interpretation of the subsurface, such as the locations of saline aquifers and faults that allow heat flow in the rocks, and zones of fractures that may indicate elevated porosity. Current re-processing of the seismic data displays sets of dipping reflectors which may intersect the borehole. Zero offset and walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were conducted at the borehole for direct comparison with the surface seismic sections. They are also useful in obtaining

  2. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Hammond, H.E. James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated. PMID:27199584

  3. A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot manure in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Hao, Xiying

    2007-12-01

    Composting is gaining increased acceptance as a management alternative for the large volumes of manure produced by southern Alberta's beef cattle feedlots. Research on windrow composting of feedlot manure was initiated at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1996. Early studies looked at physical and chemical changes during composting. Studies have also been conducted on greenhouse gas emissions during composting and the effect of composting on reduction of pathogens, parasites and weed seed viability. The quality of commercially-produced composts at southern Alberta feedlots has been examined as has the mineralization rates of soil-applied composts. This paper reviews results from our feedlot manure composting research program.

  4. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Victoria M; Currie, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  5. The Influence of Rotation, Tillage and Row Spacing on Near-Surface Soil Temperature for Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Larney, F. J.; Ren, Tennis L.; McGinn, Sean M.; Lindwall, C W.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-02-01

    The influence of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface soil temperature for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Rotation, tillage and row spacing and their effects on surface residue levels can modify soil temperature. Our study investigated the effect of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface (0.025 m) soil temperature under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 1993-94 and 1994-95.

  6. Euoplocephalus tutus and the Diversity of Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus. PMID:23690940

  7. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas

    2015-12-01

    Objectif : La réglementation et le financement public des techniques de procréation assistée (TPA) varient d’une province canadienne à l’autre. En Alberta, les TPA ne sont ni réglementées ni financées par les deniers publics. Nous avons mené cette étude dans le but d’évaluer la rentabilité de l’offre de TPA en Alberta et les effets d’une telle mesure sur le budget albertain en fonction de trois scénarios de politique différents (une politique « restrictive », une politique fondée sur le modèle québécois et une politique « permissive »), par comparaison avec le statu quo. Méthodes : Pour prédire la rentabilité de ces trois options de politique (prévoyant l’offre de TPA financées par les deniers publics en Alberta) et leurs effets sur le budget provincial, nous avons élaboré un modèle économique en combinant un modèle Markov (transitions d’état) et un arbre décisionnel. Le coût par nouveau-né en santé issu d’une grossesse monofœtale constituait le critère d’évaluation principal. Des analyses simples de la variance en matière de sensibilité et des analyses probabilistes ont été menées. Résultats : La politique « restrictive » a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans deux sous-groupes d’âge (< 35 ans et 35-39 ans), tandis que la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a constitué l’option la plus rentable dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans. L’analyse des effets sur le budget (jusqu’à ce que les enfants générés par le modèle ait atteint l’âge de 18 ans) a indiqué l’obtention d’économies de 8,33 millions de dollars pour ce qui est de la politique « restrictive » dans le sous-groupe des < 35 ans. Dans le sous-groupe des ≥ 40 ans, l’option de la politique fondée sur l’approche québécoise a mené à l’obtention d’économies totales de 3,75 millions de dollars. Les analyses de la sensibilité ont indiqué que les résultats modélisés

  9. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, J. M.; Sauchyn, D.; Luckman, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with 1) a generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow, and 2) a 900-year tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record.

  10. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    PubMed Central

    Sauchyn, David J.; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world’s third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record. PMID:26392554

  11. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining.

    PubMed

    Sauchyn, David J; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H

    2015-10-13

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record.

  12. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months. Methods This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected. Results Even though there was a high rate of “ever having breastfed” (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95% CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding

  13. Can Decommissioned Oil Pads in Boreal Alberta BE Reclaimed to Carbon Accumulating Peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    In northern Alberta where peatland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature, construction of oil drilling pads and access roads is a major disturbance. Reclamation of decommissioned oil pads has been hampered by the lack of research. At two decommissioned oil pads at Shell Oil’s Peace River Complex (northeastern Alberta), initially constructed in a bog/fen complex, we established a field experiment to assess reclamation approaches that could lead to a system reflecting undisturbed peatland structure (vegetation composition) and function (net carbon accumulation). In the fall of 2007, mineral soil was removed from two decommissioned pads in areas approximately 100-m x 30-m creating a mineral surface at or near the surrounding bog water table level. We established the following treatments: pad (fertilized vs. unfertilized); water table position (at and 5-cm above the surrounding bog water level); texture (tilling soil amendments into the mineral soil or not); amendment (controls; commercial peat, peat that had been stockpiled in a farmer’s field; landscape fabric; slough hay (native species hay from harvested from local farms), aspen wood chips); planting (in 1-m x 1-m subplots within 2-m x 2-m amendment plots: no planting, 9 Carex aquatilis plants, 5 C. aquatilis and 4 Salix lutea plants; 3 C. aquatilis, 3 S. lutea and 3 Larix laricina seedlings). Treatments were nested (planting within amendment, within texture, within water table level, within pad), with 6 replicate 2-m x 2-m plots of each amendment within each pad x texture x water level combination. Net CO2 exchange was quantified under a range of PAR conditions from full sunlight to complete darkness in each 1-m x 1-m planting subplot repeatedly during the summers of 2008, 2009 and 2010 using closed chambers and infrared gas analyzers. Both dark respiration and maximum net ecosystem production (NEPSAT; net CO2 sequestration when PAR>1000 μmol m-2 s-1) exhibited year x planting interactions (p<0.0001 and

  14. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  15. Melting phase relations of a mica-clinopyroxenite from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2013-08-01

    Melting experiments were conducted on a mica-clinopyroxenite xenolith brought up in a minette dyke in southern Alberta, Canada, near Milk River. Both the minettes and mica-clinopyroxenite xenoliths were studied by Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37:1629-1650, 2000), who hypothesized that the minettes formed by partial melting of a mantle source containing clinopyroxene + phlogopite ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. In liquidus experiments performed on the most primitive minette in our previous study (Funk and Luth in Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:999-1009, 2012), we found a multiple saturation point where olivine and orthopyroxene coexisted with liquid at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C. We argued that the minette originally formed by partial melting of clinopyroxene + phlogopite, but had re-equilibrated with a harzburgite during ascent. In the current study, we wanted to test both the source region hypothesis of Buhlmann et al. and our re-equilibration hypothesis by studying the near-solidus phase equilibria of a mica + clinopyroxene assemblage. We found the solidus for our xenolith has a steep slope in P-T space and lies at temperatures above those of a normal cratonic geotherm, implying that this mica-clinopyroxenite is stable in the cratonic mantle. Melting could occur at greater depths, where the solidus is extrapolated to cross the geotherm or must be induced either by raising the temperatures of the surrounding rocks or by introducing hydrous fluids into the source. Our melts are in equilibrium with clinopyroxene and olivine. The compositions of the liquids derived from melting this xenolith are similar to madupitic lamproites from the Leucite Hills, Wyoming, studied by Carmichael (Contrib Mineral Petrol 15:24-66, 1967) and Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:41-49, 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979). Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979) proposed that the madupitic lamproites may have come from a source containing mica

  16. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  17. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles.

  18. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  19. Simulating the hydrological impacts of climate change in the upper North Saskatchewan River basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Stefan W.; Nemeth, Michael W.; Byrne, James M.; MacDonald, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe ACRU agro-hydrological modeling system provided the framework, containing code to simulate all major hydrological processes, including actual evapotranspiration estimates, to simulate the impacts of climate change in the Cline River watershed, Alberta, Canada, under historical (1961-1990) and a range of future climate conditions (2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099). Whilst uncertainties in the estimation of many hydrological variables were inevitable, verification analyses carried out for the historical baseline period resulted in good to very good simulations of a range of hydrological processes, including daily air temperature, snow water equivalent and streamflow. Five climate change scenarios were selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions. In order to generate future climate time series, the 30-year baseline time series was perturbed according to predicted changes in air temperature and precipitation. Projected increases in air temperature and precipitation resulted in mean annual increases in potential and actual evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, soil moisture, and streamflow in the Cline River watershed. Increases in both high and low flow magnitudes and frequencies, and large increases to winter and spring streamflow are predicted for all climate scenarios. Spring runoff and peak streamflow were simulated to occur up to 4 weeks earlier than in the 1961-1990 baseline period. Predicted changes were simulated to progressively increase into the future. A clear shift in the future hydrological regime is predicted, with significantly higher streamflow between October and June, and lower streamflow in July-September.

  20. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  1. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  2. Supporting Teens with Chronic Pain to Obtain High School Credits: Chronic Pain 35 in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathy; Simmonds, Mark; Verrier, Michelle; Dick, Bruce

    2016-11-19

    Chronic pain is a significant problem in children and teens, and adolescents with chronic pain often struggle to attend school on a regular basis. We present in this article a novel program we developed that integrates attendance at a group cognitive-behavioural chronic pain self-management program with earning high school credits. We collaborated with Alberta Education in the development of this course, Chronic Pain 35. Adolescents who choose to enroll are invited to demonstrate their scientific knowledge related to pain, understanding of and engagement with treatment homework, and demonstrate their creativity by completing a project, which demonstrates at least one concept. Integrating Chronic Pain 35 into an adolescent's academic achievements is a creative strategy that facilitates the engagement of adolescents in learning and adopting pain coping techniques. It also helps teens to advocate for themselves in the school environment and improve their parents' and teachers' understanding of adolescent chronic pain. This is one of the first successful collaborations between a pediatric health program and provincial education leaders, aimed at integrating learning and obtaining school credit for learning about and engaging in health self-management for teens. The authors hope this paper serves as an effective reference model for any future collaborating programs aimed at supporting teens with chronic pain to obtain high school credits.

  3. Supporting Teens with Chronic Pain to Obtain High School Credits: Chronic Pain 35 in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathy; Simmonds, Mark; Verrier, Michelle; Dick, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem in children and teens, and adolescents with chronic pain often struggle to attend school on a regular basis. We present in this article a novel program we developed that integrates attendance at a group cognitive-behavioural chronic pain self-management program with earning high school credits. We collaborated with Alberta Education in the development of this course, Chronic Pain 35. Adolescents who choose to enroll are invited to demonstrate their scientific knowledge related to pain, understanding of and engagement with treatment homework, and demonstrate their creativity by completing a project, which demonstrates at least one concept. Integrating Chronic Pain 35 into an adolescent’s academic achievements is a creative strategy that facilitates the engagement of adolescents in learning and adopting pain coping techniques. It also helps teens to advocate for themselves in the school environment and improve their parents’ and teachers’ understanding of adolescent chronic pain. This is one of the first successful collaborations between a pediatric health program and provincial education leaders, aimed at integrating learning and obtaining school credit for learning about and engaging in health self-management for teens. The authors hope this paper serves as an effective reference model for any future collaborating programs aimed at supporting teens with chronic pain to obtain high school credits. PMID:27869766

  4. A Comparison of AgI and CO2 Seeding Effects in Alberta Cumulus Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Marianne; Marwitz, John D.

    1981-05-01

    Three convective clouds extending above a stratocumulus layer were identified as being seedable on one day and were then seeded in a random sequence with CO2 pellets, a placebo and droppable AgI flares. The radar and microphysical seeding effects were observed with the Alberta Hail Project S-band radar and with the University of Wyoming Queen Air aircraft. Distinct seeding effects were observed in both seeded clouds by both data systems. The CO2 seeded cloud developed a single curtain of precipitation particles 18 min after seeding which reached the ground 20 min after seeding and ceased precipitating 10 min later. The placebo cloud failed to develop any precipitation-sized particles or radar echo and dissipated after 30 min. The AgI seeded cloud developed its first echo 8 min after seeding near the threshold temperature for AgI (7°C), produced precipitation at the ground 20 min after seeding, and continued to develop a new echo near the 7°C level and precipitate for 1 h. A natural echoing storm which occurred nearby was examined by radar and found to develop and evolve in a manner quite unlike the seeded clouds. It is plausible that the AgI continued to generate ice crystals in such a manner as to first initiate and then prolong the lifetime of precipitation while the curtain of CO2 pellets failed to initiate more than a single precipitation curtain.

  5. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Braid, Andrew C. R.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility. PMID:26168055

  6. Initial seismic observations from a deep borehole drilled into the Canadian Shield in northeast Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of a deep borehole in northeastern Alberta provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the in situ metamorphic craton rocks. This borehole reaches a depth of 2.4 km, with 1.8 km in the crystalline rocks, and is the only known borehole allowing access into the deeper rocks of the metamorphic Canadian Shield. In 2011, a zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired to assist in the interpretation of seismic reflection data and geophysical logs. Three sets of upgoing tube waves interpreted from the raw profile correspond to the small-scale fluctuations in the borehole diameters and fracture zone in the crystalline rocks. A comparison between sonic log velocities and VSP velocities reveals a zone with increased velocity that could be due to the change in rock composition and texture in the basement rocks. The final processed profile is used to generate corridor stacks for differentiating between primary reflections and multiples in the seismic reflection profile. Analysis of the zero-offset VSP verifies existing log interpretation on the presence of fractures and the possible lithological changes in the metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield.

  7. Thermally Released Arsenic in Porewater from Sediments in the Cold Lake Area of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) in aquifers in close proximity to in situ oil sands extraction in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada is attributed to high temperature steam (~200 °C) injected into oil sands deposits to liquefy bitumen. Heat propagated from hot injection wells alters physicochemical properties of the surrounding sediments and associated porewater. Seven sediments from four different cores drilled up to ~300 m depth collected from different locations in the area were used to study the thermal effect (~200 °C) on As distribution in the sediments and its release into porewater. Sediments were moistened with synthetic aquifer or deionized water according to the moisture regimes present in aquitard, aquifer and fractured zones. Heat application greatly released As in the porewater (500-5200 and 1200-6600 μg L(-1)) from aquifer and fractured sediments, respectively. Mass balance of As chemical fractionation showed that ~89-100% of As in porewater was released from exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As in the sediments. Heat application also altered As distribution in the sediments releasing As from exchange surfaces and amorphous Fe oxides to soluble As fraction. The results provide great insight into As release mechanisms warranting development of strategies to mitigate groundwater As contamination during industrial operation.

  8. InSAR Observations and Modeling of Anthropogenic Surface Deformation in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations over northern Alberta, Canada show persistent surface uplift occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/year, localized at several sites where the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technique is currently being used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use numerical reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion.

  9. Evaluation of microbial biofilm communities from an Alberta oil sands tailings pond.

    PubMed

    Golby, Susanne; Ceri, Howard; Gieg, Lisa M; Chatterjee, Indranil; Marques, Lyriam L R; Turner, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta has resulted in millions of cubic meters of waste stored on-site in tailings ponds. Unique microbial ecology is expected in these ponds, which may be key to their bioremediation potential. We considered that direct culturing of microbes from a tailings sample as biofilms could lead to the recovery of microbial communities that provide good representation of the ecology of the tailings. Culturing of mixed species biofilms in vitro using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) under aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic growth conditions was successful both with and without the addition of various growth nutrients. Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing revealed that unique mixed biofilm communities were recovered under each incubation condition, with the dominant species belonging to Pseudomonas, Thauera, Hydrogenophaga, Rhodoferax, and Acidovorax. This work used an approach that allowed organisms to grow as a biofilm directly from a sample collected of their environment, and the biofilms cultivated in vitro were representative of the endogenous environmental community. For the first time, representative environmental mixed species biofilms have been isolated and grown under laboratory conditions from an oil sands tailings pond environment and a description of their composition is provided.

  10. Soil ingestion rate determination in a rural population of Alberta, Canada practicing a wilderness lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvine, G; Doyle, J R; White, P A; Blais, J M

    2014-02-01

    The inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil can be a major pathway for chemical exposure to humans. Few studies to date have quantified soil ingestion rates to develop exposure estimates for human health risk assessments (HHRA), and almost all of those were for children in suburban/urban environments. Here we employed a quantitative mass balance tracer approach on a rural population practicing outdoor activities to estimate inadvertent soil ingestion. This study followed 9 subjects over a 13 day period in Cold Lake, Alberta, near the largest in situ thermal heavy oil (bitumen) extraction operation in the world. The mean soil ingestion rate in this study using Al Ce, La, and Si tracers was 32 mg d(-1), with a 90th percentile of 152 mg d(-1) and median soil ingestion rate of 18 mg d(-1). These soil ingestion values are greater than the standard recommended soil ingestion rates for HHRA from Health Canada, and are similar to soil ingestion estimates found in the only other study on a rural population.

  11. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine field trial in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Hancock, Dale; Rogan, Dragan; Potter, Andrew A

    2005-08-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in reducing fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in 218 pens of feedlot cattle in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Pens of cattle were vaccinated once at arrival processing and again at reimplanting with either the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a placebo. The E. coli O157:H7 vaccine included 50 microg of type III secreted proteins. Fecal samples were collected from 30 fresh manure patties within each feedlot pen at arrival processing, revaccination at reimplanting, and within 2 wk of slaughter. The mean pen prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was 5.0%; ranging in pens from 0% to 90%, and varying significantly (P < 0.001) among feedlots. There was no significant association (P > 0.20) between vaccination and pen prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 following initial vaccination, at reimplanting, or prior to slaughter.

  12. Demographic response of black bears at Cold Lake, Alberta, to the removal of adult males

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Ruff, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports described an increase in population density following the removal of 23 adult male black bears (Ursus americanus) from a 218-km2 study area near Cold Lake, Alberta (the CLSA). This finding plays a central role in continuing debates over population regulation in bears, but has recently been criticized because density estimates were based on assumptions that were not met. Moreover, subsequent discussion has been predicated on conjecture that human exploitation had minimal influence on population dynamics. Our reanalysis supports previous descriptions of trends in bear density at Cold Lake. However, survival records revealed heavier exploitation than previously suspected. An underlying assumption of previous interpretationsCthat the Cold Lake bear population was naturally regulated near carrying capacityCno longer seems reasonable. Adult males deterred bears in other sex-age groups from using the CLSA; however, we found no evidence that birth or death rates were affected. The observed increase in local density should not be construed as a density-dependent response. Abrupt changes in local density might not have occurred if males had been removed from a larger area encompassing the CLSA.

  13. Mineralogy, petrology, and distribution of meteorites at the Whitecourt crater, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Jennifer D.; Herd, Christopher D. K.

    2015-02-01

    The Whitecourt meteorite impact crater, Alberta, Canada is a rare example of a well-preserved small impact structure, with which thousands of meteorite fragments are associated. As such, this crater represents a unique opportunity to investigate the effect of a low-energy impact event on an impacting iron bolide. Excellent documentation of meteorite fragment locations and characteristics has generated a detailed distribution map of both shrapnel and regmaglypted meteorite types. The meteorites' distribution, and internal and external characteristics support a low-altitude breakup of the impactor which caused atmospherically ablated (regmaglypted) meteorites to fall close to the crater and avoid impact-related deformation. In contrast, shrapnel fragments sustained deformation at macro- and microscales resulting from the catastrophic disruption of the impactor. The impactor was significantly fragmented along pre-existing planes of weakness, including kamacite lamellae and inclusions, resulting in a bias toward low-mass (<100 g) fragments. Meteorite mineralogy was investigated and the accessory minerals were found to be dominated by sulfides and phosphides with rare carlsbergite, consistent with other low-Ni IIIAB iron meteorites. Considerations of the total mass of meteoritic material recovered at the site relative to the probable fraction of the impactor that was preserved based on modeling suggests that the crater was formed by a higher velocity, lower mass impactor than previously inferred.

  14. Pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in Western Alberta: does transmission route matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In southwestern Alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. To assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (indirect fecal-oral transmission), Neospora caninum (indirect transmission with definitive host). We assessed the occurrence of these pathogens in 28 cow-calf operations exposed or non-exposed to elk, and in 10 elk herds exposed or not to cattle. We characterized the effect of species commingling as a risk factor of pathogen exposure and documented the perceived risk of pathogen transmission at this wildlife-livestock interface in the rural community. Herpesviruses found in elk were elk-specific gamma-herpesviruses unrelated to cattle viruses. Pestivirus exposure in elk could not be ascertained to be of livestock origin. Evidence of MAP circulation was found in both elk and cattle, but there was no statistical effect of the species commingling. Finally, N. caninum was more frequently detected in elk exposed to cattle and this association was still significant after adjustment for herd and sampling year clustering, and individual elk age and sex. Only indirectly transmitted pathogens co-occurred in cattle and elk, indicating the potential importance of the transmission route in assessing the risk of pathogen transmission in multi-species grazing systems. PMID:24517283

  15. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design. Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results. Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older (P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion. Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada. PMID:28127230

  16. Roquefortine in the stomach contents of dogs suspected of strychnine poisoning in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, Norman R.; Smith, Roy A.; Beck, Byron E.

    1992-01-01

    From April to September 1990, submissions in Alberta veterinary diagnostic laboratories for which strychnine analysis was requested were tested retrospectively for roquefortine, a diketopiperazine alkaloidal tremorgenic mycotoxin. Roquefortine was found only in strychnine-negative samples. The specific origins of the fungal-contaminated specimens could not be determined. Of the six roquefortine-positive cases, four dogs that vomited prior to treatment recovered. Two dogs which died had significant amounts of stomach contents present at the time of postmortem. At the present time only one veterinary laboratory in Canada is routinely testing for roquefortine when samples are negative for strychnine. It appears that a low diagnostic rate for this type of poisoning may be occurring due to incomplete testing. The inability to differentiate between roquefortine and strychnine poisoning on a clinical basis in five of our six cases emphasizes that an accurate causative diagnosis requires laboratory examination. Research in rats and sheep has shown that the tremorgenic mycotoxins penitrem A and roquefortine are excreted through bile. Although further research is required, the submission of bile and intestinal contents is recommended if stomach contents or vomitus are not available for laboratory testing. Both of these mycotoxins should be tested for when strychnine analysis is negative as fungi may produce both toxins at the same time. In this study we were unsure if roquefortine alone or in combination with other toxins was responsible for our findings. PMID:17424061

  17. A seismological overview of the induced earthquakes in the Duvernay play near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Haug, Kristine; Atkinson, Gail

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of understanding regarding the induced seismicity in connection with hydraulic fracturing operations targeting the Duvernay Formation in central Alberta, near the town of Fox Creek. We demonstrate that earthquakes in this region cluster into distinct sequences in time, space, and focal mechanism using (i) cross-correlation detection methods to delineate transient temporal relationships, (ii) double-difference relocations to confirm spatial clustering, and (iii) moment tensor solutions to assess fault motion consistency. The spatiotemporal clustering of the earthquake sequences is strongly related to the nearby hydraulic fracturing operations. In addition, we identify a preference for strike-slip motions on subvertical faults with an approximate 45° P axis orientation, consistent with expectation from the ambient stress field. The hypocentral geometries for two of the largest-magnitude (M 4) sequences that are robustly constrained by local array data provide compelling evidence for planar features starting at Duvernay Formation depths and extending into the shallow Precambrian basement. We interpret these lineaments as subvertical faults orientated approximately north-south, consistent with the regional moment tensor solutions. Finally, we conclude that the sequences were triggered by pore pressure increases in response to hydraulic fracturing stimulations along previously existing faults.

  18. Structural characterization of Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) and impact on rock slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Epard, Jean-Luc; Froese, Corey R.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a structural investigation of the Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) to better understand the role of the different tectonic features on the development of both local and large scale rock slope instabilities occurring in Turtle Mountain. The study area is investigated by combining remote methods with detailed field surveys. In particular, the benefit of Terrestrial Laser Scanning for ductile and brittle tectonic structure interpretations is illustrated. The proposed tectonic interpretation allows the characterization of the fracturing pattern, the fold geometry and the role of these tectonic features in rock slope instability development. Ten discontinuity sets are identified in the study area, their local variations permitting the differentiation of the study zone into 20 homogenous structural domains. The anticline is described as an eastern verging fold that displays considerable geometry differences along its axis and developed by both flexural slip and tangential longitudinal strain folding mechanisms. Moreover, the origins of the discontinuity sets are determined according to the tectonic phases affecting the region (pre-folding, folding, post-folding). The localization and interpretation of kinematics of the different instabilities revealed the importance of considering the discrete brittle planes of weakness, which largely control the kinematic release of the local instabilities, and also the rock mass damage induced by large tectonic structures (fold hinge, thrust).

  19. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in snow, snowmelt, and runoff at Bow Lake, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Melissa J; Blais, Jules M; Sharp, Martin J; Schindler, David W

    2006-08-15

    We present analyses of the concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants (including organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in snow, snowmelt, and runoff in glacier and snowmelt fed streams at Bow Lake, Alberta in two contrasting hydrological years (1997 and 1998). The study investigates the variability in OC burdens in snow across the catchment, the elution of OCs from the snowpack, and the relationship between OC concentrations in streams and the annual snowpack. Snowpacks in forested sites were thinner and had lower OC concentrations than snowpacks in open or sparsely vegetated sites. The first snowmelt samples exhibited very high contaminant concentrations relative to the snowpack, and even the more hydrophobic compounds (Dieldrin, DDTs, and PCBs) were highly concentrated in meltwater. Interannual changes in the mean OC concentrations in streams did not reflect year-to-year changes in the snowpack contaminant concentrations. The results indicate that the extent of glacial ice melt may be more important than mean snowpack burdens as a control on OC concentrations in runoff in glacial catchments.

  1. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  2. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies.

  3. Evaluation of cattle bedding and grazing BMPs in an agricultural watershed in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Olson, Barry M; Kalischuk, Andrea R; Casson, Janna P; Phelan, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental impacts of implementing beneficial management practices to address cattle bedding and direct access to the creek in a study watershed in southern Alberta, Canada. Approximately 35 cow-calf pairs grazed 194 ha of grass forage and had direct access to the creek in the spring and summer. During winter, the cattle were fed adjacent to the creek at an old bedding site. The practice changes included off-stream watering, bedding site relocation and fencing for rotational grazing. The cost was $15,225 and 60 h of labour. Four years of data were used in a before-and-after experimental design to evaluate the practice changes. After two years of post-implementation monitoring, riparian assessments showed an increase in plant diversity, but no change in the percent cover of the riparian species Salix exigua and Juncus balitus and a decrease in Carex sp. (P < 0.05). Water quality monitoring showed a decrease in the difference between upstream and downstream concentrations of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and Escherichia coli (P < 0.10). These results showed that improved environmental changes in riparian and water quality can be measured following the implementation of beneficial management practices for cattle bedding and grazing.

  4. Reservoir sedimentology of the M. Triassic Halfway Fm. , Wembley field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Middle Triassic Halfway Formation of west-central Alberta is interpreted as a prograding barrier island shoreline deposit. A detailed sedimentological study based on 130 cored sequences and 300 well logs in the Wembley area (Townships 72-73, Ranges 7-9, West of Sixth Meridian) has enabled the author to delineate the geometry of reservoir units, interpreted as tidal inlet fill, upper shoreface, and flood-tidal delta sandstones. Complete shoreface sequences average 15 m in thickness and form mappable trends tens of kilometers along depositional strike, but are only continuous for a few kilometers across dip, with the intervening areas having been reworked by one or more migrating tidal inlets. The strike-elongate inlet-fill sequences cover more than 50% of the field area. They are typically 10 m thick and exhibit the best porosities due to leaching of bioclastic material in the lower part of the fill, but the down-cutting of successive inlets makes the reservoir sands laterally discontinuous. Inlet sands extend up-dip into flood-tidal delta sandbodies that average 4 m in thickness and pinch out in lagoonal muds. Although showing much greater lateral continuity than the other reservoir units, the upper shoreface sandstones do not exhibit biomoldic porosity and are a less productive unit. Such an understanding of the architecture of the various reservoir components present in a barrier island shoreline system is essential when planning a secondary recovery program.

  5. The Bow City structure, southern Alberta, Canada: The deep roots of a complex impact structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombick, Paul; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Xie, Wei; Bown, Todd; Hathway, Ben; Banks, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence is presented for a newly discovered, probable remnant complex impact structure. The structure, located near Bow City, southern Alberta, has no obvious morphological expression at surface. The geometry of the structure in the shallow subsurface, mapped using downhole geophysical well logs, is a semicircular structural depression approximately 8 km in diameter with a semicircular uplifted central region. Detailed subsurface mapping revealed evidence of localized duplication of stratigraphic section in the central uplift area and omission of strata within the surrounding annular region. Field mapping of outcrop confirmed an inlier of older rocks present within the center of the structure. Evidence of deformation along the eastern margin of the central uplift includes thrust faulting, folding, and steeply dipping bedding. Normal faults were mapped along the northern margin of the annular region. Isopach maps reveal that structural thickening and thinning were accommodated primarily within the Belly River Group. Evidence from legacy 2-D seismic data is consistent with the subsurface mapping and reveals additional insight into the geometry of the structure, including a series of listric normal faults in the annular region and complex faulting within the central uplift. The absence of any ejecta blanket, breccia, suevite, or melt sheet (based on available data) is consistent with the Bow City structure being the remnant of a deeply eroded, complex impact structure. Accordingly, the Bow City structure may provide rare access and insight into zones of deformation remaining beneath an excavated transient crater in stratified siliciclastic target rocks.

  6. A stochastic assessment of climate change impacts on precipitation and potential evaporation in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchyshyn, I.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K.

    2012-12-01

    In many climate change investigations, changes in precipitation are projected under various scenarios; however, changes in evaporation have received relatively less attention. For irrigation and water resources management, the difference between potential evaporation and precipitation can provide better quantification of local water availability and drought conditions. Therefore, projecting joint variations in precipitation and potential evaporation can provide better information for climate change adaptation. A stochastic approach based on a Generalised Linear Model (GLM) framework is proposed to study these together at a station scale. Eight stations in Alberta are selected for which historical pan evaporation records and up-to-date meteorological information are available. Results show that potential evaporation estimated from Global Circulation Models directly can be unreliable. The evaporation ensemble simulated by the GLM approach can represent observed evaporation more realistically and provide better uncertainty quantification. If only simulated precipitation is considered, the projected drought conditions in the 2080s are likely to be less severe than that in the 2000s. However, the projected difference between precipitation and evaporation (water deficit) shows that the future drought conditions may be higher or lower, varying between the stations. Implications of the results and further development of the proposed approach to address spatial dependence between stations are also discussed.

  7. Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan J

    2013-04-01

    Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission.

  8. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  9. The Functional and Palaeoecological Implications of Tooth Morphology and Wear for the Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  10. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa A; Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D; van Paridon, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age-abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60-90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997-2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6-24 month-olds (median = 72, range = 0-1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10-16 year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems.

  11. Jetting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Szarka, D.D.; Schwegman, S.L.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes an apparatus for hydraulically jetting a well tool disposed in a well, the well tool having a sliding member. It comprises positioner means for operably engaging the sliding member of the well tool; and a jetting means, connected at a rotatable connection to the positioner means so that the jetting means is rotatable relative to the positioner means and the well tool, for hydraulically jetting the well tool as the jetting means is rotated relative thereto.

  12. Source mechanism characterization and integrated interpretation of microseismic data monitoring two hydraulic stimulations in pouce coupe field, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Garrison J.

    The study of the Pouce Coupe Field is a joint effort between the Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) and Talisman Energy Inc. My study focuses on the hydraulic stimulation of two horizontal wells within the Montney Formation located in north-western Alberta. The Montney is an example of a modern-day tight, engineering-driven play in which recent advances in drilling of horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing have made shale gas exploitation economical. The wells were completed in December 2008 and were part of a science driven project in which a multitude of data were collected including multicomponent seismic, microseismic, and production logs. Since this time, a number of studies have been performed by students at Colorado School of Mines to better understand the effects the completions have had on the reservoir. This thesis utilizes the microseismic data that were recorded during the stimulation of the two horizontal wells in order to understand the origin of the microseismic events themselves. The data are then used to understand and correlate to the well production. To gain insight into the source of the microseismic events, amplitude ratios of recorded seismic modes (P, Sh and Sv) for the microseismic events are studied. By fitting trends of simple end member source mechanisms (strike-slip, dip-slip, and tensile) to groups of amplitude ratio data, the events are found to be of strike-slip nature. By comparing the focal mechanisms to other independent natural fracture determination techniques (shear-wave splitting analysis, FMI log), it is shown that the source of recorded microseismic events is likely to be a portion of the shear slip along existing weak planes (fractures) within a reservoir. The technique described in this work is one that is occasionally but increasingly used but offers the opportunity to draw further information from microseismic data using results that are already part of a typical processing workflow. The microseismic events are

  13. Tracing Sources Of Nitrate And Sulfate In The Bow River, Alberta Canada, Using Isotope Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, J.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Bow River in Alberta is a major tributary to the South Saskatchewan River in western Canada. Urban development and agricultural activities including feedlot operations within the Bow River Basin can potentially impact the river water quality by elevating nitrate and sulfate concentrations. In this project, we applied hydrological, chemical and isotopic techniques to identify sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Bow River. The study area stretches approximately 570km along the Bow River from Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountain headwaters to near its confluence with the Oldman River in the prairies. Between June 2007 and July 2008, monthly samples were taken from the Bow River for major ion chemistry and stable isotope ratio measurements of H, O, C, N and S. Flow data from Alberta Environment were used in combination with chemical data to estimate fluxes of nitrate, sulfate and other ionic solutes along the river. Isotope results show that Bow River water near Lake Louise was characterized by δ15N-NO3 values between 0 and +4‰ and δ18O-NO3 values between +7 and +11‰ falling within the range typical for nitrate produced by nitrification in forest ecosystems. Between Canmore and Calgary, δ15N- NO3 increased to values between +3 and +8‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged between -5 and +5‰. Nitrate discharged from the Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant in Calgary has elevated δ15N-NO3 values of +8‰ and low δ18O-NO3 values of -10‰. Nitrate flux increased over an order of magnitude in the river as a result of wastewater effluent discharge at Calgary. In the agricultural irrigation districts downstream of Calgary, δ15N-NO3 values varied between +6 and +11‰, whereas δ18O-NO3 values ranged between -11 and +1‰. The elevated δ15N-NO3 and low δ18O-NO3 values indicate that sewage derived nitrate from the wastewater treatment plant is the major cause for increased nitrate fluxes in the Bow River downstream of Calgary. At Lake Louise, δ34S-SO4 values varied

  14. Sedimentology of paleochannels on foreland coastal plain, Judith River Formation (upper Cretaceous), southeast Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    The upper 90 m (295 ft) of the sub-Bearpaw Judith River Formation, continuously exposed in the badlands along the Red Deer River 185 km (115 mi) east of Calgary, is famous for the unrivaled assemblage of dinosaur fossils. Dinosaur Provincial Park presents are a rare opportunity to view the architecture of a foreland coastal-plain sequence as well as to clarify the origin and distribution of subbituminous coal zones and gas reservoirs associated with this formation across southeast Alberta. The distal reaches of paleodrainage from the developing Cordillera to the Western Interior seaway are being examined by north-south traversed across the badlands. Sharp-based paleochannel units, enclosed by rooted, olive-gray mudstone sequences that are commonly 4-6 m (13-20 ft) thick, vary between 2 end members. The first contains laterally accreted sand-mud couplets with abundant macrofloral debris, and represents cyclical, low-energy growth of point bars, possible with an estuarine influence. The second, mainly comprising cosets of large trough cross-beds with mudstone intraclasts, was formed by episodic aggradation of high-energy systems. An intermediate composite type displays evidence for an energy increase as channel sinuosity decreased. This variation in paleochannel type is attributed to alternating alluviation/rejuvenation associated with an unstable base level. Coal zones and potential reservoirs appear to be associated with the transgressive and regressive phases, respectively, of the Bearpaw coast. Amalgamation of paleochannels - marked by laterally extensive horizons of bone fragments, lithic and intraclastic gravel - is more common seaward over the axial region of the Sweetgrass arch.

  15. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada’s largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world’s largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s−1 in background air to 62 s−1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994–2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene. PMID:25685050

  16. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolated from swine fecal samples in 90 Alberta finishing farms

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Rajíc, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret E.; Avery, Brent P.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 90 Alberta finisher swine farms. Up to 5 isolates were obtained from each of 269 pooled fecal samples and were classified as susceptible or resistant according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Of the 1322 isolates, 166 (12.6%) were susceptible to all 15 antimicrobials. No resistance to amikacin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin, antimicrobials of importance in human medicine, was observed. Relatively low frequencies of resistance were observed to gentamicin (1.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (0.7%), and cefoxitin (0.7%). Higher frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (78.9%), sulfisoxazole (49.9%), streptomycin (49.6%), ampicillin (30.6%), chloramphenicol (17.6%), kanamycin (10%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (6.4%). Among the isolates resistant to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes, 20.8%, 20.6%, 18.2%, 7.0%, 1.8%, 0.2%, and 0.2% were resistant to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 antimicrobials, respectively. The most common multidrug-resistance patterns (resistance to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes) were streptomycin-tetracycline (9.4%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.2%), and ampicillin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (6.1%). More clustering (higher intra-class correlation coefficients) in antimicrobial resistance was observed for isolates at the same visit than for isolates from different visits in the same farm, indicating that sampling more farms, testing fewer isolates per visits, and taking longer periods between visits may be appropriate and more efficient for a better understanding of potential shifts in resistance over time. PMID:18505207

  18. Elastic Anisotropy of a Metamorphic Rock Sample of the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fractures and textures cause metamorphic rock masses to be seismically anisotropic. Neglect of this anisotropy in the processing of field seismic data causes problems in the final reflection images both in terms of their quality and in the true positioning of subsurface features. To quantify the degree of seismic anisotropy in the subsurface, one method is to estimate the anisotropic parameters from the elastic stiffnesses of a rock sample. Using the ultrasonic pulse transmission method, measurements of the compressional and shear wave phase velocities as a function of confining pressure are used to calculate the elastic stiffnesses of a metamorphic granite core sample from the Precambrian basement in northeastern Alberta. Velocities are measured parallel, normal and oblique to an identified foliation plane of the sample assumed to be a transversely isotropic medium. The compressional wave velocities are measured to be in the range of 5,352-6,019 m/s along the foliation plane and 4,752-5,396 m/s normal to the foliation plane over the range of confining pressures from 0 to 60 MPa. Besides providing valuable in situ velocity information for the velocity models, the results also confirm the anisotropic behavior of the metamorphic rock with the estimated compressional and shear wave anisotropy valued at 12 and 8 %, respectively. Such degree of seismic anisotropy should be taken into consideration at the seismic scale when working with three-dimensional geophysical models of the Precambrian basement to minimize any out-of-plane anomalies in the final seismic sections.

  19. Rainfall-Runoff Dynamics Following Wildfire in Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Alberta, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.; Anderson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Severe wildfire has been shown to increase the magnitude and advance the timing of rainfall-generated stormflows across a range of hydro-climate regions. Loss of canopy and forest floor interception results in increased net precipitation which, along with the removal of forest organic layers and increased shorter-term water repellency, can result in strongly increased surface flow pathways and efficient routing of precipitation to streams. These abrupt changes have the potential to exacerbate flood impacts and alter the timing of runoff delivery to streams. However, while these effects are well documented in drier temperate mountain regions, changes in post-fire rainfall-runoff processes are less well understood in colder, more northern, snowfall dominated regimes. The objectives of this study are to explore longer term precipitation and runoff dynamics of burned and unburned (reference) watersheds from the Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the front-range Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada. Streamflow and precipitation were measured in 5 watersheds (3.7 - 10.4 km2) for 10 years following the wildfire (2005-2014). Measurements were collected from a dense network of meteorological and hydrometric stations. Stormflow volume, peak flow, time to peak flow, and total annual streamflow were compared between burned and reference streams. Event-based data were separated into 3 post-fire periods to detect changes in rainfall-runoff dynamics as vegetation regenerated. Despite large increases in post-fire snowpacks and net summer rainfall, rainfall-generated runoff from fire-affected watersheds was not large in comparison to that reported from more temperate snowfall-dominated Rocky Mountain hydrologic settings. High proportions of groundwater contribution to annual runoff regimes (as opposed to surface flow pathways) and groundwater storage were likely contributors to greater watershed resistance to wildfire effects

  20. Historical trends in greenhouse gas emissions of the Alberta oil sands (1970-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englander, Jacob G.; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Brandt, Adam R.

    2013-12-01

    There has been increased scrutiny of the Alberta oil sands due to their high carbon intensity (CI) relative to conventional crude oil. Relying entirely on public and peer-reviewed data sources, we examine historical trends in the CI of oil sands extraction, upgrading, and refining. Monthly data were collected and interpolated from 1970 to 2010 (inclusive) for each oil sands project. Results show a reduction in oil sands CI over time, with industry-average full-fuel cycle (well-to-wheels, WTW) CI declining from 165 gCO2e MJ-1 higher heating value (HHV) of reformulated gasoline (RFG) to 105 (-12, +9) gCO2e MJ-1 HHV RFG. 2010 averages by production pathways are 102 gCO2e MJ-1 for Mining and 111 gCO2e MJ-1 for in situ. The CI of mining-based projects has declined due to upgrader efficiency improvements and a shift away from coke to natural gas as a process fuel. In situ projects have benefitted from substantial reductions in fugitive emissions from bitumen batteries. Both mining and in situ projects have benefitted from improved refining efficiencies. However, despite these improvements, the CI of oil sands production (on a pathway-average basis) ranges from 12 to 24% higher than CI values from conventional oil production. Due to growing output, total emissions from the oil sands continue to increase despite improved efficiency: total upstream emissions were roughly 65 MtCO2e in 2010, or 9% of Canada’s emissions.

  1. Small mammals as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants and health effects in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of bitumen in areas of northeastern Alberta (Canada) has been associated with the release of complex mixtures of metals, metalloids, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. To mitigate effects on ecosystems, Canadian legislation mandates that disturbed areas be reclaimed to an ecologically sustainable state after active operations. However, as part of reclamation activities, exposure to, and effects on wildlife living in these areas is not generally assessed. To support successful reclamation, the development of efficient methods to assess exposure and health effects in potentially exposed wildlife is required. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of two native mammalian species (deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, and meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus) as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants by examining biomarkers of exposure and indicators of biological costs. Tissue residues of 31 metals and metalloids in kidneys and muscle, activity of the hepatic detoxification enzyme EROD (as a biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants), body condition, and the relative mass of liver, kidney, spleen, and testes were compared in animals from one reclaimed area and a reference site. Deer mice from the reclaimed site had higher renal levels of Co, Se and Tl compared to animals from the reference site, which was associated with reduced body condition. Lower testis mass was another feature that distinguished mice from the reclaimed site in comparison to those from the reference site. One mouse and one vole from the reclaimed site also showed increased hepatic EROD activity. In marked contrast, no changes were evident for these variables in meadow voles. Our results show that deer mouse is a sensitive sentinel species and that the biomarkers and indicators used here are efficient means to detect local contamination and associated biological effects in native mammals inhabiting reclaimed areas on active oil sands mine

  2. Investigation of the 2013 Alberta flood from weather and climate perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Diro, G. T.; Whan, K.; Milrad, S. M.; Jeong, D. I.; Ganji, A.; Huziy, O.; Winger, K.; Gyakum, J. R.; de Elia, R.; Zwiers, F. W.; Sushama, L.

    2016-06-01

    During 19-21 June 2013 a heavy precipitation event affected southern Alberta and adjoining regions, leading to severe flood damage in numerous communities and resulting in the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This flood was caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrological factors, which are investigated from weather and climate perspectives with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model. Results show that the contribution of orographic ascent to precipitation was important, exceeding 30 % over the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Another contributing factor was evapotranspiration from the land surface, which is found to have acted as an important moisture source and was likely enhanced by antecedent rainfall that increased soil moisture over the northern Great Plains. Event attribution analysis suggests that human induced greenhouse gas increases may also have contributed by causing evapotranspiration rates to be higher than they would have been under pre-industrial conditions. Frozen and snow-covered soils at high elevations are likely to have played an important role in generating record streamflows. Results point to a doubling of surface runoff due to the frozen conditions, while 25 % of the modelled runoff originated from snowmelt. The estimated return time of the 3-day precipitation event exceeds 50 years over a large region, and an increase in the occurrence of similar extreme precipitation events is projected by the end of the 21st century. Event attribution analysis suggests that greenhouse gas increases may have increased 1-day and 3-day return levels of May-June precipitation with respect to pre-industrial climate conditions. However, no anthropogenic influence can be detected for 1-day and 3-day surface runoff, as increases in extreme precipitation in the present-day climate are offset by decreased snow cover and lower frozen water content in soils during the May-June transition months, compared to pre

  3. Wildfire and Salvage Logging Impacts on Stream Water Nitrogen in Southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Wagner, M. J.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Boon, S.

    2008-12-01

    Increased size and frequency of wildfires in North America has been linked to changing climate over the past 2-3 decades, raising concerns over impacts of wildfire on downstream water quality. In 2003, the Lost Creek wildfire burned more than 21,000 ha in the highest water yielding area of the Rocky Mountain region of southwestern Alberta (Crowsnest Pass). The objective of this study was to examine initial effects of the fire and post-fire salvage logging on concentrations, yield, and total export of several nitrogen (N) species, and to explore initial recovery of these effects within the first four years after the fire. Streams draining burned and post-fire salvage logged watersheds produced much higher concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and nitrate (NO3-) compared to reference streams in the first two years following the fire (p < 0.001). This resulted in average nutrient yields that were considerably greater for TN (6-fold), TDN (6-fold), and NO3- (9-fold) in burned streams than in reference streams. Salvage logging produced generally similar effects on the concentrations and yields for most N species. The temporal trend for TN, TDN, and NO3- in stream water from burned watersheds was a rapid decline in mean watershed exports over the four seasons after the fire to levels similar to those of the reference watersheds. However, exports of TN were still elevated in the fourth post-fire year in watersheds impacted by the additional disturbance of salvage logging. The effects of the burn were most noticeable (i.e., produced the greatest N concentrations, yields, and exports) during or following higher discharge periods (snowmelt freshet and storm flows) (p < 0.001). Small differences were still evident during base-flow periods, emphasizing the importance of groundwater and subsurface contributions to the headwater streams in this study.

  4. The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a wildfire impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by wildfire on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on regional scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 wildfire including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of wildfire and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane regions where forest

  5. Linking evapotranspiration to stormwater reduction and attenuation in green roofs in Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breach, P. A.; Robinson, C. E.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green roofs have been used for centuries to insulate buildings and beautify urban environments. European countries, especially Germany, have adopted green roofs use in modern buildings, helping raise awareness of their many potential benefits. Green roofs have been shown to: effectively reduce and filter stormwater thereby decreasing the burden on urban sewer systems; provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load and reduced sensible heat flux to the urban atmosphere; and to extend the life of a roof by decreasing the temperature fluctuations which cause roof damage. Given that green buildings can mitigate against the negative impacts of storm water runoff and reduce the heating and cooling demands, use of green roofs in Canada might prove extremely beneficial due to our intense climate. However, the implementation of green roofs in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines that are supported by scientific understanding of their performance in North American climates. The capacity of a green roof installation to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the rooting medium at the start of the rainfall event which in turn is constrained by roof loading. The influence of medium depth is investigated through comparison to 15 cm and 10cm deep planting modules. Storage capacity has a finite limit, making rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss essential to restore the retardation of a subsequent storm. Sustaining live plant cover requires avoidance of saturated conditions and retention of minimum soil moisture levels. These limits constrain the design options with distinctive climatic stresses. Here the performance of experimental green roof modules is investigated under particularly high climatic stressing at Calgary Alberta Canada. 10 cm modules show rapid drying to unacceptably low residual moisture content, whereas 15

  6. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  7. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-04-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels.

  8. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-12-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada's largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world's largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s-1 in background air to 62 s-1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994-2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

  9. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  10. Estimates of the rate of illegal abortion and the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortion, Alberta 1973-74.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, S A; Krótki, K J

    1979-01-01

    Data from the Growth of Alberta Family Study were used to estimate the illegal abortion rate for the residents of Edmonton, Alberta and to assess the potential impact of eliminating therapeutic abortion on the birth rate and on the illegal abortion rate. The study population consisted of 938 women, aged 18-54. The women were divided into 3 groups, and sensitive abortion data was elicited from each group using different data collection techniques. One group was asked about abortion in the traditional interview mode. Another group was asked to mail in their responses to abortion answers anonymously, and the remaining group was questioned about abortion using the (RRT) randomized response technique. The use of the RRT allowed the respondent to answer yes or no questions without the interviewer being aware that the respondent was responding to sensitive abortion questions. The RRT elicited information on a greater number of abortions than the other 2 techniques. According to calculations based on the RRT elicited information, the illegal abortion rate in Edmonton was 22.4/100 conceptions surviving the 1st 4 weeks of gestation. In view of the controversy surrounding the current abortion law, an effort was made to assess the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortions. A method, previously developed by Tietze for calculating the impact of abortion laws on the birth rate in New York, was applied to the Alberta data. The conclusion was reached that if therapeutic abortions were eliminated, the effect on the birth rate would be negligible and the illegal abortion rate would increase by 12%. The estimated illegal abortion rates and other major study results were presented in tabular form.

  11. Time Trends in Emergency Department Visits for Suicide-Related Behaviours by Girls and Boys in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J.; Carlisle, Corine E.; Zhang, Xuechen; Bethell, Jennifer; Rhodes, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Canada, emergency departments (EDs) are a frontline setting for treating suicide-related behaviours (SRBs) among adolescents, yet description of national trends in ED SRB visits is lacking. We determined whether the SRB incidence rate and method patterns between 2002 and 2010 previously shown for Ontario adolescents were also experienced in Alberta. Method: A retrospective, population-based study of ED visits for SRBs (self-poisoning or self-injury, irrespective of suicidal intent) by 12- to 17-year-olds was conducted using administrative health care data from 104 EDs across Alberta, Canada. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and graphed. Rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between time periods (2002-2005 and 2006-2010) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated. Changes in SRB methods were also described. The time periods chosen were based on published Ontario trends. Results: Decreases in yearly incidence rates levelled off after 2005. Crude RRs indicated a rate decrease in 2006 to 2010 for boys (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.90) and girls (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95). From 2002 to 2010, the proportion of SRB visits for self-poisoning decreased (girls, –13%; boys, –10%) while visits for self-cutting increased (girls, +13%; boys, +14%). Conclusions: Alberta trends were similar to those previously published for Ontario. Determining if the trends and observed changes are associated with mental health care access or availability and/or provincial suicide prevention strategies would contextualize these findings and could shape future prevention efforts. Lack of identification of suicidal intent and exclusion of fatal SRB are limitations of the current study.

  12. Travel-Related Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Alberta, Canada: the First 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Fuller, Jeff; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the characteristics of Alberta, Canada, patients with infections or colonizations with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during 2010 to 2013 that were linked to recent travel outside Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution, and isolates were characterized using PCR, sequencing, and multilocus sequencing typing. A broth mating study was used to assess the transferability of resistance plasmids, which were subsequently characterized. All the patients (n = 12) included in our study had contact with a health care system while abroad. Most of the patients presented with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and were admitted to hospitals within weeks after their return to Alberta. Secondary spread occurred in 1 case, resulting in the death of another patient. The carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n = 17) consisted of Escherichia coli (sequence type 101 [ST101], ST365, ST405, and ST410) with NDM-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST147, ST258, ST340, ST512, and ST972) with NDM-1, OXA-181, KPC-2, and KPC-3, Acinetobacter baumannii with OXA-23, Providencia rettgeri with NDM-1, Enterobacter cloacae with KPC-2, and Citrobacter freundii with NDM-1. The blaNDM-1 gene was associated with various narrow- (i.e., IncF) and broad- (i.e., IncA/C and IncL/M) host-range plasmids with different addiction factors. Our results show that NDM-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to a variety of sequence types with different plasmid scaffolds, are regularly imported from India into Alberta. Clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant in detecting bacteria with carbapenemases. PMID:24599977

  13. An economic evaluation of the parent-child assistance program for preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon; Moffatt, Jessica; Dennett, Liz; Chuck, Anderson W; Birchard, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP) is a 3-year home visitation/harm reduction intervention to prevent alcohol exposed births, thereby births with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, among high-risk women. This article used a decision analytic modeling technique to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and the net monetary benefit of the P-CAP within the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Service Networks in Canada. The results indicate that the P-CAP is cost-effective and support placing a high priority not only on reducing alcohol use during pregnancy, but also on providing effective contraceptive measures when a program is launched.

  14. Generation of Hot Water from Hot-Dry for Heavy-Oil Recovery in Northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of prior applications of hot-dry-rock (HDR) technology was mostly aimed at generating electricity. In northern Alberta, the thermal gradient is low and, therefore, this technology is not suitable for electricity generation. On the other hand, the cost of steam and hot water, and environmental impacts, are becoming critical issues in heavy-oil and bitumen recovery in Alberta. Surface generation of steam or hot-water accounts for six percent of Canada's natural gas consumption and about 50 million tons of CO2 emission. Lowered cost and environmental impacts are critical in the widespread use of steam (for in-situ recovery) and hot-water (for surface extraction of bitumen) in this region. This paper provides an extensive analysis of hot-water generation to be used in heavy-oil/bitumen recovery. We tested different modeling approaches used to determine the amount of energy produced during HDR by history matching to example field data. The most suitable numerical and analytical models were used to apply the data obtained from different regions containing heavy-oil/bitumen deposits in northern Alberta. The heat generation capacity of different regions was determined and the use of this energy (in the form of hot-water) for surface extraction processes was evaluated. Original temperature gradients were applied as well as realistic basement formation characteristics through an extensive hydro thermal analysis in the region including an experimental well drilled to the depth of 2,500m. Existing natural fractures and possible hydraulic fracturing scenarios were evaluated from the heat generation capacity and the economics points of view. The main problem was modeling difficulties, especially determination and representation of fracture network characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the selected high temperature gradient regions in Alberta. In this practice, the characteristics of hydraulic fractures, injection rate, depth, the distance between

  15. Tool Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Tool organizer accommodates a selection of hand tools on a waist or thigh belt or alternately on wall, work bench, or car trunk mountings. Tool caddy is widely used by industrial maintenance personnel, TV technicians, mechanics, artists, draftsmen, hobbyists and homeowners. Its innovative feature is rows of flexible vinyl "fingers" like the bristles of a hairbrush which mesh together to hold the tool securely in place yet allow easy insertion or withdrawal. Product is no longer commercially available.

  16. Percussion tool

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  17. Detecting oil sands process-affected waters in the Alberta oil sands region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Burnison, B Kent; Frank, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2009-06-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. There are approximately 10(9) m(3) of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil sands mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study was conducted in order to determine if synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) could detect OSPW contamination in water systems. Water samples collected from ponds containing OSPW and selected sites in the Alberta oil sands region were evaluated using SFS with an offset value of 18 nm. OSPW ponds consistently displayed a minor peak at 282.5 nm and a broad major peak ranging between 320 and 340 nm. Water from reference sites within the oil sands region had little fluorescence at 282.5 nm but greater fluorescence beyond 345 nm. Naphthenic acids are the major toxic component of OSPW. Both a commercial naphthenic acid and a naphthenic acid extract prepared from OSPW had similar fluorescent spectra with peaks at 280 nm and 320 nm and minor shoulders at approximately 303 and 331 nm. The presence of aromatic acids closely associated with the naphthenic acids may be responsible for unique fluorescence at 320-340 nm. SFS is proposed to be a simple and fast method to monitor the release of OSPW into ground and surface waters in the oil sands region.

  18. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Sherry J; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A; Townsend, Hugh G G

    2009-10-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10,000 to > 40,000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86-88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86-90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85-88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66-71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58-70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67-72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta.

  19. A case study in Gantt charts as historiophoty: A century of psychology at the University of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael R W

    2013-05-01

    History is typically presented as historiography, where historians communicate via the written word. However, some historians have suggested alternative formats for communicating and thinking about historical information. One such format is known as historiophoty, which involves using a variety of visual images to represent history. The current article proposes that a particular type of graph, known as a Gantt chart, is well suited for conducting historiophoty. When used to represent history, Gantt charts provide a tremendous amount of information. Furthermore, the spatial nature of Gantt charts permits other kinds of spatial operations to be performed on them. This is illustrated with a case study of the history of a particular psychology department. The academic year 2009-2010 marked the centennial of psychology at the University of Alberta. This centennial was marked by compiling a list of its full-time faculty members for each year of its history. This historiography was converted into historiophoty by using it as the source for the creation of a Gantt chart. The current article shows how the history of psychology at the University of Alberta is revealed by examining this Gantt chart in a variety of different ways. This includes computing simple descriptive statistics from the chart, creating smaller versions of the Gantt to explore departmental demographics, and using image processing methods to provide measures of departmental stability throughout its history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95)

    PubMed Central

    Egedahl, R; Carpenter, M; Lundell, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality experience of workers at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
METHODS—A total of 1649 male employees of Sherritt International who worked for at least 12 continuous months during the years 1954 to 1978 at the Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex were followed up for an additional 17 years. Mortality was ascertained from the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada and covered the years 1954-95. Statistics were analysed with Monson's computer program.
RESULTS—Total mortality, when compared with the Canadian population, was significantly below expectation. Fewer deaths were found for circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, digestive cancer, and accidents, poisonings, and violence. Among the 718 men in the group exposed to nickel, there were no deaths due to nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. Fewer deaths were found for all causes, circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, neoplasms and digestive cancer. Lower death rates were observed than expected for respiratory malignancies and cancer of the bronchus and lung.
CONCLUSION—No association was found in this study between exposure to nickel concentrate or metallic nickel in the hydrometallurgical refining process and the subsequent development of respiratory cancer.


Keywords: epidemiology; nickel workers; mortality PMID:11600726

  1. Approach to Assessing the Effects of Aerial Deposition on Water Quality in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Dayyani, Shadi; Daly, Gillian; Vandenberg, Jerry

    2016-02-01

    Snow cover forms a porous medium that acts as a receptor for aerially deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The snowpack, acting as a temporary storage reservoir, releases contaminants accumulating over the winter during a relatively short melt period. This process could result in elevated concentrations of contaminants in melt water. Recent studies in the Alberta oil sands region have documented increases in snowpack and lake sediment concentrations; however, no studies have addressed the fate and transport of contaminants during the snowmelt period. This study describes modelling approaches that were developed to assess potential effects of aerially deposited PAHs and metals to snowpack and snowmelt water concentrations. The contribution of snowmelt to freshwater PAH concentrations is assessed using a dynamic, multi-compartmental fate model, and the contribution to metal concentrations is estimated using a mass-balance approach. The modelling approaches described herein were applied to two watersheds in the Alberta oil sands region for two planned oil sands developments. Accumulation of PAHs in a lake within the deposition zone was also modelled for comparison to observed concentrations.

  2. Factors associated with participation of Alberta dairy farmers in a voluntary, management-based Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Kwong, G P S; Wolf, R; Pickel, C; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Mason, S; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Jansen, J; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2015-11-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a voluntary, management-based prevention and control program for Johne's disease (JD), a wasting disease in ruminants that causes substantial economic losses to the cattle industry. Despite extensive communication about the program's benefits and low cost to participating producers, approximately 35% of Alberta dairy farmers have not enrolled in the AJDI. Therefore, the objective was to identify differences between AJDI nonparticipants and participants that may influence enrollment. Standardized questionnaires were conducted in person on 163 farms not participating and 61 farms participating in the AJDI. Data collected included demographic characteristics, internal factors (e.g., attitudes and beliefs of the farmer toward JD and the AJDI), external factors (e.g., farmers' JD knowledge and on-farm goals and constraints), as well as farmers' use and influence of various information sources. Nonparticipants and participants differed in at least some aspects of all studied categories. Based on logistic regression, participating farms had larger herds, higher self-assessed knowledge of JD, better understanding of AJDI details before participation, and used their veterinarian more often to get information about new management practices and technologies when compared with nonparticipants. In contrast, nonparticipants indicated that time was a major on-farm constraint and that participation in the AJDI would take too much time. They also indicated that they preferred to wait and see how the program worked on other farms before they participated.

  3. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-02

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  4. Oil Sands Operations in Alberta, Canada: A large source of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Hayden, K.; Taha, Y. M.; Stroud, C.; Darlington, A. L.; Drollette, B.; Gordon, M.; Lee, P.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S.; Wang, D.; O'Brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Staebler, R. M.; Han, Y.; Tokarek, T. W.; Osthoff, H. D.; Makar, P.; Zhang, J.; Plata, D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the reaction products of emissions to the atmosphere from extraction of oil from unconventional sources in the oil sands (OS) region of Alberta, Canada. This study examines these reaction products, and in particular, the extent to which they form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which can significantly contribute to regional particulate matter formation. An aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. A broad suite of measurements were made during 22 flights, including organic aerosol mass and composition with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and organic aerosol gas-phase precursors by Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and off-line gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Large concentrations of organic aerosol were measured downwind of the OS region, which we show to be entirely secondary in nature. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that bitumen (the mined product) contains semi-volatile vapours in the C12-C18 range that will be emitted at ambient temperatures. When oxidized, these vapours form SOA with highly similar HR-ToF-AMS spectra to the SOA measured in the flights. Box modelling of the OS plume evolution indicated that the measured levels of traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not capable of accounting for the amount of SOA formed in OS plumes. This discrepancy is only reconciled in the model by including bitumen vapours along with their oxidation and condensation into the model. The concentration of bitumen vapours required to produce SOA matching observations is similar to that of traditional VOC precursors of SOA. It was further estimated that the cumulative SOA mass formation approximately 100 km downwind of the OS during these flights, and under these meteorological conditions was up to 82 tonnes/day. The combination of airborne measurements, laboratory experiments and box modelling indicated that semi

  5. Tracing Shifts in Subglacial Hydrochemistry Due to Changes in Drainage Configuration: Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, M.; Arendt, C. A.; Clinger, A. E.; Stevenson, E. I.; Aciego, S.

    2015-12-01

    Differences in the hydrological and chemical composition of glacial outflow are controlled by seasonality, subglacial bedrock mineralogy, physical/chemical weathering processes, and water-rock interaction time. While the chemical progression from onset of melt to peak melt has been well studied at various glaciers, few studies exist that examine the hydrological and associated chemical changes as the subglacial drainage network evolves from peak flow back to winter basal flow conditions. Here we use traditional hydrological and chemical techniques to examine the changes in subglacial drainage network configuration with the onset of winter at the Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada. This glacier is one of eight alpine glaciers draining the Columbia Icefield in the Canadian Rockies. The Athabasca Glacier is situated atop Middle Cambrian limestone and carbonate shale generating predominately a carbonate weathering regime, but exhibits some evidence of silicate weathering. Analysis of major and trace element ratios, stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic systems, and in-field chemical measurements (pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity), combined with discharge over a three-month period provides high-resolution insight into the change of subglacial hydrochemistry in this system. O-H isotopes over the course of the study show seasonal excursions, possibly indicating a change in meltwater source. Preliminary data reveal three possible shifts in subglacial dynamics suggesting shifts between carbonate and silicate weathering as expressed by relative cation contributions. These shifts may be reflective of different subglacial drainage configurations: higher silicate weathering rates, revealed by increased potassium concentrations in the end of season, could be generated by a shift to a more distributed drainage network and a longer water-rock interaction time. Our results clearly indicate changes in elemental concentrations correlated with decreases in

  6. Climate-induced alteration of hydrologic indicators in the Athabasca River Basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Hyung-Il; Dibike, Yonas; Prowse, Terry

    2017-01-01

    The hydrologic response of the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Alberta to projected changes in the future climate is investigated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) process-based and distributed hydrologic model. The model forcings are derived from a selected set of GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) statistically downscaled to a higher resolution (10 km) over Canada. Twelve hydrologic indicators that represent the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic regimes are evaluated for three 30-year time periods centered at the 1990s, 2050s and 2080s to identify significant alterations of hydrologic regimes between the reference and the two future periods using a t-test at 5% significance level. Hydrologic alteration factors (HAF) are also evaluated for each hydrologic indicator using the range of variability approach (RVA) to investigate projected changes in the distribution of these indicators. The results show increases in spring and winter flows for the two future periods at all hydrometric stations within the basin, resulting in an extended period of spring freshet. A higher rate of increase is projected for the stations located at the upper reach of the river because of the combined effects of increased precipitation and earlier snowmelt resulting from a warming climate. By contrast, summer flows are projected to decrease by up to 21% on average in the 2080s over most of the mainstem stations because of earlier snowmelt, increased evapotranspiration and no significant increase in summer precipitation. A water-management rule that optimizes impacts of water withdrawal from the lower reach of the Athabasca River under the current condition is also applied to the future scenarios to assess its relative performance under the projected climate conditions. The results indicate possible improvement in the water resources system performance in terms of increased reliability and resilience and reduced vulnerability during the two

  7. Temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A; Entz, T; Olson, M E; Yanke, L J; Read, R R

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (< or =4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  8. Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria among cattle from Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeeta; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David; Morley, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter) and non-type-specific E. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use. A secondary objective was to determine if AMR in non-type-specific E. coli could be used as a predictor of AMR in foodborne pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 Alberta feedlots during March through December 2004, and resistance prevalence was estimated by season (Spring, Fall) and cattle type (fewest days-on-feed and closest to slaughter). AMD exposures were obtained by calculating therapeutic animal daily doses for each drug before sampling from feedlot records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between each AMR and AMD use. Non-type-specific E. coli was commonly recovered from fecal samples (88.62%), and the highest prevalence of resistance was found toward tetracycline (53%), streptomycin (28%), and sulfadiazine (48%). Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 55.3% of the fecal samples, and resistance was generally less for the drugs that were evaluated (doxycycline 38.1%, ciprofloxacin 2.6%, nalidixic acid 1.64%, erythromycin 1.2%). E. coli O157 and Salmonella were recovered much less frequently (7% and 1% prevalence, respectively). The prevalence of recovery for the bacteria studied varied between seasons and cattle types, as did patterns of AMR. Among non-type-specific E. coli, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfadiazine was found to be positively associated with in-feed exposure as well as injectable tetracycline, but these differences were relatively small and of questionable practical relevance. Among C. jejuni isolates, cattle type was significantly associated with doxycycline resistance. Results suggested that resistance in non-type-specific E. coli to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim

  9. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, M; Kutz, S; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. Significant impacts of MAP and NC have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western Canadian cow-calf herds. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MAP and NC infection in southwest Alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for NC were identified, and the reproductive impacts of the two pathogens were assessed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 840 cows on 28 cow-calf operations. Individual cow and herd management information was collected by self-administered questionnaires and one-on-one interviews. Bayesian estimates of the true prevalence of MAP and NC were computed, and bivariable and multivariable statistical analysis were done to assess the association between the NC serological status and ranch management risk factors, and the clinical effects of the two pathogens. Bayesian estimates of true prevalence indicated that 20% (95% probability interval: 8-38%) of herds had at least one MAP-positive cow, with a within-herd prevalence in positive herds of 22% (8-45%). From the Bayesian posterior distributions of NC prevalence, the median herd-level prevalence was 66% (33-95%) with 10% (4-21%) cow-level prevalence in positive herds. Multivariable analysis indicated that introducing purchased animals in the herd might increase the risk of NC. The negative association of NC with proper carcass disposal and presence of horses on ranch (possibly in relation to herd monitoring and guarding activities), may suggest the importance of wild carnivores in the dynamics of this pathogen in the study area. We also observed an association between MAP and NC serological status and the number of abortions. Additional studies should be done to further examine specific risk factors for MAP and NC, assess the

  10. Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

    2014-03-01

    A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate

  11. The stable isotopes of site wide waters at an oil sands mine in northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Thomas; Barbour, S. Lee; Gibson, John J.

    2016-10-01

    Oil sands mines have large disturbance footprints and contain a range of new landforms constructed from mine waste such as shale overburden and the byproducts of bitumen extraction such as sand and fluid fine tailings. Each of these landforms are a potential source of water and chemical release to adjacent surface and groundwater, and consequently, the development of methods to track water migration through these landforms is of importance. The stable isotopes of water (i.e. 2H and 18O) have been widely used in hydrology and hydrogeology to characterize surface water/groundwater interactions but have not been extensively applied in mining applications, or specifically to oil sands mining in northern Alberta. A prerequisite for applying these techniques is the establishment of a Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) to characterize precipitation at the mine sites as well as the development of a 'catalogue' of the stable water isotope signatures of various mine site waters. This study was undertaken at the Mildred Lake Mine Site, owned and operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. The LMWL developed from 2 years (2009/2012) of sample collection is shown to be consistent with other LMWLs in western Canada. The results of the study highlight the unique stable water isotope signatures associated with hydraulically placed tailings (sand or fluid fine tailings) and overburden shale dumps relative to natural surface water and groundwater. The signature associated with the snow melt water on reclaimed landscapes was found to be similar to ground water recharge in the region. The isotopic composition of the shale overburden deposits are also distinct and consistent with observations made by other researchers in western Canada on undisturbed shales. The process water associated with the fine and coarse tailings streams has highly enriched 2H and 18O signatures. These signatures are developed through the non-equilibrium fractionation of imported fresh river water during evaporation from

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from two pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Aslam, Mueen; Service, Cara; Narváez-Bravo, Claudia; Avery, Brent P; Johnson, Roger; Jones, Tineke H

    2017-01-16

    This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP). For plant A, 87% of CSAB and 8% of CSAE were positive for Salmonella while at plant B, Salmonella was recovered from 94% of CSAB and 10% of CSAE. Salmonella was not recovered from the RP samples at either plant, indicating that the plants used effective control measures. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most common serotype (23%, 29/127) recovered in plant A and plant B (61%, 76/124). For plant A, 35% (45/127) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Five isolates (3.9%), 4 serovar Ohio strains and one serovar I:Rough-O:I,v:-, strain were simultaneously resistant to antimicrobials of very high (Category I), high (Category II), and medium (Category III) importance to human medicine. The 4 S. Ohio isolates were recovered from 3 different steps of pork processing on the same sampling day and displayed resistance to 5-7 antimicrobials, with all of them displaying resistance to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). An I:Rough-O:l,v:- isolate, recovered on a different sampling day, was resistant to 7 antimicrobials that included resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). Salmonella strains isolated from plant A harbored 12 different AMR genes. The most prevalent genes were sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B), aadA, strA/strB, aac(3)IV and aphA1. For

  13. Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document current commercial practices during long haul transport (≥400 km) of cattle in Alberta through surveys delivered to truck drivers (6,152 journeys that transported 290,362 animals). The live beef export industry to the United States (89% of all journeys) had a large influence on long haul transport. This was particularly true for fat cattle going to slaughter (82%) and backgrounded feeders going to feed yards (15%). Most drivers had either limited (31% with < 2 yr) or extensive (35% > 10 yr) experience hauling cattle. The type of tractors and trailers used most frequently were those with more number of axles (quad-axle trailers pulled with push tractors) because they can accommodate extra weight. Mean (± SD) distance travelled was 1,081 ± 343 km (maximum of 2,560 km) whereas time animals spent on truck averaged 15.9 ± 6.3 h with a maximum of 45 h. However, only 5% of all journeys were greater than 30 h. The most frequent cause of delay was at the Canada-United States border crossing due to paperwork and veterinary inspections. Border delays occurred on 77% of all journeys which had a mean of 1.3 ± 1.9 h and up to 15-h long. Driver rest stops and waiting to unload cattle at destination were the second most frequent and longest cause of delay. Ambient temperature across all journeys ranged from -42 to 45°C with a mean value of 18 ± 11.8°C while temperature variation within a journey was from 0 to 46°C with mean value of 15 ± 6.6°C. The proportion of dead, non-ambulatory, and lame cattle for all journeys was 0.011, 0.022, and 0.011%, respectively. The cattle transport industry showed compliance with federal regulations and to a lesser extent with recommendations. Findings showed extreme values and very large variability in transport conditions however further research is needed to assess their impact on animal welfare outcomes. Delays within the journey as a result of border crossing, weather conditions

  14. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 μm and a 1 μm mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume

  15. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  16. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur

    2007-10-15

    The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

  17. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  18. Evaluation of the CAPE and CORE Programs for Sensory-Impaired Multi-Handicapped Children in the Province of Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland Consulting Group Ltd.

    The report presents summaries of evaluations of the Coordinated Assessment and Program Planning for Education (CAPE) Program and the Coordinated Rehabilitation and Education (CORE) program for multi-handicapped sensory impaired and/or communication and behavior disordered children and their families in Alberta, Canada. Each program is evaluated…

  19. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  20. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: A Final Note on the Re-Norming/versus Scoring Revision Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Item analysis data were collected for the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, from urban and rural Alberta (Canada) youngsters and Inuit youngsters from the Northwest Territories (Canada). Both tests were inadequate in individual item difficulty levels, suggesting the necessity of revising scoring systems and…

  1. Social Characteristics and Motivations of Students in Non-University Post-Secondary Educational Institutions in the Province of Alberta. Student Needs. Master Planning Monograph 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeish, John

    This document presents the results of an extensive study whose ultimate purpose was to identify the aggregate perceived values, needs, and aspirations of the total postsecondary nonuniversity student population in the Province of Alberta. It describes in considerable detail the needs and motivations of various groups of students enrolled in a…

  2. Computer Assisted Instruction and Bibliographic Instruction: Preliminary Data on the Use of PLATO in the BI Program of the Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Brian

    In response to requests from the University of Alberta Department of Computing Services for PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) applications in structured learning situations, a program for computer-assisted bibliographic instruction (BI) was developed. The program is divided into the following six units: (1) Introduction;…

  3. Optimizing Learning. Proceedings of the Annual Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education Conference (6th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, September 29-30, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education, Calgary (Alberta).

    This conference proceedings focuses on structuring classrooms to optimize learning among Alberta (Canada) gifted students. The first paper, "Optimizing Parent Potential" (Trudy A. Harrold), describes a model and a process for helping parents acquire knowledge, organize their thinking, and act from a realistic base when dealing with their gifted…

  4. Choices for Challenge: SAGE--The Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education Conference Proceedings (2nd, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, September 26-28, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This monograph contains the conference proceedings of the 1991 conference of the Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education, held in Calgary, Alberta. The papers have the following titles and authors: "Experiencing Creativity in Music" (Loretta Baker); "Students Who are Hearing Impaired and Gifted: Teachers' Perspectives" (Mary Ann Bibby);…

  5. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  6. A Study of Non-University Post-Secondary and Continuing Educational Services in Alberta 1970-71. Program-Service Inventory; Master Planning Monograph 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Grant L.

    A survey, commissioned by the Alberta College Commission as part of its master planning project, was conducted to identify existing programs, services, and enrollments in post-secondary, non-university and continuing education in the province. A survey instrument was sent to all licensed trade and business schools, adult education centers, private…

  7. Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever-like skin disease in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Alberta, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Alberta, Canada. Ante-mortem observations and gross pathology included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss and focally extensive alopecia with chronic crusting hyperkeratotosis and...

  8. GRIPPING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, R.J.

    1961-12-12

    A self-actuated gripping tool is described for transferring fuel elements and the like into reactors and other inaccessible locations. The tool will grasp or release the load only when properly positioned for this purpose. In addition, the load cannot be released except when unsupported by the tool, so that jarring or contact will not bring about accidental release of the load. The gripping members or jaws of the device are cam-actuated by an axially slidable shaft which has two lockable positions. A spring urges the shaft into one position and a solenoid is provided to overcome the spring and move it into the other position. The weight of the tool operates a sleeve to lock the shaft in its existing position. Only when the cable supporting the tool is slack is the device capable of being actuated either to grasp or release its load. (AEC)

  9. Imagining another context during encoding offsets context-dependent forgetting.

    PubMed

    Masicampo, E J; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting effect (e.g., Smith & Vela, 2001). Importantly, some participants imagined another mental context during encoding. Some of these participants imagined Context B during encoding, and when they were later tested in Context B or even in a completely new Context C, they did not show forgetting, confirming our predictions. Other participants imagined a new context during encoding simply by transforming the current context (i.e., by imagining that it was snowing in the room), and this likewise counteracted context-dependent forgetting. These data suggest a moderator of context-dependent forgetting. When the context surrounding a memory is largely mentally generated, context-dependent forgetting is eliminated.

  10. Omics Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Schaumberg, Andrew

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not contain Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args

  11. Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Gizaw, Mesgana

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events in the Oldman (ORB), Bow, (BRB) and Red Deer (RRB) River Basins of southern Alberta, Canada, was assessed using six extreme climate indices for the rainy period of May-August (MJJA), and 9-km resolution Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and A1B climate scenarios of four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Models (GCMs) dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model, MM5. R95p of the three study sites showed an increase of 4% for the 2050s (2041-2070) and 10% for the 2080s (2071-2100) period, whereas R99p increased by 39% (2050s) and 42% (2080s) which suggest a projected increase in the volume of precipitation expected in future very wet and particularly extremely wet days. Similarly, R20mm, P30yr, RX1day and RX5day are also projected to increase by about 15% by the mid- and late 21st century in the three study sites. However, compared to BRB and RRB, ORB located in the southernmost part of the study site is projected to undergo a relatively higher increase in both temperature and precipitation intensity, which is assessed in terms of indices such as P30yr, RX1day and RX5day. On the other hand, RRB and BRB are projected to experience higher increase in R20mm, which suggest a relatively higher increase in the number of very heavy precipitation days projected for these two basins. Overall, these results suggest that in the 2050s and 2080s, southern Alberta will be expected to experience more frequent and severe intensive storm events in the MJJA season that could potentially increase the risk of future flooding in this region. Ref: Gizaw, M., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta, Int. Journal Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.4338

  12. Tuberculosis among immigrants: interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis. A 5-year study in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, R L; Sharpe, J W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) occurring among immigrants and the interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis of the disease. DESIGN: Study of all cases of TB diagnosed in foreign-born residents of southern Alberta during the 5-year period 1990-1994. SETTING: A centre for the diagnosis, management and control of all cases of TB in the southern half of the province of Alberta. METHODS: All foreign-born patients in whom TB was newly diagnosed between January 1990 and December 1994 were included in the study. The interval from their arrival in Canada to diagnosis, their country of birth and the site of their disease were documented. RESULTS: Immigrants to Canada accounted for 248 (70.6%) of the 351 cases of TB diagnosed in southern Alberta during the 5-year period. The majority of these immigrants (182/248 [73.4%]) were of Asian origin. Extrapulmonary TB accounted for 111 (61.0%) of the 182 cases of the disease in Asian immigrants. The mean period between immigration and diagnosis was 11.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 13.9 years). Half of the patients presented within 7 years of their arrival in Canada. The time to presentation was shortest for patients with superficial lymph node disease (mean 7.6 years [SD 6.9] after arrival), intermediate among those with extrapulmonary disease, excluding superficial disease of the lymph node (10.1 years [SD 12.1]), and longest for those with pulmonary disease (14.2 years [SD 17.2]). TB developed sooner after arrival in Canada among immigrants from Asian countries (mean 9.1 years) than among those from other countries (17.2 years) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Given the low annual incidence of TB in Canada (7.1 per 100,000), it is probable that TB occurring among immigrants reflects infection acquired before arrival in Canada. Health care professionals need to be aware that immigrants from countries with a relatively high prevalence of TB remain at risk for the disease (often at an extrapulmonary site) for

  13. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the

  14. Theme-Based Tests: Teaching in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gretchen L.; Heck, Marsha L.

    2005-01-01

    Theme-based tests provide an assessment tool that instructs as well as provides a single general context for a broad set of biochemical concepts. A single story line connects the questions on the tests and models applications of scientific principles and biochemical knowledge in an extended scenario. Theme-based tests are based on a set of…

  15. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative

  16. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Lana A.; Paetsch, Chad D.; Jelinski, Murray D.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line. PMID:26538666

  17. Exploring the process of capacity-building among community-based health promotion workers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Genevieve R; Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Mayan, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Community capacity-building is a central element to health promotion. While capacity-building features, domains and relationships to program sustainability have been well examined, information on the process of capacity-building as experienced by practitioners is needed. This study examined this process as experienced by coordinators working within a community-based chronic disease prevention project implemented in four communities in Alberta (Canada) from 2005-2010 using a case study approach with a mixed-method design. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, a focus group and program documents tracking coordinator activity. Qualitative analysis followed the constant comparative method using open, axial and selective coding. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequency of major activity distribution. Capacity-building process involves distinct stages of networking, information exchange, partnering, prioritizing, planning/implementing and supporting/ sustaining. Stages are incremental though not always linear. Contextual factors exert a great influence on the process. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed.

  18. Seismic facies analysis of delta-plain coals from Camrose, Alberta, and lacustrine coals from Pictou coalfield, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    Facies models of two coalfields in Canada have been developed through seismic facies analysis. Fluvial-deltaic Upper Cretaceous coals near Camrose, Alberta, are characterized by hummocky, subparallel, high-amplitude reflections that are laterally continuous over distances of several kilometers. Deposition in an extensive delta-plain swamp is inferred. Coals of Pennsylvanian age in the Pictou coalfield, Nova Scotia, occur in two distinct seismic facies. Parallel to subparallel, relatively continuous reflections are interpreted to define a basinal facies comprising thick coals and lacustrine sediments. Basinal margin facies contain a greater abundance of variable clastic sediments and are recognized by discontinuous, subparallel to chaotic reflections. Further improvements in stratigraphic analysis will require synthetic seismograms to analyze individual reflections in terms of the thickness and separation of seams, and to enable interseam multiples to be recognized. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Detection and molecular characterization of an aster yellows phytoplasma in poker statice and Queen Anne's lace in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kan-Fa; Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Khadhair, Abdul-Hameed; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Howard, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Queen Anne's lace and poker statice plants were found with a yellows-type disease with typical phytoplasma symptoms in an experimental farm near Brooks, Alberta in 1996. Phytoplasma bodies were detected by transmission electron microscopy in phloem cells of symptomatic plants, but not in healthy plants. The presence of a phytoplasma was confirmed by analysis with the polymerase chain reaction. Using a pair of universal primer sequences derived from phytoplasma 16S rRNA, an amplified product of the expected size (1.2 kb) was observed in samples from infected plants, but not in asymptomatic plants. Sequence analysis of the PCR products from the 16S/23S rDNA intergenic spacer region indicated that the two phytoplasma isolates in Queen Anne's lace and poker statice are genetically closely related to the western aster yellows phytoplasma.

  20. Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?

    PubMed

    Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2013-03-01

    The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985.

  1. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  2. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS.

  4. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James A; Scott, H Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP - the causative agent of Johne's disease) and Neospora caninum (NC - the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle.

  5. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, James A.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP — the causative agent of Johne’s disease) and Neospora caninum (NC — the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle. PMID:18189052

  6. Biostratigraphy and Inoceramus survival across the Cenomanian-Turonian (Cretaceous) boundary in the Ram River section, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; Plint, A. Guy; Kennedy, William J.

    2016-12-01

    The biostratigraphy of the uppermost Cenomanian - Lower Turonian succession in the lower part of the Blackstone Formation exposed in the Ram River (Alberta, Canada), is interpreted in terms of the standard inoceramid/ammonite zonation of the interval. Four successive inoceramid zones are recognized, those of Inoceramus pictus, Mytiloides puebloensis, M. kossmati, and M. mytiloides, as established in the stratotype section at Pueblo, Colorado. Their correlation to Pueblo is confirmed by ammonite data. The mid-Early Turonian zone of M. kossmati yielded an assemblage of Inoceramus, with species showing close affinity to the latest Cenomanian lineages. This multi-species sample proves the survival of Inoceramus lineages into the otherwise Mytiloides-dominated Early Turonian, and indicates that their disappearance from the record of the North American Western Interior was not because of their extinction. It is suggested that the apparent lack of Inoceramus in Lower Turonian strata is due to an extremely low population abundance in the Early Turonian sea.

  7. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  8. Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia M. Wilson

    2009-11-30

    Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

  9. Impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (Global Climate Model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. This amplification is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, possibly resulting in lower water availability in the snowmelt dominated regions during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty were higher in spring and summer flows than in winter and fall flows. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  10. Impacts of climate and catastrophic forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC (Hydrologiska Byråns attenbalansavdelning, Environment Canada), in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (global climate model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). The GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. Flow also decreased in July and August, when irrigation is important; these reduced river flows during this season could impact agriculture production. The amplification in the streamflow is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, resulting in lower water availability during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty in streamflows were higher in spring and summer than in winter and fall. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing the winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  11. An economic evaluation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) multisite implementation program for colorectal surgery in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Nguyen X.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Wasylak, Tracy; Lawrence, Jeannette; Faris, Peter; Ljungqvist, Olle; Nelson, Gregg; Gramlich, Leah M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In February 2013, Alberta Health Services established an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) implementation program for adopting the ERAS Society colorectal guidelines into 6 sites (initial phase) that perform more than 75% of all colorectal surgeries in the province. We conducted an economic evaluation of this initiative to not only determine its cost-effectiveness, but also to inform strategy for the spread and scale of ERAS to other surgical protocols and sites. Methods We assessed the impact of ERAS on patients’ health services utilization (HSU; length of stay [LOS], readmissions, emergency department visits, general practitioner and specialist visits) within 30 days of discharge by comparing pre- and post-ERAS groups using multilevel negative binomial regressions. We estimated the net health care costs/savings and the return on investment (ROI) associated with those impacts for post-ERAS patients using a decision analytic modelling technique. Results We included 331 pre- and 1295 post-ERAS patients in our analyses. ERAS was associated with a reduction in all HSU outcomes except visits to specialists. However, only the reduction in primary LOS was significant. The net health system savings were estimated at $2 290 000 (range $1 191 000–$3 391 000), or $1768 (range $920–$2619) per patient. The probability for the program to be cost-saving was 73%–83%. In terms of ROI, every $1 invested in ERAS would bring $3.8 (range $2.4–$5.1) in return. Conclusion The initial phase of ERAS implementation for colorectal surgery in Alberta is cost-saving. The total savings has the potential to be more substantial when ERAS is spread for other surgical protocols and across additional sites.

  12. Emission factors for hydraulically fractured gas wells derived using well- and battery-level reported data for Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tyner, David R; Johnson, Matthew R

    2014-12-16

    A comprehensive technical analysis of available industry-reported well activity and production data for Alberta in 2011 has been used to derive flaring, venting, and diesel combustion greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant emission factors specifically linked to drilling, completion, and operation of hydraulically fractured natural gas wells. Analysis revealed that in-line ("green") completions were used at approximately 53% of wells completed in 2011, and in other cases the majority (99.5%) of flowback gases were flared rather than vented. Comparisons with limited analogous data available in the literature revealed that reported total flared and vented natural gas volumes attributable to tight gas well-completions were ∼ 6 times larger than Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) estimates for natural gas well-completion based on wells ca. 2000, but 62% less than an equivalent emission factor that can be derived from U.S. EPA data. Newly derived emission factors for diesel combustion during well drilling and completion are thought to be among the first such data available in the open literature, where drilling-related emissions for tight gas wells drilled in Alberta in 2011 were found to have increased by a factor of 2.8 relative to a typical well drilled in Canada in 2000 due to increased drilling lengths. From well-by-well analysis of production phase flared, vented, and fuel usage natural gas volumes reported at 3846 operating tight gas wells in 2011, operational emission factors were developed. Overall results highlight the importance of operational phase GHG emissions at upstream well sites (including on-site natural gas fuel use), and the critical levels of uncertainty in current estimates of liquid unloading emissions.

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  14. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  15. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  16. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  17. Chapter Three: Investigating Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with the statement that all talk happens somewhere, somehow, at some time and is produced by somebody for some purpose, and the approach that practice theorists have taken is that talk and its context are inseparable. The challenges that face an analyst of practice are then to describe the context, describe the talk, and…

  18. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  19. Multicomponent seismic monitoring of stress arching in the overburden due to hydraulic fracturing in the Montney Shale at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinal, Irene

    Recent studies have shown convincing evidence that time-lapse changes in seismic data occur not only within the reservoir interval but also in the overburden. Observations that production at the reservoir level and subsequent decrease in pore pressure lead to modifications in the stress field and variations in the overburden have been documented (Hatchell et al., 2003; Hudson et al., 2005). The study of the opposite case, that is, the analysis of the effect in the overburden of an increase in pore pressure in the reservoir has not been so well documented yet and is the focus of this work; the possibility that the hydraulic fracturing process causes seismically detectable changes in the overburden in a time-lapse sense is studied at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, and the results are shown. The analysis is performed using multicomponent data from three seismic surveys acquired to evaluate the hydraulic stimulations of two horizontal wells in the Montney Shale. The time-lapse time shifts between the data of the two monitor surveys and the baseline have been calculated and constitute the main tool to study the injection-induced changes above the reservoir interval. The hypothesis is that the increase in the reservoir pressure due to the hydraulic well treatment might produce upward overburden compaction, leading to an increase in stresses that would be translated into an increase in the seismic velocities and therefore, into positive time shifts (considering monitor data subtracted from baseline data) if a time window for the overburden is analyzed. The study shows strong differences in the magnitude of the PS response to the stimulations compared to that of the PP data. The fact that mode-converted (PS) waves are more sensitive to azimuthal anisotropy than compressional waves explains the stronger character of the response observed in PS data, allowing for a more detailed interpretation of the stress-arching distribution. The time-lapse time shifts in the overburden

  20. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  1. Measuring School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Chandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities. PMID:27158640

  2. Bug-Free Sensors: The Automatic Verification of Context-Aware TinyOS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Doina; Kwiatkowska, Marta

    We provide the first tool for verifying the logic of context-aware applications written for the mainstream sensor network operating system TinyOS; we focus on detecting programming errors related to incorrect adaptation to context.

  3. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  4. Management Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  5. Tools for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  6. The social context of interpersonal communication and health.

    PubMed

    Ackerson, Leland K; Viswanath, K

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased interest in the social context of interpersonal communication. This focus informs major public health topics including health disparities, social networks, social capital, and the penetration of new communication technologies. We use data from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS) to illustrate the role of social context in interpersonal communication. Finally, we argue that addressing the social context may be an important tool for eliminating communication inequalities.

  7. Rever d'une langue: Anthologie des ecoles d'immersion de l'Alberta de la maternelle a la 11e annee (Dreaming in One Language: An Anthology of Essays from Immersion Schools in Alberta from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Teachers Association, Edmonton.

    This publication, launched by the French Council of the Alberta Teachers' Association and prepared under the Millennium Partnership Program in Canada, presents a collection of essays written by French language immersion students in the elementary and secondary grades. Essay topics touch on the following themes: remembering, dreaming, celebrating,…

  8. A serological survey of Leptospira interrogans serotype pomona in Alberta and Saskatchewan striped skunks and possible transmission between cattle and skunks.

    PubMed

    Schowalter, D B; Chalmers, G A; Johnson, G R; Gunson, J R; Wynnyk, W P

    1981-10-01

    The range of known occurrence of Leptospira interrogans serotype pomona is extended to Alberta in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis); no evidence of L. sejroe was found. Reacting sera from skunks were confined to the southern portion of Alberta and adjacent Saskatchewan, although a number of reactors were found sufficiently further north in Saskatchewan suggesting that a different mode of infection may be functioning there. Of 95 skunk sera from near a dairy farm infected with serotype pomona 40% were reactors. Of 438 skunk sera from other areas only 5.7% were reactors; that difference was suggestive of transmission from cattle to skunks on the dairy farm. Of 22 skunk sera collected near the dairy farm in summer none were reactors, whereas 52% of skunk sera taken the previous and following winters were. That seasonal difference was not evident among sera from other locations.

  9. Aligning Capabilities of Interactive Educational Tools to Learner Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauwers, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about a design process for creating "educationally relevant" tools. I submit that the key to creating tools that are educationally relevant is to focus on ensuring a high degree of alignment between the designed tool and the broader educational context into which the tool will be integrated. The thesis presents methods and processes…

  10. Emergence of a New Norovirus GII.4 Variant and Changes in the Historical Biennial Pattern of Norovirus Outbreak Activity in Alberta, Canada, from 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hasing, Maria E.; Preiksaitis, Jutta K.; Tellier, Raymond; Honish, Lance; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Pang, Xiaoli L.

    2013-01-01

    The public health impact of the emergence of new norovirus (NoV) strains is uncertain. A biennial pattern of alternating quiescent and epidemic levels of NoV outbreak activity associated with the emergence of new GII.4 variants was observed in Alberta, Canada, between July 2000 and June 2008. In this study, NoV genogroup I (GI) and GII strains isolated from 710 outbreak specimens in Alberta between July 2008 and January 2013 were characterized to update historical data. The seasonality and annual variation in NoV outbreak burden were analyzed over a 10-year period (July 2002 to June 2012). We found that GII.4-2006b had persisted as the predominant variant over three observation periods (July 2006 to June 2009) during which the biennial NoV outbreak pattern continued. The emergence of GII.4-2010 (winter 2009) was not associated with increased outbreak activity, and outbreak activity between July 2009 and June 2012 when GII.4-2010 predominated (67.5 to 97.7%) did not follow a biennial pattern. GII.4-2012 first emerged in Alberta in September 2011 and became predominant in observation period July 2012 to June 2013. NoV GI, relatively rare in past years, had a higher activity level (37.3%) as represented by GI.6 and GI.7 in the winter of 2012 to 2013. A higher proportion of GI outbreaks occurred in non-health care facility settings compared to GII. Our study suggests that factors other than new variants emergence contribute to the levels of NoV outbreak activity in Alberta. PMID:23637302

  11. Potential methane production and oxidation in soil reclamation covers of an oil sands mining site in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pum, Lisa; Reichenauer, Thomas; Germida, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities create a number of significant greenhouse gases and thus potentially contribute to global warming. Methane production is significant in some agricultural production systems and from wetlands. In soil, methane can be oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria. However, little is known about methane production and oxidation in oil sand reclamation covers. The purpose of this study was to investigate methane production and oxidation potential of tailing sands and six different reclamation layers of oil sands mining sites in Alberta, Canada. Methane production and oxidation potential were investigated in laboratory scale microcosms through continuous headspace analysis using gas chromatography. Samples from a reclamation layer were collected at the Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) reclamation site at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm in October 2014. In addition, tailing sands provided by Suncor Energy Inc. and soil from a CNRL wetland were studied for methane production. Samples were dried, crushed and sieved to 4 mm, packed into serum bottle microcosms and monitored for eight weeks. Methane production potential was assessed by providing an anoxic environment and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 100 %. Methane oxidation potential was examined by an initial application of 2 vol % methane to the microcosms and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 50 %. Microcosm headspace gas was analysed for methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and oxygen. All experiments were carried out in triplicates, including controls. SF6 and Helium were used as internal standards to detect potential leaks. Our results show differences for methane production potential between the soil depths, tailing sands and wetlands. Moreover, there were differences in the methane oxidation potential of substrate from the three depths investigated and between the reclamation layers. In conclusion, the present study shows that

  12. Timing and petroleum sources for the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta based on 4-D modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Lewan, M.D.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Henry, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta have an estimated 270.3 billion m3 (BCM) (1700 billion bbl) of in-place heavy oil and tar. Our study area includes oil sand accumulations and downdip areas that partially extend into the deformation zone in western Alberta. The oil sands are composed of highly biodegraded oil and tar, collectively referred to as bitumen, whose source remains controversial. This is addressed in our study with a four-dimensional (4-D) petroleum system model. The modeled primary trap for generated and migrated oil is subtle structures. A probable seal for the oil sands was a gradual updip removal of the lighter hydrocarbon fractions as migrated oil was progressively biodegraded. This is hypothetical because the modeling software did not include seals resulting from the biodegradation of oil. Although the 4-D model shows that source rocks ranging from the Devonian-Mississippian Exshaw Formation to the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group coals and Ostracode-zone-contributed oil to Mannville Group reservoirs, source rocks in the Jurassic Fernie Group (Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale) were the initial and major contributors. Kinetics associated with the type IIS kerogen in Fernie Group source rocks resulted in the early generation and expulsion of oil, as early as 85 Ma and prior to the generation from the type II kerogen of deeper and older source rocks. The modeled 50% peak transformation to oil was reached about 75 Ma for the Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale near the west margin of the study area, and prior to onset about 65 Ma from other source rocks. This early petroleum generation from the Fernie Group source rocks resulted in large volumes of generated oil, and prior to the Laramide uplift and onset of erosion (???58 Ma), which curtailed oil generation from all source rocks. Oil generation from all source rocks ended by 40 Ma. Although the modeled study area did not include possible western

  13. Could Poor Fens BE More Sensitive than Bogs to Elevated N Deposition in the Oil Sands Region of Northern Alberta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs and fens cover 29% of the 140,000 km2 Oil Sands Administrative Area (OSAA) in northern Alberta, a region characterized by quite low background N deposition (1-2 kg/ha/yr). However, development of the oil sands resource has led to increasing emission of nitrogen oxides, which are then returned to regional ecosystems as elevated atmospheric N deposition. Given the nutrient deficient nature of bogs and poor fens, elevated N deposition from oil sands development could potentially affect peatland ecosystem structure and function. To evaluate the ecosystem-level effects of N deposition, since 2011, we have experimentally applied N to a bog and a poor fen near Mariana Lakes, Alberta, located far enough from the OSAA to be unaffected by oil sands emissions. Treatments include simulated rainfall equivalent to N deposition of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg/ha/yr, plus control plots receiving no added water (3 replicate plots per site per N treatment). Concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3- N, and DON at the top of the peatland water table did not increase with increasing N deposition, averaging 0.61, 0.09, and 1.07 mg/L, respectively, in the bog, and 0.53, 0.10, and 0.81 mg/L, respectively, in the poor fen. Ericaceous shrub abundance increased with increasing N deposition in both the bog and the poor fen, although plot-scale greenness (hand-held spectral measurement of the Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE) index) increased with N deposition in the poor fen, but not in the bog. Segmented regression indicated that in the poor fen, at N deposition above 14-16 kg/ha/yr, total microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass in the top 5 cm of peat increased with N deposition, with no effect at lower N deposition. No effect of N deposition on microbial, bacterial, or fungal biomass was observed at 5-10 cm in the poor fen, or at either 0-5 or 5-10 cm in the bog. In the poor fen, microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass increased with NDRE, but the effect was not significant in the bog

  14. Talking Online: Reflecting on Online Communication Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greener, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the value and constraints of varied online communication tools from web 2.0 to e-mail in a higher education (HE) teaching and learning context, where these tools are used to support or be the main focus of learning. Design/methodology/approach: A structured reflection is produced with the aid of…

  15. Downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  16. The Relationship Between Seismicity and the Oil and Gas Industry in Western Alberta and Eastern B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Ghofrani, H.; Walker, D.; Cheadle, B.; Schultz, R.; Shcherbakov, R.; Tiampo, K. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Significantly increased production of hydrocarbons in North America is being driven by the development of unconventional resources whose commercial viability, in many cases, depends upon massive subsurface injection of fluids. Although relatively uncommon, elevated pore pressure from fluid injection of any kind can induce earthquake activity by activating slip on a proximal fault. In the western Canada sedimentary basin (which follows the Rocky Mountain foothills region and straddles the border between Alberta and B.C.), we find that hydraulic fracture treatment, wherein fluids are injected under high pressure in long laterally-drilled wells in order to induce localized fracturing of a rock formation, is the primary triggering mechanism of induced seismicity. This contrasts with the central U.S., where most induced seismicity has been attributed to large-scale wastewater injection into deep disposal wells. Our findings are based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of seismicity at the M≥3 level since 1985, along with a complete well database for the region, containing information on many thousands of oil and gas wells. Since 2010, most of the regional earthquakes of M≥3 are correlated in both time and space with hydraulic fracturing. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the observed correlations are extremely unlikely (<<1%) to have been obtained by chance. Improved understanding of regional variability in fault activation processes, accounting for operational and geological factors, will aid in the development and validation of predictive models for the time-dependent hazards from induced earthquakes.

  17. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  18. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010–2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus). Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds. PMID:28355241

  19. Trace element signature of Late Jurassic siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary strata from western Montana, southeastern British Columbia and southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sablock, J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    A trace element signature, a characteristic pattern of enrichment and depletion of trace elements, was determined for a group of siliciclastic-carbonate Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian sedimentary strata, collected from outcrops in western Montana, southeastern British Columbia and southern Alberta. The average values, by petrofacies, of 10 major and 18 trace elements were measured for 40 samples. These data were normalized to Upper Continental Crust (UCC), and plotted against averaged published values of graywackes from the same facies. The rare earth elements (REEs), as well as Ti, Zr, Nb and Y are considered immobile even through diagenesis, and at least low level metamorphism. So these elements should form a reliable part of the geochemical signature. Compared to UCC and average graywacke, Jurassic samples are very depleted in Zr, Nb and Y. Oxfordian samples have slightly higher rare earth element values, i.e. La, Ce and Nd, than either other Jurassic samples or average graywacke. The most likely source of REE values are garnets and tourmaline which occur as inclusions in monocrystalline quartz grains. This pattern, and petrological study, point to a sedimentary source area, deficient in feldspar, heavy minerals and rock fragments. The consistency of the signature throughout this time may indicate slow uplift of a widespread sedimentary source area, or could be an effect of greater mixing and shorter residence time of dissolved materials in an epeiric sea.

  20. Bicycle helmet prevalence two years after the introduction of mandatory use legislation for under 18 year olds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, B E; Rizkallah, J W; Lamy, A; Belton, K L; Jhangri, G S; Cherry, N; Rowe, B H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine changes in helmet use in cyclists following the introduction of a bicycle helmet law for children under age 18. Methods Cyclists were observed by two independent observers from July to August 2004 (post‐legislation) in Edmonton, Alberta. The data were compared with a similar survey completed at the same locations and days in July to August 2000 (pre‐legislation). Data were collected for 271 cyclists in 2004 and 699 cyclists in 2000. Results The overall prevalence of helmet use increased from 43% (95% CI 39 to 47%) in 2000 to 53% (95% CI 47 to 59%) in 2004. Helmet use increased in those under 18, but did not change in those 18 and older. In the cluster adjusted multivariate Poisson regression model, the prevalence of helmet use significantly increased for those under age 18 (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 3.69, 95% CI 2.65 to 5.14), but not for those 18 years and older (APR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.43). Conclusion Extension of legislation to all age groups should be considered. PMID:16887950

  1. Heat flow and heat generation estimates for the Churchill basement of the Western Canadian Basin in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.D.W.; Jones, F.W.; Majorowicz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Heat flow through the sediments and temperatures of the Churchill province basement under the sedimentary cover are determined for 24 locations in the central part of the Prairies basin in Alberta where the vertical heat flux is approximately constant from the base of the sediments to the surface. The contribution to heat flow from heat generation in the sediments is also considered. The average heat flow through the sediments is found to be 71 mWm/sup -2/ +- 12mWm/sup -2/ which is about 30 mWm/sup -2/ higher than in the neighbouring shield area of the Churchill province, and the contribution from heat generation in the sediments to the surface heat flow is only approximately 2.5 mWm/sup -2/. The relationship between basement heat generation and heat flow is investigated, and it is found that the platform heat flow/heat generation values are in general higher than those from the Churchill province of the shield found by Drury (1985). Although for the platform and shield data, the reduced heat flow is about 40 mWm/sup -2/ and the slope is about 8km, it is apparent that the platform data alone are not good enough to establish a precise relationship.

  2. The adsorption and release of sulfur in mineral and organic soils of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C J; Adkinson, A; Eimers, M C; Watmough, S A

    2010-01-01

    Mineral soil and fibric peat from acid-sensitive western boreal catchments in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada were evaluated for their ability to adsorb and release SO(4)(2-). Laboratory batch studies indicated that SO(4)(2-) adsorption in mineral soil from both the A and B horizons exhibits a limited response to elevated SO(4)(2-) concentrations, with the slope of initial mass isotherms <0.2 for all soils, likely due to low iron and aluminum oxide content. Although S retention is the dominant process in peat soils in the region, drought simulations in the lab using fibric peat collected from a poor fen exhibited as much as a five-fold increase in SO(4)(2-) concentration after drying and rewetting. Given the limited SO(4)(2-) adsorption capacity of mineral soils and the potential drought-induced S release from peatlands in this region where increased S deposition is expected, further investigation of acidification impacts is warranted.

  3. Anomalous surface heave induced by enhanced oil recovery in northern Alberta: InSAR observations and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, Jill; Singhroy, Vern; Samsonov, Sergey; Li, Junhua

    2014-08-01

    Recent interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations over northern Alberta, Canada, show persistent surface heave occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/yr, localized at sites where the steam-assisted gravity drainage technique is currently used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion. We also observe an unexpected localized uplift, of magnitude equal to or greater than the heave above the sites of steaming but located at clusters of wellheads which are outside the region of influence of the steam chambers. We show that this "wellhead" deformation can be explained by thermal expansion of rock near the injector wells.

  4. Legacy seismic investigations of karst surfaces: Implications for heavy oil extraction from the Devonian Grosmont Formation, northeastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, Todd Dylan

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada is the world's largest accumulation of heavy oil in carbonate rock with estimated bitumen in place of 64.5×109 m 3. At the studies location the eroded and buried surface of the Grosmont, referred here as the SubMannville uncoformity (SMU), was analyzed and interpret for a karsted surface. Results from legacy seismic data and available well log information were able to define the SMU as a mature karst surface within observable features such as dolines, karst valleys, karst plain and poljie and a ridge. The large scale topography of the ridge and poljie were geologically controlled by the underlying the Paleozoic rocks. Furthermore, the poljie was observed to contain the majority of the dolines in the area, noted to occur elsewhere. That said, dolines and karst valleys and other such dissolution features have the potential to erode the bitumen reservoir of the upper Grosmont members C and D. It is important for future oil prospectors to map and avoid areas such as the poljie, dolines and karst valley to increase certainty of reservoir presence. A preliminary rock-physics model was developed for the Grosmont reservoir of a bitumen-saturated dolomite. Results suggest that elastic properties of the Grosmont reservoir are temperature-frequency dispersive. This implies that there is a potential to use time-lapse seismic to map and monitor heating of the reservoir.

  5. Canadian Rheumatology Association Meeting, Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, February 17-20, 2016.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Earl D

    2016-04-15

    The 71st Annual Meeting of The Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) was held at the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, February 17-20, 2016. The program consisted of presentations covering original research, symposia, awards, and lectures. Highlights of the meeting include the following 2016 Award Winners: Distinguished Rheumatologist, Ronald Laxer; Distinguished Investigator, Proton Rahman; Teacher-Educator, Lori Albert; Young Investigator, Nigil Haroon; Best Abstract on Basic Science Research by a Trainee, Liam O'Neil; Best Abstract on Research by a Rheumatology Resident, Valérie Leclair; Best Abstract by a Medical Student, Matthew Jessome; Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Resident, Hyein Kim; CRA/Arthritis Research Foundation (ARF) Best Epidemiology/Health Services Research Award, Cheryl Barnabe; Summer Studentship Mentor Award, Ines Colmegna; CRA/ARF Best Paediatric Research Award, Lily Lim; CRA/ARF Best Clinical Research Award, Zahi Touma; CRA/ARF Best Basic Science Research Award, Nigil Haroon; Best Abstract on SLE Research by a Trainee - Ian Watson Award, Stephanie Nantes.

  6. Assessment of the aerosol optical depths measured by satellite-based passive remote sensors in the Alberta oil sands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Abboud, Ihab

    2017-02-01

    Several satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products are assessed in terms of their data quality in the Alberta oil sands region. The instruments consist of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), and AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer). The AOD data products are examined in terms of multiplicative and additive biases determined using local Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) (AEROCAN) stations. Correlation with ground-based data is used to assess whether the satellite-based AODs capture day-to-day, month-to-month, and spatial variability. The ability of the satellite AOD products to capture interannual variability is assessed at Albian mine and Shell Muskeg River, two neighbouring sites in the northern mining region where a statistically significant positive trend (2002-2015) in PM2.5 mass density exists. An increasing trend of similar amplitude (˜ 5 % year-1) is observed in this northern mining region using some of the satellite AOD products.

  7. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in the Prognostication after Endovascular Treatment for Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Shup; Park, Soonchan; Suh, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Hye-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was devised to quantify the extent of early ischemic changes in the middle cerebral artery territory on brain CT. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that presented clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients managed with endovascular methods to validate the use of ASPECTS for risk prognostication. Materials and Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochran databases for observational or interventional studies that reported clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular methods. Data were pooled to perform a meta-analysis for comparisons of clinical outcomes between high and low ASPECTS patients. Results A meta-analysis of 13 studies (six observational and seven interventional) revealed favorable outcomes (mRS sore 0-2 at 90 days) for high baseline ASPECTS (odds ratio=2.22; 95% CI: 1.74-2.86). Conclusion High ASPECTS is a predictor of favorable outcome after endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke. PMID:28316866

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle entering Alberta feedlots: Fall 2001.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Gertonson, Arnold; Bridges, Marc; Raths, Dick; Dargatz, David; Wagner, Bruce; Boughton, Alice; Knoop, Doug; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-06-01

    A serologic survey was conducted in yearling cattle imported into Alberta feedlots from Montana during October 2001 to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BTV when the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used was 0.37% (21/5608). Test positive cELISA samples were also all positive when tested by virus neutralization (VN) and they reacted to 1 or more BTV serotypes, including 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to A. marginale when a recombinant cELISA (rcELISA) was used with a positive cutoff at 30% inhibition was 1.93% (108/5608). When the rcELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 0.73% (41/5608). After the reported sensitivity and specificity of the test had been accounted for, the A. marginale antibody results were consistent with a population that was either free of exposure or had a very low prevalence for A. marginale.

  9. A Survey for the Microfilariae of the Canine Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in the Calgary Region of Southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Frimeth, J. P.; Arai, H. P.

    1984-01-01

    A blood survey for the prevalence of the microfilariae of the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis was conducted in the Calgary area of southern Alberta between November 1977 and August 1979. A total of 514 blood samples was examined by the modified Knott's test. All of the samples were negative for D. immitis microfilariae. Wright's stained blood smears taken from 19 animals at the Calgary Zoo also proved negative. One smear from a male two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) contained sheathless microfilariae which were distinguishable from those of D. immitis. These results, as well as mail survey data indicate that D. immitis is not endemic in the Calgary area. It is recommended that the modified Knott's test be used for similar large scale sampling studies. In addition, it is suggested that the testing of both native and exotic zoo animals which could serve as definitive hosts of D. immitis be continued. These animals may become local sources of infection or introduce other species of microfilariae which will have to be differentiated from those of D. immitis. PMID:17422347

  10. The growing season water balance and controls on evapotranspiration in wetland reclamation test cells Fort McMurray, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubert, Jean-Pascal R.

    In the oil sands mining region near Fort McMurray, Alberta, efforts to establish specific wetland reclamation techniques are underway. During the 2010 growing season, the water balance of 12 plots (cells) of different soil and vegetation treatments were studied with emphasis on understanding the controls on evapotranspiration (ET) and the effects of construction techniques. Cell hydrologic behaviour was distinct from natural wetlands due to frequent artificial irrigation. ET ranged from ˜0 6 mm day-1 to ˜8.2 mm day-1 with a mean of ˜3.2 mm day-1 and variation among the cells was attributed to the construction techniques used, specifically placement period and soil depth. ET was weakly correlated to individual environmental variables; however, multivariate statistical models revealed complex interactions among environmental variables that acted to control ET. Cumulative water balances indicated certain construction techniques produced ET rates comparable to natural wetlands, which may be an important factor in improving the long-term sustainability of reclaimed wetlands.

  11. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jenny; Koper, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010-2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus). Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds.

  12. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-04

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs.

  13. Stratigraphic setting of transgressive barrier-island reservoirs with an example from the Triassic Halfway Formation, Wembley field, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.J.; Moslow, T.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Established models for landward barrier-island migration focus primarily on the preservation pattern of transgressive facies in the shoreface which are typically thin and buried beneath finer grained marine lower shoreface-to-offshore sediments. In contrast, transgressive barrier-island sandstones in the Triassic Halfway Formation of Wembley field in Alberta are preserved interbedded with, and overlain by, backbarrier and nonmarine sediments. These transgressive barrier sandstones formed from coalescing washover fans during shoreface retreat and were subsequently [open quotes]abandoned[close quotes] as the shoreline stabilized and resumed progradation. The abandoned transgressive barrier sandstones were subsequently blanketed by backbarrier and nonmarine sediments as the coastline continued to prograde. Abandoned transgressive barrier island sandstones in the Halfway Formation are 2-6 m thick, up to 2 km wide, and form paleocoastline-parallel trends tens of kilometers in length. The trends define the paleolandward limit of transgressive events. The updip pinch-out of these sandstones in backbarrier mudstones forms a stratigraphic trap for hydrocarbons in Wembley field. Top seal is provided by nonmarine mudstones and evaporites which buried and abandoned transgressive barrier island. The sandstone has porosities and permeabilities averaging 11% and 63 md, respectively. By using well logs and cores to correlate individual parasequences in the Halfway Formation to their updip termination, it is possible to define the extent of associated marine flooding events and therefore identify hydrocarbon exploration targets for abandoned transgressive barrier-island sandstones. 58 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram

    2016-07-01

    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts.

  15. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  16. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  17. Technology in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeans, Nick; Manches, Andrew; Stokes, Eleanor; Balmer, Kim

    2011-01-01

    People frequently hear competing media and research claims about the educational value of new technologies. But too often it is not clear how, if at all, these technologies are supporting learning. And there is not enough attention paid to the challenges of trying to introduce these technologies successfully into an educational context. To what…

  18. Context, Learning, and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

    2010-01-01

    A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

  19. From Context to Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    At Campus Technology 2008, Arizona State University Technology Officer Adrian Sannier mesmerized audiences with his mandate to become more efficient by doing only the "core" tech stuff--and getting someone else to slog through the context. This article presents an excerpt from Sannier's hour-long keynote address at Campus Technology '08. Sannier…

  20. Formative Assessment in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…