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Sample records for alberta edmonton canada

  1. Risk Communication and Public Education in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada on the 10th Anniversary of the "Black Friday" Tornado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Boehm, R. Denise; Cook, M. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    In July 1997, on the 10th anniversary of the great "Black Friday" Tornado, city officials of Edmonton, the print and broadcast media, agencies dealing in emergency management, and the national weather organisation recounted stories of the 1987, F5 tornado that struck Edmonton on a holiday weekend. The information campaign also presented…

  2. Source Apportionment of VOCs in Edmonton, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; Aklilu, Y.; Lyder, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Regional emissions at Edmonton, Alberta, are complex, containing emissions from (1) transportation sources, such as cars, trucks, buses, and rail; (2) industrial sources, such as petroleum refining, light manufacturing, and fugitive emissions from holding tanks or petroleum terminals; and (3) miscellaneous sources, such as biogenic emissions and natural gas use and processing. From 2003 to 2009, whole air samples were collected at two sites in Edmonton and analyzed for over 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs were sampled in the downtown area (Central) and the industrial area on the eastern side of the city (East). Concentrations of most VOCs were highest at the East site. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was used to apportion ambient concentration measurements of VOCs into eleven factors, which were associated with emissions source categories. Factors of VOCs identified in the final eleven-factor solution include transportation sources (both gasoline and diesel vehicles), industrial sources, a biogenic source, and a natural-gas-related source. Transportation sources accounted for more mass at the Central site than at the East site; this was expected because Central is in a core urban area where transportation emissions are concentrated. Transportation sources accounted for nearly half of the VOC mass at the Central site, but only 6% of the mass at the East site. Encouragingly, mass from transportation sources has declined by about 4% a year in this area; this trend is similar to the decline found throughout the United States, and is likely due to fleet turnover as older, more highly polluting cars are replaced with newer, cleaner cars. In contrast, industrial sources accounted for ten times more VOC mass at the East site than at the Central site and were responsible for most of the total VOC mass observed at the East site. Of the six industrial factors identified at the East site, four were linked to petrochemical industry production

  3. Optimizing Learning. Proceedings of the Annual Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education Conference (6th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, September 29-30, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education, Calgary (Alberta).

    This conference proceedings focuses on structuring classrooms to optimize learning among Alberta (Canada) gifted students. The first paper, "Optimizing Parent Potential" (Trudy A. Harrold), describes a model and a process for helping parents acquire knowledge, organize their thinking, and act from a realistic base when dealing with their gifted…

  4. Choices for Challenge: SAGE--The Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education Conference Proceedings (2nd, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, September 26-28, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This monograph contains the conference proceedings of the 1991 conference of the Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education, held in Calgary, Alberta. The papers have the following titles and authors: "Experiencing Creativity in Music" (Loretta Baker); "Students Who are Hearing Impaired and Gifted: Teachers' Perspectives" (Mary Ann Bibby);…

  5. Report from the 17th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Edmonton, Alberta; 11–12 September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, K.E.; Ahmed, S.; Davies, J.D.; Doll, C.M.; Dowden, S.; Gill, S.; Gordon, V.; Hebbard, P.; Lim, H.; McFadden, A.; McGhie, J.P.; Park, J.; Wong, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 17th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference (wcgccc) was held in Edmonton, Alberta, 11–12 September 2015. The wcgccc is an interactive multidisciplinary conference attended by health care professionals from across Western Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) who are involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists; pathologists; radiologists; and allied health care professionals participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management of gastric cancer. PMID:28050139

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Role in Educational Marketing: Insights from the Case of Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2006-01-01

    Based on semi-structured interviews with high school teachers in Edmonton, Alberta, the reported study examined teachers' attitudes towards their roles and responsibilities in marketing their school, and the perceived impact of educational markets upon teachers' well-being. The teachers define marketing negatively and narrowly, resist any…

  7. Housing and Living Arrangements of South Asian Immigrant Seniors in Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Cheuk Fan; Northcott, Herbert C.; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian population is aging and becoming more ethnically diverse. This paper focuses on South Asian immigrant seniors and examines differences in housing and living arrangements among seniors who immigrated at different life stages. We interviewed a convenience sample of 161 immigrant seniors of South Asian descent in Edmonton, Alberta, to…

  8. Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature.

    PubMed

    Beaubien, E G; Freeland, H J

    2000-08-01

    Warmer winter and spring temperatures have been noted over the last century in Western Canada. Earlier spring plant development in recent decades has been reported for Europe, but not for North America. The first-bloom dates for Edmonton, Alberta, were extracted from four historical data sets, and a spring flowering index showed progressively earlier development. For Populus tremuloides, a linear trend shows a 26-day shift to earlier blooming over the last century. The spring flowering index correlates with the incidence of El Niño events and with Pacific sea-surface temperatures.

  9. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (25th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 25-29, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG) held at the University of Alberta, May 25-39, 2000. The proceedings consist of two plenary lectures, four working groups, five topic sessions, new Ph.D. reports, an AD Hoc Session, and panel discussions. Papers include: (1)…

  10. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  11. Laboratory restructuring in metropolitan Edmonton: a model for laboratory reorganization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fagg, K L; Gordon, P; Reib, B; McGann, J T; Higa, T E; Kinniburgh, D W; Cembrowski, G S

    1999-12-01

    In 1994 the Alberta government acted to reduce to a decade-long deficit in the provincial budget with draconian reductions in the health, education and welfare expenditures. As a result, funding to Alberta clinical laboratories was to be reduced by approximately 40%. In response, the private and public laboratories in metropolitan Edmonton formed a unique alliance to provide laboratory testing in a more coordinated and efficient manner. Of the five metropolitan hospitals, only University of Alberta Hospital preserved its full service laboratory and its specialty reference testing. The other hospital laboratories were converted to rapid response laboratories with a merged private reference laboratory providing routine testing and support to the four hospitals, and far fewer outpatient collection facilities. This paper describes the steps in the laboratory restructuring from inception to execution.

  12. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Concentrations, sources and human health risk of inhalation exposure to air toxics in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2017-04-01

    With concern about levels of air pollutants in recent years in the Capital Region of Alberta, an investigation of ambient concentrations, sources and potential human health risk of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics was undertaken in the City of Edmonton over a 5-year period (2009-2013). Mean concentrations of individual HAPs in ambient air including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals ranged from 0.04 to 1.73 μg/m(3), 0.01-0.54 ng/m(3), and 0.05-3.58 ng/m(3), respectively. Concentrations of benzene, naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), arsenic, manganese and nickel were far below respective annual Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objectives. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of air toxics were also compared with risk levels recommended by regulatory agencies. Positive matrix factorization identified six air toxics sources with traffic as the dominant contributor to total HAPs (4.33 μg/m(3), 42%), followed by background/secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (1.92 μg/m(3), 25%), fossil fuel combustion (0.92 μg/m(3), 11%). On high particulate air pollution event days, local traffic was identified as the major contributor to total HAPs compared to background/SOA and fossil fuel combustion. Carcinogenic risk values of traffic, background/SOA and metals industry emissions were above the USEPA acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), but below a tolerable risk (1 × 10(-4)) and Alberta benchmark (1 × 10(-5)). These findings offer useful preliminary information about current ambient air toxics levels, dominant sources and their potential risk to public health; and this information can support policy makers in the development of appropriate control strategies if required.

  14. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  15. Literacy, More Than Words: Summary of Input on a Literacy Framework for Alberta. Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes comments from 539 individuals on a literacy framework for Alberta, provided during the Alberta Literacy Forum held in Edmonton from April 14 to 16, 2008. The Forum was Alberta's contribution to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum, which involved all of Canada's…

  16. Check the score: Field validation of Street Smart Walk Score in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; McGetrick, Jennifer Ann; Crick, Katelynn; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-12-01

    Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada. In 2015, using street-level systematic observations collected in Bonnyville, Medicine Hat, and North Central Edmonton in 2008 (part of the Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project), we reverse engineered 2181 scores with the network Walk Score® algorithm. We computed means, 95% confidence intervals, and t-tests (α = 0.05) for both sets of scores. Applying the Clifford-Richardson adjustment for spatial autocorrelation, we calculated Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients (rho, rs) and adjusted p-values to measure the strength of association between the derived scores and original network scores provided by Walk Score®. Spearman's rho for scores were very high for Bonnyville (rs = 0.950, adjusted p < 0.001), and high for Medicine Hat (rs = 0.790, adjusted p < 0.001) and North Central Edmonton (rs = 0.763, adjusted p < 0.001). High to very high correlations between derived scores and Walk Scores® field validated this metric across small, medium, and large population centres in Alberta, Canada. However, we suggest caution in interpreting Walk Score® for planning and evaluating health promotion interventions, since the strength of association between destinations and walking may vary across different municipal types.

  17. Evaluation of air quality indicators in Alberta, Canada - An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada and an overall increase in economic activity in the province in recent years. An evaluation of the state of air quality was conducted in four Alberta locations - urban centers of Calgary and Edmonton, and smaller communities of Fort McKay and Fort McMurray in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR). Concentration trends, diurnal hourly and monthly average concentration profiles, and exceedances of provincial, national and international air quality guidelines were assessed for several criteria air pollutants over the period 1998 to 2014. Two methods were used to evaluate trends. Parametric analysis of annual median 1h concentrations and non-parametric analysis of annual geometric mean 1h concentrations showed consistent decreasing trends for NO2 and SO2 (<1ppb per year), CO (<0.1ppm per year) at all stations, decreasing for THC (<0.1ppm per year) and increasing for O3 (≤0.52ppb per year) at most stations and unchanged for PM2.5 at all stations in Edmonton and Calgary over a 17-year period. Little consistency in trends was observed among the methods for the same air pollutants other than for THC (increasing in Fort McKay <0.1ppm per year and no trend in Fort McMurray), PM2.5 in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray (no trend) and CO (decreasing <0.1ppm per year in Fort McMurray) over the same period. Levels of air quality indicators at the four locations were compared with other Canadian and international urban areas to judge the current state of air quality. Median and annual average concentrations for Alberta locations tended to be the smallest in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray. Other than for PM2.5, Calgary and Edmonton tended to have median and annual average concentrations comparable to and/or below that of larger populated Canadian and U.S. cities, depending upon the air pollutant.

  18. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak.

  19. The Evolution of Critical Care Nephrology in Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Gibney, R T Noel

    2016-01-01

    The University of Alberta (UofA) in Edmonton, Canada has a rich and productive history supporting the development of critical care medicine, nephrology and the evolving subspecialty of critical care nephrology. The first hemodialysis program for patients with chronic renal failure in Canada was developed at the University of Alberta Hospital. The UofA is also recognized for its early pioneering work on the diagnosis, etiology and outcomes associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), the development of a diagnostic scheme renal allograft rejection (Banff classification), and contributions to the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force. Edmonton was one of the first centers in Canada to provide continuous renal replacement therapy. This has grown into a comprehensive clinical, educational and research center for critical care nephrology. Critical care medicine in Edmonton now leads and participates in numerous critical care nephrology initiatives dedicated to AKI, renal replacement therapy, renal support in solid organ transplantation, and extracorporeal blood purification. Critical care medicine in Edmonton is recognized across Canada and across the globe as a leading center of excellence in critical care nephrology, as an epicenter for research innovation and for training a new generation of clinicians with critical care nephrology expertise.

  20. Making Technology Work in Adult Education: PLATO Computer-Managed Learning at the Alberta Vocational Centre, Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.

    Because of the increasingly diversified population and needs of adult students at the Alberta Vocational Centre, a more flexible and responsible learning environment was needed. A brief effort using PLATO hardware and Basic Skills courseware for grades 3-8, and then for high school equivalency programs, was successful. However, it would have been…

  1. Alternative Futures for the Education of Students with Severe Disabilities. Proceedings of the Conference on Severe and Multiple Handicaps: Alternative Futures (Edmonton, Canada, May 6-8, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baine, David, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 23 papers given at a 1987 Edmonton (Canada) conference. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Current Trends and Future Challenges in the Education of Students with Severe Handicaps" (Dick Sobsey); "How Often Do You Need to Collect Student Performance Data? A Study of the Effects of Frequency of Probe Data Collection…

  2. Edmonton IAP, Alberta, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-30

    TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-AL ,L.’-AL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH ICEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY A7: EATAER SERVICE /MAC 2’ 142 LOMONTON IAP CN 73...I UUASFI USAFETAC/05-82/005 SBI-Ao-raso I4NS NL 1U EEEhIII IIIL ij2 12.0 I11.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A...DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC ocT 70A - USAFETAC/DS-82/005 DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC AWS TECHNIC LI Air Weather Service ( MAC

  3. Annual Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings (36th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 19-21, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collette, Pauline, Comp.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 54 papers and an abstract of a panel discussion on women's issues in adult education that were presented at a conference on adult education research. The following are among the papers included: "Reducing Dropout in Distance Education" (Belawati); "Examination of the Validity of the Education Participation…

  4. Nova is an old hand at big deals in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.

    1980-09-10

    Nova, an Alberta Corporation, formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd., and Shell Canada Resources Ltd. will build a 600 million lb/yr styrene plant near Edmonton, Alberta. For feedstock, 5000 bbl/day of benzene will come from a $350 million, 100,000 bbl/day refinery that will be built by Shell at Edmonton. Husky Oil Ltd., which is controlled by Nova, will take a 40% equity in the refinery. According to Nova, which has a monopoly on gas transmission in Alberta, continued collaboration with Shell could lead to the spending of an additional $2 billion in the next few years. Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd. and Nova will put together an ethane extraction system in Alberta which will feed their jointly owned 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene plant near Red Deer, Alberta. Dow uses the entire output of the ethylene plant at its recently completed Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, complex. Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. Ltd., a Nova subsidiary, has begun work on a second 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene unit scheduled for completion in early 1984, and will soon start work on a third ethylene unit at Red Deer. According to J. Sutherland (Nova, Alberta Corp.), Nova is rapidly expanding its ethylene capacity because, for at least a certain period of time, world-scale plants using Alberta natural gas will be very competitive.

  5. Evaluation of a Workplace Basic Skills Program: An Impact Study of AVC Edmonton's 1990 Job Effectiveness Training Program at Stelco Steel. Report Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Kathryn Chang

    The pilot Job Effectiveness Training (JET) workplace basic skills program, developed by Canada's Alberta Vocational College (AVC), Edmonton, for Stelco Steel during 1989-90, was evaluated in terms of impacts or changes from the perspective of the four major stakeholder groups: the students (12 Stelco employees); the employers (Stelco management);…

  6. Dairy foods are an important source of calcium and vitamin D among Canadian-born and Asian-born Chinese in Edmonton, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana R; Willows, Noreen D

    2012-03-01

    Low intakes of calcium and vitamin D increase the risk for osteoporosis, bone fracture, and other health problems. This study aimed to examine the calcium and vitamin D intakes of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) in Edmonton, Canada, and to identify usual food sources of these nutrients. We hypothesized that CBC would have higher intakes of calcium and vitamin D than ABC and that the food sources of these nutrients would differ by region of birth (Canada vs Asia). Two in-person multipass 24-hour dietary recalls were administered for 1 weekday and weekend day for 81 healthy ethnically Chinese aged 18 to 58 years. The risks for calcium and vitamin D inadequacy were calculated as were the contributions of specific foods to calcium and vitamin D intakes. Calcium intake was 781 ± 337 mg/d for CBC and 809 ± 369 mg/d for ABC (P = .737). Vitamin D intake was 3.8 ± 3.4 μg/d for CBC and 5.0 ± 3.9 μg/d for ABC (P = .158). Respective risks for calcium and vitamin D inadequacy were 36% and 98% for men and 78% and 100% for women. Dairy contributed most to the calcium (43%) and vitamin D (52%) intake of participants. For ABC, soybean products contributed to 8.1% of calcium, whereas fatty fish contributed to 16.7% of vitamin D. For CBC, red meats contributed to 11.1% of vitamin D. Dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D need to be increased in Chinese Canadians through the promotion of dairy and culturally relevant sources of these nutrients.

  7. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples).

  8. Associations between physical activity, screen time, and fitness among 6- to 10-year-old children living in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Potter, Morgan; Spence, John C; Boulé, Normand G; Stearns, Jodie A; Carson, Valerie

    2017-01-03

    The objectives of this study were to describe fitness levels; examine associations between physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and fitness; and examine sex-moderating effects in a sample of children. Participants were 649 children (age, 7.8 ± 0.6 years; 52.4% female) from Edmonton, Canada. Hours/week of PA and ST were parent-reported. PA was also objectively measured with pedometers and expressed in increments of 1000 steps/day. Fitness components (i.e., vertical jump, sit-and-reach, waist circumference, grip strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption, push-ups, partial curl-ups, overall fitness) were measured according to the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Approach protocols and expressed as z scores or low/high fitness. Positive associations were observed between PA and overall fitness for both the complete (subjective: β = 0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001-0.017) and partial (≥3 available fitness measures; subjective: β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000-0.011; objective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.007-0.042) fitness scores. Subjective (β = 0.011, 95% CI: 0.000-0.022) and objective (β = 0.043, 95% CI: 0.008-0.078) PAs were positively associated with vertical jump. Children with higher objective PA were more likely to be in the high push-ups group (odds ratio = 1.156, 95% CI: 1.054-1.267). PA was positively associated with predicted maximal oxygen uptake (subjective: β = 0.040, 95% CI: 0.018-0.063; objective: β = 0.084, 95% CI: 0.012-0.157) and grip strength (subjective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.011-0.040) in boys only. ST was negatively associated with grip strength (β = -0.016, 95% CI: -0.028 to -0.004) in boys. PA was associated with several components of fitness, especially in boys. However, few associations were observed between ST and fitness. Promoting regular PA in young children may address declining fitness levels.

  9. Cancer incidence attributable to tobacco in Alberta, Canada, in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Abbey E.; Grundy, Anne; Khandwala, Farah; Tamminen, Sierra; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Strong and consistent epidemiologic evidence shows that tobacco smoking causes cancers at various sites. The purpose of this study was to quantify the proportion and total number of site-specific cancers in Alberta attributable to tobacco exposure. Methods: The proportion of incident cancer cases attributable to active and passive tobacco exposure in Alberta was estimated with population attributable risks. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) for 2000-2007 were used to estimate prevalence of active (current or former smoker) and passive (second-hand smoke) tobacco exposure in Alberta. Results: According to the 2000/01 CCHS, 29.1% and 38.6% of Albertans were estimated to be current and former smokers, respectively. According to the 2003 CCHS, 23.7% of Albertans who had never smoked reported regular second-hand exposure to tobacco. Population attributable risk estimates for tobacco-related cancer sites ranged from about 4% for ovarian cancer to 74% for laryngeal cancer. About 5% of incident lung cancers in men and women who never smoked could be attributed to passive tobacco exposure. Overall, 37.0% of tobacco-related cancers in Alberta (or 15.7% of all cancers) were estimated to be attributable to active tobacco smoking in 2012. Interpretation: A notable proportion of cancers associated with tobacco use were estimated to be attributable to active smoking in Alberta. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of active tobacco smoking in Alberta could have a considerable impact on future cancer incidence. PMID:28018870

  10. Planning to meet the care need challenge in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Stephen; Bloom, Judy; Robertson, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian province of Alberta faces challenges in ensuring an adequate supply of nurses to meet care needs. This paper describes the approach adopted by Alberta Health Services (the public health care provider in Alberta) to address this challenge. Planning was undertaken on the basis of care needs rather than starting from a particular professional perspective and highlighted that the needs could be met by Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses or Healthcare Aides. Six scenarios, representing different potential mixes of Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses and Healthcare Aides were identified and used as the basis of stakeholder consultations. The paper identifies the workforce outcomes and needs for the different scenarios and the outcomes of the workforce planning process.

  11. Subsurface temperature signature of a large Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in the North Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, J.; Gosnold, W.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent results from a 2.3km deep temperature log in northern Alberta, Canada acquired as part of the University of Alberta Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) geothermal energy project in 2010-2011shows that there is a significant increase in thermal gradient in the granites. Inversion of the measured T-z profile between 550 - 2320 m indicates a temperature increase of 9.6 ± 0.3 °C, at 13.0 ± 0.6 ka and that the glacial base surface temperature was - 4.4± 0.3 °C. This inversion computation accounted for granite heat production of 3 µW/m3. This is the largest amplitude of Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in Canada inferred from borehole temperature logs, and is compatible with the results of similar studies in Eurasia (KTB, Outokumpu, Torun-1 etc.) reported previously. Reference: Majorowicz, J., Unsworth, M., Chacko, T., Gray, A., Heaman L., Potter, D., Schmitt, D., and Babadagli, T., 2011. Geothermal energy as a source of heat for oilsands processing in northern Alberta, Canada, in: Hein, F. J., Leckie, D., Suter , J., and Larter, S., (Eds), Heavy Oil/Bitumen Petroleum Systems in Alberta and beyond, AAPG Mem., in press.

  12. Retrospective review of pharyngeal gonorrhea treatment failures in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Bergman, Joshua; Egan, Cari; Drews, Steven J; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2013-11-01

    Our review of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pharyngeal treatment failures from sexually transmitted infection clinics in Alberta suggests that treatment failures with oral cefixime monotherapy were not related to elevated cefixime minimum inhibitory concentrations. Dual therapy with oral cefixime and azithromycin may be a suitable alternate for the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhea.

  13. DETAILED ENDOCRINE ASSESSMENTS IN WILD FISH DOWNSTREAM OF PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    2001. Detailed Endocrine Assessments in Wild Fish Downstream of Pulp and Paper Mills in Northern Alberta, Canada (Abstract). In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, N...

  14. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Nguyen X; Ohinmaa, Arto; Yan, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning) in Alberta in 2005. Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years), who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism) and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism), adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses. Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688) in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9) in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624) to 533 (313–753) thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99) to $84 ($49–$119) million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%. Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a significant economic impact in Alberta and that presenteeism plays an important role in asthma

  15. Geothermal investigation of Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin/Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weides, S.; Moeck, I.; Majorowicz, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study explores Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin with regard to their usability as geothermal reservoirs. The research area of this regional scale study is approx. 150 km * 200 km in size and located around the city of Edmonton. A 3D geological model is developed based on stratigraphic picks of more than 7000 wells from the Alberta general well data file. The model consists of 20 different geological units, of which 14 belong to the Paleozoic succession. Spatial distribution and thickness of formations is analysed with help of the 3D modelling study. Due to its depth and its distribution throughout the whole study area, the Cambrian Basal Sandstone formation is the most promising horizon for a geothermal development. Porosity and horizontal permeability of four Devonian carbonate formations - Cooking Lake, Leduc, Nisku and Wabamun - is mapped by reinvestigation of more than 50,000 core analyses from the Alberta general well data file. Average porosity of the Devonian ranges from 5.2 % (Nisku) to 10.4 % (Wabamun), average horizontal permeability is between 5 mD (Cooking Lake) and 142 mD (Leduc). In parts of the Devonian formations a vuggy porosity exists, as analysis of cores has shown. This locally high porosity and permeability zones are not fully covered by the core measurements. Since logging and core analysis data of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone are rare, properties of this formation are measured on core samples with probe permeametry, gas permeametry and helium pycnometry. First results show an average porosity of 11.1 % and an average horizontal permeability of 1.4 mD. Further investigation of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone in Central Alberta is planned, including analysis of thin sections and geomechanical testing. Surface temperatures of Cambrian and Devonian strata are calculated, based on a newly calculated geothermal gradient and the reservoir depth range derived from the 3D model. Temperature in the Cambrian Basal Sandstone

  16. Wing-dimorphism and population expansion of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798) at small and large scales in central Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini)

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa, Stephane; Spence, John R.; Hartley, Dustin J.; Lee, Seung-Il

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A study spanning ten years revealed changes in wing-morph ratios corroborating the hypothesis that the wing-dimorphic introduced carabid, Pterostichus melanarius Ill.,is spreading through flight, from the city of Edmonton, Canada and establishing populations in natural aspen forest of more rural areas 45-50 km to the East. Comparison of wing-morph ratios between Pterostichus melanarius and the native wing dimorphic species Agonum retractum LeConte suggests that the spatial variation in ratios for Pterostichus melanarius does not reflect underlying environmental variation, but instead the action of selective forces on this wing-dimorphic species. About ten years after its earliest detection in some rural sites the frequency of macropterous individuals in Pterostichus melanarius has decreased c. five-fold, but it is still above the level seen in European populations in which the two wing-morphs are thought to exist in equilibrium. Pterostichus melanarius is expanding its range in native aspen forest much faster than three other introduced species Clivina fossor L.), Carabus granulatus O.F. Müllerand Clivina fossor L also encountered in this study. The two Carabus species are flightless, but Carabus fossor can be dimorphic. Although these four non-native ground beetle species comprise >85% of the carabids collected at sites in urban Edmonton, activity-density of native carabids was similar across the urban-rural gradient, suggesting little direct impact of introduced species on the local abundance of native species. In a second study conducted at a smaller scale near George Lake, Alberta, macropterous individuals of Pterostichus melanarius have penetrated furthest and most rapidly into native aspen forest. Furthermore, the percentage of micropterous individuals has increased markedly in areas first colonized a decade previously. Overall, these studies support the idea that macropterous beetles in wing-d dimorphic species are important vanguards for early

  17. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  18. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  19. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Edmonton, Canada: Source apportionment and potential risk for human health.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-11-01

    To design effective PM2.5 control strategies in urban centers, there is a need to better understand local and remote sources influencing PM2.5 levels and associated risk to public health. An investigation of PM2.5 levels, sources and potential human health risk associated with trace elements in the PM2.5 was undertaken in Edmonton over a 6-year period (September 2009-August 2015). The geometric mean PM2.5 concentration of was 7.11 μg/m(3) (interquartile range, IQR = 4.83-10.08 μg/m(3)). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling identified secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as the major contributor (2.2 μg/m(3), 27%), followed by secondary nitrate (1.3 μg/m(3), 17%) and secondary sulfate (1.2 μg/m(3), 15%). Other local sources included transportation (1.1 μg/m(3), 14%) and industry-related emissions (0.26 μg/m(3), 3.4%), biomass burning (1.0 μg/m(3), 13%) and soil (0.54 μg/m(3), 6.8%). Five factors (i.e., SOA, secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, transportation and biomass burning) contributed more than 85% to PM2.5 for the 2009-2015 period. Geometric (arithmetic) mean and maximum ambient air concentrations for hazardous trace elements of public health concern in PM2.5 during the study period were below United States regulatory agency chronic and acute health risk screening criteria. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of trace elements and source-specific risk values were well below acceptable and safe levels of risks recommended by regulatory agencies. More work is needed to understand the origin of potential SOA and wintertime wood burning sources in Edmonton and the surrounding region and to apply source-risk apportionment using all available hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) including organic compounds to better interpret the potential health risk posed by various sources in urban areas.

  20. Lower Cretaceous Viking Barrier island, southwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Amajor, L.C.

    1984-04-01

    A subsurface study of cores and electric well logs from the lower Cretaceous (Albian) Viking reservoir sandstone near Calgary, Alberta, reveals its deposition as a regressive barrier island along the shores of the Haplophragmoides gigas sea. The barrier island trends northwest-southeast parallel to the paleostrandline for more than 120 km (75 mi) and attained a maximum thickness of more than 30 m (100 ft). Swales characterized by isopach thinning suggest that the island was probably breached by two tidal channels. Bentonite chronostratigraphy indicates that the barrier island prograded in a northeasterly and/or easterly direction for up to 24 km (15 mi). This seaward growth was briefly interrupted by an isostatic transgression. Thus, sandstone depositional pattern is of the imbricate type with younger units successively displaced seaward in the direction of progradation. The barrier-island facies sequence comprises eleven intergradational facies, i.e., ebb-tidal delta, marginal (spillover) channel, middle shoreface, marine shales, upper shoreface beach, dune, back-barrier mud flat, marshy lagoon and overwash, mixed tidal creek channel, and overbank. This sequence differs slightly from that of the Recent classic regressive Galveston Island, Texas, and the ancient Muddy barrier island, Montana, in the presence of an ebb-tidal delta and marine shelf shales beneath and above the middle shorefacies, respectively. On this basis the South Carolina Recent barrier islands are considered closer modern analogs. The writer suggests that this sand body be explored further for oil and/or gas accumulations because of its excellent reservoir properties and the generally low well density.

  1. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  2. Mapping mean annual water yield and other hydrological variables for Alberta, Canada, 1971-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    In Alberta, Canada, as in many other regions in the world, water is a limiting factor to population growth, economic development and environmental protection. The methods presented here were developed under a broader research project aimed to provide a water resources inventory for the province of Alberta. For 287 sub-watersheds, mean annual water yield, runoff coefficients, and actual evapotranspiration were computed from streamflow records and high resolution precipitation maps (PRISM) for the period 1971-2000. The analysis of the mean annual water yield is based on the association between the 287 gauged watershed areas and the respective streamflow production. Runoff coefficients were computed based on a spatial overlay of watershed boundaries and precipitation. Actual evapotranspiration was then computed by subtracting the mean annual water yield from the mean annual precipitation. Figure 1 shows a low resolution map example. The resulting maps are also available on the internet for 3 x 4' printouts and can be found by searching for "Alberta water yield". For 16 major watersheds in Alberta, the percent contribution of each sub-watershed is also listed.

  3. Temporal and Spatial Changes of the Agroclimate in Alberta, Canada, from 1901 to 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S. S. P.; Yin, H.; Cannon, K.; Howard, A.; Chetner, S.; Karl, T. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term (1901-2002) temporal trends in the agroclimate of Alberta, Canada, and explores the spatial variations of the agroclimatic resources and the potential crop-growing area in Alberta. Nine agroclimatic parameters are investigated: May-August precipitation (PCPN), the start of growing season (SGS), the end of the growing season (EGS), the length of the growing season (LGS), the date of the last spring frost (LSF), the date of the first fall frost (FFF), the length of the frost-free period (FFP), growing degree-days (GDDs), and corn heat units (CHUs). The temporal trends in the agroclimatic parameters are analyzed by using linear regression. The significance tests of the trends are made by using Kendall's tau method. The results support the following conclusions. 1) The Alberta PCPN has increased 14% from 1901 to 2002, and the increment is the largest in the north and the northwest of Alberta, then diminishes (or even becomes negative over two small areas) in central and southern Alberta, and finally becomes large again in the southeast corner of the province. 2) No significant long-term trends are found for the SGS, EGS, and LGS. 3) An earlier LSF, a later FFF, and a longer FFP are obvious all over the province. 4) The area with sufficient CHU for corn production, calculated according to the 1973-2002 normal, has extended to the north by about 200-300 km, when compared with the 1913-32 normal, and by about 50-100 km, when compared with the 1943-72 normal; this expansion implies that the potential exists to grow crops and raise livestock in more regions of Alberta than was possible in the past. The annual total precipitation follows a similar increasing trend to that of the May-August precipitation, and the percentile analysis of precipitation attributes the increase to low-intensity events. The changes of the agroclimatic parameters imply that Alberta agriculture has benefited from the last century's climate change.

  4. Utilization of a molecular serotyping method for Salmonella enterica in a routine laboratory in Alberta Canada.

    PubMed

    Ferrato, Christina; Chui, Linda; King, Robin; Louie, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common enteric pathogens related to foodborne illness. Alberta's Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) provides Outbreak and Surveillance support by performing serotyping. The Check&Trace Salmonella™ (CTS) assay (Check-Points, Netherlands), a commercial DNA microarray system, can determine the serotype designation of a Salmonella isolate with automated interpretation. Here we evaluate 1028 Salmonella isolates of human clinical or environmental sources in Alberta, Canada with the CTS assay. CTS was able to assign a serovar to 98.7% of the most frequently occurring human clinical strains in Alberta (82.5% overall), and 71.7% of isolates which were inconclusive by conventional methods. There was 99.7% concordance in environmental isolates. The CTS database has potential to expand to identify rare serovars. With the anticipated shift to molecular methods for identification, CTS provides an easy transition and demonstrates ease-of-use and reduces the turn-around-time of a reported result significantly compared to classical serotyping.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Drought Indices and Drought Monitoring for Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.; Dai, Q.; Yin, H.; Howard, A.

    2006-12-01

    This presentation discusses a statistical analysis of six drought indices for monitoring Alberta drought events from 1901 to 2000. The data used are the interpolated daily precipitation data on the 149 ecodistrict polygons over Alberta. The analyzed indices are standardized precipitation index, rainfall anomaly index, rainfall decile index, standardized anomaly index, principal component index, and optimal index. The historically documented drought records of five sites (Beaver Lodge, Lacombe, Lethbridge, Vegreville, and Swift Current [in Saskatchwan]) are classified into drought categories D4, D3, ?, D0, and wet categories D1, -D2, and D3. The thresholds of the drought categories for different indices are calculated. The wheat drought of Canada's Palliser Triangle was used as a validation analysis of the drought indices. The transitional probability of drought categories from one week to the next is calculated. Some discussions on the theory of calculating SPI are included. It has been found that the while all the drought indices are highly correlated with precipitation, the PCI has the highest correlation. The transitional probability analysis for the south Alberta agricultural region shows that the chance of transition from normal to extremely dry is highest in the mid May, hence this region's spring seeding is extremely vulnerable to precipitation and an effective irrigation system is of great importance to the early stages of crop development.

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C.; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population. PMID:26837668

  7. Evidence for Early Pleistocene Glaciation obtained from borecores collected in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Andriashek, L. D.; Jackson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Borecores collected from the east-central region of Alberta, Canada have recently been sub-sampled and studied for paleomagnetic remanence characteristics. A preliminary magnetostratigraphy has been established for sediments previously assumed to represent multiple continental (Laurentide) glaciations, but for which no geochronology was available for the pre-late Wisconsin units. Comprised primarily of tills and lesser thicknesses of interbedded glacio-lacustrine and outwash sediments, the record is extensive, reaching to thicknesses of 300 metres within buried valleys. Most of the sampled units are not accessible from outcrop, and their sedimentology and stratigraphy is derived from core data only. The lowermost tills are reversely magnetized in the majority of borecores sampled to date. These tills are underlain by Empress Formation sediments and/or Colorado Group shales, and overlain by normally magnetized sediments. Both tills contain substantial weathering horizons at their surface, suggesting that interglacial or nonglacial conditions persisted for some time after each period of till deposition. Whether these tills represent a single Early Pleistocene glaciation, or perhaps two, will require additional borecore measurements. This new record of Early Pleistocene glaciation(s) in east-central Alberta places the westernmost extent of earliest Laurentide ice some 300 km farther westward from its previously established limit in the Saskatoon to Regina region of the western Canadian prairies, but still well short of the all-time limit and elevation reached during the Late Wisconsin (Late Pleistocene) in the foothills of the Alberta and Montana Rocky Mountains. Key Words: East-Central Alberta glacial history, Early Pleistocene (Laurentide) glaciation, till magnetostratigraphy, Quaternary history of Western Canadian Prairies, continental glaciations of North America.

  8. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  9. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  10. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  11. The Effect of Age upon Care and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for Congestive Heart Failure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cujec, Bibiana; Quan, Hude; Jin, Yan; Johnson, David

    2004-01-01

    We describe the age-specific outcomes for patients hospitalized with newly diagnosed congestive heart failure using administrative hospital abstracts from Alberta, Canada, from April 1, 1994, to March 31, 2000. Seniors (aged 65 years and older) constituted about 85 per cent of the 16,162 patients. Both co-morbidity and severity of illness tended…

  12. Nasal bots and lice from white-tailed deer in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Douglas D; Gray, Dawn; Morton, Kim; Pybus, Margo

    2008-07-01

    Heads of 64 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, harvested in the vicinity of Magrath, Alberta, Canada, (49 degrees 24'782''N, 112 degrees 52'113''W) were examined for the presence of nasal bots and lice. The deer were collected between 8-30 January 2004 as part of a government-approved herd reduction protocol. The entire surface of each head was scanned visually for the presence of lice. Each head was split longitudinally, and the nasal passages, sinuses, and ethmoid region were washed for recovery of nasal bots. First instar Cephenemyia spp. were recovered from 17 heads (27%). Intensity of infestation ranged from 1-18 larvae (mean intensity 4.8). Among fawns, there were no significant differences in prevalence or mean intensity between the sexes. Two species of nasal bots were identified. Smaller larvae, tentatively identified as C. jellisoni, were present in 16 of 17 infested deer while larger specimens, tentatively identified as C. phobifera, were found in four deer; and in three of the four it co-occurred with C. jellisoni. The presence of C. phobifera in Alberta would represent a range extension for this species, which has not been known to occur west of North Dakota. Thirty-one fawns (48%) were infested with the sucking louse Solenopotes ferrisi. One infested fawn also had one specimen of the chewing louse, Tricholiopeurus lipeuroides.

  13. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  14. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  15. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  16. Short-Term Influence of Revised Provincial Accreditation Standards on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Weight Status in Alberta, Canada Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, revised Alberta child care accreditation standards were released by the Alberta Government in Canada that included a new standard for physical activity and sedentary behavior in accredited child care settings. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the new accreditation standard in increasing physical…

  17. The distribution of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada) and associated aqueous geochemistry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Nightingale, Michael; Becker, Veith; Kingston, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas and coalbed methane has generated some public concern with regard to the protection of groundwater and surface water resources from leakage of stray gas from the deep subsurface. In terms of environmental impact to and risk assessment of shallow groundwater resources, the ultimate challenge is to distinguish: (a) natural in-situ production of biogenic methane, (b) biogenic or thermogenic methane migration into shallow aquifers due to natural causes, and (c) thermogenic methane migration from deep sources due to human activities associated with the exploitation of conventional or unconventional oil and gas resources. We have conducted a NSERC-ANR co-funded baseline study investigating the occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater of Alberta (Canada), a province with a long record of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and sources of methane in shallow groundwaters and to also characterize the hydrochemical environment in which the methane was formed or transformed through redox processes. Ultimately our aim was to determine whether methane was formed in-situ or whether it migrated from deeper formations into shallow aquifers. Combining hydrochemical and dissolved and free geochemical gas data from 372 groundwater samples obtained from 186 monitoring wells of the provincial groundwater observation well network (GOWN) in Alberta, it was found that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater in Alberta and is predominantly of biogenic origin. The highest concentrations of dissolved biogenic methane (> 0.01 mM or > 0.2 mg/L), characterized by δ13CCH4 values < -55‰, occurred in anoxic Na-Cl, Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl type groundwater with negligible concentrations of nitrate and sulfate suggesting that methane was formed in-situ under methanogenic conditions consistent with the redox ladder concept. Despite quite variable gas concentrations and a

  18. Geomorphology and sedimentology of hummocky terrain, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    The landscape in south-central Alberta, Canada, is dominated by a suite of landforms that formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This thesis explores the origins of those landforms, specifically hummocky terrain. Sediments in the hummocks, hummock form, and associations with other landforms are examined to determine hummock genesis. Sediment was examined from over one hundred exposures through the "Buffalo Lake Moraine" at Travers Reservoir, McGregor Reservoir, and the Little Bow River. This belt of hummocky terrain (like most hummocky terrain regions) is traditionally interpreted as forming at, or near, the stagnating margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by supraglacial letdown. However, hummocks in south-central Alberta contain a complex variety of sediments and materials atypical of supraglacial letdown: in situ bedrock, thrust bedrock, lodgement till, melt-out till, sorted sand and gravel, rippled sand, rhythmically-bedded sand, silt, and clay, and pervasively sheared beds. All sediment types and deformation structures were deposited, or formed, subglacially. Also, the deposits make up in situ stratigraphies that record the history of initial Laurentide Ice Sheet advance into the area (lodgment till and thrust bedrock), the extensive accumulation of water at the bed (glaciolacustrine beds), and ice stagnation (melt-out till). Regardless of the genesis of sediments in hummocks, sedimentary units and structures are abruptly truncated by the surface that represents the hummock and trough morphology, demonstrating that the hummocks are erosional forms and that they represent a landscape unconformity. Subglacial sediments predating the erosion and subglacial eskers overlying the erosion surface strongly suggest that hummock erosion was subglacial. Also, hummock morphology, lithostratigraphy correlated from hummock to hummock, abrupt truncation at the land surface, and widespread boulder lags support meltwater erosion for hummocky terrain in the region. Well

  19. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  20. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  1. Deaths from exposure to paramethoxymethamphetamine in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Yarema, Mark C.; Jones, Graham R.; Martz, Walter; Purssell, Roy A.; MacDonald, Judy C.; Wishart, Ian; Durigon, Monica; Tzemis, Despina; Buxton, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine similar in structure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”), but substantially more toxic. We describe the clinical features of fatal exposures in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series on deaths in Alberta and BC between June 2011 and April 2012 for which forensic toxicologic analysis was positive for PMMA and the drug was implicated as the primary toxic agent. Data collected included patient demographics, exposure history, clinical features, investigations, therapy provided and postmortem toxicologic findings. Results A total of 27 PMMA-associated deaths (20 in Alberta, 7 in BC) were reported in the 11-month period. The median age was 24 (range 14–52) years, and 22 (81%) were male. Ten patients were pronounced dead at the scene, and 17 died in hospital. The median time from exposure to death was 17 (range 5–264) hours. The median first-recorded vital signs (and ranges) were: heart rate 160 (86–201) beats/min, blood pressure 89/43 (69/30–162/83) mm Hg, respiratory rate 40 (26–48) breaths/min, oxygen saturation 81% (68%–100%) and temperature 39.4°C (34–43.8°C). Sixteen of the 17 people who died in hospital presented with clinical features consistent with serotonin syndrome. End-organ dysfunction included hepatic (30%) and acute kidney injury (85%), rhabdomyolysis (54%), coagulopathy (61%) and cardiac ischemia (15%). Other drugs identified on toxicologic analysis were MDMA (n = 27), cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine (n = 14) and methamphetamine (n = 12). Interpretation Exposure to PMMA was characterized by multiorgan dysfunction and serotonin syndrome, followed by cardiovascular collapse. In addition to PMMA, multiple synthetic amphetamines were present on toxicologic analysis. When evaluating patients suspected of exposure to sympathomimetic drugs of abuse, clinicians must

  2. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles.

  3. Simulating the hydrological impacts of climate change in the upper North Saskatchewan River basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Stefan W.; Nemeth, Michael W.; Byrne, James M.; MacDonald, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe ACRU agro-hydrological modeling system provided the framework, containing code to simulate all major hydrological processes, including actual evapotranspiration estimates, to simulate the impacts of climate change in the Cline River watershed, Alberta, Canada, under historical (1961-1990) and a range of future climate conditions (2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099). Whilst uncertainties in the estimation of many hydrological variables were inevitable, verification analyses carried out for the historical baseline period resulted in good to very good simulations of a range of hydrological processes, including daily air temperature, snow water equivalent and streamflow. Five climate change scenarios were selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions. In order to generate future climate time series, the 30-year baseline time series was perturbed according to predicted changes in air temperature and precipitation. Projected increases in air temperature and precipitation resulted in mean annual increases in potential and actual evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, soil moisture, and streamflow in the Cline River watershed. Increases in both high and low flow magnitudes and frequencies, and large increases to winter and spring streamflow are predicted for all climate scenarios. Spring runoff and peak streamflow were simulated to occur up to 4 weeks earlier than in the 1961-1990 baseline period. Predicted changes were simulated to progressively increase into the future. A clear shift in the future hydrological regime is predicted, with significantly higher streamflow between October and June, and lower streamflow in July-September.

  4. Cumulative Industrial Activity Alters Lotic Fish Assemblages in Two Boreal Forest Watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Hvenegaard, Paul J.; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  5. Cumulative industrial activity alters lotic fish assemblages in two boreal forest watersheds of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Garry J; Hvenegaard, Paul J; Tchir, John

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the cumulative effects of land use disturbance resulting from forest harvesting, and exploration and extraction of oil and gas resources on the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression models showed that the occurrence of numerically dominant species in both watersheds was related to two metrics defining industrial activity (i.e., percent disturbance and road density), in addition to stream wetted width, elevation, reach slope, and percent fines. Occurrences of bull trout, slimy sculpin, and white sucker were negatively related to percent disturbance and that of Arctic grayling, and mountain whitefish were positively related to percent disturbance and road density. Assessments of individual sites showed that 76% of the 74 and 46 test sites in the Kakwa and Simonette watersheds were possibly impaired or impaired. Impaired sites in the Kakwa Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout, but higher densities of Arctic grayling compared to appropriate reference sites. Impaired sites in the Simonette Watershed supported lower densities of bull trout, but higher densities of lake chub compared to reference sites. Our data suggest that current levels of land use disturbance alters the occurrence and structure of stream fish assemblages.

  6. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Braid, Andrew C. R.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility. PMID:26168055

  7. Thermally Released Arsenic in Porewater from Sediments in the Cold Lake Area of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Siddique, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) in aquifers in close proximity to in situ oil sands extraction in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada is attributed to high temperature steam (~200 °C) injected into oil sands deposits to liquefy bitumen. Heat propagated from hot injection wells alters physicochemical properties of the surrounding sediments and associated porewater. Seven sediments from four different cores drilled up to ~300 m depth collected from different locations in the area were used to study the thermal effect (~200 °C) on As distribution in the sediments and its release into porewater. Sediments were moistened with synthetic aquifer or deionized water according to the moisture regimes present in aquitard, aquifer and fractured zones. Heat application greatly released As in the porewater (500-5200 and 1200-6600 μg L(-1)) from aquifer and fractured sediments, respectively. Mass balance of As chemical fractionation showed that ~89-100% of As in porewater was released from exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As in the sediments. Heat application also altered As distribution in the sediments releasing As from exchange surfaces and amorphous Fe oxides to soluble As fraction. The results provide great insight into As release mechanisms warranting development of strategies to mitigate groundwater As contamination during industrial operation.

  8. Soil ingestion rate determination in a rural population of Alberta, Canada practicing a wilderness lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvine, G; Doyle, J R; White, P A; Blais, J M

    2014-02-01

    The inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil can be a major pathway for chemical exposure to humans. Few studies to date have quantified soil ingestion rates to develop exposure estimates for human health risk assessments (HHRA), and almost all of those were for children in suburban/urban environments. Here we employed a quantitative mass balance tracer approach on a rural population practicing outdoor activities to estimate inadvertent soil ingestion. This study followed 9 subjects over a 13 day period in Cold Lake, Alberta, near the largest in situ thermal heavy oil (bitumen) extraction operation in the world. The mean soil ingestion rate in this study using Al Ce, La, and Si tracers was 32 mg d(-1), with a 90th percentile of 152 mg d(-1) and median soil ingestion rate of 18 mg d(-1). These soil ingestion values are greater than the standard recommended soil ingestion rates for HHRA from Health Canada, and are similar to soil ingestion estimates found in the only other study on a rural population.

  9. Mineralogy, petrology, and distribution of meteorites at the Whitecourt crater, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Jennifer D.; Herd, Christopher D. K.

    2015-02-01

    The Whitecourt meteorite impact crater, Alberta, Canada is a rare example of a well-preserved small impact structure, with which thousands of meteorite fragments are associated. As such, this crater represents a unique opportunity to investigate the effect of a low-energy impact event on an impacting iron bolide. Excellent documentation of meteorite fragment locations and characteristics has generated a detailed distribution map of both shrapnel and regmaglypted meteorite types. The meteorites' distribution, and internal and external characteristics support a low-altitude breakup of the impactor which caused atmospherically ablated (regmaglypted) meteorites to fall close to the crater and avoid impact-related deformation. In contrast, shrapnel fragments sustained deformation at macro- and microscales resulting from the catastrophic disruption of the impactor. The impactor was significantly fragmented along pre-existing planes of weakness, including kamacite lamellae and inclusions, resulting in a bias toward low-mass (<100 g) fragments. Meteorite mineralogy was investigated and the accessory minerals were found to be dominated by sulfides and phosphides with rare carlsbergite, consistent with other low-Ni IIIAB iron meteorites. Considerations of the total mass of meteoritic material recovered at the site relative to the probable fraction of the impactor that was preserved based on modeling suggests that the crater was formed by a higher velocity, lower mass impactor than previously inferred.

  10. Structural characterization of Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) and impact on rock slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Epard, Jean-Luc; Froese, Corey R.; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a structural investigation of the Turtle Mountain anticline (Alberta, Canada) to better understand the role of the different tectonic features on the development of both local and large scale rock slope instabilities occurring in Turtle Mountain. The study area is investigated by combining remote methods with detailed field surveys. In particular, the benefit of Terrestrial Laser Scanning for ductile and brittle tectonic structure interpretations is illustrated. The proposed tectonic interpretation allows the characterization of the fracturing pattern, the fold geometry and the role of these tectonic features in rock slope instability development. Ten discontinuity sets are identified in the study area, their local variations permitting the differentiation of the study zone into 20 homogenous structural domains. The anticline is described as an eastern verging fold that displays considerable geometry differences along its axis and developed by both flexural slip and tangential longitudinal strain folding mechanisms. Moreover, the origins of the discontinuity sets are determined according to the tectonic phases affecting the region (pre-folding, folding, post-folding). The localization and interpretation of kinematics of the different instabilities revealed the importance of considering the discrete brittle planes of weakness, which largely control the kinematic release of the local instabilities, and also the rock mass damage induced by large tectonic structures (fold hinge, thrust).

  11. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  12. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies.

  13. Oslerus osleri (metastrongyloidea; filaroididae) in gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Schock, Danna M; Lejeune, Manigandan; Warren, Amy L; Duignan, Pádraig J; Kutz, Susan J

    2013-04-01

    Oslerus osleri is a filaroid parasite of the respiratory tract of canids. In North America, it is most commonly reported from coyotes (Canis latrans) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), but reports in gray wolves (Canis lupus) are infrequent. We report a new geographic record for O. osleri in four gray wolves from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Adult nematodes found in nodules in the submucosa of the trachea and bronchi were identified as O. osleri based on morphometry of spicules of males. We sequenced two segments of the genome of adult nematodes: a 1,111-base pair (bp) segment of the 18S region that was 100% identical to the 18S region of O. osleri from a coyote in California and a 537-bp segment that included the ITS-2 region and partial 5.8S and 28S genes. Histopathologically, there were submucosal nodules of adult nematodes surrounded by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. These findings are consistent with O. osleri infections in other canids. The importance of this parasite in wild canid populations is unknown, but prevalence may be underestimated because many studies have focused on gastrointestinal parasites or used routine fecal flotation that has low sensitivity for this parasite. The ecology and population genetics of this parasite where multiple species of canids are sympatric warrant closer investigation to determine potential for interspecies transmission.

  14. Launching a palliative care homepage: the Edmonton experience.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J; Macmillan, A; Bruera, E

    1997-11-01

    The Internet, with its graphical subdivision, the World Wide Web (WWW). has become a powerful tool for the dissemination of information and for communication. This paper discusses the authors' experiences with creating, launching and maintaining an official publication on the Internet by the Edmonton Regional Palliative Care Program and the Division of Palliative Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada. It describes the content and format of the homepage and the process of publication. Over a six-month period there were 892 visits to the site and 84 separate items of correspondence to the site's editors. Of these correspondence items, 36 were requesting further information regarding clinical and other programme information. Sixty-nine of the 84 communications came from North America and Europe. The pattern of readership is briefly discussed as are some of the potential advantages and challenges when utilizing this electronic medium. To promote the dissemination of reliable information on the Internet, the authors encourage other palliative care groups and organizations to publish on the WWW. The URL is http:/(/)www.palliative.org (previously http:/(/)www.caritas.ab.ca/approximately palliate).

  15. Melting phase relations of a mica-clinopyroxenite from the Milk River area, southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sean P.; Luth, Robert W.

    2013-08-01

    Melting experiments were conducted on a mica-clinopyroxenite xenolith brought up in a minette dyke in southern Alberta, Canada, near Milk River. Both the minettes and mica-clinopyroxenite xenoliths were studied by Buhlmann et al. (Can J Earth Sci 37:1629-1650, 2000), who hypothesized that the minettes formed by partial melting of a mantle source containing clinopyroxene + phlogopite ± olivine, at pressures ≥1.7 GPa. In liquidus experiments performed on the most primitive minette in our previous study (Funk and Luth in Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:999-1009, 2012), we found a multiple saturation point where olivine and orthopyroxene coexisted with liquid at 1.77 GPa and 1,350 °C. We argued that the minette originally formed by partial melting of clinopyroxene + phlogopite, but had re-equilibrated with a harzburgite during ascent. In the current study, we wanted to test both the source region hypothesis of Buhlmann et al. and our re-equilibration hypothesis by studying the near-solidus phase equilibria of a mica + clinopyroxene assemblage. We found the solidus for our xenolith has a steep slope in P-T space and lies at temperatures above those of a normal cratonic geotherm, implying that this mica-clinopyroxenite is stable in the cratonic mantle. Melting could occur at greater depths, where the solidus is extrapolated to cross the geotherm or must be induced either by raising the temperatures of the surrounding rocks or by introducing hydrous fluids into the source. Our melts are in equilibrium with clinopyroxene and olivine. The compositions of the liquids derived from melting this xenolith are similar to madupitic lamproites from the Leucite Hills, Wyoming, studied by Carmichael (Contrib Mineral Petrol 15:24-66, 1967) and Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:41-49, 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979). Barton and Hamilton (Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:133-142, 1979) proposed that the madupitic lamproites may have come from a source containing mica

  16. Bicycle helmet prevalence two years after the introduction of mandatory use legislation for under 18 year olds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, B E; Rizkallah, J W; Lamy, A; Belton, K L; Jhangri, G S; Cherry, N; Rowe, B H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine changes in helmet use in cyclists following the introduction of a bicycle helmet law for children under age 18. Methods Cyclists were observed by two independent observers from July to August 2004 (post‐legislation) in Edmonton, Alberta. The data were compared with a similar survey completed at the same locations and days in July to August 2000 (pre‐legislation). Data were collected for 271 cyclists in 2004 and 699 cyclists in 2000. Results The overall prevalence of helmet use increased from 43% (95% CI 39 to 47%) in 2000 to 53% (95% CI 47 to 59%) in 2004. Helmet use increased in those under 18, but did not change in those 18 and older. In the cluster adjusted multivariate Poisson regression model, the prevalence of helmet use significantly increased for those under age 18 (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 3.69, 95% CI 2.65 to 5.14), but not for those 18 years and older (APR 1.17, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.43). Conclusion Extension of legislation to all age groups should be considered. PMID:16887950

  17. The stable isotopes of site wide waters at an oil sands mine in northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Thomas; Barbour, S. Lee; Gibson, John J.

    2016-10-01

    Oil sands mines have large disturbance footprints and contain a range of new landforms constructed from mine waste such as shale overburden and the byproducts of bitumen extraction such as sand and fluid fine tailings. Each of these landforms are a potential source of water and chemical release to adjacent surface and groundwater, and consequently, the development of methods to track water migration through these landforms is of importance. The stable isotopes of water (i.e. 2H and 18O) have been widely used in hydrology and hydrogeology to characterize surface water/groundwater interactions but have not been extensively applied in mining applications, or specifically to oil sands mining in northern Alberta. A prerequisite for applying these techniques is the establishment of a Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) to characterize precipitation at the mine sites as well as the development of a 'catalogue' of the stable water isotope signatures of various mine site waters. This study was undertaken at the Mildred Lake Mine Site, owned and operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. The LMWL developed from 2 years (2009/2012) of sample collection is shown to be consistent with other LMWLs in western Canada. The results of the study highlight the unique stable water isotope signatures associated with hydraulically placed tailings (sand or fluid fine tailings) and overburden shale dumps relative to natural surface water and groundwater. The signature associated with the snow melt water on reclaimed landscapes was found to be similar to ground water recharge in the region. The isotopic composition of the shale overburden deposits are also distinct and consistent with observations made by other researchers in western Canada on undisturbed shales. The process water associated with the fine and coarse tailings streams has highly enriched 2H and 18O signatures. These signatures are developed through the non-equilibrium fractionation of imported fresh river water during evaporation from

  18. A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot manure in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Hao, Xiying

    2007-12-01

    Composting is gaining increased acceptance as a management alternative for the large volumes of manure produced by southern Alberta's beef cattle feedlots. Research on windrow composting of feedlot manure was initiated at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1996. Early studies looked at physical and chemical changes during composting. Studies have also been conducted on greenhouse gas emissions during composting and the effect of composting on reduction of pathogens, parasites and weed seed viability. The quality of commercially-produced composts at southern Alberta feedlots has been examined as has the mineralization rates of soil-applied composts. This paper reviews results from our feedlot manure composting research program.

  19. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  20. Rainfall-Runoff Dynamics Following Wildfire in Mountainous Headwater Catchments, Alberta, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C.; Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.; Anderson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Severe wildfire has been shown to increase the magnitude and advance the timing of rainfall-generated stormflows across a range of hydro-climate regions. Loss of canopy and forest floor interception results in increased net precipitation which, along with the removal of forest organic layers and increased shorter-term water repellency, can result in strongly increased surface flow pathways and efficient routing of precipitation to streams. These abrupt changes have the potential to exacerbate flood impacts and alter the timing of runoff delivery to streams. However, while these effects are well documented in drier temperate mountain regions, changes in post-fire rainfall-runoff processes are less well understood in colder, more northern, snowfall dominated regimes. The objectives of this study are to explore longer term precipitation and runoff dynamics of burned and unburned (reference) watersheds from the Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the front-range Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada. Streamflow and precipitation were measured in 5 watersheds (3.7 - 10.4 km2) for 10 years following the wildfire (2005-2014). Measurements were collected from a dense network of meteorological and hydrometric stations. Stormflow volume, peak flow, time to peak flow, and total annual streamflow were compared between burned and reference streams. Event-based data were separated into 3 post-fire periods to detect changes in rainfall-runoff dynamics as vegetation regenerated. Despite large increases in post-fire snowpacks and net summer rainfall, rainfall-generated runoff from fire-affected watersheds was not large in comparison to that reported from more temperate snowfall-dominated Rocky Mountain hydrologic settings. High proportions of groundwater contribution to annual runoff regimes (as opposed to surface flow pathways) and groundwater storage were likely contributors to greater watershed resistance to wildfire effects

  1. Small mammals as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants and health effects in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of bitumen in areas of northeastern Alberta (Canada) has been associated with the release of complex mixtures of metals, metalloids, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. To mitigate effects on ecosystems, Canadian legislation mandates that disturbed areas be reclaimed to an ecologically sustainable state after active operations. However, as part of reclamation activities, exposure to, and effects on wildlife living in these areas is not generally assessed. To support successful reclamation, the development of efficient methods to assess exposure and health effects in potentially exposed wildlife is required. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of two native mammalian species (deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, and meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus) as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants by examining biomarkers of exposure and indicators of biological costs. Tissue residues of 31 metals and metalloids in kidneys and muscle, activity of the hepatic detoxification enzyme EROD (as a biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants), body condition, and the relative mass of liver, kidney, spleen, and testes were compared in animals from one reclaimed area and a reference site. Deer mice from the reclaimed site had higher renal levels of Co, Se and Tl compared to animals from the reference site, which was associated with reduced body condition. Lower testis mass was another feature that distinguished mice from the reclaimed site in comparison to those from the reference site. One mouse and one vole from the reclaimed site also showed increased hepatic EROD activity. In marked contrast, no changes were evident for these variables in meadow voles. Our results show that deer mouse is a sensitive sentinel species and that the biomarkers and indicators used here are efficient means to detect local contamination and associated biological effects in native mammals inhabiting reclaimed areas on active oil sands mine

  2. The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a wildfire impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by wildfire on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on regional scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 wildfire including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of wildfire and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane regions where forest

  3. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  4. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2013-12-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada's largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world's largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s-1 in background air to 62 s-1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994-2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

  5. Identifying sources and processes controlling the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Michael; Mayer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Sources and processes affecting the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed in Alberta (Canada) were investigated. The catchment is important for water supply and recreational activities and is also a source of oil and natural gas. Water was collected from 10 locations along an 8 km stretch of Canyon Creek including three so-called sulphur pools, followed by the chemical and isotopic analyses on water and its major dissolved species. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of the water plotted near the regional meteoric water line, indicating a meteoric origin of the water and no contribution from deeper formation waters. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate were the dominant ions in the upstream portion of the watershed, whereas sulphate was the dominant anion in the water from the three sulphur pools. The isotopic composition of sulphate (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) revealed three major sulphate sources with distinct isotopic compositions throughout the catchment: (1) a combination of sulphate from soils and sulphide oxidation in the bedrock in the upper reaches of Canyon Creek; (2) sulphide oxidation in pyrite-rich shales in the lower reaches of Canyon Creek and (3) dissolution of Devonian anhydrite constituting the major sulphate source for the three sulphur pools in the central portion of the watershed. The presence of H(2)S in the sulphur pools with δ(34)S values ∼30 ‰ lower than those of sulphate further indicated the occurrence of bacterial (dissimilatory) sulphate reduction. This case study reveals that δ(34)S values of surface water systems can vary by more than 20 ‰ over short geographic distances and that isotope analyses are an effective tool to identify sources and processes that govern the sulphur cycle in watersheds.

  6. Tuberculosis among immigrants: interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis. A 5-year study in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, R L; Sharpe, J W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) occurring among immigrants and the interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis of the disease. DESIGN: Study of all cases of TB diagnosed in foreign-born residents of southern Alberta during the 5-year period 1990-1994. SETTING: A centre for the diagnosis, management and control of all cases of TB in the southern half of the province of Alberta. METHODS: All foreign-born patients in whom TB was newly diagnosed between January 1990 and December 1994 were included in the study. The interval from their arrival in Canada to diagnosis, their country of birth and the site of their disease were documented. RESULTS: Immigrants to Canada accounted for 248 (70.6%) of the 351 cases of TB diagnosed in southern Alberta during the 5-year period. The majority of these immigrants (182/248 [73.4%]) were of Asian origin. Extrapulmonary TB accounted for 111 (61.0%) of the 182 cases of the disease in Asian immigrants. The mean period between immigration and diagnosis was 11.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 13.9 years). Half of the patients presented within 7 years of their arrival in Canada. The time to presentation was shortest for patients with superficial lymph node disease (mean 7.6 years [SD 6.9] after arrival), intermediate among those with extrapulmonary disease, excluding superficial disease of the lymph node (10.1 years [SD 12.1]), and longest for those with pulmonary disease (14.2 years [SD 17.2]). TB developed sooner after arrival in Canada among immigrants from Asian countries (mean 9.1 years) than among those from other countries (17.2 years) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Given the low annual incidence of TB in Canada (7.1 per 100,000), it is probable that TB occurring among immigrants reflects infection acquired before arrival in Canada. Health care professionals need to be aware that immigrants from countries with a relatively high prevalence of TB remain at risk for the disease (often at an extrapulmonary site) for

  7. An economic evaluation of the parent-child assistance program for preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon; Moffatt, Jessica; Dennett, Liz; Chuck, Anderson W; Birchard, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP) is a 3-year home visitation/harm reduction intervention to prevent alcohol exposed births, thereby births with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, among high-risk women. This article used a decision analytic modeling technique to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and the net monetary benefit of the P-CAP within the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Service Networks in Canada. The results indicate that the P-CAP is cost-effective and support placing a high priority not only on reducing alcohol use during pregnancy, but also on providing effective contraceptive measures when a program is launched.

  8. The use of acetylene and 1,3-butadiene as tracers for vehicular combustion in urban air and the estimation of the contributions of vehicular emissions to benzene, and alkane concentrations in the Edmonton industrial area

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.; Wong, R.; Dann, T.; Wang, D.

    1998-12-31

    Acetylene, propylene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations at two downtown urban sites in Alberta, Canada were used to characterize an area dominated by vehicular emissions. The relationship of acetylene with 1,3-butadiene at the Edmonton industrial site was similar to that observed for the two downtown sites. This suggesting that these volatile organic compounds, VOCs, can be used as tracers for vehicular emissions for the Edmonton industrial area. The tracer VOCs were found to correlate with benzene, n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, n-heptane and n-octane concentrations for the two Alberta downtown sites. The best fit lines from the downtown sites were used to predict daily concentrations of benzene and alkanes at the Edmonton industrial site. During the winter, when benzene levels are predicted to reach a maximum of 4.5 to 6.5 m g/m{sup 3}, it is estimated that industrial sources contribute < 1 m g/m{sup 3} to ambient levels at the Edmonton industrial site. During the summer, when predicted benzene levels are at a minimum of 1 to 2 m g/m{sup 3}, industrial area sources dominate the ambient benzene levels at the Edmonton industrial site, and can contribute up to 6 m g/m{sup 3}. For alkanes, such as butane and pentane, industrial area sources or evaporative storage tank emissions dominate throughout the year. This dominance of industrial sources is also observed for n-heptane and n-octane during summer months. During the winter when predicted n-heptane and n-octane concentrations reach a maximum, 11 to 100% of ambient daily levels can be attributed to vehicular emissions.

  9. Tracing Sources Of Nitrate And Sulfate In The Bow River, Alberta Canada, Using Isotope Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, J.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Bow River in Alberta is a major tributary to the South Saskatchewan River in western Canada. Urban development and agricultural activities including feedlot operations within the Bow River Basin can potentially impact the river water quality by elevating nitrate and sulfate concentrations. In this project, we applied hydrological, chemical and isotopic techniques to identify sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Bow River. The study area stretches approximately 570km along the Bow River from Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountain headwaters to near its confluence with the Oldman River in the prairies. Between June 2007 and July 2008, monthly samples were taken from the Bow River for major ion chemistry and stable isotope ratio measurements of H, O, C, N and S. Flow data from Alberta Environment were used in combination with chemical data to estimate fluxes of nitrate, sulfate and other ionic solutes along the river. Isotope results show that Bow River water near Lake Louise was characterized by δ15N-NO3 values between 0 and +4‰ and δ18O-NO3 values between +7 and +11‰ falling within the range typical for nitrate produced by nitrification in forest ecosystems. Between Canmore and Calgary, δ15N- NO3 increased to values between +3 and +8‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged between -5 and +5‰. Nitrate discharged from the Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant in Calgary has elevated δ15N-NO3 values of +8‰ and low δ18O-NO3 values of -10‰. Nitrate flux increased over an order of magnitude in the river as a result of wastewater effluent discharge at Calgary. In the agricultural irrigation districts downstream of Calgary, δ15N-NO3 values varied between +6 and +11‰, whereas δ18O-NO3 values ranged between -11 and +1‰. The elevated δ15N-NO3 and low δ18O-NO3 values indicate that sewage derived nitrate from the wastewater treatment plant is the major cause for increased nitrate fluxes in the Bow River downstream of Calgary. At Lake Louise, δ34S-SO4 values varied

  10. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Victoria M; Currie, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  11. Euoplocephalus tutus and the Diversity of Ankylosaurid Dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus. PMID:23690940

  12. Geology and quaternary environments of the first preglacial palaeolithic sites found in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlachula, Jiří

    A pebble-tool industry, including two chronologically different stone artifact assemblages reminiscent of the Eurasian Palaeolithic, has been recorded in Late Pleistocene sections at two locations in the Bow River valley, southwestern Alberta. Authenticity and provenance of the deeply buried archaeological record is evidenced by culture-diagnostic percussion-flaked artifacts incorporated in preglacial fluvial gravels and overlying glacial diamictons and by identical textural patterns on stone tools found in and eroded from the exposures. Geological context suggests a fluctuating braided river setting during the earlier occupation. Discarded ( lower series) quartzite and hard carbonate rock artifacts, subglacially entrained into the Cordilleran Bow Valley till, document distortion of the earlier site (Silver Springs) by a valley glacier emerging from the Rocky Mountain ice-lobe. Following the valley deglaciation, a later occupation episode is manifested by a formally analogous flaked lithic assemblage excavated in situ on top of the till at a nearby site (Varsity Estates). This more recent occupation surface was subsequently buried under 24 m of glaciolacustrine sediments after submergence of the river valley by a proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Calgary) dammed by the Laurentide ice advance into the eastern Calgary area, implying a minimum early Late Wisconsinan age (ca. >21,000 BP) for the lithic industry. The presence of the later ( upper series) artifact assemblage and the associated palynological data do not support the view that envisages an extremely cold, inhospitable glacial environment on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains throughout the Late Wisconsinan. Their stratigraphic position also indicates temporal asynchroneity between Cordilleran and Laurentide ice during the last glacial maximum in the Bow River valley, the area of presumed coalescence of the two ice-masses. Although a more rapid response of the western mountain glacier to climatic

  13. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-02

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  14. Oil Sands Operations in Alberta, Canada: A large source of secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Hayden, K.; Taha, Y. M.; Stroud, C.; Darlington, A. L.; Drollette, B.; Gordon, M.; Lee, P.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S.; Wang, D.; O'Brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Staebler, R. M.; Han, Y.; Tokarek, T. W.; Osthoff, H. D.; Makar, P.; Zhang, J.; Plata, D.; Gentner, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the reaction products of emissions to the atmosphere from extraction of oil from unconventional sources in the oil sands (OS) region of Alberta, Canada. This study examines these reaction products, and in particular, the extent to which they form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which can significantly contribute to regional particulate matter formation. An aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and September 7, 2013. A broad suite of measurements were made during 22 flights, including organic aerosol mass and composition with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and organic aerosol gas-phase precursors by Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and off-line gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Large concentrations of organic aerosol were measured downwind of the OS region, which we show to be entirely secondary in nature. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that bitumen (the mined product) contains semi-volatile vapours in the C12-C18 range that will be emitted at ambient temperatures. When oxidized, these vapours form SOA with highly similar HR-ToF-AMS spectra to the SOA measured in the flights. Box modelling of the OS plume evolution indicated that the measured levels of traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not capable of accounting for the amount of SOA formed in OS plumes. This discrepancy is only reconciled in the model by including bitumen vapours along with their oxidation and condensation into the model. The concentration of bitumen vapours required to produce SOA matching observations is similar to that of traditional VOC precursors of SOA. It was further estimated that the cumulative SOA mass formation approximately 100 km downwind of the OS during these flights, and under these meteorological conditions was up to 82 tonnes/day. The combination of airborne measurements, laboratory experiments and box modelling indicated that semi

  15. Tracing Shifts in Subglacial Hydrochemistry Due to Changes in Drainage Configuration: Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, M.; Arendt, C. A.; Clinger, A. E.; Stevenson, E. I.; Aciego, S.

    2015-12-01

    Differences in the hydrological and chemical composition of glacial outflow are controlled by seasonality, subglacial bedrock mineralogy, physical/chemical weathering processes, and water-rock interaction time. While the chemical progression from onset of melt to peak melt has been well studied at various glaciers, few studies exist that examine the hydrological and associated chemical changes as the subglacial drainage network evolves from peak flow back to winter basal flow conditions. Here we use traditional hydrological and chemical techniques to examine the changes in subglacial drainage network configuration with the onset of winter at the Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada. This glacier is one of eight alpine glaciers draining the Columbia Icefield in the Canadian Rockies. The Athabasca Glacier is situated atop Middle Cambrian limestone and carbonate shale generating predominately a carbonate weathering regime, but exhibits some evidence of silicate weathering. Analysis of major and trace element ratios, stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic systems, and in-field chemical measurements (pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity), combined with discharge over a three-month period provides high-resolution insight into the change of subglacial hydrochemistry in this system. O-H isotopes over the course of the study show seasonal excursions, possibly indicating a change in meltwater source. Preliminary data reveal three possible shifts in subglacial dynamics suggesting shifts between carbonate and silicate weathering as expressed by relative cation contributions. These shifts may be reflective of different subglacial drainage configurations: higher silicate weathering rates, revealed by increased potassium concentrations in the end of season, could be generated by a shift to a more distributed drainage network and a longer water-rock interaction time. Our results clearly indicate changes in elemental concentrations correlated with decreases in

  16. Climate-induced alteration of hydrologic indicators in the Athabasca River Basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Hyung-Il; Dibike, Yonas; Prowse, Terry

    2017-01-01

    The hydrologic response of the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Alberta to projected changes in the future climate is investigated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) process-based and distributed hydrologic model. The model forcings are derived from a selected set of GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) statistically downscaled to a higher resolution (10 km) over Canada. Twelve hydrologic indicators that represent the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic regimes are evaluated for three 30-year time periods centered at the 1990s, 2050s and 2080s to identify significant alterations of hydrologic regimes between the reference and the two future periods using a t-test at 5% significance level. Hydrologic alteration factors (HAF) are also evaluated for each hydrologic indicator using the range of variability approach (RVA) to investigate projected changes in the distribution of these indicators. The results show increases in spring and winter flows for the two future periods at all hydrometric stations within the basin, resulting in an extended period of spring freshet. A higher rate of increase is projected for the stations located at the upper reach of the river because of the combined effects of increased precipitation and earlier snowmelt resulting from a warming climate. By contrast, summer flows are projected to decrease by up to 21% on average in the 2080s over most of the mainstem stations because of earlier snowmelt, increased evapotranspiration and no significant increase in summer precipitation. A water-management rule that optimizes impacts of water withdrawal from the lower reach of the Athabasca River under the current condition is also applied to the future scenarios to assess its relative performance under the projected climate conditions. The results indicate possible improvement in the water resources system performance in terms of increased reliability and resilience and reduced vulnerability during the two

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from two pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Aslam, Mueen; Service, Cara; Narváez-Bravo, Claudia; Avery, Brent P; Johnson, Roger; Jones, Tineke H

    2017-01-16

    This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP). For plant A, 87% of CSAB and 8% of CSAE were positive for Salmonella while at plant B, Salmonella was recovered from 94% of CSAB and 10% of CSAE. Salmonella was not recovered from the RP samples at either plant, indicating that the plants used effective control measures. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most common serotype (23%, 29/127) recovered in plant A and plant B (61%, 76/124). For plant A, 35% (45/127) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Five isolates (3.9%), 4 serovar Ohio strains and one serovar I:Rough-O:I,v:-, strain were simultaneously resistant to antimicrobials of very high (Category I), high (Category II), and medium (Category III) importance to human medicine. The 4 S. Ohio isolates were recovered from 3 different steps of pork processing on the same sampling day and displayed resistance to 5-7 antimicrobials, with all of them displaying resistance to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). An I:Rough-O:l,v:- isolate, recovered on a different sampling day, was resistant to 7 antimicrobials that included resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). Salmonella strains isolated from plant A harbored 12 different AMR genes. The most prevalent genes were sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B), aadA, strA/strB, aac(3)IV and aphA1. For

  18. Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document current commercial practices during long haul transport (≥400 km) of cattle in Alberta through surveys delivered to truck drivers (6,152 journeys that transported 290,362 animals). The live beef export industry to the United States (89% of all journeys) had a large influence on long haul transport. This was particularly true for fat cattle going to slaughter (82%) and backgrounded feeders going to feed yards (15%). Most drivers had either limited (31% with < 2 yr) or extensive (35% > 10 yr) experience hauling cattle. The type of tractors and trailers used most frequently were those with more number of axles (quad-axle trailers pulled with push tractors) because they can accommodate extra weight. Mean (± SD) distance travelled was 1,081 ± 343 km (maximum of 2,560 km) whereas time animals spent on truck averaged 15.9 ± 6.3 h with a maximum of 45 h. However, only 5% of all journeys were greater than 30 h. The most frequent cause of delay was at the Canada-United States border crossing due to paperwork and veterinary inspections. Border delays occurred on 77% of all journeys which had a mean of 1.3 ± 1.9 h and up to 15-h long. Driver rest stops and waiting to unload cattle at destination were the second most frequent and longest cause of delay. Ambient temperature across all journeys ranged from -42 to 45°C with a mean value of 18 ± 11.8°C while temperature variation within a journey was from 0 to 46°C with mean value of 15 ± 6.6°C. The proportion of dead, non-ambulatory, and lame cattle for all journeys was 0.011, 0.022, and 0.011%, respectively. The cattle transport industry showed compliance with federal regulations and to a lesser extent with recommendations. Findings showed extreme values and very large variability in transport conditions however further research is needed to assess their impact on animal welfare outcomes. Delays within the journey as a result of border crossing, weather conditions

  19. Travel-Related Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in Alberta, Canada: the First 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Fuller, Jeff; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the characteristics of Alberta, Canada, patients with infections or colonizations with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria during 2010 to 2013 that were linked to recent travel outside Canada. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution, and isolates were characterized using PCR, sequencing, and multilocus sequencing typing. A broth mating study was used to assess the transferability of resistance plasmids, which were subsequently characterized. All the patients (n = 12) included in our study had contact with a health care system while abroad. Most of the patients presented with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and were admitted to hospitals within weeks after their return to Alberta. Secondary spread occurred in 1 case, resulting in the death of another patient. The carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n = 17) consisted of Escherichia coli (sequence type 101 [ST101], ST365, ST405, and ST410) with NDM-1, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST15, ST16, ST147, ST258, ST340, ST512, and ST972) with NDM-1, OXA-181, KPC-2, and KPC-3, Acinetobacter baumannii with OXA-23, Providencia rettgeri with NDM-1, Enterobacter cloacae with KPC-2, and Citrobacter freundii with NDM-1. The blaNDM-1 gene was associated with various narrow- (i.e., IncF) and broad- (i.e., IncA/C and IncL/M) host-range plasmids with different addiction factors. Our results show that NDM-producing K. pneumoniae, belonging to a variety of sequence types with different plasmid scaffolds, are regularly imported from India into Alberta. Clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant in detecting bacteria with carbapenemases. PMID:24599977

  20. American Peptide Symposium Proceedings (13th) Held in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada on June 20-25, 1993. Peptides: Chemistry, Structure and Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-20

    for the sinmltUMeoMus synthesis of high-quality individual peptides: Applicaton of ACT Model 350 for rapid multiple synthesis of peptides by solid...protected peptide fragments 156 E* Bayer, N. Clausen, C. Goidammer, B. Henkel, W. Rapp and LZhang Rapid dimerization of an N-terminal cysteine... Hendry , T.J. Lockett and R.G. Whittaker Glycopeptide mapping and structural analysis by electrospry mass Rpc m euy 329 T. Hutton, AN. Green and MI

  1. Educating in Global Times: Race, Class, Gender (and Other Processes of Normalization). Graduate Student Research Conference Proceedings (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, March 14-15, 1997.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Univ., Edmonton.

    The 33 papers presented at this conference are, as follows: "Child Participation in an Everyday Adult Practice" (Andrew Brent Andressen); "Education for Sustainable Development in Southern Philippines" (Caridad Bernardino); "Distance Education and Instructional Technologies: Cultural Transmission or Cultural Erosion"…

  2. Nurturing Potential. Annual SAGE (Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education) Conference Proceedings (4th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, September 24-25, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This proceedings contains summaries of 24 conference papers focusing on new directions in gifted education. Each paper's summary is about four pages in length. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Supporting Giftedness in Girls in the Classroom" (Julia Ellis); "A Community of Learners in ECS" (Anne Green);…

  3. Regional Geophysical Reconnaissance for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D.; Bown, T.; Chan, J.; Idowu, S.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; van der Baan, M.; Bauer, K.; Moeck, I.; Pussak, M.; Weides, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), a major initial goal is to undertake a critical study of the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) as a source of thermal energy in northern Alberta. The geology of this area consists to first order as westward thickening wedge of Cretaceous siliclastics overlying Devonian carbonates and evaporites all of which lies upon the metamorphic Canadian Shield craton. Generally, the north eastern of Alberta is characterized by low geothermal gradients (near 20 mK/m) and temperatures; and deep drilling to as much as 4-5 km into the craton will be necessary to obtain requisite conditions (i.e. 80-100 C water at the source). Consequently, at this early stage it is important to search for zones with the greatest potential; and in the context of EGS this can mean finding greater fracture permeability through pre-existing faults and joint systems. State of stress information is also being considered as this will be an important constraint on fluid flow in such fractured systems. Current studies are integrating reprocessed legacy industrial and LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and existing borehole and core data are used to develop regional geophysical and geological models of Northern Alberta. Particular areas will focus on structural and tectonic linkages between the sedimentary basin and the underlying craton that are possibly related to, for example, Devonian reef complexes, extensive karsting, or evaporite collapse.

  4. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  5. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  6. Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever-like skin disease in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Alberta, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Alberta, Canada. Ante-mortem observations and gross pathology included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss and focally extensive alopecia with chronic crusting hyperkeratotosis and...

  7. Mid-Wisconsinan vertebrates and their environment from January Cave, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James A.

    1991-01-01

    January Cave, in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, has yielded vertebrate remains from a coprocenosis of mid-Wisconsinan-age. Taphonomic analysis indicates accumulation by raptors, mostly owls, and mammalian carnivores. The vertebrate record, together with pollen analysis, indicates that cool, dry conditions prevailed in an extensive tundra-like environment, with prairie elements in the valleys below. Thirty-four mammalian taxa have been recovered from January Cave. Today, some of these species (e.g., Lemmus sibiricus and Dicrostonyx torquatus) do not coexist with others (e.g., Cynomys sp., Mustela nigripes, Vulpes velox, and Lagurus curtatus). Therefore, the January Cave local fauna represents a "nonanalog" mammalian community characteristic of the late Pleistocene. It suggests that the region enjoyed an equable climate, with reduced climatic extremes but still cool, further supporting a mid-Wisconsinan age estimate for the fauna. It is the first major, small vertebrate fauna of its age to be reported from Alberta.

  8. Peat bogs in northern Alberta, Canada reveal decades of declining atmospheric Pb contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William; Appleby, Peter G.; Bicalho, Beatriz; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Krachler, Michael; Magnan, Gabriel; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Shannon, Bob; Bellen, Simon; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Peat cores were collected from six bogs in northern Alberta to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of Pb, a valuable tracer of human activities. In each profile, the maximum Pb enrichment is found well below the surface. Radiometric age dating using three independent approaches (14C measurements of plant macrofossils combined with the atmospheric bomb pulse curve, plus 210Pb confirmed using the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am) showed that Pb contamination has been in decline for decades. Today, the surface layers of these bogs are comparable in composition to the "cleanest" peat samples ever found in the Northern Hemisphere, from a Swiss bog ~ 6000 to 9000 years old. The lack of contemporary Pb contamination in the Alberta bogs is testimony to successful international efforts of the past decades to reduce anthropogenic emissions of this potentially toxic metal to the atmosphere.

  9. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed.

  10. Exploring the process of capacity-building among community-based health promotion workers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Genevieve R; Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Mayan, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Community capacity-building is a central element to health promotion. While capacity-building features, domains and relationships to program sustainability have been well examined, information on the process of capacity-building as experienced by practitioners is needed. This study examined this process as experienced by coordinators working within a community-based chronic disease prevention project implemented in four communities in Alberta (Canada) from 2005-2010 using a case study approach with a mixed-method design. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, a focus group and program documents tracking coordinator activity. Qualitative analysis followed the constant comparative method using open, axial and selective coding. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequency of major activity distribution. Capacity-building process involves distinct stages of networking, information exchange, partnering, prioritizing, planning/implementing and supporting/ sustaining. Stages are incremental though not always linear. Contextual factors exert a great influence on the process. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed.

  11. Biostratigraphy and Inoceramus survival across the Cenomanian-Turonian (Cretaceous) boundary in the Ram River section, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; Plint, A. Guy; Kennedy, William J.

    2016-12-01

    The biostratigraphy of the uppermost Cenomanian - Lower Turonian succession in the lower part of the Blackstone Formation exposed in the Ram River (Alberta, Canada), is interpreted in terms of the standard inoceramid/ammonite zonation of the interval. Four successive inoceramid zones are recognized, those of Inoceramus pictus, Mytiloides puebloensis, M. kossmati, and M. mytiloides, as established in the stratotype section at Pueblo, Colorado. Their correlation to Pueblo is confirmed by ammonite data. The mid-Early Turonian zone of M. kossmati yielded an assemblage of Inoceramus, with species showing close affinity to the latest Cenomanian lineages. This multi-species sample proves the survival of Inoceramus lineages into the otherwise Mytiloides-dominated Early Turonian, and indicates that their disappearance from the record of the North American Western Interior was not because of their extinction. It is suggested that the apparent lack of Inoceramus in Lower Turonian strata is due to an extremely low population abundance in the Early Turonian sea.

  12. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  13. Exploration potential of the Mesozoic section in the outer Foothills, Waterton area, southwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, D.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Waterton Foothills (T1-8, R27W4-3W5M) indicates that the Alberta and lower Blairmore Groups hold hydrocarrbon potential near the south of the international border. Prospective units are sublitharenites-litharenties and lithic pebble conglomerates that range in thickness from 5 to 25 m. Thrust faults duplicate all or part of these units and can account for up to six repetitions of sandstone and conglomerate at one locality. Surface geological mapping at a scale of 1:50,000 formed the basis for the subsurface study. Subsurface information included 150 well logs, eight cores, and chip sampels from 18 wells. These data were used in a structural interpretation along with projected surface data and seismic. Structural geometires are shown by two balanced and palinspastically restored structural cross sections. Units within the Alberta and Blairmore groups have tested/showed oil, condensate, and gas throughout the study area. When put into a structural and stratigraphic framework, potential areas for hydrocarbon exploration can be delineated in the footwall of the Harland Lakes/Livingstone thrust where the Cardium sandstone has been shown to be well developed. Key hydrocarbon shows are confined to the same structural level in the Blairmore and Alberta groups (including the Beaver Mines, Cardium, and Blacksone formations and possibly the Cadomin Formation).

  14. Generation of Hot Water from Hot-Dry for Heavy-Oil Recovery in Northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of prior applications of hot-dry-rock (HDR) technology was mostly aimed at generating electricity. In northern Alberta, the thermal gradient is low and, therefore, this technology is not suitable for electricity generation. On the other hand, the cost of steam and hot water, and environmental impacts, are becoming critical issues in heavy-oil and bitumen recovery in Alberta. Surface generation of steam or hot-water accounts for six percent of Canada's natural gas consumption and about 50 million tons of CO2 emission. Lowered cost and environmental impacts are critical in the widespread use of steam (for in-situ recovery) and hot-water (for surface extraction of bitumen) in this region. This paper provides an extensive analysis of hot-water generation to be used in heavy-oil/bitumen recovery. We tested different modeling approaches used to determine the amount of energy produced during HDR by history matching to example field data. The most suitable numerical and analytical models were used to apply the data obtained from different regions containing heavy-oil/bitumen deposits in northern Alberta. The heat generation capacity of different regions was determined and the use of this energy (in the form of hot-water) for surface extraction processes was evaluated. Original temperature gradients were applied as well as realistic basement formation characteristics through an extensive hydro thermal analysis in the region including an experimental well drilled to the depth of 2,500m. Existing natural fractures and possible hydraulic fracturing scenarios were evaluated from the heat generation capacity and the economics points of view. The main problem was modeling difficulties, especially determination and representation of fracture network characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the selected high temperature gradient regions in Alberta. In this practice, the characteristics of hydraulic fractures, injection rate, depth, the distance between

  15. Application of the Glossifungites ichnofacies to the recognition of sequence stratigraphic boundaries: Examples from the Cretaceous of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Maceachern, J.A.; Pemberton, S.G.; Raychaudhuri, I.; Vossler, S. )

    1991-03-01

    The Glossifungites ichnofacies is a substrate-controlled assemblage of trace fossils, characterized by sharp-walled, unlined, passively filled, vertical to subvertical domichnia, excavated into semiconsolidated (firmground) substrates. In Cretaceous siliciclastic rocks of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, the assemblage is dominated by the ichnogenera Diplocraterion, Skolithos, Arenicolites, Thalassinoides, and Rhizocorallium. The Glossifungites assemblage demarcates discontinuity surfaces that reflect pauses in sedimentation accompanied by erosion. Colonization of erosionally exhumed substrates and excavation of domiciles occur predominantly within marine to marginal marine settings. In the subsurface of Alberta, several of these discontinuity surfaces correspond to important sequence stratigraphic boundaries. Caution must be employed when applying these discontinuity surfaces to regional stratigraphic problems. These surfaces can also develop in response to autocyclic processes including tidal channel migration and episodic storm erosion. Consequently, the sequence stratigraphic significance of Glossifungites-demarcated discontinuity surfaces can only be resolved through detailed regional mapping.

  16. Deep 3-D seismic reflection imaging of Precambrian sills in the crystalline crust of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welford, Joanna Kim

    2005-07-01

    Using deep 3-D seismic reflection datasets collected by the Canadian petroleum exploration industry in southwestern and northwestern Alberta, the Head-Smashed-In and Winagami Precambrian sill complexes within the crystalline upper crust, previously identified on Lithoprobe 2-D multichannel reflection lines, are investigated to determine their 3-D geometries and reflective characteristics. During seismic processing of the dataset in southwestern Alberta, a recently developed wavelet-based method, Physical Wavelet Frame Denoising, is applied and shown to successfully suppress ground roll contamination while preserving low frequency signals from deeper structures. A new 3-D empirical trace interpolation scheme, DSInt, is developed to address the problem of spatial aliasing associated with 3-D data acquisition. Results from applying the algorithm to both datasets are comparable to available interpolation codes while allowing for greater flexibility in the handling of irregular acquisition geometries and interpolated trace headers. Evidence of the Head-Smashed-In reflector in southwestern Alberta is obtained using a dataset acquired to 8 s TWTT (approx. 24 km depth). From locally coherent, discontinuous pockets of basement reflectivity, the dataset appears to image the tapering western edge of the deep reflections imaged by Lithoprobe. A statistical approach of tracking reflectivity is developed and applied to obtain the spatial and temporal distribution of reflections. Simple 1-D forward modelling results reveal that the brightest reflections likely arise from a 50 to 150 m thick body of high density/high velocity material although variations in the amplitudes and lateral distribution of the reflections indicate that the thickness of the sills is laterally variable. Thus, the results are consistent with imaging the tapering edge of the sill complex. Clear evidence of the Winagami reflection sequence in northwestern Alberta, emerges from the second dataset acquired to 5

  17. Mapping groundwater storage variations with GRACE: a case study in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Rivera, Alfonso; Palombi, Dan; Smerdon, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The applicability of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to adequately represent broad-scale patterns of groundwater storage (GWS) variations and observed trends in groundwater-monitoring well levels (GWWL) is examined in the Canadian province of Alberta. GWS variations are derived over Alberta for the period 2002-2014 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models. Twelve mean monthly GWS variation maps are generated from the 139 monthly GWS variation grids to characterize the annual GWS variation pattern. These maps show that, overall, GWS increases from February to June, and decreases from July to October, and slightly increases from November to December. For 2002-2014, the GWS showed a positive trend which increases from west to east with a mean value of 12 mm/year over the province. The resulting GWS variations are validated using GWWLs in the province. For the purpose of validation, a GRACE total water storage (TWS)-based correlation criterion is introduced to identify groundwater wells which adequately represent the regional GWS variations. GWWLs at 36 wells were found to correlate with both the GRACE TWS and GWS variations. A factor f is defined to up-scale the GWWL variations at the identified wells to the GRACE-scale GWS variations. It is concluded that the GWS variations can be mapped by GRACE and the GLDAS models in some situations, thus demonstrating the conditions where GWS variations can be detected by GRACE in Alberta.

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of subbituminous coals from the Red Deer River Valley, Alberta Plains, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.

    1998-11-01

    Coals and associated carbonaceous strata along the Red Deer River Valley in Alberta have a wide variation in boron concentrations (10--628 ppm). Boron concentrations decrease from bottom to top of the coal-bearing succession, closely reflecting changes in depositional environment conditions. These changes range from subaquatic deposition in the delta plain area and influence of brackish waters due to a marine transgression, to deposition in areas removed from any brackish water influence. There is good agreement between boron variation and depositional environment as interpreted from regional geology. However, the relation between boron and sulfur is not clear; samples with high boron concentrations are high in sulfur while low boron samples also have high sulfur. Compared to mean concentrations in world coals, some of the highest elemental concentrations measured in coals of this study are: As (38.0 ppm), Ba (2800 ppm), Cr (91.0 ppm), Mn (232 ppm), and V (209 ppm). There is a similarity in the vertical variation of the elements Th and Hf, while bentonite layers are enriched in Ba and Sr, pointing to the presence of gorceixite. No enrichment of REEs was observed in the bentonite layers. A comparison of elemental concentration to world mean values for coals shows that the RDRV coals are elevated in As (up to 4{times}), Cr (up to 12 {times}), Mn (up to 4 {times}), Mo (up to 12 {times}), Th (up to 5 {times}), V (up to 12 {times}) and Zn (up to 5 {times}). Compared to coals from the eastern Alberta Plains of similar rank, age, and depositional environment, the RDRV coals have higher or similar concentrations of all elements of environmental significance, with the exception of Be and Pb. When compared to coals of similar rank in the western Alberta plains deposited under freshwater conditions, the RDRV coals have higher concentration of As, B, Ba, Sb, and Sr, similar concentrations of Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Th, and U, and lower concentrations of Ni.

  19. Probable Ankylosaur Ossicles from the Middle Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation of Northwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michael E.; Vavrek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    A sample of six probable fragmentary ankylosaur ossicles, collected from Cenomanian deposits of the Dunvegan Formation along the Peace River, represent one of the first dinosaurian skeletal fossils reported from pre-Santonian deposits in Alberta. Specimens were identified as ankylosaur by means of a palaeohistological analysis. The primary tissue is composed of zonal interwoven structural fibre bundles with irregularly-shaped lacunae, unlike the elongate lacunae of the secondary lamellar bone. The locality represents the most northerly Cenomanian occurrence of ankylosaur skeletal remains. Further fieldwork in under-examined areas of the province carries potential for additional finds. PMID:24816807

  20. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010–2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus). Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds. PMID:28355241

  1. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jenny; Koper, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010-2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus). Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds.

  2. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  3. Emission factors for hydraulically fractured gas wells derived using well- and battery-level reported data for Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tyner, David R; Johnson, Matthew R

    2014-12-16

    A comprehensive technical analysis of available industry-reported well activity and production data for Alberta in 2011 has been used to derive flaring, venting, and diesel combustion greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant emission factors specifically linked to drilling, completion, and operation of hydraulically fractured natural gas wells. Analysis revealed that in-line ("green") completions were used at approximately 53% of wells completed in 2011, and in other cases the majority (99.5%) of flowback gases were flared rather than vented. Comparisons with limited analogous data available in the literature revealed that reported total flared and vented natural gas volumes attributable to tight gas well-completions were ∼ 6 times larger than Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) estimates for natural gas well-completion based on wells ca. 2000, but 62% less than an equivalent emission factor that can be derived from U.S. EPA data. Newly derived emission factors for diesel combustion during well drilling and completion are thought to be among the first such data available in the open literature, where drilling-related emissions for tight gas wells drilled in Alberta in 2011 were found to have increased by a factor of 2.8 relative to a typical well drilled in Canada in 2000 due to increased drilling lengths. From well-by-well analysis of production phase flared, vented, and fuel usage natural gas volumes reported at 3846 operating tight gas wells in 2011, operational emission factors were developed. Overall results highlight the importance of operational phase GHG emissions at upstream well sites (including on-site natural gas fuel use), and the critical levels of uncertainty in current estimates of liquid unloading emissions.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance profiles of escherichia coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Chunu; McFall, Margaret; King, Robin; Irwin, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Alberta, Canada. Cecal contents of broiler chickens from 24 flocks were collected at slaughter between January and March 2005 for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. Of 600 E. coli isolates tested, 475 (79.2%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, 326 (54.3%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 65 (10.8%) were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, and 15 (2.5%) were resistant to seven or more antimicrobials. The most common resistance was to tetracycline (69.2%), followed by streptomycin (48.2%), kanamycin (40.3%), and sulfisoxazole (38.0%). None of the E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Of the isolates that were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, the most common multidrug resistance patterns were streptomycinte-tracycline (44.0%), streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (30.7%), and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfisoxazole-tetracycline (23.5%). Resistance to tetracycline and kanamycin (odds ratio = 46.7, P = 0.0001) was highly associated, followed by resistance to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (odds ratio = 12.0, P = 0.0001), and streptomycin and tetracycline (odds ratio = 10.3, P = 0.0001). The flock level prevalence of resistance varied from 16.7% for chloramphenicol to 100.0% for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The results of this study provided baseline information on antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta, which can serve as a bench mark for future research.

  5. Identifying sources, formation pathways and geological controls of methane in shallow groundwater above unconventional natural gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Kingston, A. W.; Clarkson, C.; Cahill, A.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Millot, R.; Kloppmann, W.; Osadetz, K.; Lawton, D.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of shale gas development facilitated by hydraulic fracturing it has become increasingly important to develop tracer tools to scientifically determine potential impacts of stray gases on shallow aquifers. To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development, it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta (Canada) between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with often low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1 ‰ in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9 ‰ in dissolved gas. δ13C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that the methane in Alberta groundwater was formed via a similar mechanism. The low δ13C values in concert with average δ2H values of -289 ± 44 ‰ suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by gas dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Novel approaches of in-situ concentration and isotope measurements for methane during drilling of a 530 m deep well yielded a mud-gas profile characterizing natural gas occurrences in the intermediate zone. Comparison with mudgas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the Western

  6. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  7. Skull Ecomorphology of Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6–8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4–7 million km2) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which–dietary niche partitioning–forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence. PMID:23874409

  8. Pesticides in fresh potatoes sold in farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Thomas S; Dimock, Rick; Bradbury, Robert W; Rieve, Richard; Fehr, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Fresh potatoes (228 samples) from 34 farmers' markets in Alberta were analyzed for 29 pesticides. Residues of three different pesticides were found in the samples tested with chlorpropham being most frequently detected (n = 13) at concentrations ranging from 15 to 7,600 μg kg(-1). Azoxystrobin (n = 11) and imidacloprid (n = 8) were found at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 5.1 and 15-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. All pesticide concentrations were below Canadian maximum residue limits as established for potatoes. No pesticide residues were detected in 23 potato samples obtained from certified organic farmers.

  9. Variation in management of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to Alberta, Canada hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y.; Marrie, T. J.; Carriere, K. C.; Predy, G.; Houston, C.; Ness, K.; Johnson, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown small area variation in the rate of admission to hospital for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We determined the rates of admission and length of stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Alberta and the factors influencing admission rates and length of stay. Using hospital abstracts, hospital admissions for community-acquired pneumonia from 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1999 were compared. We classified Alberta hospitals according to geographical regions, by the number of beds, and by number of community-acquired pneumonia cases. There were 12,000 annual hospital discharges for community-acquired pneumonia costing over $40 million per year. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the 1 year mortality rate was 26%. Compared with rural hospitals, regional and metropolitan hospitals admitted patients with greater severity of illness as demonstrated by greater in-hospital mortality, cost per case and comorbidity. Age-sex adjusted hospital discharge rates were significantly below the provincial average in both urban regions. Hospital discharge rates for residents in all rural regions and 4 of 5 regions with a regional hospital were significantly higher than the provincial average. After adjusting for comorbidity, the relative risk for a longer length of stay was 22% greater in regional hospitals and about 30% greater in urban hospitals compared to rural hospitals. Seasonal variation in the admission rate was evident, with higher rates in the winter of each year. We conclude that rural hospitals would be likely to benefit from a protocol to help with the admission decision and urban hospitals from a programme to reduce length of stay. PMID:12613744

  10. Potential methane production and oxidation in soil reclamation covers of an oil sands mining site in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pum, Lisa; Reichenauer, Thomas; Germida, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities create a number of significant greenhouse gases and thus potentially contribute to global warming. Methane production is significant in some agricultural production systems and from wetlands. In soil, methane can be oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria. However, little is known about methane production and oxidation in oil sand reclamation covers. The purpose of this study was to investigate methane production and oxidation potential of tailing sands and six different reclamation layers of oil sands mining sites in Alberta, Canada. Methane production and oxidation potential were investigated in laboratory scale microcosms through continuous headspace analysis using gas chromatography. Samples from a reclamation layer were collected at the Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) reclamation site at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm in October 2014. In addition, tailing sands provided by Suncor Energy Inc. and soil from a CNRL wetland were studied for methane production. Samples were dried, crushed and sieved to 4 mm, packed into serum bottle microcosms and monitored for eight weeks. Methane production potential was assessed by providing an anoxic environment and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 100 %. Methane oxidation potential was examined by an initial application of 2 vol % methane to the microcosms and by adjusting the samples to a moisture holding capacity of 50 %. Microcosm headspace gas was analysed for methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and oxygen. All experiments were carried out in triplicates, including controls. SF6 and Helium were used as internal standards to detect potential leaks. Our results show differences for methane production potential between the soil depths, tailing sands and wetlands. Moreover, there were differences in the methane oxidation potential of substrate from the three depths investigated and between the reclamation layers. In conclusion, the present study shows that

  11. The Bow City structure, southern Alberta, Canada: The deep roots of a complex impact structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombick, Paul; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Xie, Wei; Bown, Todd; Hathway, Ben; Banks, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence is presented for a newly discovered, probable remnant complex impact structure. The structure, located near Bow City, southern Alberta, has no obvious morphological expression at surface. The geometry of the structure in the shallow subsurface, mapped using downhole geophysical well logs, is a semicircular structural depression approximately 8 km in diameter with a semicircular uplifted central region. Detailed subsurface mapping revealed evidence of localized duplication of stratigraphic section in the central uplift area and omission of strata within the surrounding annular region. Field mapping of outcrop confirmed an inlier of older rocks present within the center of the structure. Evidence of deformation along the eastern margin of the central uplift includes thrust faulting, folding, and steeply dipping bedding. Normal faults were mapped along the northern margin of the annular region. Isopach maps reveal that structural thickening and thinning were accommodated primarily within the Belly River Group. Evidence from legacy 2-D seismic data is consistent with the subsurface mapping and reveals additional insight into the geometry of the structure, including a series of listric normal faults in the annular region and complex faulting within the central uplift. The absence of any ejecta blanket, breccia, suevite, or melt sheet (based on available data) is consistent with the Bow City structure being the remnant of a deeply eroded, complex impact structure. Accordingly, the Bow City structure may provide rare access and insight into zones of deformation remaining beneath an excavated transient crater in stratified siliciclastic target rocks.

  12. Smoke-free spaces over time: a policy diffusion study of bylaw development in Alberta and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Eyles, John; Campbell, H Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Policy diffusion is a process whereby political bodies 'learn' policy solutions to public health problems by imitating policy from similar jurisdictions. This suggests that diffusion is a critical element in the policy development process, and that its role must be recognised in any examination of policy development. Yet, to date, no systematic work on the diffusion of smoke-free spaces bylaws has been reported. We examined the diffusion of municipal smoke-free bylaws over a 30-year period in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario, Canada, to begin to address this gap and to determine whether spatial patterns could be identified to help explain the nature of policy development. Bylaw adoption and change were analysed within local, regional, and provincial contexts. Geographical models of hierarchical and expansion diffusion in conjunction with the diffusion of innovations framework conceptually guided the analyses. Study findings contribute to a broader understanding of how and why health policies diffuse across time and place. Policy development can be a powerful mechanism for creating environments that support healthy decisions; hence, an understanding of policy diffusion is critical for those interested in policy interventions aimed at improving population health in any jurisdiction.

  13. The adsorption and release of sulfur in mineral and organic soils of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C J; Adkinson, A; Eimers, M C; Watmough, S A

    2010-01-01

    Mineral soil and fibric peat from acid-sensitive western boreal catchments in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada were evaluated for their ability to adsorb and release SO(4)(2-). Laboratory batch studies indicated that SO(4)(2-) adsorption in mineral soil from both the A and B horizons exhibits a limited response to elevated SO(4)(2-) concentrations, with the slope of initial mass isotherms <0.2 for all soils, likely due to low iron and aluminum oxide content. Although S retention is the dominant process in peat soils in the region, drought simulations in the lab using fibric peat collected from a poor fen exhibited as much as a five-fold increase in SO(4)(2-) concentration after drying and rewetting. Given the limited SO(4)(2-) adsorption capacity of mineral soils and the potential drought-induced S release from peatlands in this region where increased S deposition is expected, further investigation of acidification impacts is warranted.

  14. Legacy seismic investigations of karst surfaces: Implications for heavy oil extraction from the Devonian Grosmont Formation, northeastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, Todd Dylan

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada is the world's largest accumulation of heavy oil in carbonate rock with estimated bitumen in place of 64.5×109 m 3. At the studies location the eroded and buried surface of the Grosmont, referred here as the SubMannville uncoformity (SMU), was analyzed and interpret for a karsted surface. Results from legacy seismic data and available well log information were able to define the SMU as a mature karst surface within observable features such as dolines, karst valleys, karst plain and poljie and a ridge. The large scale topography of the ridge and poljie were geologically controlled by the underlying the Paleozoic rocks. Furthermore, the poljie was observed to contain the majority of the dolines in the area, noted to occur elsewhere. That said, dolines and karst valleys and other such dissolution features have the potential to erode the bitumen reservoir of the upper Grosmont members C and D. It is important for future oil prospectors to map and avoid areas such as the poljie, dolines and karst valley to increase certainty of reservoir presence. A preliminary rock-physics model was developed for the Grosmont reservoir of a bitumen-saturated dolomite. Results suggest that elastic properties of the Grosmont reservoir are temperature-frequency dispersive. This implies that there is a potential to use time-lapse seismic to map and monitor heating of the reservoir.

  15. Canadian Rheumatology Association Meeting, Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, February 17-20, 2016.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Earl D

    2016-04-15

    The 71st Annual Meeting of The Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) was held at the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, February 17-20, 2016. The program consisted of presentations covering original research, symposia, awards, and lectures. Highlights of the meeting include the following 2016 Award Winners: Distinguished Rheumatologist, Ronald Laxer; Distinguished Investigator, Proton Rahman; Teacher-Educator, Lori Albert; Young Investigator, Nigil Haroon; Best Abstract on Basic Science Research by a Trainee, Liam O'Neil; Best Abstract on Research by a Rheumatology Resident, Valérie Leclair; Best Abstract by a Medical Student, Matthew Jessome; Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Resident, Hyein Kim; CRA/Arthritis Research Foundation (ARF) Best Epidemiology/Health Services Research Award, Cheryl Barnabe; Summer Studentship Mentor Award, Ines Colmegna; CRA/ARF Best Paediatric Research Award, Lily Lim; CRA/ARF Best Clinical Research Award, Zahi Touma; CRA/ARF Best Basic Science Research Award, Nigil Haroon; Best Abstract on SLE Research by a Trainee - Ian Watson Award, Stephanie Nantes.

  16. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-04

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs.

  17. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada’s largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world’s largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s−1 in background air to 62 s−1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994–2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene. PMID:25685050

  18. Static and Dynamic Anisotropic Muduli of a Shale Sample from Southern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez Martinez, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kofman, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in unconventional reservoirs broadly motivates our work in laboratory measurements of seismic anisotropy. Seismic anisotropy is the variation in speed of a wave as a function of its direction of propagation and particle polarization. When assuming an isotropic model of Earth during conventional seismic processing in areas with evidence of anisotropy a poor resolution images or erroneous localization of geological structures with strong dipping is produced. Ignoring anisotropy in unconventional reservoirs leads, for example, leads to erroneous estimation of horizontal stresses, wellbore stress as well as wellbore stability during hydraulic fracturing In this sense, laboratory measurements are an important tool to study seismic anisotropy since they provide information on the anisotropy intrinsic to the rock material itself. This is important to know as this contributes to the observed seismic anisotropy that is influenced by stress states and fractures. In this work, assuming a transversally isotropic medium (VTI), elastic anisotropic moduli of a dry shale from Southern Alberta are estimated as a function of confining pressure. Estimation of elastic constants and dynamic bulk moduli in a VTI medium involves recording P and S travel times by using pulse transmission method in a minimum of three different directions. These are often taken for the sake of convenience to be perpendicular (P0o and S0o), parallel (P90o and SH90o), and oblique (P45o and SH45o) to the layering of the material with the assumption that the perpendicular and parallel directions align with the principal anisotropic axes. The pulse transmission method involves generating and recording P and S ultrasonic waves traveling through a sample. Static Bulk moduli is estimated by measuring the volumetric deformation (strain) for a given confining pressure (stress) by using strain gauges directly bonded on the sample in two different directions: perpendicular to bedding and parallel to

  19. Natural flow and water consumption in the Milk River basin, Montana and Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the differences between natural and nonnatural Milk River streamflow, to delineate and quantify the types and effects of water consumption on streamflow, and to refine the current computation procedure into one which computes and apportions natural flow. Water consumption consists principally of irrigated agriculture, municipal use, and evapotranspiration. Mean daily water consumption by irrigation ranged from 10 cu ft/sec to 26 cu ft/sec in the Canada part and from 6 cu ft/sec to 41 cu ft/sec in the US part. Two Canadian municipalities consume about 320 acre-ft and one US municipality consumes about 20 acre-ft yearly. Evaporation from the water surface comprises 80% 0 90% of the flow reduction in the Milk River attributed to total evapotranspiration. The current water-budget approach for computing natural flow of the Milk River where it reenters the US was refined into an interim procedure which includes allowances for man-induced consumption and a method for apportioning computed natural flow between the US and Canada. The refined procedure is considered interim because further study of flow routing, tributary inflow, and man-induced consumption is needed before a more accurate procedure for computing natural flow can be developed. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Mammoth tracks indicate a declining Late Pleistocene population in southwestern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Paul; Hills, L. V.; Kooyman, B.; Tolman, Shayne M.

    2005-05-01

    Much debate has raged over the role that early humans played in this most recent large extinction. Fossil mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) footprints were discovered at the St. Mary Reservoir in southwestern Canada (Wally's Beach DhPg-8). They are located in aeolian sediment dated at 11,300-11,000 years BP. By comparing the size distribution of these tracks with those of modern African elephants ( Loxodonta africana), the age distribution of this mammoth population was determined. Containing far fewer juveniles than would be expected for an expanding or stable population, these tracks provide the first evidence that a living mammoth population, coexisting with human inhabitants, was in decline. Additionally, the same site provides corroborating evidence of humans hunting megafauna (horse and bovids). This suggests that humans, in addition to climate change, played a role in the end Pleistocene extinctions in North America.

  1. Innovative palliative care in Edmonton.

    PubMed Central

    Fainsinger, R. L.; Bruera, E.; MacMillan, K.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Access to palliative care in Edmonton has been hampered by uneven development, poor distribution of services, and more recently, economic restraints. Family physicians' involvement in palliative care has been hindered by the variety of access points, poor coordination, and inadequate reimbursement for time-consuming and difficult patient care situations. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To provide high-quality palliative care throughout Edmonton in all settings, with patients able to move easily throughout the components of the program; to lower costs by having fewer palliative care patients die in acute care facilities; and to ensure that family physicians receive support to care for most patients at home or in palliative care units. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: The program includes a regional office, home care, and consultant teams. A specialized 14-bed palliative care unit provides acute care. Family physicians are the primary caregivers in the 56 palliative continuing care unit beds. CONCLUSIONS: This program appears to meet most of the need for palliative care in Edmonton. Family physicians, with support from consulting teams, have a central role. Evaluation is ongoing; an important issue is how best to support patients dying at home. Images p1984-a p1986-a PMID:9386885

  2. Can the Problem of Illiteracy Be Solved? A View Based on AVC Edmonton's Adult Basic Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, F. F.

    An estimated 850,000 Canadian adults lack basic literacy skills. An examination of the profile and achievements of the students enrolled in the literacy education program at the Alberta Vocational Centre in Edmonton indicates that like the many other types in the broad range of adult literacy programs, the highly structured nature of the Edmonton…

  3. LIFE CYCLE, HOST UTILIZATION, AND ECOLOGICAL FITTING FOR INVASIVE LANCET LIVER FLUKE, DICROCOELIUM DENDRITICUM, EMERGING IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA.

    PubMed

    van Paridon, Bradley; Gilleard, John S; Colwell, Douglas D; Goater, Cameron P

    2017-02-17

    The expansion of parasite distributions outside of their native host and geographical ranges has occurred repeatedly over evolutionary time. Contemporary examples include emerging infectious diseases (EID's), many of which pose threats to human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations. Theory predicts that parasites with complex life cycles will be rare as EID's due to constraints imposed by host specialization at each life-cycle stage. In contrast to predictions of this theory, we report 2 new intermediate hosts in the 3-host life cycle of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum in Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. Results of sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) mitochondrial gene identified the terrestrial snail Oreohelix subrudis, and the ant, Formica aserva, as first and second intermediate hosts, respectively, in the region. Neither of these intermediate hosts, nor their suite of domestic and wild mammalian grazers used in the life cycle, occurs within the native range of D. dendriticum in Europe. Our results from host surveys show that the prevalence of D. dendriticum in samples of O. subrudis varied between 4-10%, whereas mean metacercariae intensity in F. aserva varied between 33-41 (n = 163, mean ± SD = 38 ± 35). These results are the first to describe the complete life cycle of emerging lancet fluke in western North America. The process of multi-level ecological fitting, in which the lancet fluke possesses pre-existing traits to utilize host resources, rather than host species, at each life-cycle stage provides a mechanism for the establishment of this complex life cycle in a novel habitat and in novel hosts.

  4. Collocated comparisons of continuous and filter-based PM2.5 measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Percy, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collocated comparisons for three PM2.5 monitors were conducted from June 2011 to May 2013 at an air monitoring station in the residential area of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, a city located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Extremely cold winters (down to approximately −40°C) coupled with low PM2.5 concentrations present a challenge for continuous measurements. Both the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), operated at 40°C (i.e., TEOM40), and Synchronized Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate (SHARP, a Federal Equivalent Method [FEM]), were compared with a Partisol PM2.5 U.S. Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler. While hourly TEOM40 PM2.5 were consistently ~20–50% lower than that of SHARP, no statistically significant differences were found between the 24-hr averages for FRM and SHARP. Orthogonal regression (OR) equations derived from FRM and TEOM40 were used to adjust the TEOM40 (i.e., TEOMadj) and improve its agreement with FRM, particularly for the cold season. The 12-year-long hourly TEOMadj measurements from 1999 to 2011 based on the OR equations between SHARP and TEOM40 were derived from the 2-year (2011–2013) collocated measurements. The trend analysis combining both TEOMadj and SHARP measurements showed a statistically significant decrease in PM2.5 concentrations with a seasonal slope of −0.15 μg m−3 yr−1 from 1999 to 2014.Implications: Consistency in PM2.5 measurements are needed for trend analysis. Collocated comparison among the three PM2.5 monitors demonstrated the difference between FRM and TEOM, as well as between SHARP and TEOM. The orthogonal regressions equations can be applied to correct historical TEOM data to examine long-term trends within the network. PMID:26727574

  5. Comparative Detection and Quantification of Arcobacter butzleri in Stools from Diarrheic and Nondiarrheic People in Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Andrew L.; Boras, Valerie F.; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Selinger, L. Brent

    2016-01-01

    Arcobacter butzleri has been linked to enteric disease in humans, but its pathogenicity and epidemiology remain poorly understood. The lack of suitable detection methods is a major limitation. Using comparative genome analysis, we developed PCR primers for direct detection and quantification of A. butzleri DNA in microbiologically complex matrices. These primers, along with existing molecular and culture-based methods, were used to detect A. butzleri and enteric pathogens in stools of diarrheic and nondiarrheic people (n = 1,596) living in southwestern Alberta, Canada, from May to November 2008. In addition, quantitative PCR was used to compare A. butzleri densities in diarrheic and nondiarrheic stools. Arcobacter butzleri was detected more often by PCR (59.6%) than by isolation methods (0.8%). Comparison by PCR-based detection found no difference in the prevalence of A. butzleri between diarrheic (56.7%) and nondiarrheic (45.5%) individuals. Rates of detection in diarrheic stools peaked in June (71.1%) and October (68.7%), but there was no statistically significant correlation between the presence of A. butzleri and patient age, sex, or place of habitation. Densities of A. butzleri DNA in diarrheic stools (1.6 ± 0.59 log10 copies mg−1) were higher (P = 0.007) than in nondiarrheic stools (1.3 ± 0.63 log10 copies mg−1). Of the 892 diarrheic samples that were positive for A. butzleri, 74.1% were not positive for other bacterial and/or viral pathogens. The current study supports previous work suggesting that A. butzleri pathogenicity is strain specific and/or dependent on other factors, such as the level of host resistance. PMID:26865686

  6. Recommendations for the referral of patients for proton-beam therapy, an Alberta Health Services report: a model for Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S.; Kostaras, X.; Parliament, M.; Olivotto, I.A.; Nordal, R.; Aronyk, K.; Hagen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with photon therapy, proton-beam therapy (pbt) offers compelling advantages in physical dose distribution. Worldwide, gantry-based proton facilities are increasing in number, but no such facilities exist in Canada. To access pbt, Canadian patients must travel abroad for treatment at high cost. In the face of limited access, this report seeks to provide recommendations for the selection of patients most likely to benefit from pbt and suggests an out-of-country referral process. Methods The medline, embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for studies published between January 1990 and May 2014 that evaluated clinical outcomes after pbt. A draft report developed through a review of evidence was externally reviewed and then approved by the Alberta Health Services Cancer Care Proton Therapy Guidelines steering committee. Results Proton therapy is often used to treat tumours close to radiosensitive tissues and to treat children at risk of developing significant late effects of radiation therapy (rt). In uncontrolled and retrospective studies, local control rates with pbt appear similar to, or in some cases higher than, photon rt. Randomized trials comparing equivalent doses of pbt and photon rt are not available. Summary Referral for pbt is recommended for patients who are being treated with curative intent and with an expectation for long-term survival, and who are able and willing to travel abroad to a proton facility. Commonly accepted indications for referral include chordoma and chondrosarcoma, intraocular melanoma, and solid tumours in children and adolescents who have the greatest risk for long-term sequelae. Current data do not provide sufficient evidence to recommend routine referral of patients with most head-and-neck, breast, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and pelvic cancers, including prostate cancer. It is recommended that all referrals be considered by a multidisciplinary team to select appropriate cases. PMID

  7. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  8. A Comprehensive Land-Use/Hydrological Modeling System for Scenario Simulations in the Elbow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J.

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km2 and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  9. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  10. Hydrology of a wetland-dominated headwater basin in the Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Corey; Ketcheson, Scott; Price, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of the runoff generation dynamics and hydrological connectivity across upland-wetland transitions within a wetland-dominated headwater basin in the Western Boreal Plain (WBP), Canada. Basin runoff response between and among years was driven largely by differences in the timing and magnitude of precipitation relative to potential evapotranspiration, hence antecedent moisture conditions, which varied markedly over the four-year study (April-Sept). Runoff coefficients for individual precipitation events ranged from <1 to >90% depending on storm dynamics and antecedent conditions. Owing to its higher elevation, the basin received 55% more precipitation per month on average compared to 30-year climate normals and an average of 86 mm more precipitation per season than the nearby regional weather station. The wetland and adjacent forestlands became coupled during intermittent wet periods which generated substantial runoff. The findings of the current study suggest that, in contrast to conventional conceptual models, headwater catchments within the subhumid WBP have the capacity to generate significant runoff throughout the snow-free period. This has important implications for wetland maintenance and represents an important water delivery mechanism for downstream ecosystems where excess water is scarce.

  11. Generalizing riparian hydrologic function in a heterogeneous landscape, Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devito, K.; Brown, S.; Hairabedian, M.; Landhäusser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Petrone, R.; Redding, R.; Riddell, J.; Silins, U.; Smerdon, B.; Snedden, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Western Boreal Plain (WBP) eco-region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedented development for forest, oil and gas resources stressing the need to assess the role and relative effectiveness of riparian areas in mitigating the impacts of land use changes on water quantity and quality. We compare findings from local scale transect studies across differing surficial geology at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) to characterize the variability in hydrological and biogeochemical processes of riparian areas located on major landforms and landscape positions typical of the WBP. Within the study region, the recurring role of riparian areas on hydrological linkages from uplands to aquatic systems was removal of soil water and groundwater by vegetation and translocation of water to adjacent hillslopes regardless of groundwater function. Water table depressions at the base of hillslopes were commonly observed. The sub-humid climate and deep and heterogeneous surficial deposits result in minimal upland runoff and complex surface -groundwater interactions. Aquatic-riparian flow reversals and losing conditions (water table gradients from aquatic to upland regions) were common and perched stream, pond and wetland systems were observed in areas of contrasting soil texture. The type and seasonality of flow path and variability in riparian function were related to interactions between sub-humid climate, surficial geologic landforms (texture) and topographic position within these landforms. Riparian functions were highly variable in coarse textured outwash landforms and influenced by regional-scale flow system and seasonal freezing. Riparian interactions on fined grained lacustrine plain landscapes were largely restricted to near surface discharge and recharge flow through. In contrast, on poorly drained and mixed textured moraine landforms, riparian systems were often isolated or interacted with recharge or perched flow systems. Our findings not only point to the need

  12. Temperature and heat flux changes at the base of Laurentide ice sheet inferred from geothermal data (evidence from province of Alberta, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demezhko, Dmitry; Gornostaeva, Anastasia; Majorowicz, Jacek; Šafanda, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Using a previously published temperature log of the 2363-m-deep borehole Hunt well (Alberta, Canada) and the results of its previous interpretation, the new reconstructions of ground surface temperature and surface heat flux histories for the last 30 ka have been obtained. Two ways to adjust the timescale of geothermal reconstructions are discussed, namely the traditional method based on the a priori data on thermal diffusivity value, and the alternative one including the orbital tuning of the surface heat flux and the Earth's insolation changes. It is shown that the second approach provides better agreement between geothermal reconstructions and proxy evidences of deglaciation chronology in the studied region.

  13. Contributing towards a conceptual model of soil-landscape co-evolution: observations from historic mining sites in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Naeth, Anne; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    At the former Diplomat Mine near Forestburg, Alberta, Canada we find a diverse soil landscape which can help to conceptualize factors and processes controlling initial pedogenesis and soil distribution on very young landforms in prairie environments. Due to differing reclamation practices in the 1950s and landslides occurring after spoil dumping, four areas can be distinguished by GoogleMaps/LiDAR evaluation and onsite field survey: (i) not-mined, (ii) stock piled and unreclaimed, (iii) stock piled and reclaimed and (iv) affected by post-mining geomorphodynamics and quasi-natural redeposition. The parent material for areas (ii) to (iv) was initially dumped by spreaders but only (ii) didn't undergo further change. Landscape (iii) has seen levelling of the piles by heavy machinery. Features of landscape (iv) are formed by reshaping the originally dumped and levelled structures. This last landscape unit marks the rim of the former mine adjacent to the river valley. In practice, mining activities formed new valley slopes. In contrast to the naturally developed slopes the mine slopes were less stable. Vegetation, which could have hindered slope wash erosion, was missing after dumping the spoil slopes. Slopes were very steep (or practically undercut) and therefore, substrates were naturally re-located by mass movements such as sliding and slumping. Characteristic sliding and slumping structures can be identified in the close-ups of the LiDAR images. Both processes, mass movement and slope wash erosion, may have overlapped. Landscape (ii) is the most contrasting one. Dumped stock piles formed elongated, curved and steep ridges. These landforms do not have a natural analogue but clearly show their technological origin. Most interesting are differences in vegetation. South and southwest facing slopes are covered with grassland whereas north and northeast facing slopes are covered with aspen trees. Some of the ditches are filled with water and form small elongated ponds. The

  14. Emergence of a New Norovirus GII.4 Variant and Changes in the Historical Biennial Pattern of Norovirus Outbreak Activity in Alberta, Canada, from 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hasing, Maria E.; Preiksaitis, Jutta K.; Tellier, Raymond; Honish, Lance; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Pang, Xiaoli L.

    2013-01-01

    The public health impact of the emergence of new norovirus (NoV) strains is uncertain. A biennial pattern of alternating quiescent and epidemic levels of NoV outbreak activity associated with the emergence of new GII.4 variants was observed in Alberta, Canada, between July 2000 and June 2008. In this study, NoV genogroup I (GI) and GII strains isolated from 710 outbreak specimens in Alberta between July 2008 and January 2013 were characterized to update historical data. The seasonality and annual variation in NoV outbreak burden were analyzed over a 10-year period (July 2002 to June 2012). We found that GII.4-2006b had persisted as the predominant variant over three observation periods (July 2006 to June 2009) during which the biennial NoV outbreak pattern continued. The emergence of GII.4-2010 (winter 2009) was not associated with increased outbreak activity, and outbreak activity between July 2009 and June 2012 when GII.4-2010 predominated (67.5 to 97.7%) did not follow a biennial pattern. GII.4-2012 first emerged in Alberta in September 2011 and became predominant in observation period July 2012 to June 2013. NoV GI, relatively rare in past years, had a higher activity level (37.3%) as represented by GI.6 and GI.7 in the winter of 2012 to 2013. A higher proportion of GI outbreaks occurred in non-health care facility settings compared to GII. Our study suggests that factors other than new variants emergence contribute to the levels of NoV outbreak activity in Alberta. PMID:23637302

  15. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  16. The Impact of Wildland and Structure Fire Smoke on Ambient Pollution Levels in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    An unprecedented wildfire impacted the northern Alberta city of Fort McMurray in May 2016 causing a mandatory evacuation of all residents and resulted in the loss of over 2,400 homes and businesses. An estimated two hectare wildfire was first discovered on May 1 by a fire patrol...

  17. Images in Transition. Proceedings of the Annual Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) Conference (3rd, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, September 24-26, 1992) and the Canadian Symposium on Gifted Education (6th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This document presents the conference proceedings of the primary stakeholders in gifted education in Alberta (Canada): "Activities in Math for the Gifted Student" (Ballheim); "The Self Awareness Growth Experiences Approach" (Balogun); "Computer Simulations: An Integrating Tool" (Bilan); "The Portrayal of Gifted…

  18. Charter Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn

    At the heart of the controversy over public education in a democratic system is the tension between majority rules and minority rights, and public and individual interests. This contextual framework sets the stage for the emergence of charter schools in Alberta, Canada. This paper describes the establishment and characteristics of the first…

  19. Changes in Non-Marine Vertebrate Assemblages from the Late Cretaceous of Southern Alberta, Canada and their Relationship to Changes in Mean Annual Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    A series of five vertebrate assemblages from southern Alberta, Canada, (paleolatitude of 58oN) ranging from late Santonian to late Maastrichtian in age together with contemporaneous assemblages from more southern localities provide a basis for interpreting how continental biotas responded to major climate events during this time. A decrease in abundance and diversity of ectothermic mesoreptiles (turtles, crocodiles, and champsosaurs) in southern Alberta that is documented by three successive assemblages of late Campanian and early Maastrichtian age is interpreted as the result of a southern shift of a latitudinal diversity gradient associated with a climatic cooling. The higher diversity of ectothermic mesoreptiles in this region during the late Maastrichtian is interpreted as a northern shift of the diversity gradient resulting from an increase in mean annual temperatures. Latitudinal changes in the distribution or abundance some taxa of fish, turtles, and dinosaurs can also be related to changes in mean annual temperature. The fish Melvius and the turtle Compsemys, which are typical of southern assemblages, occur at higher paleolatitudes during times of high mean annual temperature. The dinosaur Troodon, which has been considered to be more northern in its distribution, is more abundant in southern Alberta during times of lower mean annual temperature. The patterns of distribution of vertebrates in the Campanian and Maastrichtian support the interpretation that the occurrence of ectothermic mesoreptiles in a high-latitude locality of late Turonian-Coniacian age on Axel Heiberg Island (paleolatitude of 71o) is associated with high temperature at that time. These patterns also suggest that faunal changes documented by vertebrate microfossil localities of Cenomanian and Turonian age in southern Utah may also be related in part to an increase in mean annual temperatures during this time.

  20. Nickel isotope abundances of type I deep-sea spheres and of iron-nickel spherules from sediments in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Hall, G. S.; Bi, D.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1995-12-01

    Nickel isotope abundances were measured by ICP-MS in twenty-one whole, type I deep-sea spheres, in Ni-rich cores and oxide shells separated from three others, and in Fe-Ni alloy spherules from Alberta, Canada. The nickel isotopes in the whole deep-sea spheres are mass fractionated from 0.4 to 2.4%/ AMU. These: values correspond to open system vaporization losses of Ni as high as 94% (relative). The degree of mass fractionation correlates well with bulk nickel content in most cases. Taken together with published iron isotope data, the nickel isotope results indicate a pre-loss Fe/Ni ratio of about 12 for many spheres. Similar ratios are observed in the following types of meteoritic material: EL-chondrite metal; IA, IIE, IIIA, and IVA iron meteorites; and metal from pallasites and mesosiderites. Metal cores separated from three deep-sea spheres contain between 40 and 52% Ni, with mass fractionations ranging from undetectable to a high of 0.8%/AMU. Within experimental error, the degree of Ni mass fractionation in each oxide shell was the same as that in the corresponding core. No mass-dependent isotopic fractionation of nickel was observed in Ni-rich spherules recovered from Alberta sands of Pleistocene age. In general, Ni-rich samples have low degrees of isotopic fractionation which suggests that the most rapid vaporization of Ni occurs when both Fe and Ni have been oxidized.

  1. Validation of the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease for Liver Transplant Allocation in Alberta: Implications for Future Directions in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burak, Kelly W.; Meeberg, Glenda A.; Myers, Robert P.; Fick, Gordon H.; Swain, Mark G.; Bain, Vincent G.; Kneteman, Norman M.; Hilsden, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Since 2002, the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been used for allocation of liver transplants (LT) in the USA. In Canada, livers were allocated by the CanWAIT algorithm. The aim of this study was to compare the abilities of MELD, Child-Pugh (CP), and CanWAIT status to predict 3-month and 1-year mortality before LT in Canadian patients and to describe the use of MELD in Canada. Methods. Validation of MELD was performed in 320 patients listed for LT in Alberta (1998–2002). In October 2014, a survey of MELD use by Canadian LT centers was conducted. Results. Within 1 year of listing, 47 patients were removed from the waiting list (29 deaths, 18 too ill for LT). Using logistic regression, the MELD and CP were better than the CanWAIT at predicting 3-month (AUROC: 0.79, 0.78, and 0.59; p = 0.0002) and 1-year waitlist mortality (AUROC: 0.70, 0.70, and 0.55; p = 0.0023). Beginning in 2004, MELD began to be adopted by Canadian LT programs but its use was not standardized. Conclusions. Compared with the CanWAIT system, the MELD score was significantly better at predicting LT waitlist mortality. MELD-sodium (MELD-Na) has now been adopted for LT allocation in Canada. PMID:27446823

  2. The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Supply Variability on the Delivered Price to a Biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, Jamie; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Sowlati, T.; Kloeck, T.; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly over the 20 25 year lifetime of a biorefinery. Since delivered price of biomass feedstock to a biorefinery is related to the distance travelled and equipment optimization, and transportation distance increases as productivity decreases, productivity is a primary determinant of feedstock price. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) modeling environment and a standard round bale harvest and delivery scenario, harvest and delivery price were modelled for minimum, average, and maximum yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 tonnes per year. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be combined with a polynomial harvest function to create a generalized delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The range in delivered cost is substantial and is an important consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery.

  3. Carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a rotation of three different crops in southern Alberta, Canada: a comparison of sustainable and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, S; Cárcamo, H A; Larney, F J; Spence, J R

    2008-10-01

    Carabids were sampled in 2000 (pretreatment year) and 2003-2005 in experimental plots in southern Alberta, Canada, after a rotation of beans, wheat, and potato under sustainable and conventional farming practices. Each phase of the rotation was present in every year. Crop type had a stronger effect than sustainable treatment on carabid-expected species richness, diversity, and species composition. However, carabid activity density was consistently higher in plots under sustainable treatments than those maintained conventionally. Potato plots, which were sprayed with insecticide for pest control, showed a significantly lower carabid activity density than the other crops. These results support other studies showing the beneficial effect of sustainable farming on activity density of carabid beetles.

  4. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, J. M.; Sauchyn, D.; Luckman, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with 1) a generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow, and 2) a 900-year tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record.

  5. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining

    PubMed Central

    Sauchyn, David J.; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world’s third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record. PMID:26392554

  6. Long-term reliability of the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada) as the water source for oil sands mining.

    PubMed

    Sauchyn, David J; St-Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Luckman, Brian H

    2015-10-13

    Exploitation of the Alberta oil sands, the world's third-largest crude oil reserve, requires fresh water from the Athabasca River, an allocation of 4.4% of the mean annual flow. This allocation takes into account seasonal fluctuations but not long-term climatic variability and change. This paper examines the decadal-scale variability in river discharge in the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) with (i) a generalized least-squares (GLS) regression analysis of the trend and variability in gauged flow and (ii) a 900-y tree-ring reconstruction of the water-year flow of the Athabasca River at Athabasca, Alberta. The GLS analysis removes confounding transient trends related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Pacific North American mode (PNA). It shows long-term declining flows throughout the ARB. The tree-ring record reveals a larger range of flows and severity of hydrologic deficits than those captured by the instrumental records that are the basis for surface water allocation. It includes periods of sustained low flow of multiple decades in duration, suggesting the influence of the PDO and PNA teleconnections. These results together demonstrate that low-frequency variability must be considered in ARB water allocation, which has not been the case. We show that the current and projected surface water allocations from the Athabasca River for the exploitation of the Alberta oil sands are based on an untenable assumption of the representativeness of the short instrumental record.

  7. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Sherry J; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A; Townsend, Hugh G G

    2009-10-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10,000 to > 40,000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86-88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86-90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85-88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66-71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58-70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67-72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta.

  8. Do “Virtual” and “Outpatient” Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard; Heffernan, Courtney; Gao, Zhiwei; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Talbot, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB) elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a “virtual” model is attractive. However, whether “virtual” clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the “virtual” and “outpatient” public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population. Methods In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators. Findings In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively. Conclusions Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise

  9. Detection and molecular characterization of an aster yellows phytoplasma in poker statice and Queen Anne's lace in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kan-Fa; Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Khadhair, Abdul-Hameed; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Howard, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Queen Anne's lace and poker statice plants were found with a yellows-type disease with typical phytoplasma symptoms in an experimental farm near Brooks, Alberta in 1996. Phytoplasma bodies were detected by transmission electron microscopy in phloem cells of symptomatic plants, but not in healthy plants. The presence of a phytoplasma was confirmed by analysis with the polymerase chain reaction. Using a pair of universal primer sequences derived from phytoplasma 16S rRNA, an amplified product of the expected size (1.2 kb) was observed in samples from infected plants, but not in asymptomatic plants. Sequence analysis of the PCR products from the 16S/23S rDNA intergenic spacer region indicated that the two phytoplasma isolates in Queen Anne's lace and poker statice are genetically closely related to the western aster yellows phytoplasma.

  10. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations.

  11. A survey of the selenium status of beef cows in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J R; Jim, G K; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T

    1995-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Alberta to measure the selenium status in blood of beef cows during the fall and to determine the risk of selenium deficiency among specific geographic regions of Alberta. Three census divisions of Alberta based on the Statistics Canada Census of Agriculture were chosen as the study areas for the project. Soils and plants in area A (Edmonton area) and area B (Calgary area) were known to be deficient in selenium, while soils and plants in area C (southeast corner of Alberta) were known to have adequate levels of selenium. Blood samples were collected from 335 cows on 29 farms from the 3 study areas. These samples were collected from cows that had recently been removed from pasture in October and November 1992. Answers to a short questionnaire pertaining to various herd characteristics and management practices were also obtained for each herd. The average value of selenium for all cows sampled was 2.20 mumol/L. The average value of selenium of cows in areas A and B was 1.93 mumol/L. The average value of selenium of cows in area C was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at 2.70 mumol/L. Nine percent of the cows in the study were considered marginal or deficient in selenium (< 1.27 mumol/L selenium). Herds located in area C, herds that were provided with supplemental feed on pasture, and herds that were pregnancy checked had higher average herd selenium values than did other herds. Cow-calf producers located in areas with selenium-deficient soils should pay particular attention to selenium supplementation for their cows. Some of the negative "geographic" effects on selenium values can be overcome by more progressive management practices. Images Figure 1. PMID:8590424

  12. Heat flow and heat generation estimates for the Churchill basement of the Western Canadian Basin in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.D.W.; Jones, F.W.; Majorowicz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Heat flow through the sediments and temperatures of the Churchill province basement under the sedimentary cover are determined for 24 locations in the central part of the Prairies basin in Alberta where the vertical heat flux is approximately constant from the base of the sediments to the surface. The contribution to heat flow from heat generation in the sediments is also considered. The average heat flow through the sediments is found to be 71 mWm/sup -2/ +- 12mWm/sup -2/ which is about 30 mWm/sup -2/ higher than in the neighbouring shield area of the Churchill province, and the contribution from heat generation in the sediments to the surface heat flow is only approximately 2.5 mWm/sup -2/. The relationship between basement heat generation and heat flow is investigated, and it is found that the platform heat flow/heat generation values are in general higher than those from the Churchill province of the shield found by Drury (1985). Although for the platform and shield data, the reduced heat flow is about 40 mWm/sup -2/ and the slope is about 8km, it is apparent that the platform data alone are not good enough to establish a precise relationship.

  13. Stratigraphic setting of transgressive barrier-island reservoirs with an example from the Triassic Halfway Formation, Wembley field, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.J.; Moslow, T.F. )

    1994-05-01

    Established models for landward barrier-island migration focus primarily on the preservation pattern of transgressive facies in the shoreface which are typically thin and buried beneath finer grained marine lower shoreface-to-offshore sediments. In contrast, transgressive barrier-island sandstones in the Triassic Halfway Formation of Wembley field in Alberta are preserved interbedded with, and overlain by, backbarrier and nonmarine sediments. These transgressive barrier sandstones formed from coalescing washover fans during shoreface retreat and were subsequently [open quotes]abandoned[close quotes] as the shoreline stabilized and resumed progradation. The abandoned transgressive barrier sandstones were subsequently blanketed by backbarrier and nonmarine sediments as the coastline continued to prograde. Abandoned transgressive barrier island sandstones in the Halfway Formation are 2-6 m thick, up to 2 km wide, and form paleocoastline-parallel trends tens of kilometers in length. The trends define the paleolandward limit of transgressive events. The updip pinch-out of these sandstones in backbarrier mudstones forms a stratigraphic trap for hydrocarbons in Wembley field. Top seal is provided by nonmarine mudstones and evaporites which buried and abandoned transgressive barrier island. The sandstone has porosities and permeabilities averaging 11% and 63 md, respectively. By using well logs and cores to correlate individual parasequences in the Halfway Formation to their updip termination, it is possible to define the extent of associated marine flooding events and therefore identify hydrocarbon exploration targets for abandoned transgressive barrier-island sandstones. 58 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram

    2016-07-01

    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts.

  15. The Recovery of Net Ecosystem Productivity and Water Use Efficiency of a Harvested Aspen Forest in the Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, R. M.; Giroux, K.; Brown, S. M.; Devito, K. J.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) is located in north-central Alberta, Canada, in a region where aspen (Populus Tremuloides Michx.) dominate the upland vegetation of the Western Boreal Plain (WBP). Due to the heterogeneity of the surficial geology as well as the sub-humid climate where the water balance is dominated by evapotranspiration, the carbon balance across this landscape is highly variable. Moreover, the upland aspen regions represent significant stores of carbon. More recently, aspen stands have become valuable commercial resources for pulp and paper processing. These stands are harvested through clear cutting and are generally left to regenerate on their own, a process which occurs rapidly in clonal species like aspen. At URSA, three eddy covariance towers were setup during the length of the growing seasons of 2005-2009 to investigate the CO2 exchange under natural conditions and the rate of recovery after harvest. In 2007, the south facing slope of URSA was harvested and the north facing slope in 2008. This study examines the inter-annual variability and recovery (after harvest) of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE) as controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, growing season length and LAI.

  16. Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever-Like Skin Disease in a Free-Ranging Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ), Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Slater, Owen M; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Lejeune, Manigandan; Gummer, David; Macbeth, Bryan; Warren, Amy; Joseph, Tomy; Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2017-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) from Alberta, Canada, in June 2015. Antemortem and gross pathology findings included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss, and bilaterally symmetric alopecia with hyperpigmentation and crusting over the face, medial surfaces of the pinnae, dorsal trunk, distal limbs, perineal area, and tail. Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by granulomatous mural folliculitis with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with previous reports of chronic ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection. Multiple skin samples were positive for OvHV-2 DNA on PCR, and on partial sequencing of the viral DNA, there was 94% homology with reference GenBank OvHV-2. Quantitative PCR confirmed an increased level of OvHV-2 DNA in the lesional skin tissues. Based on exclusion of other disease processes, gross and histological lesions, PCR, and viral DNA sequencing results, a diagnosis of OvHV-2-mediated malignant catarrhal fever-like dermatitis was made.

  17. Long-term impact of wildfire on particulate phosphorus forms and phosphorus sorption behavior of suspended river sediment in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M.; Allin, D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of wildfire on catchment hydrology, sediment production and nutrient yield have been well documented. However, lesse is known about the downstream propagation of fire-modified materials, their nutrient composition and potential effects to downstream environments. This study examines the long-term impact (6-7 years) of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire on particulate phosphorus forms (NAIP, AP, OP) and phosphorus sorption behavior of suspended river sediment at a large regional scale (554 km2) in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada. Total P concentrations were similar among burned and unburned river sediments but the mean bioavailable NAIP fraction remained approximately 70% greater and the organic P was > 2-fold higher in sediments from five burned tributary watersheds compared to the reference catchment. In a series of batch experiments, fire impacted sediments desorbed significantly more P than reference sediments. Because of the key role of phosphorus in regulating aquatic productivity in oligotrophic mountain streams, the results highlight the risk of a large scale and long-term legacy of wildfire in some mountain river systems and their potential impact on the nutrient dynamics of reservoirs used for drinking water supply.

  18. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution. PMID:26154293

  19. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  20. Distribution of naphthenic acids in tissues of laboratory-exposed fish and in wild fishes from near the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Young, Rozlyn F; Michel, Lorelei Martínez; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2011-05-01

    Naphthenic acids, which have a variety of commercial applications, occur naturally in conventional crude oil and in highly biodegraded petroleum such as that found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands extraction is done using a caustic aqueous extraction process. The alkaline pH releases the naphthenic acids from the oil sands and dissolves them into water as their soluble naphthenate forms, which are anionic surfactants. These aqueous extracts contain concentrations of naphthenates that are acutely lethal to fishes and other aquatic organisms. Previous research has shown that naphthenic acids can be taken up by fish, but the distribution of these acids in various tissues of the fish has not been determined. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to commercial (Merichem) naphthenic acids in the laboratory. After a 10-d exposure to approximately 3mg naphthenic acids/L, the fish were dissected and samples of gills, heart, liver, kidney, muscle, and eggs were extracted and analyzed for free (unconjugated) naphthenic acids by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Each of the tissues contained naphthenic acids and non-parametric statistical analyses showed that gills and livers contained higher concentrations than the muscles and that the livers had higher concentrations than the hearts. Four different species of fish (two fish of each species) were collected from the Athabasca River near two oil sands mining and extraction operations. No free naphthenic acids were detected in the muscle or liver of these fish.

  1. Use of Seismic and Magnetic Surveys in a Regional Geophysical Study for Geothermal Exploration in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D. R.; Moeck, I.

    2012-12-01

    NE Alberta hosts many producing oil sand projects. These projects require large amounts of thermal energy to produce most of which is currently provided by burning natural gas; and this increases the greenhouse gas footprint to producing such hydrocarbons. One possible solution is to instead use geothermal heat directly with hot fluids produced using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). Geothermal exploration always starts with broad geological structure reconnaissance of the area. Unfortunately, the larger geological context particularly beneath those relatively shallow depths (typically less than 400 m) of interest to hydrocarbon exploration, is still poorly understood. As such, we have selected a rectangular area of 22000 km2 extending across 56.25 to 57.12N and 111.92 to 113.52W that we refer to as the Athabasca region. . The main two categories of data which are in used consist of over 600 km seismic reflection profiles and 22,000 km2 high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. Also there is a large amount of available well-logs from 1,000 boreholes in this area that have a key role in interpretation of seismic profiles. These integrated data sets are used for outlining sedimentary basin, mapping geological formation tops, locating fault zones and other structural lineaments, finding true depth of metamorphic basement and Curie point, and finally building a geological model of the region. To date all the formation tops are mapped through the area and picked on the seismic profiles. HRAM data is gridded using minimum curvature method. Some structural lineaments are picked on the HRAM data including a great NE-SW fault zone which is in agreement with seismic and well-logs. Additionally, the region hosts interesting geological features such as channels, pinnacle reefs and unconformities that are distinguishable on seismic profiles. Any of these findings help us to get a better view of the region for geothermal exploration.

  2. Long term measurements in reconstructed soils at a coal mine in the plains region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Macyk, T.M.; Faught, R.L.; Logan, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    In 1983 the Alberta Research Council and Luscar Ltd. initiated a study to monitor the physical and chemical properties of newly mined and reconstructed soils at the Paintearth Mine. The objective was to determine what changes were occurring and the impact, if any, of these changes on long-term soil quality and productivity. Baseline soil sampling and neutron access tube installation were completed shortly after spoil leveling and soil replacement at six locations representing different slope positions and thickness of replaced subsoil. Monitoring sites were also established in unmined soils adjacent to the mine area. Neutron probe measurements to determine soil moisture and bulk density status in the upper 4 m were conducted annually from April to October. Forage crop harvests were completed to determine yield and forage quality in three different years. Sampling of soils in 15 cm intervals to a maximum depth of 210 cm for analytical purposes was completed in seven of the ten years of the study. Soil moisture data indicated that moisture content and distribution pattern in the reconstructed soils were similar to that of adjacent unmined soils. Bulk density at the reconstructed sites decreased with time during the term of the project and was similar to the bulk density values measured at unmined sites. The electrical conductivity data indicated salts were leached or redistributed downward in the profiles over time. Measurements to date indicate that in terms of soil moisture regime, bulk density status and forage yield the reconstructed soils are similar to unmined soils in the area. The overall improvement in the chemical properties of the reconstructed soils from the time of reconstruction could be largely attributed to leaching of salts.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Livestock Grazing and Associated Plant Community Shifts on Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, D. B.; Chuan, S.; Stolnikova, E.; Bork, E. W.; Carlyle, C. N.; Chang, S. X.

    2015-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems are ubiquitous across the globe covering an estimated 40 % of Earth's terrestrial landmass. These ecosystems are widely valued for providing forage for domestic livestock and a suite of important ecosystem goods and services including carbon (C) storage. Despite storing more than 30 % of soil C globally, the effect of both livestock grazing and the associated change in plant community structure in response to grazing on C and nutrient cycling remains uncertain. To gain a quantitative understanding of the direct and indirect effects of livestock grazing on C and nutrient cycling, we established study sites at 15 existing site localities with paired long-term grazing (ca. 30 y) and non-grazed treatments (totaling 30 unique plant communities). Our sites were distributed widely across Alberta in three distinct grassland bioclimatic zones allowing us to make comparisons across the broad range of climate variability typical of western Canadian grasslands. In each plant community we decomposed 5 common plant species that are known to increase or decrease in response to grazing pressure, a unique plant community sample, and a cellulose paper control. We measured mass loss, initial lignin, C and N concentrations at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of field incubation. In addition we assayed hydrolytic and oxidative extracellular enzymes associated with for C (n= 5 hydrolytic; phenoloxidase and peroxidase) and nutrients (i.e. N and P; n=1 ea.) cycling from each litter sample at each collection. Our results suggest that by changing the plant community structure, grazing can affect rates of decomposition and associated biogeochemical cycling by changing plant species and associated litter inputs. Moreover, measures of microbial function are controlled by site-specific conditions (e.g. temperature and precipitation), litter chemistry over the course of our incubation.

  4. Mobile membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry for on-the-fly measurements and adaptive sampling of VOCs around oil and gas projects in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, E.; Gill, C.; Bell, R.; Davey, N.; Martinsen, M.; Thompson, A.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The release of hydrocarbons into the environment can have significant environmental and economic consequences. The evolution of smaller, more portable mass spectrometers to the field can provide spatially and temporally resolved information for rapid detection, adaptive sampling and decision support. We have deployed a mobile platform membrane introduction mass spectrometer (MIMS) for the in-field simultaneous measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. In this work, we report instrument and data handling advances that produce geographically referenced data in real-time and preliminary data where these improvements have been combined with high precision ultra-trace VOCs analysis to adaptively sample air plumes near oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada. We have modified a commercially available ion-trap mass spectrometer (Griffin ICX 400) with an in-house temperature controlled capillary hollow fibre polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer membrane interface and in-line permeation tube flow cell for a continuously infused internal standard. The system is powered by 24 VDC for remote operations in a moving vehicle. Software modifications include the ability to run continuous, interlaced tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments for multiple contaminants/internal standards. All data are time and location stamped with on-board GPS and meteorological data to facilitate spatial and temporal data mapping. Tandem MS/MS scans were employed to simultaneously monitor ten volatile and semi-volatile analytes, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), reduced sulfur compounds, halogenated organics and naphthalene. Quantification was achieved by calibrating against a continuously infused deuterated internal standard (toluene-d8). Time referenced MS/MS data were correlated with positional data and processed using Labview and Matlab to produce calibrated, geographical Google Earth data-visualizations that enable adaptive sampling protocols

  5. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and

  6. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Results Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Conclusions Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the

  7. Fold-Related Fractures and Postfolding Fracturing, Rock Mass Condition Analyses and Geological Modelling in Turtle Mountain (Alberta Canada).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Epard, Jean-Luc; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Froese, Corey

    2010-05-01

    Turtle Mountain is located in the Foothills in southwest Alberta and is formed by highly fractured Paleozoic carbonates rocks and Mesozoic clastic rocks. This area is mainly affected by two major geological structures that are the Turtle Mountain anticline and the Turtle Mountain thrust. This site has become famous after a 30 M m3 rock avalanche of massive limestone and dolostone affecting the eastern mountainside of Turtle Mountain on April 1903. This resulted in more than 70 casualties and buried part of the Frank village. A detailed analysis of predisposing factors leading to failure has been performed using a structural and rock mass condition field analysis (geological and geotechnical mapping, rock mass classification, Schmidt hammer). In addition remote sensing analyses have been provided (High Resolution Digital Elevation Model, Coltop 3D software). The local variations of discontinuity sets and rock mass conditions has been estimated in order to separate the study zone into homogenous structural domains and to correlate them with unstable areas (volumes and failure mechanisms). The aim of this study is to build a theoretical model that shows the relationship between the anticline geometry and the fracturating density. It should be able to determine the origin and the chronology of the discontinuity sets in relation to the tectonic phases (mainly the folding one). A 3D geological model based on several geological profiles performed perpendicular to the Turtle Mountain anticline is necessary to make a detailed analysis. The preliminary results indicate the role of discontinuity sets in the failure mechanisms of the mountain. Moreover if some sets only appear in one limb of the anticline, some others are present in both limbs indicating their posteriority compared with the first ones. Furthermore, a relation between the distance to the fold axis and the quality of the rock mass (Geological Strength Index) has been statistically pointed out, illustrating the

  8. Boron in tree-ring as an indicator of forest disturbances in the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands region, Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégin, Christian; Savard, Martine M.; Marion, Joëlle; Thiffault, Évelyne; Pinno, Brad

    2016-04-01

    Industrial activities related to oil sands (OS) extraction in northeastern Alberta (Canada) have generated, since 1967, important quantities of NOx and SO2 emissions that can lead to several negative effects on forest ecosystems including the potential for soil acidification. In addition, mining processes, tailing pond treatments and heavy transport (haul roads) in mining areas are considered important sources of air contaminants that have the potential to impair forest health by affecting the nutrient balance and physiology of trees. In this study, we analysed micronutrients (B, Fe, Zn, Na, Cu) and macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Mn, K) in the tree-ring series of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and spruce (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) trees growing at different distances from the heart of mining operations (two sites for each species). Based on tree-ring records, our aims were to provide a historical perspective on the nutritional status of forest ecosystems and to identify temporal changes in tree-ring chemistry that can be attributed to OS activities. One of the key findings of this research is the direct and immediate response of boron (B) in woody tissues of all studied species to mining operations. During the pre-mining period (prior to 1967) [B] variations in tree-rings of the three species covary with other elements such as Na and Fe and are likely controlled by environmental factors, namely climatic conditions. After 1970, [B] increases and strongly departs from trends of other elements. In jack pine trees (54 km NNE of the centre of industrial operations) the increasing trend is abrupt with mean [B] increasing from 11.7 mg/kg during the pre-industrial period to 14.3 mg/kg during mining period. In spruce trees at the proximal site (14 km NE), [B] increases gradually and nicely reproduces the historical pattern of industrial emissions with mean pre-mining [B] of 29.5 mg/kg increasing to 92.1 mg/kg during the mining period. At the four spruce sites, the increasing

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  11. Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Sabry, H.

    1989-03-01

    A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

  12. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development.

  13. Incidence of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in Calgary, Alberta, Canada: A retrospective population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rudzinski, Jan Krzysztof; Kawakami, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have seen an increased risk of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PB). Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are common for prophylaxis prior to TRUS-PB. We evaluate whether increasing FQ resistance correlates with increased incidence of post-biopsy infectious complications at our institution. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart and electronic health record review on 927 patients who underwent TRUS-PB between January and July of 2012 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We prospectively collected the following variables: age, pre-biopsy prostate-specific antigen, and date of biopsy. We documented presentation to an emergency department within 30 days of TRUS-PB for infectious and non-infectious complications. Results: Of the 927 patients, 58 patients (6.3%) were admitted to the emergency department due to post-TRUS-PB complications within 30 days post-biopsy. The most common infectious complications were sepsis in 21 patients (2.2%), followed by urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9 (0.9%), and prostatitis in 4 (0.4%). We found that 83% of the septic episodes and 66.6% of the UTIs were attributed to ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). The incidence of non-infectious complications was as follows: urinary retention in 12 (1.2%), hematuria in 9 (0.9%), and rectal bleeding in 8 (0.8%). Conclusion: Our results suggest an increased incidence of infectious complications caused by FQ resistant organisms following TRUS-PB. This finding could be attributed to increasing community resistance to ciprofloxacin. The current antimicrobial prophylactic regimen needs to be re-evaluated, and a novel approach may need to be considered. PMID:24940454

  14. An 8-year record of gas geochemistry and isotopic composition of methane during baseline sampling at a groundwater observation well in Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Jones, Don; Lam, Vien

    2016-02-01

    Variability in baseline groundwater methane concentrations and isotopic compositions was assessed while comparing free and dissolved gas sampling approaches for a groundwater monitoring well in Alberta (Canada) over an 8-year period. Methane concentrations in dissolved gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 4,380 ± 2,452 μg/L, yielding a coefficient of variation (CV) >50 %. Methane concentrations in free gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 228,756 ± 62,498 ppm by volume, yielding a CV of 27 %. Quantification of combined sampling, sample handling and analytical uncertainties was assessed via triplicate sampling (CV of 19 % and 12 % for free gas and dissolved gas methane concentrations, respectively). Free and dissolved gas samples yielded comparable methane concentration patterns and there was evidence that sampling operations and pumping rates had a marked influence on the obtained methane concentrations in free gas. δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values of methane were essentially constant (-78.6 ± 1.3 and -300 ± 3 ‰, respectively) throughout the observation period, suggesting that methane was derived from the same biogenic source irrespective of methane concentration variations. The isotopic composition of methane constitutes a robust and highly valuable baseline parameter and increasing δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values during repeat sampling may indicate influx of thermogenic methane. Careful sampling and analytical procedures with identical and repeatable approaches are required in baseline-monitoring programs to generate methane concentration and isotope data for groundwater that can be reliably compared to repeat measurements once potential impact from oil and gas development, for example, may occur.

  15. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa A; Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D; van Paridon, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age-abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60-90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997-2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6-24 month-olds (median = 72, range = 0-1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10-16 year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems.

  16. The application of medical informatics to the veterinary management programs at companion animal practices in Alberta, Canada: a case study.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Maclean, K; Russell, M L; Jamal, I; Stephen, C

    2014-02-01

    Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customized data extraction software, the University of, Calgary Data Extraction Program (UCDEP), to automatically extract and warehouse the electronic, medical records (EMR) from participating private veterinary practices to make them available for, disease surveillance and knowledge creation for evidence-based practice. It was not possible to build, generic data extraction software; the UCDEP required customization to meet the specific software, capabilities of the veterinary practices. The UCDEP, tailored to the participating veterinary practices', management software, was capable of extracting data from the EMR with greater than 99%, completeness and accuracy. The experiences of the people developing and using the UCDEP and the, quality of the extracted data were evaluated. The electronic medical record data stored in the data, warehouse may be a valuable resource for surveillance and evidence-based medical research.

  17. A unified hydrogeological conceptual model of the Milk River transboundary aquifer, traversing Alberta (Canada) and Montana (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René; Hendry, M. Jim; Folnagy, Attila J. B.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual model of the transboundary Milk River Aquifer (MRA), extending across the Canada-USA border, was developed based on literature, focused fieldwork and a three-dimensional geological model. The MRA corresponds to the Virgelle Member of the Milk River Formation (Eagle Formation in Montana, USA) and it is an important groundwater resource over a large area (25,000 km2). The Virgelle outcrops near the international border and along the Sweet Grass Arch in Montana. The down-gradient limit of the MRA is the unconformity separating the Virgelle from the gas-bearing sandy shale of the Alderson Member. The MRA is confined above by the Pakowki/Claggett Formations aquitards and below by the Colorado Group aquitard. The MRA contains higher transmissivity areas resulting in preferential flowpaths, confirmed by natural geochemical tracers. Tritium and 14C delineate restricted recharge areas along the outcrops on both sides of the international border. Drastic decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients indicate that the Milk River intercepts a large proportion of groundwater flowing to the north from the recharge area. Downgradient of the Milk River, groundwater movement is slow, as shown by 36Cl residence times exceeding 1 Ma. These slow velocities imply that groundwater discharge downgradient of the Milk River is via vertical leakage through the Colorado Group and upward along buried valleys, which act as drains and correspond to artesian areas. When confined, the MRA contains a fossil groundwater resource, not significantly renewed by modern recharge. Groundwater exploitation thus far exceeds recharge, a situation requiring properly managed MRA groundwater depletion.

  18. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Hammond, H.E. James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated. PMID:27199584

  19. Source apportionment of ambient fine and coarse particulate matter at the Fort McKay community site, in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Patrick Pancras, J; Graney, Joseph R; White, Emily M; Edgerton, Eric S; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin E

    2017-04-15

    An ambient air particulate matter sampling study was conducted at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) AMS-1 Fort McKay monitoring station in the Athabasca Oil Sand Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada from February 2010 to July 2011. Daily 24h integrated fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter was collected using a sequential dichotomous sampler. Over the duration of the study, 392 valid daily dichotomous PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 sample pairs were collected with concentrations of 6.8±12.9μgm(-3) (mean±standard deviation) and 6.9±5.9μgm(-3), respectively. A subset of 100 filter pairs was selected for element analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Application of the U.S. EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to the study data matrix resolved five PM2.5 sources explaining 96% of the mass including oil sands upgrading (32%), fugitive dust (26%), biomass combustion (25%), long-range Asian transport lead source (9%), and winter road salt (4%). An analysis of historical PM2.5 data at this site shows that the impact of smoke from wildland fires was particularly high during the summer of 2011. PMF resolved six PM10-2.5 sources explaining 99% of the mass including fugitive haul road dust (40%), fugitive oil sand (27%), a mixed source fugitive dust (16%), biomass combustion (12%), mobile source (3%), and a local copper factor (1%). Results support the conclusion of a previous epiphytic lichen biomonitor study that near-field atmospheric deposition in the AOSR is dominated by coarse fraction fugitive dust from bitumen mining and upgrading operations, and suggest that fugitive dust abatement strategies targeting the three major sources of PM10-2.5 (e.g., oil sand mining, haul roads, bulk material stockpiles) would significantly reduce near-field atmospheric deposition gradients in the AOSR and reduce ambient PM concentrations in the Fort McKay community.

  20. Multicomponent seismic monitoring of the effective stimulated volume associated with hydraulic fracture stimulations in a shale reservoir, Pouce Coupe field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, Christopher

    The Reservoir Characterization Project in conjunction with Talisman Energy Inc., have been investigating a time-lapse data set acquired during hydraulic fracture stimulations of two horizontal wells in the Montney Shale at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, Canada. Multicomponent seismic surveys and microseismic data were acquired in December 2008 and integrated in this study with multiscale, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization techniques, including geomechanics and production data, to monitor changes within the reservoir associated with the hydraulic fracture stimulations. The goal of this investigation was to study the feasibility of microseismic and time-lapse multicomponent seismic data for correlating hydraulic stimulation success to the enhanced permeability pathways created during the stimulation process. Three independently acquired microseismic monitoring surveys and the detected microseismic events were analyzed to infer the fracture length, height, azimuth, and asymmetry created by the hydraulic stimulation. Integrating the interpretation objectives with the multicomponent surface seismic processing sequence elevated the level of reservoir characterization that can be performed using the Pouce Coupe converted-wave seismic data. Shear-wave splitting as observed by the newly processed converted-wave data were sensitive to fracture induced anisotropy and therefore, provided a measurement of the dominant fracture orientation and fracture density difference within the Montney reservoir interval. Before hydraulic stimulations, the natural fracture conditions resulted in a measured shear-wave splitting magnitude of 2-3%, with Baseline anomalies matching the independently interpreted minimal offset faults only visible on the converted-wave seismic data. Multistage hydraulic fracture stimulations increased the magnitude of shear-wave splitting up to 8%, well above the background noise level of 1%. The natural fractures and faults acted as conduits or barriers

  1. Large Smoke Plumes, Alberta Canada

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    ... Maryland. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center, Hampton, Virginia. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.   Credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL-Caltech, ...

  2. High School Graduates of the Stormy Sixties. A Follow-up Study of the Edmonton Public High School Graduates 1967-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, D.; And Others

    This document describes student activism in the high schools of Edmonton, Canada during the late 1960's and early 1970's and describes the current status of those students who classified themselves as high school activists during the period. Specific areas examined are: (1) what are the characteristics of high school graduates six to nine years…

  3. Pre- and Post-Harvest Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from an Upland Boreal Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Forest in Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, Kayla

    The Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) is located in north-central Alberta, Canada, in a region where aspen (Populus tremuloides) dominate the upland vegetation of the Western Boreal Plain Due to the heterogeneity of the surficial geology as well as the sub-humid climate where the water balance is dominated by evapotranspiration, the carbon balance across this landscape is highly variable. Moreover, the upland aspen regions represent significant stores of carbon. More recently, aspen stands have become valuable commercial resources for pulp and paper processing. These stands are harvested through a clear cutting process and are generally left to regenerate on their own, a process which occurs rapidly in clonal species like aspen. Since clonal species establish very quickly following harvest, information on the key ecohydrological controls on stand carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the years immediately following harvest are essential to understand the successional trajectory. However, most information currently available on these interactions are obtained several years following a disturbance. Thus, to determine the effects of harvest on aspen regeneration and productivity, ecosystem level fluxes of CO2 three years before and three years after timber harvest were analyzed. Prior to harvest, the ecosystem sequestered 1216 to 1286 g CO2 m-2period-1 over the growing season. Immediately after harvest, the ecosystem became a significant source of CO2 ranging from -874 to -1183 g CO2 m -2period-1, while the second growing season ranged from -233 to -577 g CO2 m-2period-1. The third growing season resulted in a net sink (76 g CO2 m -2period-1) over the same period, but if extrapolated over the whole year, the ecosystem would remain a source of carbon. The magnitude of Gross Ecosystem Productivity (GEP) returned pre-harvest range within two growing seasons. Ecosystem respiration (RE), on the other hand, increased year over year after harvest had taken place

  4. Isotopic characterization of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in stack PM2.5 emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Mayer, Bernhard; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope techniques may be a suitable tool for tracing industrial emissions in the atmosphere and the environment provided that the isotopic compositions of industrial emissions are distinct. We determined the isotopic compositions of nitrate, ammonium and sulfate in PM2.5 emitted from two industrial stacks at a large upgrader site in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), northeastern Alberta, Canada, and compared them to the nitrogen and sulfur isotopic compositions of source materials and upgrading by-products. We found distinct isotopic compositions of nitrate and ammonium in PM2.5 compared to those reported for atmospheric nitrate and ammonium in the literature. Nitrate in PM2.5 had δ15N values of 9.4‰ (Stack A) and 16.1 ± 1.2‰ (Stack B) that were significantly enriched in 15N compared to the feedstock materials (˜2.5‰), by-products of upgrading (-0.3-1.3‰), and atmospheric N2 (0‰). δ15N of ammonium in PM2.5 showed a large range with values between - 4.5 to +20.1‰ (Stack B). We report the first measurements of the triple oxygen isotopic composition of industrial emitted nitrate. Nitrate emitted as PM2.5 is not mass-independently enriched in 17O resulting in Δ17O = 0.5 ± 0.9‰ (Stack B) and is therefore distinct from atmospheric nitrate, constituting an excellent indicator of industrial derived nitrate. δ18O values of nitrate in PM2.5 (36.0 and 17.6 ± 1.8‰ for Stack A and B, respectively) were also significantly lower than δ18O values of atmospheric nitrates and hence isotopically distinct. δ34S values of sulfate in PM2.5 were with 7.3 ± 0.3‰ (Stack A) and 9.4 ± 2.0‰ (Stack B) slightly enriched in 34S compared to δ34S in bitumen (4.3 ± 0.3‰) and coke (3.9 ± 0.2‰). δ18O values of sulfate in PM2.5 were 18.9 ± 2.9‰ and 14.2 ± 2.8‰ for Stack A and Stack B, respectively. The isotopic composition of sulfate in PM2.5 was not sufficiently different from δ34S and δ18O values of sulfate in long-range atmospheric

  5. Health care reform comes to Alberta: "we're making this up as we go along".

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, R

    1995-01-01

    Alberta left physicians out in the cold when Premier Ralph Klein's government began to slash the province's health care budget. Frustrated and angered at being excluded from the restructuring of the province's health care system, physicians rallied in protest, and now have some input into the new regional health authorities, at least in Edmonton and Calgary. Still, some physicians who feel the restructuring is an uncontrolled social experiment have opted to leave for positions in the US. Images p1862-a PMID:7773904

  6. Desalination of oil sands process-affected water and basal depressurization water in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada: application of electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sik; Dong, Shimiao; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The high content of inorganic species in water used to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands and in the groundwater below the oil sands is an increasing environmental concern. These water matrices require treatment before they can be reused or safely discharged. Desalination of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and groundwater, or basal depressurization water (BDW), can be accomplished with deionization techniques such as electrodialysis (ED). In order to achieve the effective ED treatment, OSPW and BDW were pretreated with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation to remove solid species and turbidity. We demonstrated that a conductivity range for industrial reuse of OSPW and BDW can be achieved with the ED treatment and showed the possibility of applying ED in the oil sands industry. A continuous ED system that reuses the diluate stream as a source for the concentrate stream was designed. The cost of a hypothetical ED water treatment plant in Fort McMurray, Alberta, was estimated to be C$10.71 per cubic meter of treated water.

  7. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H. Morgan; Sorensen, Ole; Wu, John T.Y.; Chow, Eva Y.W.; Manninen, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in Alberta was conducted. The seroprevalence of MAP in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. Using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–23.4%). Seroprevalence of MAP differed by agroecological region; specifically, cattle and herds in areas with high soil pH (> 7.0), southern latitudes, and arid climates had a moderately reduced risk of infection (P < 0.10). Seroprevalence of NC infection was 9.7% among adult beef cattle province-wide — these levels also varied by agroecological region — with 91.0% of herds infected overall. PMID:17494367

  8. Enteric Campylobacteria and RNA Viruses Associated with Healthy and Diarrheic Humans in the Chinook Health Region of Southwestern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; Boras, Valerie F.; Houde, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species and enteric RNA viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern Alberta was examined (May to October 2005). A large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for C. jejuni (n = 54) or C. coli (n = 19) were PCR positive for these taxa. Overall detection rates for C. jejuni and C. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. In contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positive for these taxa, respectively. Infection with C. jejuni was endemic over the study period. However, there was no difference in infection rates between individuals living in urban or rural locations. Stools from a large number of diarrheic (74%) and healthy (88%) individuals were positive for Campylobacter DNA. The prevalence rates of C. concisus, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. helveticus, C. hominis, C. hyointestinalis, C. mucosalis, C. showae, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis DNA were either not significantly different or were significantly lower in stools from diarrheic than from healthy individuals. No C. lanienae or C. lari DNA was detected. Stools from 4% and 0% of diarrheic and healthy humans, respectively, were positive for rotavirus, sapovirus, or norovirus (GI/GII). Our results showed a high prevalence of diarrheic individuals living in southwestern Alberta who were infected by C. jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by C. coli. However, other Campylobacter species, norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and bovine enteric calicivirus were either inconsequential pathogens during the study period or are not pathogens at all. PMID:21106791

  9. In-situ bitumen extraction associated with increased petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake heavy oil fields (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Cooke, Colin A; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-11-01

    Most future growth in the Alberta bituminous sands will be based on thermal in-situ recovery technologies. To date, however, most attention on the environmental effects of bitumen recovery has focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. Recent uncontrolled bitumen flow-to-surface incidents (FTS; appearance at the surface of bitumen emulsions from deep subsurface recovery zones) reported at the Cold Lake heavy oil fields highlight the need to better understand the potential role of in-situ extraction as a source of contaminants to landscapes and surface waters. We analyzed sediment cores from a lake located ∼2 km away from a recent bitumen FTS incident to provide a long-term perspective on the delivery of metals, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to surface freshwaters, and to assess whether the onset of local in-situ bitumen extraction can be linked to contaminant increases in nearby lakes. An increase in alkyl PACs coincided with the onset and expansion of commercial in-situ bitumen extraction, and multiple lines of evidence indicate a petrogenic source for recent alkyl PAC enrichment. However, no coincident increase in vanadium (enriched in bitumen) occurred that would suggest the source of petrogenic PAC enrichment is direct input of bituminous particles. Our results show that, similar to surface mining in the Athabasca region, activities associated with in-situ extraction can increase the burden of petrogenic PACs in nearby lakes, but many questions still remain regarding the exact sources and pathways of PACs into the environment. Given that more than 80% of Alberta's bitumen reserves can only be accessed using in-situ technologies, we recommend that this be made a research priority.

  10. Everyone's Challenge. Proceedings of the Literacy Conference (Edmonton, Alberta, October 9-12, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Abram G., Ed.

    The following presentations are included in this report on conference proceedings: Conference Opening (Joyce Fairbairn); Greetings (John Gogo); Special Address (Ramon J. Hnatyshyn); "Paulo Freire on Adult Education," an interview and panel discussion (Carlos Torres et al.); Keynote Addresses (Jonathan Kozol, John Gogo, Peter Calamai,…

  11. Living with inflammatory bowel disease: A Crohn’s and Colitis Canada survey

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Helen M; Grigat, Daniel; Ghosh, Subrata; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Dieleman, Levinus; Wine, Eytan; Fedorak, Richard N; Fernandes, Aida; Panaccione, Remo; Barkema, Herman W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), patient quality of life continues to be significantly impacted. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of IBD on patients and families with regard to leisure, relationships, mental well-being and financial security, and to evaluate the quality and availability of IBD information. METHODS: An online survey was advertised on the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website, and at gastroenterology clinics at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) and University of Calgary Hospital (Calgary, Alberta). RESULTS: The survey was completed by 281 IBD patients and 32 family members. Among respondents with IBD, 64% reported a significant or major impact on leisure activities, 52% a significant or major impact on interpersonal relationships, 40% a significant or major impact on financial security, and 28% a significant or major impact on planning to start a family. Patient information needs emphasized understanding disease progression (84%) and extraintestinal symptoms (82%). There was a strong interest in support systems such as health care insurance (70%) and alternative therapies (66%). The most common source of information for patients was their gastroenterologist (70%); however, most (70%) patients preferred to obtain their information from the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of IBD on interpersonal relationships and leisure activities was significant among IBD patients and their families. Understanding the disease, but also alternative treatment options, was of high interest. Currently, there is a discrepancy between interest in information topics and their availability. Respondents reported a strong desire to obtain information regarding disease progression, especially extraintestinal symptoms. PMID:25803017

  12. Digital Health Services and Digital Identity in Alberta.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Aiden; Cholewa, David

    2017-01-01

    The Government of Alberta continues to improve delivery of healthcare by allowing Albertans to access their health information online. Alberta is the only province in Canada with provincial electronic health records for all its citizens. These records are currently made available to medical practitioners, but Alberta Health believes that providing Albertans access to their health records will transform the delivery of healthcare in Alberta. It is important to have a high level of assurance that the health records are provided to the correct Albertan. Alberta Health requires a way for Albertans to obtain a digital identity with a high level of identity assurance prior to releasing health records via the Personal Health Portal. Service Alberta developed the MyAlberta Digital ID program to provide a digital identity verification service. The Ministry of Health is leveraging MyAlberta Digital ID to enable Albertans to access their personal health records through the Personal Health Portal. The Government of Alberta is advancing its vision of patient-centred healthcare by enabling Albertans to access a trusted source for health information and their electronic health records using a secure digital identity.

  13. Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada) Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Joyce S.; Jackson, Leland J.; Habibi, Hamid R.; Ikonomou, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled an abundant, native minnow (Longnose dace—Rhinichthys cataractae) throughout the Oldman River, Alberta, to determine physiological responses and possible population level consequences from exposure to compounds with hormone-like activity. Sex ratios varied between sites, were female-biased, and ranged from just over 50% to almost 90%. Histological examination of gonads revealed that at the sites with >60% females in the adult population, there was up to 38% occurrence of intersex gonads in fish identified through visual examination of the gonads as male. In the majority of intersex gonad cases, there was a large proportion (approx., 50%) of oocytes within the testicular tissue. In male dace, vitellogenin mRNA expression generally increased with distance downstream. We analyzed river water for 28 endocrine disrupting compounds from eight functional classes, most with confirmed estrogen-like activity, including synthetic estrogens and hormone therapy drugs characteristic of municipal wastewater effluent, plus natural hormones and veterinary pharmaceuticals characteristic of livestock production. The spatial correlation between detected chemical residues and effects to dace physiology indicate that multiple land uses have a cumulative impact on dace in the Oldman River and effects range from altered gene regulation to severely female-biased sex ratios. PMID:24278710

  14. Proceedings of the International Workshop/Symposium on Ice Drilling Technology (2nd) Held at Calgary, Alberta, Canada on 30-31 August 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    technology in 1982, eight years countries attended the meeting held at after the first symposium was held in the University of Calgary, in Calgary... first of four bulletins was attending registrants is given in an circulated from Ottawa, Canada, to about appendix. Of a total of 29 abstracts 20...drilling jet method, which is also applicable to drilling in geo- When the first core hole was drill- materials other than ice, has met with ed to

  15. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  16. The Functional and Palaeoecological Implications of Tooth Morphology and Wear for the Megaherbivorous Dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Jordan C.; Anderson, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  17. Multicomponent seismic monitoring of stress arching in the overburden due to hydraulic fracturing in the Montney Shale at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinal, Irene

    Recent studies have shown convincing evidence that time-lapse changes in seismic data occur not only within the reservoir interval but also in the overburden. Observations that production at the reservoir level and subsequent decrease in pore pressure lead to modifications in the stress field and variations in the overburden have been documented (Hatchell et al., 2003; Hudson et al., 2005). The study of the opposite case, that is, the analysis of the effect in the overburden of an increase in pore pressure in the reservoir has not been so well documented yet and is the focus of this work; the possibility that the hydraulic fracturing process causes seismically detectable changes in the overburden in a time-lapse sense is studied at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, and the results are shown. The analysis is performed using multicomponent data from three seismic surveys acquired to evaluate the hydraulic stimulations of two horizontal wells in the Montney Shale. The time-lapse time shifts between the data of the two monitor surveys and the baseline have been calculated and constitute the main tool to study the injection-induced changes above the reservoir interval. The hypothesis is that the increase in the reservoir pressure due to the hydraulic well treatment might produce upward overburden compaction, leading to an increase in stresses that would be translated into an increase in the seismic velocities and therefore, into positive time shifts (considering monitor data subtracted from baseline data) if a time window for the overburden is analyzed. The study shows strong differences in the magnitude of the PS response to the stimulations compared to that of the PP data. The fact that mode-converted (PS) waves are more sensitive to azimuthal anisotropy than compressional waves explains the stronger character of the response observed in PS data, allowing for a more detailed interpretation of the stress-arching distribution. The time-lapse time shifts in the overburden

  18. Towards understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of stream, hillslope, and groundwater runoff processes in a Rocky Mountain headwater catchment in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Sheena; Anderson, Axel; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin; Collins, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains produce the majority of the surface water supplies for much of Alberta's population. Groundwater inputs to rivers constitutes a large component of flow in this headwater region, however limited knowledge of the interaction of groundwater-surface water sources limits the ability to predict impacts of climate and disturbance in this critical source water region. The objectives of this study are to explore the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface, hillslope, and deeper groundwater runoff processes using coupled tracer approaches to characterize their interaction in regulating streamflow dynamics at stream reach and catchment scales. The study was conducted in Star Creek (10.4 km2), which is representative of small-medium sized, front-range Rocky Mountain catchments. A network of climate stations and 6 nested hydrometric-water quality sampling stations were used to collect 5 years (2009 - 2013) of meteorological, discharge (Q), and stream water quality data. Nested stream gauging stations enabled characterization of the spatial and temporal pattern of Q and water geochemistry (cations: Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, and anions: Cl-, and SO42-) along a gradient of very steep, bedrock entrenched alpine stream reaches down through lower gradient mid-montane alluvial stream reaches. The initial phase of this work uses the stream gauging network to determine the difference in Q between stations, hydrograph baseflow separation, and mixing model analyses of geochemical parameters. These analyses suggest the runoff process is dominated by longer, deeper runoff flow pathways (groundwater). Geologic information and a conceptual model of topographic controls on hillslope-stream connectedness (after Jensco et al. 2009 and others) was used to identify sites where concentrated hillslope flow may be connected with the stream to aid in interpreting the spatial and temporal variation in Q and stream geochemistry. Strong longitudinal and seasonal

  19. [Obesity associated risk using Edmonton staging in bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    de Cos, Ana Isabel; Cardenas, Jersy J; Pelegrina, Beatriz; Roldan, M Concepción; Calvo, Isabel; Vázquez, Clotilde; Pallardo, Luis Felipe

    2014-09-20

    Con una prevalencia de obesidad mórbida del 1,2% en población española, los criterios de indicación para Cirugía Bariátrica (CB) no consideran comorbilidades ni estado funcional. Es necesaria una aproximación diagnóstica capaz de predecir mortalidad y sustentar criterios de priorización terapéutica. Objetivo: Aplicar la propuesta Edmonton como sistema de estadiaje clínico para la clasificación de pacientes en lista de espera de CB. Método: Se recogen datos de 81 pacientes (2011 – 2013), tras protocolo prequirúrgico. Se registra peso, talla, IMC, cintura, determinaciones bioquímicas, TA, presencia de enfermedad hepática, renal, osteoarticular, síndrome apnea-hipopnea del sueño (SAHS) y reflujo gastroesofágico. Se aplica a cada persona la propuesta de estadiaje de Edmonton, con 10 variables. Resultados: 67% mujeres. Edad media: 47 años, 18% con edad inferior a 30 años. IMC medio: 47 (37-67), 90% IMC > de 40. El 34% de los pacientes presentan SHAS y el 25% enfermedad por reflujo. Un 9% asocia IMC > 45, disglucosis- diabetes mellitus y SAHS. Aplicando el modelo de Edmonton, nueve pacientes (11%) se sitúan en el rango de mayor riesgo (estadío 3), 70% en rango de riesgo elevado (estadío 2), y 15 pacientes (18%), están incluidos en la condición de bajo riesgo. Ningún paciente se situaba en estadio 0, sin factores de riesgo asociados a obesidad. Conclusiones: El estadiaje de Edmonton nos aporta información sobre la presencia y extensión de co-mobilidades, que apoye la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. La capacidad predictiva de mortalidad de la propuesta de Edmonton podría ser útil para establecer criterios de priorización quirúrgica.

  20. Luminescence Chronology for the Formation of Glacial Lake Calgary, Southern Alberta, Canada: Age Constraints for the Initiation of the Late Pleistocene Retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from its Western Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyikwa, K.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial Lake Calgary in southern Alberta, Canada, was a Late Pleistocene proglacial lake that formed along the southwest margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), dammed by the retreating ice sheet margin. Attempts to constrain the age of the lake using radiocarbon methods have been hampered by the lack of datable organic material. In an effort to apply an alternative chronometer, this study uses two optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating approaches to date fine grained sand and silt that were deposited in the lake during its existence. OSL dating determines the depositional ages of sediments by measuring the energy from ionizing radiation that is stored in mineral grains such as quartz and feldspar. Dividing the stored energy, also referred to as the paleodose, by the rate at which the dose accumulated, allows an age to be ascertained. In one method applied in this study, the paleodose stored in the feldspar component of the sediment is determined using normalized infrared stimulated luminescence signals acquired using a portable OSL reader. In the second method, blue optically stimulated luminescence signals obtained from quartz separates from the sediment by employing a regular OSL reader and standard protocols are used to determine the paleodose. After correcting the feldspar data for anomalous fading, the age results from the two dating approaches are compared. The ages signify a time period by which the LIS had retreated from the study area and, hence, serve as constraints for the initiation of the retreat of the ice sheet from its western limit. Advantages and limitations of the dating methods are briefly discussed. Constraining the chronology of the retreat of the LIS from western Canada allows for a better understanding of the driving forces behind ice sheet retreat. Secondly, assigning a temporal scale to the postglacial evolution of the environment of the region permits a better insight into the dynamics of the physical and biological

  1. Pharmacy students screening for pre-diabetes/diabetes with a validated questionnaire in community pharmacies during their experiential rotation in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sheldon; Li, Shuai; Letassy, Nancy; Cox, Cheryl; Cave, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Method: Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. Results: A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%), hypertension (102/30%), taking medications for hypertension (102/30%), and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%). The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48–44.1) times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Conclusion: Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension. PMID:26770784

  2. Evaluating Student Achievement in Alberta Social Studies: Report to MACOSA Committee on Social Studies Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, James B.

    This bibliographic essay discusses evaluation instruments that could be used to evaluate the K-12 social studies program in Alberta, Canada. The author points out the difficulty of evaluating the Alberta social studies program because its objectives are ill defined and it relies heavily on values and the inclusion of the affective domain. While…

  3. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  4. Amplitude inversion of fast and slow converted waves for fracture characterization of the Montney Formation in Pouce Coupe field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, Tyler L.

    The Montney Formation of western Canada is one of the largest economically viable gas resource plays in North America with reserves of 449TCF. As an unconventional tight gas play, the well development costs are high due to the hydraulic stimulations necessary for economic success. The Pouce Coupe research project is a multidisciplinary collaboration between the Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) and Talisman Energy Inc. with the objective of understanding the reservoir to enable the optimization of well placement and completion design. The work in this thesis focuses on identifying the natural fractures in the reservoir that act as the delivery systems for hydrocarbon flow to the wellbore. Characterization of the Montney Formation at Pouce Coupe is based on time-lapse multicomponent seismic surveys that were acquired before and after the hydraulic stimulation of two horizontal wells. Since shear-wave velocities and amplitudes of the PS-waves are known to be sensitive to near-vertical fractures, I utilize isotropic simultaneous seismic inversions on azimuthally-sectored PS1 and PS2 data sets to obtain measurements of the fast and slow shear-velocities. Specifically, I analyze two orthogonal azimuths that are parallel and perpendicular to the strike of the dominant fracture system in the field. These volumes are used to approximate the shear-wave splitting parameter (gamma(s*)) that is closely related to crack density. Since crack density has a significant impact on defining the percolation zone, the work presented in this thesis provides information that can be utilized to reduce uncertainty in the reservoirs fracture model. Isotropic AVO inversion of azimuthally limited PS-waves demonstrates sufficient sensitivity to detect contrast between the anisotropic elastic properties of the reservoir and is capable of identifying regions with high crack density. This is supported by integration with spinner production logs, hydraulic stimulation history of the field

  5. Distribution of Total Dissolved Solids in McMurray Formation Water in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada: Implications for Oil Sands Mining and In Situ Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, B.; Mayer, B.

    2013-12-01

    Saline water management is a significant environmental challenge for mining and in-situ resource development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada. In the AOSR, the Cretaceous aged McMurray formation that bears the majority of the oil sands resources is underlain by saline Devonian formations containing saline water. Vertical connectivity between Devonian and Cretaceous aquifer systems has been uncovered by mining operations in the AOSR over the past several years, inducing occasional and local saline water flow into mining areas. The observed upward flow of groundwater from Devonian to Cretaceous systems necessitates detailed characterization of the spatial extent of high salinity formation waters to improve water management decisions in the AOSR. This study used published data from recent government reports and Environmental Impact Assessments to map total dissolved solids (TDS) of 355 McMurray formation water samples across the Athabasca oil sands region (54 to 58° N and 110 to 114° W). McMurray formation waters varied from non-saline (TDS < 4 000 mg/L) to brine (TDS > 100 000 mg/L) with a locally high salinity formation waters trending parallel to the dissolution edge of the Devonian-aged Prairie evaporite formation across the AOSR. The simplest hydrogeological explanation for the observed formation water salinity data is that Devonian aquifers are locally connected to the McMurray formation via conduits in the sub-Cretaceous karst system in the region overlying the partial dissolution edge of the Prairie evaporite formation. The driving force for upward formation water flow was provided by the Pleistocene glaciation events that reversed the regional flow system in the Devonian strata over the past 2 Ma. This study demonstrates that a detailed approach to hydrogeological assessment is required to elucidate total dissolved solids concentrations in McMurray formation waters at an individual lease-area scale, and to manage potential impacts

  6. Recognition of strong seasonality and climatic cyclicity in an ancient, fluvially dominated, tidally influenced point bar: Middle McMurray Formation, Lower Steepbank River, north-eastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Bryce V. J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Inclined heterolithic stratification in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, exposed along the Steepbank River in north-eastern Alberta, Canada, accumulated on point bars of a 30 to 40 m deep continental-scale river in the fluvial-marine transition. This inclined heterolithic stratification consists of two alternating lithologies, sand and fine-grained beds. Sand beds were deposited rapidly by unidirectional currents and contain little or no bioturbation. Fine-grained beds contain rare tidal structures, and are intensely bioturbated by low-diversity ichnofossil assemblages. The alternations between the sand and fine-grained beds are probably caused by strong variations in fluvial discharge; that are believed to be seasonal (probably annual) in duration. The sand beds accumulated during river floods, under fluvially dominated conditions when the water was fresh, whereas the fine-grained beds accumulated during the late stages of the river flood and deposition continued under tidally influenced brackish-water conditions during times of low-river flow (i.e. the interflood periods). These changes reflect the annual migration in the positions of the tidal and salinity limits within the fluvial-marine transition that result from changes in river discharge. Sand and fine-grained beds are cyclically organized in the studied outcrops forming metre-scale cycles. A single metre-scale cycle is defined by a sharp base, an upward decrease in sand-bed thickness and upward increases in the preservation of fine-grained beds and the intensity of bioturbation. Metre-scale cycles are interpreted to be the product of a longer term (decadal) cyclicity in fluvial discharge, probably caused by fluctuations in ocean or solar dynamics. The volumetric dominance of river-flood deposits within the succession suggests that accumulation occurred in a relatively landward position within the fluvial-marine transition. This study shows that careful observation can reveal much about the

  7. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  8. Spaceborne Methane Observations by Airs Over Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from natural (e.g. wetland) and anthropogenic (e.g. oil and gas industry, and waste management) sources contribute to Alberta's GHG emission. The focus of this study is to examine the spatio-temporal variation of total column CH4 over Alberta, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite from 2003 to 2013. Spaceborne measurements by AIRS provide a global view of CH4 distribution in the mid-upper troposphere. This study demonstrates a significant rise of CH4 levels in Alberta in the last ten years. This ascending trend is consistent with the increase of global methane levels in the same time period. Monthly variations indicate a significant increase of CH4 levels in summer with maximum in August, which is probably driven by enhanced convection. Spatial distributions of CH4 reveal a strong west-east gradient with maximum levels in northern regions (55-65 N). The enhanced summer levels over northern and eastern regions suggest possible pathways for CH4 emitted from natural sources (wetlands, lakes and permafrost) in high northern latitude regions and Canadian wetlands (e.g. Hudson Bay wetland). However, the abrupt increase of CH4 concentration coincides with significant change in economic activities during that time period. Since some of the wetland CH4 fluxes are collocated with large anthropogenic source, it is difficult to account for different source contribution. Thus, further studies about CH4 emission and transport over Alberta are recommended to reduce the uncertainties about the natural and anthropogenic contributions of Alberta to Canada's CH4 emissions.

  9. The Alberta population-based prospective evaluation of the quality of life outcomes and economic impact of bariatric surgery (APPLES) study: background, design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Extreme obesity affects nearly 8% of Canadians, and is debilitating, costly and ultimately lethal. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment available; is associated with reductions in morbidity/mortality, improvements in quality of life; and appears cost-effective. However, current demand for surgery in Canada outstrips capacity by at least 1000-fold, causing exponential increases in already protracted, multi-year wait-times. The objectives and hypotheses of this study were as follows: 1. To serially assess the clinical, economic and humanistic outcomes in patients wait-listed for bariatric care over a 2-year period. We hypothesize deterioration in these outcomes over time; 2. To determine the clinical effectiveness and changes in quality of life associated with modern bariatric procedures compared with medically treated and wait-listed controls over 2 years. We hypothesize that surgery will markedly reduce weight, decrease the need for unplanned medical care, and increase quality of life; 3. To conduct a 3-year (1 year retrospective and 2 year prospective) economic assessment of bariatric surgery compared to medical and wait-listed controls from the societal, public payor, and health-care payor perspectives. We hypothesize that lower indirect, out of pocket and productivity costs will offset increased direct health-care costs resulting in lower total costs for bariatric surgery. Methods/design Population-based prospective cohort study of 500 consecutive, consenting adults, including 150 surgically treated patients, 200 medically treated patients and 150 wait-listed patients. Subjects will be enrolled from the Edmonton Weight Wise Regional Obesity Program (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), with prospective bi-annual follow-up for 2 years. Mixed methods data collection, linking primary data to provincial administrative databases will be employed. Major outcomes include generic, obesity-specific and preference-based quality of life assessment

  10. Literacy Proposal for the Community of Nose Creek, Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Pat

    This paper overviews a proposal for implementing an adult literacy program in a small tribal community in northern Alberta (Canada). The program would enhance participants' ability to manage change affecting the community's economic, social, and educational circumstances. Recent data indicate that 24 percent of Native Americans in northern Alberta…

  11. Alberta Children and Youth: Trends and Issues, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy & Planning Branch.

    Education is part of a complex and dynamic system in which family, social, economic, and other factors have a tremendous influence on students. This environmental scanning report for Alberta, Canada is intended to draw attention to societal trends and issues that may be relevant to educators and to disseminate information that will support…

  12. Research Funding at Alberta Universities, 1999/2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Innovation and Science, Edmonton. University Research and Strategic Investments Branch.

    This report presents facts related to the funding of research at the four universities in Alberta, Canada. During fiscal year 1999-2000, $300 million Canadian dollars in direct external funding was received by the four universities to support research, an increase from 1998-1999 of 29.9%. Total sponsored research funding from all sources to…

  13. Indian Tribes of Alberta. Revised, Expanded, and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Hugh A.

    This book recounts the story of the Indians in Alberta, Canada. Pictures and maps help in the explanation of these facts. The Indians described include the: (1) Blackfoot Nation (Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan Tribes); (2) Sarcee Tribe; (3) Stoney Indians; (4) Plains Cree; (5) Woodland Cree; (6) Chipewyan Indians; (7) Beaver Indians; (8) Slavey Indians;…

  14. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  15. The Emotional Drama of Giftedness. Conference Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for the Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) (9th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, November 6-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta). Centre for Gifted Education.

    This proceedings focuses on "state-of-the-art" knowledge regarding social-emotional development, parenting issues, achievement issues, accelerative practices, individualized program planning, Alberta Education policies, educational technology, Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration, and other issues as they related to the unique…

  16. Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2006 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (30th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Jun 3-7, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at the University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the…

  17. International nursing leadership related to the drugs phenomenon: a case study of the partnership experience between the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) and the University of Alberta--Faculty of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Caufield, Catherine; Gray, Genevieve; Olson, Joanne; Ludueña, Alicia del Carmen; Musayon Oblitas, Flor Yesenia; Huaiquian Silva, Julia; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski; Piedra Chavez, Ketty Aracely; Bernal Roldán, Maria Carmen; Cartana, Maria do Horto Fontoura; Allonso Castillo, Maria Magdalena; Pillon, Sandra; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari; Randuz, Vera

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the value of international health in advancing the nursing profession through the development of strong leadership in the area of drug demand reduction. Paradigms for nursing leadership are briefly reviewed and linked to the development of the "International Nursing Leadership Institutes" organized by the Inter-American Commission for the Control of Drug Abuse (CICAD). The "International Nursing Leadership Institutes" have facilitated the implementation of Phase III of the CICAD Schools of Nursing Project: a) planning and implementing the first "International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in Latin America", b) development of Regional and National Strategic Plans for Nursing Professionals in the Area of Demand Reduction in Latin America, and c) preparation of a document that provides guidelines on how to include drug content into undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula. The article also brings reflections directly from several of the participants in the first International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in the Americas, offered in collaboration with the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. These reflections demonstrate the multiplicity of ways in which this capacity-building program has made it easier for these members of Latin American Schools of Nursing to show leadership in the area of drug demand reduction.

  18. The History of Post-Secondary Finance in Alberta - An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Calvin P.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2005-01-01

    Post-secondary systems throughout Canada and the United States have struggled with funding issues during most of the last decade of the 20th Century, and the new millennium did not open with great enthusiasm for change. This article examines the impact of post-secondary education funding changes in Alberta, Canada, by tracing the historical…

  19. "Fellow Travellers" and "True Believers": A Case Study of Religion and Politics in Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2001-01-01

    In Canada, the United States, and England, educational policies favoring greater parental choice have renewed interest in religion's place in public schools; conversely, religious parents' lobbying for school choice has influenced educational policy. This paper explores change dynamics in Alberta, Canada, focusing on micropolitical program and…

  20. Administering the Open-Area Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the outcome of a study of the operation of open area schools in the Separate School System of Edmonton. (Available from C. A. Business Manager, Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  1. Combined Tree-Ring Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes to infer past atmospheric deposition in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America is significantly younger than the emitting activities themselves. Attention should be placed on SOx and NOx emissions as they have been increasing over the last 15 years in western Canada. In Northeastern Alberta in particular, two distinct diffuse pollution contexts deserve attention: the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands (OS) district (north of Fort McMurray), and the coal fired power plant (CFPP) area (west of Edmonton). The NOx and SO2 emissions started in 1967 and 1956, but the direct air quality monitoring has been initiated in 1997 and 1985, in these respective contexts. In an attempt to address the gap in emission and deposition monitoring, we explored the δ13C and δ15N patterns of spruce trees (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) growing in four stands in the OS district and one stand, in the CFPP area. Tree-ring series collected from these five sites all covering the 1880-2010 period were analyzed and their δ13C and δ15N values examined along with the climatic parameters and SOx and NOx emission proxies. For two stands in the OS district where soil drainage was poor δ15N series did not vary significantly, but the intermediate and long-term δ13C and δ15N trends inversely correlate in the three other studied stands. For these three sites statistical analyses for the pre-operation calibration periods (1910-1961 and 1900-1951) allowed developing transfer functions and predicting the natural δ13C and δ15N responses to climatic conditions for the operation periods. The measured series all depart from the modeled natural trends, depicting anomalies. Interestingly, the anomalies in the two regions can be nicely reproduced by multiple-regression models combining local climatic parameters with acidifying emissions. Notwithstanding the significant inverse correlations between the δ13C and δ15N series for the three well drained sites and their link to acidifying emissions, it is too early to

  2. Alberta Demographics and the Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Shepard

    University education in Alberta during the next two decades is addressed in relation to the increasing in-migration and uncertain participation. Although Alberta has the highest rate of net population gain among all provinces due to in-migration, it is not clear how many of the 18-24-year-old cohort will be job-seekers rather than potential…

  3. Ovine Brucellosis in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Niilo, Leo; MacDonald, Donald W.; Godkin, Gordon F.; Stone, M. William

    1986-01-01

    Two parallel surveys of rams from Alberta sheep flocks were conducted to determine the presence of infection with Brucella ovis. In a retrospective study over a period of 24 months, using complement fixation test, 12 flocks out of 142 tested were considered infected. In another 17-month survey of slaughter rams by serology and culture methods 11 flocks out of 124 were found to be infected. The overall prevalence of ovine brucellosis was 8.6% of the flocks tested which represented 12.5% of the estimated sheep flocks in Alberta. Up to 67% of rams in infected flocks reacted to complement fixation test. The complement fixation test was evaluated for its efficiency in the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis and compared with a limited number of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and clinical criteria. The complement fixation test as well as ELISA identified all culture positive rams. Both serological tests appeared satisfactory for the diagnosis of B. ovis epididymitis when the results could be interpreted in the light of flock history and clinical findings. PMID:17422669

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  5. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  6. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Normative data collected for the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test from children (ages 7-14) in urban and rural Alberta and for Inuit children in the Northwest Territories, Canada, were consistently below the Harris norms particularly for the Draw-a-Woman test. Alternate sets of Draw-a-Person norms are proposed for use with these groups. (Author/VW)

  7. Institutional Development Plan. Presented to the Department of Advanced Education, Government of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Community Coll. (Alberta).

    At Lethbridge Community College (LCC) in Lethbridge, Alberta, widely acknowledged as Canada's first community college, personal and professional development is stressed for all staff and students. The mission of LCC is to meet the needs of adults throughout their lives by providing excellent learning opportunities through high quality programs and…

  8. A Diet of English Language Arts Outcomes: Alberta and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Laurie

    This paper critically examines outcomes-based education (OBE), focusing on the two widely differing jurisdictions of the Province of Alberta in Western Canada and the Republic of South Africa. The paper begins by explaining the nature of OBE, including the topics: principles and origin of OBE; research findings; resistance to OBE in the United…

  9. The Atlee School Question: The Effects of School Consolidation in Rural Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, a bitter dispute broke out between parents in the Atlee-Jenner School District in Southern Alberta Canada, and the Medicine Hat School Board over the bussing of children for the first time to a new school a long distance away. The move was precipitated by the consolidation of several smaller school districts and the subsequent…

  10. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of…

  11. Alberta Education Curriculum Review, Part 1. Publications of the Curriculum Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, G. H.

    This report contains a description of the first part of the Curriculum Branch's audit of the program of studies, curriculum guides, textbooks, and other learning resources in Alberta, Canada, which was undertaken for three purposes: (1) to determine the adequacy of the ways in which tolerance, understanding, and respect for minority groups and…

  12. Manufacturing (Il)Literacy in Alberta's Classrooms: The Case of an Oil-Dependent State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines involvement of education-business "partnerships" presently occurring in the province of Alberta, Canada. Specific attention is paid to the promotion and sponsorship by oil multinational corporations (MNCs) of corporate propaganda masquerading as energy and environmental literacy programs targeted for the K-12 school…

  13. Using Cognitive Coaching to Build School Leadership Capacity: A Case Study in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Hauserman, Cal P.; Skytt, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Cognitive Coaching? included as part of the Leader2Leader (L2L) Leadership Pilot Program for beginning principals in Alberta, Canada, was evaluated in the present study. Fifteen qualified principals (coaches) and 23 new principals completed the L2L Pilot Program that took place over 18 months. Questionnaires for coaches and new…

  14. Performance Indicators in Postsecondary Education in Alberta: An Analysis. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, I. Chris

    This paper analyzes the current proposals by the government of Alberta, Canada, to implement an accountability framework for the province's postsecondary institutions using performance indicators. The paper develops a conceptual framework for performance indicators based on a discrepancy model of evaluation using three metaphors: mechanical,…

  15. Difficulties Associated with the Coding and Categorization of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Jahnukainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, there is a recent trend toward non-categorization of services of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities (EBD). Yet in Alberta, the coding of students with EBD provides opportunities to diagnose students' learning difficulties but is hindered in this process, in large part, by being tied into special needs funding. Current…

  16. Computing Services Planning, Downsizing, and Organization at the University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrametti, Monica

    1993-01-01

    In a six-month period, the University of Alberta (Canada) campus computing services department formulated a strategic plan, and downsized and reorganized to meet financial constraints and respond to changing technology, especially distributed computing. The new department is organized to react more effectively to trends in technology and user…

  17. Estimates of the rate of illegal abortion and the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortion, Alberta 1973-74.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, S A; Krótki, K J

    1979-01-01

    Data from the Growth of Alberta Family Study were used to estimate the illegal abortion rate for the residents of Edmonton, Alberta and to assess the potential impact of eliminating therapeutic abortion on the birth rate and on the illegal abortion rate. The study population consisted of 938 women, aged 18-54. The women were divided into 3 groups, and sensitive abortion data was elicited from each group using different data collection techniques. One group was asked about abortion in the traditional interview mode. Another group was asked to mail in their responses to abortion answers anonymously, and the remaining group was questioned about abortion using the (RRT) randomized response technique. The use of the RRT allowed the respondent to answer yes or no questions without the interviewer being aware that the respondent was responding to sensitive abortion questions. The RRT elicited information on a greater number of abortions than the other 2 techniques. According to calculations based on the RRT elicited information, the illegal abortion rate in Edmonton was 22.4/100 conceptions surviving the 1st 4 weeks of gestation. In view of the controversy surrounding the current abortion law, an effort was made to assess the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortions. A method, previously developed by Tietze for calculating the impact of abortion laws on the birth rate in New York, was applied to the Alberta data. The conclusion was reached that if therapeutic abortions were eliminated, the effect on the birth rate would be negligible and the illegal abortion rate would increase by 12%. The estimated illegal abortion rates and other major study results were presented in tabular form.

  18. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  19. Glaciotectonism and landsliding in Little Sandhill Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian A.; Evans, David J. A.

    1990-11-01

    Slope failure and gully erosion along Little Sandhill Creek, a tributary of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada, has exposed large stratigraphic sections in which the effects of glaciotectonism and landsliding are clearly revealed. Six main units are identified ranging from a deposit of coarse fluvial sands, through various glacial diamictons and gravels and sands, to postglacial fluvial and lacustrine (pond) and aeolian sediments. Incision by Little Sandhill Creek since late Wisconsinan deglaciation ca. 12,500 B.P., resulted in periodic landslides culminating in the main slope failure which occurred post ca. 5400 B.P. The slide was reactivated by irrigation water return flow from the adjacent prairie surface.

  20. 75 FR 6199 - TransCanada Alaska Company LLC; Notice of Request for Approval of Plan for Conducting an Open Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... to either (1) the Alaska/Canada border for onward delivery to Alberta, Canada; or (2) to Valdez...). James K. Morse_james.morse@exxonmobil.com, Alaska Pipeline Project-- Law Manager, ExxonMobil...

  1. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: A Final Note on the Re-Norming/versus Scoring Revision Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Item analysis data were collected for the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, from urban and rural Alberta (Canada) youngsters and Inuit youngsters from the Northwest Territories (Canada). Both tests were inadequate in individual item difficulty levels, suggesting the necessity of revising scoring systems and…

  2. Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

    1999-01-01

    Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

  3. What Happened to Charter Schools in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, charter schools have held a precarious existence in Canada. Implemented in the province of Alberta in 1994, only a handful of charter schools remain in the entire nation. In this article, I explore the ideas of school choice and charter schooling and how they have largely disappeared as educational policy issues for Canadians. While…

  4. The Canada NewStart Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, E. P.

    This speech described the development and current status of the Canada NewStart Program, in which specially created corporations have been conducting action research on disadvantaged groups (largely Indians and Metis) in remote areas of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and for undereducated persons in economically depressed areas of Prince…

  5. Outcomes of Pancreatic Islet Allotransplantation Using the Edmonton Protocol at the University of Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Zehra; Garfinkel, Marc R.; Chon, W. James; Schenck, Lindsay; Golab, Karolina; Savari, Omid; Thistlethwaite, J. Richard; Philipson, Louis H.; Majewski, Colleen; Pannain, Silvana; Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Rezania, Kourosh; Hariprasad, Seenu M.; Millis, J. Michael; Witkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess short-term and long-term results of the pancreatic islet transplantation using the Edmonton protocol at the University of Chicago. Materials and Methods Nine patients underwent pancreatic islet cell transplantation using the Edmonton Protocol; they were followed up for 10 years after initial islet transplant with up to 3 separate islet infusions. They were given induction treatment using an IL-2R antibody and their maintenance immunosuppression regimen consisted of sirolimus and tacrolimus. Results Nine patients received a total of 18 islet infusions. Five patients dropped out in the early phase of the study. Greater than 50% drop-out and noncompliance rate resulted from both poor islet function and recurrent side effects of immunosuppression. The remaining 4 (44%) patients stayed insulin free with intervals for at least over 5 years (cumulative time) after the first transplant. Each of them received 3 infusions, on average 445 000 islet equivalent per transplant. Immunosuppression regimen required multiple adjustments in all patients due to recurrent side effects. In the long-term follow up, kidney function remained stable, and diabetic retinopathy and polyneuropathy did not progress in any of the patients. Patients' panel reactive antibodies remained zero and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibody did not rise after the transplant. Results of metabolic tests including hemoglobin A1c, arginine stimulation, and mixed meal tolerance test were correlated with clinical islet function. Conclusions Pancreatic islet transplantation initiated according to Edmonton protocol offered durable long-term insulin-free glycemic control in only highly selected brittle diabetics providing stable control of diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy and without increased sensitization or impaired renal function. Immunosuppression adjustments and close follow-up were critical for patient retention and ultimate success. PMID:27795987

  6. Mind the Gap: How a Project in Alberta Attempted to Narrow the Gap between Classroom Teachers and Language Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…

  7. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  8. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim.

  9. Evolving 50–50% bilingual pedagogy in Alberta: what does the research say?

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rahat; Schmidt, Elaine; Krickhan, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the provincial frameworks that define the Spanish bilingual program in Alberta, Canada, provides an historical overview of its pedagogic constraints and evolution, and proposes a framework for bilingual pedagogy. The framework is conceptualized from the research evidence of three local case studies, and is based on the centrality of cross-linguistic transfer, in relation to linguistic interdependence and bilingual learning. PMID:24987378

  10. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  11. Trace fossils from the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Pemberton, S.G.; Flach, P.D.; Mossop, G.D.

    1982-08-27

    A diverse and well-preserved ichnofossil suite has been identified from surface exposures of the middle and upper parts of the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation. The suite, consisting of representatives of at least ten ichnogenera, is one of the few clues to the original biotic component of the deposit. The distribution and abundance of these biogenic structures present strong evidence that the deep channel complex in which the sediments were deposited was closely associated with a nearby marine shoreline.

  12. Geochemistry of halogens in the Milk River aquifer, Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabryka-Martin, J.; Whittemore, D.O.; Davis, S.N.; Kubik, P.W.; Sharma, Prakash

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data are presented for Cl, Br and I on a regional scale for the Milk River aquifer. The three halides show strikingly similar spatial distributions and are highly correlated. Concentrations are low in the freshwater portions of the aquifer but increase by as much as two orders of magnitude along the margins. However, halide ratios reach nearly constant values moving down-gradient, suggesting the dominance of a common subsurface source for these ions. Ratios of Cl/I and Cl/Br are less than those of seawater and fit an origin derived from the diagenesis of organic matter in the sediments. Halide ratios rule out leakage and/or diffusion from the underlying Colorado Group as a major influence on the chemistry; the favored hypothesis is altered connate seawater diffusing from low-permeability units within the Milk River Formation as the primary source of salts. This hypothesis of an internal source has important implications for solute sources in other aquifers affected by saline waters because it does not require the importation of a distant fluid. The 129I/I ratio has a meteoric value in groundwater collected near the recharge area, but ratios for downflow waters are only 8-70% of this value. Due to the 16 Ma half-life of 129I, these data indicate that most of the increase in dissolved I cannot derive from concentration of a meteoric source by ion filtration, but must have a subsurface origin. Concentrations of 129I produced in situ by spontaneous fission of 238U attain measurable levels only in the oldest waters sampled (ages ??? 105 a), in which it may account for nearly 90% of the total dissolved 129I concentration. Water ages based upon 36Cl/Cl data range up to 2 Ma if uncorrected for any dilution by subsurface sources of dead Cl. If one assumes that the subsurface contributions of Cl contribute at least 90% of total Cl in the distal portion, then the 36Cl-based ages are reduced to ??? 1 Ma, somewhat greater than those estimated by hydrodynamic modeling. ?? 1991.

  13. Leilani Muir versus the philosopher king: eugenics on trial in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, D

    1997-01-01

    The Province of Alberta in Canada was the only jurisdiction in the British Empire where a eugenic sterilization law was passed (in 1928) and vigorously implemented. The pace of sterilization orders accelerated during the Nazi era and remained high after World War II, terminating only in 1972 when the Sexual Sterilization Act was repealed. The Alberta Eugenics Board operated away from public and legislative scrutiny, and many things done in the name of eugenics were clearly illegal. Eugenics was put on trial in Alberta in 1995 and a judge of the Court of Queen's Bench ruled in 1996 that the government had wrongly sterilized Leilani Muir. After hearing evidence about the history of the eugenics movement, the origins of Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act, the operation of the Eugenics Board, and details of Muir's life, Madam Justice Joanne B. Veit found that 'the damage inflicted by the operation was catastrophic', the 'wrongful stigmatization of Ms. Muir as a moron ... has humiliated Ms. Muir every day of her life', and 'the circumstances of Ms. Muir's sterilization were so high-handed and so contemptuous of the statutory authority to effect sterilization, and were undertaken in an atmosphere that so little respected Ms. Muir's human dignity that the community's, and the court's, sense of decency is offended'. Veit awarded Muir damages of $740,780 CAD and legal costs of $230,000 CAD. The order for Muir's sterilization was signed by John M. MacEachran, founder of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Alberta and chairman of the Eugenics Board from 1929 to 1965. An exponent of Platonic idealism, MacEachran believed sterilization of children with a low IQ test score was a means of 'raising and safeguarding the purity of the race'. However, the Alberta Sterilization Act was passed and implemented with cavalier disregard for the principles of genetics as well as the rights of children.

  14. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Whose Heartland? The Politics of Place in a Rural-Urban Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Jeffrey R.; Garvin, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    This article advances a conceptualization of the rural-urban interface that is centred on a historically and spatially informed politics of place situated within local-global connections. The research is a case study of an inter-municipal development plan called Alberta's Industrial Heartland. Located near the City of Edmonton, in Alberta, Canada,…

  16. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  17. The Role of the Native Woman in a Native Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swampy, Grace Marie

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen Plains Cree-speaking women, aged 15-93, were interviewed to determine the persistence of traditional beliefs as they affect the role of women. "The major implication is that the culture is alive." Available: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5.…

  18. School Size, Cost and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratsoy, Eugene W.; Bumbarger, Chester S.

    1976-01-01

    Despite the trend toward consolidation of schools, many small schools continue to exist. The challenge is to identify and implement the changes that will improve these schools. (Available from Canadian Administrator Business Manager, Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50…

  19. Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Brent W.; Richards, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale for educational voucher systems, outlines model voucher systems, discusses implications of voucher systems, and suggests a generalized plan for applying voucher systems in continuing education. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5;…

  20. Militancy and Accommodativeness in Teachers' Negotiations: Two Ontario Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fris, J.

    1976-01-01

    Reports findings of two surveys of Ontario elementary and secondary teachers that measured teachers' attitudes regarding collective bargaining tactics and classified teachers' responses according to their militancy or accomodativeness. Available from Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G…

  1. Consumer Education Materials: An Annotated List. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Consumer and Corporate Affairs, Edmonton. Resource Centre.

    This annotated list is intended to help K-12 librarians and teachers identify consumer education materials. All materials listed are in the Alberta Consumer and Corporate Affairs Resource Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The materials treat a wide variety of topics including advertising, purchasing, budgets, business education, conservation of…

  2. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied.

  3. Developing Alberta's oil sands, 1920--2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastko, Paul Anthony

    This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil sands industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to "manufacture" oil from the Alberta tar sands at less than $10 U.S. per barrel.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  5. Report of the Evaluation of the Second Year of the Junior High Police-School Liaison Program. Jointly conducted by the City of Edmonton Police Department, and the Edmonton Public and Catholic School Systems during the 1976-1977 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Tom; And Others

    The Junior High Police School Liaison Program is a three-year pilot project conducted by the Edmonton Police Department, and the Edmonton Public and Catholic School Systems. The objectives of the program include: (1) developing a preventive approach to crime; (2) reducing the local crime level; (3) improving relations among police officers,…

  6. Tourism Standards: Western Canada. Certification Field Test. Final Report. Formative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Tourism Education Council, Edmonton.

    The Tourism Standards Consortium (TSC) is a partnership of the governments of Canada's western provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia), the provinces' tourism industries, and the Pacific Rim Institute of Tourism in British Columbia. In an effort to increase professionalism in Western Canada's tourism industry, the TSC…

  7. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease.

  8. "CanCore": In Canada and around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "CanCore," a learning resource metadata initiative funded by Industry Canada and supported by Athabasca University, Alberta, and TeleUniversite du Quebec, and describes the increasing range of international uses of the "CanCore" metadata for the indexing of learning objects.…

  9. Evaluation of the CAPE and CORE Programs for Sensory-Impaired Multi-Handicapped Children in the Province of Alberta. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland Consulting Group Ltd.

    The report presents summaries of evaluations of the Coordinated Assessment and Program Planning for Education (CAPE) Program and the Coordinated Rehabilitation and Education (CORE) program for multi-handicapped sensory impaired and/or communication and behavior disordered children and their families in Alberta, Canada. Each program is evaluated…

  10. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  11. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006…

  12. The Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics: A proposed clinical staging system for paediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Buchholz, Annick; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Jetha, Mary M; Gaboury, Laurie; Hamilton, Jill; Birken, Catherine; Morrison, Katherine M; Legault, Laurent; Bridger, Tracey; Cook, Stephen R; Lyons, John; Sharma, Arya M; Ball, Geoff DC

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical recommendations for assessing and managing paediatric obesity have relied on anthropometric measures, such as body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile and/or BMI z-score, to monitor health risks and determine weight management success. However, anthropometric measures do not always accurately and reliably identify children and youth with obesity-related health risks or comorbidities. The authors propose a new clinical staging system (the Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics, EOSS-P), adapted from the adult-oriented EOSS. The EOSS-P is used to stratify patients according to severity of obesity-related comorbidities and barriers to weight management into four graded categories (0 to 3) within four main health domains: metabolic, mechanical, mental health and social milieu (the 4Ms). The EOSS-P is based on common clinical assessments that are widely available and routinely completed by clinicians, and has the potential to provide clinical and prognostic information to help evaluate and inform the management of paediatric obesity. PMID:26941556

  13. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  14. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  15. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  16. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  17. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide")…

  18. An Evaluation of Alberta Education's Library Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloitte Haskins & Sells Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The report presents the findings, analysis, and conclusions of the external evaluation of the effectiveness of Alberta Education Library Services conducted between September 1985 and March 1986 under the guidance of the Library Services Evaluation Steering Committee (Phase 2 of the evaluation and planning process initiated in 1985 to clarify the…

  19. Alberta's Funding Program for School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulba, John W.; Hathaway, Warren E.

    1983-01-01

    A capital funding plan was introduced in Alberta in 1979 to more effectively control school construction and ensure that provincial priorities were being achieved. The formula includes factors to adjust for financial equity, district utilization of space, approved areas, and changes in construction costs. (MLF)

  20. Rever d'une langue: Anthologie des ecoles d'immersion de l'Alberta de la maternelle a la 11e annee (Dreaming in One Language: An Anthology of Essays from Immersion Schools in Alberta from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Teachers Association, Edmonton.

    This publication, launched by the French Council of the Alberta Teachers' Association and prepared under the Millennium Partnership Program in Canada, presents a collection of essays written by French language immersion students in the elementary and secondary grades. Essay topics touch on the following themes: remembering, dreaming, celebrating,…

  1. A Comparison of Drug Coverage in Alberta Before and After the Introduction of the National Common Drug Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, John-Michael; Eurich, Dean T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The integration of the Common Drug Review (CDR) was a substantial change for Canada's public drug plans. Detailed comparisons of time-to-listing and proportion of medications covered by the province of Alberta's drug plans within the context of the CDR process have not been rigorously conducted. Methods: New drugs approved by Health Canada were identified five years prior to the CDR's first recommendation (May 2004) and five years after. The time-to-listing and proportion of new drugs covered on the Alberta Health and Wellness Drug Benefit List (AHWDBL) was compared between these periods. The level of agreement between CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was calculated using a kappa score. Results: Two hundred and twenty new drugs were identified and met the study eligibility criteria (118 pre-CDR, 102 post-CDR). The median time-to-listing was 312 vs. 524 days in the pre-CDR and post-CDR periods, respectively, with the difference largely driven by time from notice of compliance (NOC) to the CDR recommendation. The level of agreement between 73 drugs with CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was fair (kappa 0.55). Conclusion: Following the implementation of the CDR, the proportion of drugs covered has decreased and overall median time-to-listing of new drugs has increased in the province of Alberta. For drugs listed on the AHWDBL, the proportion of time attributable to the CDR process (NOC to CDR recommendation) was 63% of the overall time-to-listing. PMID:22043227

  2. Western Canadians and the Mulroney Constitutional Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1991-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey suggesting that Edmonton, Alberta residents favor a referendum before any changes are made in Canada's constitution. Explains changes proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Examines plans for House of Commons reform, aboriginal self-government, economic union for Canada, worker training, immigration, and other…

  3. Utility of the Edmonton Frail Scale in identifying frail elderly patients during treatment of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Brandon M.; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O.; Rask, Sara; Yelamanchili, Radhika; Phillips, Callista M.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Pond, Gregory R.; Jeyabalan, Neera; Zbuk, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Frailty has been proposed by geriatricians as an indicator of functional age. The Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS) is a 15-point incremental scale; it is quick (<5 min), and simple to administer. We conducted an exploratory study to establish if the EFS add utility to clinician’s expertise by determining if there was an association between EFS and receipt of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods The EFS was administered to stage II–IV CRC patients ≥70 years. EFS assessment was completed by one of the investigators, with the treating oncology team blinded to the results. Results A total of 46 patients were enrolled, and the EFS was reproduced in 32 patients at two visits (r=0.81; 95% CI: 0.64–0.90, P<0.0001). There was no correlation between the EFS and receipt of chemotherapy for the study population as a whole; however, exclusion of stage II patients showed a reduced likelihood of receiving chemotherapy with higher EFS scores (odds ratio 0.56; 95% CI: 0.37–0.85, P<0.01 per unit increment). A similar effect was observed after multivariable analysis (adjusting for performance status, age, stage and gender, odds ratio 0.41 95% CI: 0.18–0.96, P<0.05 per unit increment). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that EFS can identify patients that oncologists may have thought were too frail for chemotherapy, independent of PS. Therefore, the EFS has the potential to add a reproducible, and quantifiable measure of frailty to the clinician’s decision making toolset. A follow up study will employ the EFS in real-time, and determine if using the EFS can minimize complications and unplanned health care utilization in elderly cancer patients. PMID:28280606

  4. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in Alberta: Two years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Lilley, Margaret; Christian, Susan; Hume, Stacey; Scott, Patrick; Montgomery, Mark; Semple, Lisa; Zuberbuhler, Peter; Tabak, Joan; Bamforth, Fiona; Somerville, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, Alberta became the first province in Canada to introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) to its newborn screening program. The Alberta protocol involves a two-tier algorithm involving an immunoreactive trypsinogen measurement followed by molecular analysis using a CF panel for 39 mutations. Positive screens are followed up with sweat chloride testing and an assessment by a CF specialist. Of the 99,408 newborns screened in Alberta during the first two years of the program, 221 had a positive CF newborn screen. The program subsequently identified and initiated treatment in 31 newborns with CF. A relatively high frequency of the R117H mutation and the M1101K mutation was noted. The M1101K mutation is common in the Hutterite population. The presence of the R117H mutation has created both counselling and management dilemmas. The ability to offer CF transmembrane regulator full sequencing may help resolve diagnostic dilemmas. Counselling and management challenges are created when mutations are mild or of unknown clinical significance. PMID:22043142

  5. Development, testing and implementation of an emergency services methodology in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Eliasoph, H; Ashdown, C

    1995-01-01

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to mandate reporting of hospital-based emergency services. This reporting is based on a workload measurement system that groups emergency visits into five discreet workload levels/classes driven by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Other related workload measurement variables are incorporated, including admissions, transfers, maintenance monitoring, nursing and non-nursing patient support activities, trips, staff replacement, and personal fatigue and delay. The methodology used to design the reporting system has been subjected to extensive testing, auditing and refinement. The results of one year of province-wide data collection yielded approximately 1.5 million emergency visits. These data reveal consistent patterns/trends of workload that vary by hospital size and type. Although this information can assist in utilization management efforts to predict and compare workload and staffing levels, the impetus for establishing this system derived from its potential for funding hospital-based emergency services. This would be the first time that such services would be funded on a systemic, system-wide basis whereby hospitals would be reimbursed in relation to workload. This proposed funding system would distribute available funding in a consistent, fair and equitable manner across all hospitals providing a similar set of services, thus achieving one of the key goals of the Alberta Acute Care Funding Plan. Ultimately, this proposed funding methodology would be integrated into a broader Ambulatory Care Funding system currently being developed in Alberta.

  6. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  7. Investigation of Geothermal Energy as a Heat Source for Oilsands Extraction in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; Tayfun, B.; Chacko, T.; Currie, C. A.; Gray, A.; Grobe, M.; Heaman, L. M.; Huenges, E.; Moeck, I.; Ritter, O.; Rostron, B. J.; Schmitt, D.; Vanderbaan, M.; Weides, S.

    2010-12-01

    The extraction of the Northern Alberta oil sands requires a significant amount of thermal energy which is currently supplied through the burning of natural gas. Geothermal energy could replace some of this demand. The feasibility of developing geothermal energy production in Northern Alberta is being evaluated through the Helmholtz Alberta Initiative, which is a collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada. The geology of Northern Alberta is characterized by 500-2000 m of sedimentary rocks overlying Precambrian crystalline basement rocks of the Canadian Shield. Where the sedimentary cover is thin (e.g the Athabasca oilsands at Fort McMurray), geothermal energy production would require the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) within the crystalline basement rocks. Where the sedimentary basin is thicker (Peace River), heat sources may be found with the sedimentary rocks and natural geothermal reservoirs may be developed. The first stage of this research has involved a re-evaluation of the existing thermal data from boreholes. Precambrian temperature profiles are available only from two deep wells and point to large spatial variations in heat flow (30-70 mW/m**2), that are likely due to variations in the concentrations of radiogenic elements in the crust. Thermal data is also available in a large number of shallow wells, and these data shows a significant depth dependence of heat flow. Shallow temperature gradients are up to two times higher than gradients measured in deeper wells, which implies that shallow temperature data can overestimate the projected temperatures in the Precambrian rocks at depths of 4-5 km. Revised thermal gradient maps have been computed and will be presented in this poster, including extrapolation to the depths required for economically significant temperatures. The second stage of the research will involve detailed characterization of the sedimentary and basement rocks. Geophysical surveys will used combined

  8. A 4-year sequential assessment of the Families First Edmonton partnership: challenges to synergy in the implementation stage.

    PubMed

    Gray, Erin; Mayan, Maria; Lo, Sanchia; Jhangri, Gian; Wilson, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    This article assesses the partnership functioning of Families First Edmonton, a multisectored collaborative effort formed to determine the best health and recreation service delivery model for families with low income. Partners' evaluations of the collaborative process are examined across the formation, implementation, and maintenance stages of development. Statistical analyses of questionnaire data reveal a significant decrease in the partnership's capacity to maximize synergy-a main indicator of a successful collaborative process-in the implementation stage of the partnership. Implications for partnership practice are addressed.

  9. Design, methods and demographics from phase I of Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort: a prospective cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Paula J.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Whelan, Heather K.; Vena, Jennifer E.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Rosner, William K.; Brenner, Darren R.; Cook, Linda S.; Csizmadi, Ilona; Kopciuk, Karen A.; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. Methods: Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling. Participants were enrolled if they returned a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Past year diet and physical activity questionnaires were mailed 3 months after enrolment. Consent was sought for active follow-up and linkage with administrative databases. Depending on enrolment date, participants were invited to complete up to 2 follow-up questionnaires (2004 and 2008). Results: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 (39% men) participants (mean age 50.2 [± 9.2] yr) were enrolled and 99% consented to linkage with administrative databases. Participants reported a wide range of educational attainment and household income. Compared with provincial surveillance data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants had higher body mass index, lower prevalence of smoking and similar distribution of chronic health conditions. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 83% and 72% of participants in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Robust quality control measures resulted in low frequencies of missing data. Interpretation: Alberta's Tomorrow Project provides a robust platform, based on a prospective cohort design, to support research into risk factors for cancer and chronic disease. PMID:27730115

  10. Beginnings: The Occupational Health Program at the University of Alberta, 1984-1999.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2012-01-01

    The Occupational Health Program (OHP) at the University of Alberta played an important and pioneering role in the specialty of occupational medicine in Canada between 1984 and 1999. Its history illustrates the opportunities and obstacles in one of the smallest and most unusual medical specialties in Canada. After an auspicious beginning in 1984, with support from industry, labour, government, and the university, the OHP encountered, but overcame, many problems subsequently as a result of underfunding, organizational placement, and, after changes in leadership, interference from the provincial government department responsible for occupational health. The history of the OHP illustrates problems of small training programs and the unique problems of occupational medicine but also its potential as a model for medical training out of hospital that responds to population health as well as individual care.

  11. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months. Methods This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected. Results Even though there was a high rate of “ever having breastfed” (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95% CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding

  12. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS.

  13. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  14. A Learning Alberta: Dialogue and Direction. The Forum Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Participants in "A Learning Alberta--Dialogue and Direction," the Minister's Forum on Advanced Learning are an important part of a process that has been underway across Alberta since January of 2005. Led by the Honourable Dave Hancock, Minister of Advanced Education, a new vision and policy framework is being developed to guide future…

  15. Evolving Nature of School Psychology in Alberta: Politics and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Coranne; Zwiers, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the practice of school psychology in the province of Alberta reflects the entrenchment of assessment with the emerging possibility of a broader service provider role. This article articulates the influence that politics and government has had on the role of school psychologists in Alberta schools as special education…

  16. Fostering a Provincial Identity: Two Eras in Alberta Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Heyking, Amy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyse how schools in Alberta have defined the province's identity and its role in Confederation. During two eras, the 1930s and the 1980s, social studies curriculum and teaching resources contained assertions of provincial uniqueness. In the late 1930s, the progressive curriculum implemented in Alberta's schools represented…

  17. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  18. [Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System for use in Palliative Care].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Daiane da Rosa; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the instrument Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS-r). The ESAS-r is a revised version of the instrument ESAS that assesses nine symptoms in Palliative Care. This is a methodological study based on a benchmark composed of six steps: translation, synthesis, backtranslation, expert committee, pre-test and submission of translated version for consideration of the authors. As a result changes were made to the title, statements and certain terms to ensure adequacy of grammar and vocabulary. In the pre-test the term 'nausea' raised doubts, and an additional explanation on this word was suggested. Standardization of instrument columns and the replacement of the term 'depression' for 'sadness' was also recommended. In this study, the ESAS-r instrument was translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese, and the next step will be testing the psychometric properties.

  19. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  20. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  1. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15 IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15 IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  2. Vocational Training and Education in Alberta. Coombe Lodge Case Study. Information Bank Number 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, D. T.

    This paper describes the provision of vocational education in the Province of Alberta, especially the education provided by Alberta Vocational Centres (AVCs). The paper is organized in two sections. The first, introductory section describes the Province of Alberta and its educational system. The second section focuses on Alberta Vocational Centres…

  3. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  4. Thermal history of Alberta deep basin: a comparative study of fluid inclusion and vitrinite reflectance data

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, B.J.; Nesbitt, B.E.; Longstaffe, F.J.

    1989-03-01

    The thermal history of the Alberta Deep basin, the gas-saturated westernmost part of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, has been studied by analyzing fluid inclusions in diagenetic cements and comparing the results with coal maturity data. Analyses of fluid inclusions in diagenetic quartz and calcite cements from Lower Cretaceous conglomerates and sandstones indicate that the fluids which precipitated these minerals attained temperatures of at least 190/degree/C. These fluids had salinities of 2-3 wt % equivalent NaCl and were CH/sub 4/ saturated. Time-temperature calculations for vitrinite reflectance data from coal interbeds using the Lopatin-Waples method indicate maximum burial temperatures of only 145/degree/-155/degree/C. The discrepancy in the results from the two types of temperature determinations suggests that either fluids in the conglomerates were 40/degree/C hotter than the ambient rock temperature or the correlation of coal maturity with maximum burial temperature is inaccurate. If the first scenario is correct, hot fluids would have had to have moved through permeable conglomerate beds and bedding plane fractures at a rate fast enough such that their heat was not substantially dissipated along the pathway. If the second scenario is correct, a paleogeothermal gradient of 38/degree/c/km (vs. the present-day 27/degree/C/km) is indicated and a time-temperature index can be calibrated to vitrinite reflectance data specifically for the Alberta Deep basin (1.4 % R/sub 0/ correlates to 190/degree/C). With the available data, neither scenario can be conclusively proven. In either case, unexpectedly high temperatures (190/degree/C) indicate the redistribution of heat by fluid flow in the Falher and Cadotte Members in the Alberta Deep basin.

  5. The Alberta Cardiac Access Collaborative: improving the cardiac patient journey.

    PubMed

    Blackadar, Robyn; Houle, Mishaela

    2009-01-01

    The Alberta Cardiac Access Collaborative (ACAC) is a joint initiative of Alberta's health system to improve access to adult cardiac services across the patient journey. ACAC has created new care delivery models and implemented best practices across Alberta in four streams across the continuum: heart attack, patient navigation, heart failure and arrhythmia. Emergency medical providers, nurses, primary care physicians, hospitals, cardiac specialists and clinicians are all working together to integrate services, bridge jurisdictions and geography with one aim--improving the patient journey for adults in need of cardiac care.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Physical Activity among Preschool Children in a Northern Canadian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Valerie; Spence, John C.; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Boule, Normand; Edwards, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Little research has examined seasonal differences in physical activity (PA) levels among children. Proxy reports of PA were completed by 1,715 parents on their children in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Total PA (TPA) minutes were calculated, and each participant was classified as active, somewhat active, or inactive. Logistic regression models were…

  7. Speaking Personally--With Robert G. Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Robert G. Holmberg, professor emeritus at Athabasca University (AU). He retired at the end of 2007 following a thirty-three-year academic career at AU in Edmonton and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. During that time he oversaw the development and delivery of several of the university's first courses. He helped…

  8. Persistence of Adult Learners in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Wendy C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at Athabasca University (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) that investigated the relationship between persistence, life events, external commitments, and resiliency in undergraduate distance education. Used scores from the Resiliency Attitudes Scale (RAS), the Life Events Inventory, and a questionnaire relating to external…

  9. Toni Samek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Toni Samek, associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, who has been chosen as the recipient of the first annual "Library Journal" Teaching Award, sponsored by ProQuest. Samek's work goes far beyond the three standard measures of academic…

  10. Professional Role Orientation of Women Administrators and Women Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Mary; Gue, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The professional role orientation of women teachers and women administrators is compared with a limited number of variables. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G5; $4.00 annually.) (MLF)

  11. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  12. Introduction: Reflexions on Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Goodwin, Donna; Bouffard, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Quest emerged from a research workshop entitled "Thinking About Our Thinking in Adapted Physical Activity," held at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, from June 18-19, 2013. The aim of the workshop was to examine different worldviews that contribute to the adapted physical…

  13. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERCEPTION, PERSONALITY, INTELLIGENCE AND GRADE ONE READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENGER, KATHLYN

    TO UNCOVER BASIC PERCEPTUAL AND PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES POSSIBLY RESPONSIBLE FOR DIFFERENCES IN READING ACHIEVEMENT, TWO STRATIFIED SAMPLES OF 60 ABOVE- AND BELOW-AVERAGE READERS WERE SELECTED FROM THE ENTIRE POPULATION OF 5,612 CHILDREN COMPLETING FIRST GRADE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA. THE GROUPS WERE MATCHED ACCORDING TO SEX, SCHOOL, GROUP…

  14. Funkbrucke Conference Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Rainer E., Comp.

    A guide to the use of radio and telecommunications to promote international student communication describes a project in which teenagers from Cologne (West Germany) and Edmonton (Alberta) discuss their concerns via radio as well as provide descriptions of life in West Germany and Canada. Transcripts from two radio programs--one in English and one…

  15. Workplace Literacy: Business, Government, and Academic Perspectives. Panel Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malicky, Grace, Comp.; Dieleman, Carolyn; Campbell, Lloyd; Wong, Bill; Krahn, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Presents highlights of a panel discussion on workplace literacy at the Literacy in the 21st Century Research Conference (Edmonton, Alberta, October 1997). Participants from business, government, and university discussed Syncrude Canada's Workplace Literacy Program, implications of the International Adult Literacy Survey for the labor market, and…

  16. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients’ examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Methods: Total number of patients’ charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Results: Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries. PMID:27398104

  17. Source analysis of a potential hydraulic-fracturing-induced earthquake near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Schultz, Ryan; Kim, Ahyi; Atkinson, Gail

    2016-01-01

    An earthquake with a reported magnitude of 4.4 (ML) was detected on 13 June 2015 in western central Alberta, Canada. This event was the third felt earthquake this year near Fox Creek, a shale gas exploration region. Our results from full moment tensor inversions of regional broadband data show a strong strike-slip mechanism with near-vertical fault plane solutions. The decomposition of the moment tensor solution is overwhelmingly double couple, while only a modest (˜20%) contribution is attributed to compensated-linear-vector-dipole. The depth of this earthquake is 3-4 km, near the base of the sedimentary layer, and the moment magnitude (M = 3.9) of this event is considerably smaller than the initial reported ML value. The hypocenter location, depth, and mechanism are favorable to a possible association between this earthquake and hydraulic fracturing operations within the Duvernay shale.

  18. Stress drop estimates and hypocenter relocations of induced seismicity near Crooked Lake, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Fiona; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    We use a sequence of induced earthquakes near Crooked Lake, Alberta, to investigate the physical differences between induced and tectonic earthquakes. Starting with the Natural Resources Canada earthquake catalogue, we use a spectral ratio method to calculate the static stress drops of a group of relocated earthquakes ranging from December 2013 to June 2015. We find that stress drops fall within the high side of the typical reported range of tectonic events and show no correlation with earthquake magnitude, depth, or distance from the well. The stress drops appear roughly constant for events with Mw 3 to 4. Relocated hypocenters cluster both spatially and temporally around corresponding injection wells and appear to migrate deeper with increasing time from injection. Fine-scale lineations apparent in relocated hypocenters could indicate the presence and orientation of fault planes, consistent with the published focal mechanism solutions of M 4+ events in the area.

  19. Air quality over the Alberta oil sands: Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

    2011-12-01

    A vast reserve of bitumen - oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as oil sands - resides in northern Alberta, Canada. Extraction of bitumen and its upgrade to liquid fuel is very energy intensive and generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities have been used to assess the magnitude and distribution of these pollutants throughout the oil sands. Preliminary results indicate a statistically significant enhancement in both species over an area (~30 x 30 km2) of intensive surface mining. Quantifying the burden of these enhancements and their recent changes over such a small area, comparable to the resolution of the best air quality satellite instruments, represents a significant challenge. The methodology used to meet this challenge will be presented, as will initial results including trends over the past decade, comparisons with other large industrial operations, and an assessment of consistency with emission inventories.

  20. Poroelastic stress triggering of the December 2013 Crooked Lake, Alberta, induced seismicity sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kai; Liu, Yajing; Harrington, Rebecca M.

    2016-08-01

    The Crooked Lake area in Central Alberta, Canada, became seismically active in December 2013 with a sequence of earthquakes Mw 2.0 and higher. The earthquakes are suspected to be induced by hydraulic fracturing in nearby horizontal wells due to their strong spatiotemporal correlation. To investigate the physical mechanism of the induced seismicity near Crooked Lake, we calculate stress and pore pressure perturbations resulting from high-rate multistage fluid injection in the framework of linear poroelasticity. The calculated perturbations are used for seismic risk analysis based on the Coulomb failure criterion. Results show that most seismicity is within a positive Coulomb stress change regime, indicating that failure is promoted by injection of fluid. By comparing Coulomb stress results for different parameter settings, we show that elastic response of the solid matrix, instead of fluid diffusion, is more likely the dominant factor for the induced earthquakes shortly after fluid injection.

  1. Composition, Diversity, and Stability of Microbial Assemblages in Seasonal Lake Ice, Miquelon Lake, Central Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, Anna; Han, Sukkyun; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The most familiar icy environments, seasonal lake and stream ice, have received little microbiological study. Bacteria and Eukarya dominated the microbial assemblage within the seasonal ice of Miquelon Lake, a shallow saline lake in Alberta, Canada. The bacterial assemblages were moderately diverse and did not vary with either ice depth or time. The closest relatives of the bacterial sequences from the ice included Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Cyanobacteria. The eukaryotic assemblages were less conserved and had very low diversity. Green algae relatives dominated the eukaryotic gene sequences; however, a copepod and cercozoan were also identified, possibly indicating the presence of complete microbial loop. The persistence of a chlorophyll a peak at 25–30 cm below the ice surface, despite ice migration and brine flushing, indicated possible biological activity within the ice. This is the first study of the composition, diversity, and stability of seasonal lake ice. PMID:24832796

  2. Inspecting an ethylene pipe line

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsvig, D.M. ); Duncan, J.; Zillinger, L. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. (AGEC), completion of intensive internal cleaning and inspection program on their 112-mi ethylene pipe line. AGEC operates two ethylene manufacturing facilities in central Alberta, Canada. The ethylene plants are located 12.4 mi east of Red Deer, Alta., at Joffre, and supply two customers in Joffre. The remaining ethylene is shipped by the 112-mi, 12-in. line to a storage cavern near Edmonton.

  3. Seismic Interpretation and Well Logging Results of a Deep Borehole into the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; van der Baan, M.; Sahay, P. N.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing awareness of the need for the reduction of carbon emissions globally, geothermal energy, which offers a potential for cleaner energy generation, is one potential new source. In Alberta, these geothermal resources are likely to be found in the sedimentary basin, or in the deeper crystalline basement rocks. Alberta exhibits a very low geothermal gradient compared to other existing geothermal fields located in areas of volcanic and tectonic activity. To mitigate this effect, the focus in Alberta will involve the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in the target resource. This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production. The first goal for EGS research and development is to develop a detailed geological-geophysical characterization of selected sites to delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in Northern Alberta. One of the selected sites is in the Fort McMurray area. Using an existing deep borehole that reaches a depth of 2.3 km into the crystalline basement, our aim is to identify geological features such as zones of fractures in the basin and/or basement that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The earlier stage of our research involves re-processing of surface seismic data. This helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the geological interpretation of the subsurface, such as the locations of saline aquifers and faults that allow heat flow in the rocks, and zones of fractures that may indicate elevated porosity. Current re-processing of the seismic data displays sets of dipping reflectors which may intersect the borehole. Zero offset and walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were conducted at the borehole for direct comparison with the surface seismic sections. They are also useful in obtaining

  4. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  5. Isolated cases of remote dynamic triggering in Canada detected using cataloged earthquakes combined with a matched-filter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Yu, Hongyu; Carey, Alex; Elst, Nicholas J.

    2015-07-01

    Here we search for dynamically triggered earthquakes in Canada following global main shocks between 2004 and 2014 with MS > 6, depth < 100 km, and estimated peak ground velocity > 0.2 cm/s. We use the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) earthquake catalog to calculate β statistical values in 1° × 1° bins in 10 day windows before and after the main shocks. The statistical analysis suggests that triggering may occur near Vancouver Island, along the border of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, in western Alberta, western Ontario, and the Charlevoix seismic zone. We also search for triggering in Alberta where denser seismic station coverage renders regional earthquake catalogs with lower completeness thresholds. We find remote triggering in Alberta associated with three main shocks using a matched-filter approach on continuous waveform data. The increased number of local earthquakes following the passage of main shock surface waves suggests local faults may be in a critically stressed state.

  6. Time Trends in Emergency Department Visits for Suicide-Related Behaviours by Girls and Boys in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J.; Carlisle, Corine E.; Zhang, Xuechen; Bethell, Jennifer; Rhodes, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Canada, emergency departments (EDs) are a frontline setting for treating suicide-related behaviours (SRBs) among adolescents, yet description of national trends in ED SRB visits is lacking. We determined whether the SRB incidence rate and method patterns between 2002 and 2010 previously shown for Ontario adolescents were also experienced in Alberta. Method: A retrospective, population-based study of ED visits for SRBs (self-poisoning or self-injury, irrespective of suicidal intent) by 12- to 17-year-olds was conducted using administrative health care data from 104 EDs across Alberta, Canada. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and graphed. Rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between time periods (2002-2005 and 2006-2010) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated. Changes in SRB methods were also described. The time periods chosen were based on published Ontario trends. Results: Decreases in yearly incidence rates levelled off after 2005. Crude RRs indicated a rate decrease in 2006 to 2010 for boys (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.90) and girls (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95). From 2002 to 2010, the proportion of SRB visits for self-poisoning decreased (girls, –13%; boys, –10%) while visits for self-cutting increased (girls, +13%; boys, +14%). Conclusions: Alberta trends were similar to those previously published for Ontario. Determining if the trends and observed changes are associated with mental health care access or availability and/or provincial suicide prevention strategies would contextualize these findings and could shape future prevention efforts. Lack of identification of suicidal intent and exclusion of fatal SRB are limitations of the current study.

  7. Mortality experience among employees at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (1954-95)

    PubMed Central

    Egedahl, R; Carpenter, M; Lundell, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the mortality experience of workers at a hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
METHODS—A total of 1649 male employees of Sherritt International who worked for at least 12 continuous months during the years 1954 to 1978 at the Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta hydrometallurgical nickel refinery and fertiliser complex were followed up for an additional 17 years. Mortality was ascertained from the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada and covered the years 1954-95. Statistics were analysed with Monson's computer program.
RESULTS—Total mortality, when compared with the Canadian population, was significantly below expectation. Fewer deaths were found for circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, neoplasms, digestive cancer, and accidents, poisonings, and violence. Among the 718 men in the group exposed to nickel, there were no deaths due to nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. Fewer deaths were found for all causes, circulatory disease, ischaemic heart disease, neoplasms and digestive cancer. Lower death rates were observed than expected for respiratory malignancies and cancer of the bronchus and lung.
CONCLUSION—No association was found in this study between exposure to nickel concentrate or metallic nickel in the hydrometallurgical refining process and the subsequent development of respiratory cancer.


Keywords: epidemiology; nickel workers; mortality PMID:11600726

  8. Discovering, Recovering, and Covering-up Canada: Tracing Historical Citizenship Discourses in K-12 and Adult Immigrant Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashby, Karen; Ingram, Leigh-Anne; Joshee, Reva

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, cultural diversity has always been a contested cornerstone of citizenship and of citizenship education. In the last decade, a number of provinces, including Alberta and Ontario, have published citizenship and character education documents and social studies curricula in which ideas of cultural diversity are central and shape dominant…

  9. Teacher Education Programs for Native People. Proceedings of a Conference on Native Teacher Education (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, November 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Myrtle, Ed.; And Others

    In an effort to pool information on the working operations of Indian teacher education programs in Canada and parts of the United States, a conference on Native teacher education was held in mid-October 1973 at Saskatoon. Nine programs sent delegates, including the University of Alaska, University of Alberta, Brandon University (Manitoba),…

  10. Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1988

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.; McMillan, Ian

    1989-01-01

    In late November 1988, 1581 small and mixed animal clinics and institutional veterinarians across Canada were sent a questionnaire in order to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis in Canada in 1988, and 46% of them responded. Veterinarians reported that 181,577 dogs were blood-tested for heartworm disease and 367 dogs were found with D. immitis microfilariae. Another 60 dogs were amicrofilaremic but diagnosed with heartworm disease to give the total number of cases diagnosed in 1988 as 441 (0.24%). Heartworm was reported from Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but most (389) of the cases were from Ontario. South-western Ontario continued to be the primary focus of the infection in Canada. There were 22 cases reported from Quebec, mostly from and around Montreal, and 24 from Manitoba, mostly from Selkirk, Winnipeg and surrounding areas. Heartworm was found most frequently in companion dogs over three years of age maintained mainly outdoors in rural areas. About 76% of the cases had a history of not having left Canada, and 24% were observed with clinical signs of heartworm disease. PMID:17423348

  11. Perceptions of Healthy Eating in Four Alberta Communities: A Photovoice Project

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brent A.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating are influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. Despite this general acceptance by health practitioners and social scientists, studies suggest that there remains a relative homogeneity around peoples’ perceptions that informs a hegemonic discourse around healthy eating. People often describe healthy eating in terms of learned information from sources that reflect societies’ norms and values, such as the Canada Food Guide and the ubiquitous phrase “fruits and vegetables”. Past research has examined how built environments shape people’s access to healthy living options, such as distribution of grocers versus convenience stores and fast food restaurants. Often overlooked is an in-depth understanding of how social contexts interact with built environments, molding peoples’ perceptions of healthy eating. This paper reports on perceptions of healthy eating in four communities across Alberta, Canada. A photovoice methodology was employed to elicit perceptions of healthy eating with 35 participants. This study illustrates how participants’ photographs and their stories convey multiple meanings about healthy eating within their own lives and communities. Findings suggest that a ‘local’ context is an important part of the discourse centered around the promotion of healthy eating practices in these and potential other communities. PMID:27390390

  12. A revised crustal stress orientation database for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Schmitt, Douglas; Haug, Kristine; Ziegler, Moritz; Moeck, Inga

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian database on contemporary crustal stress has not been revised systematically in the past two decades. Here we present the results of our new compilation that contains 514 new data records for the orientation data of maximum compressive horizontal stress and 188 data records that were re-assessed. In total the Canadian stress database has now 1667 data records, which is an increase of about 45%. From these data, a new Canadian Stress map as well as one for the Province of Alberta is presented. To analyse the stress pattern, we use the quasi median on the circle as a smoothing algorithm that generates a smoothed stress map of the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientation on a regular grid. The newly introduced quasi interquartile range on the circle estimates the spreading of the data and is used as a measure for the wave-length of the stress pattern. The result of the hybrid wavelength analysis confirms that long spatial wavelength stress patterns (≥ 1000 km) exist in large areas in Canada. The observed stress pattern is transmitted through the intra-plate regions. The results reveal that shorter spatial wave length variation of the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientation of less than 200 km, prevails particularly in south-eastern and western Canada. Regional stress sources such as density contrasts, active fault systems, crustal structures, etc. might have a significant impact in these regions. In contrast to these variations, the observed stress pattern in the Alberta Basin is very homogeneous and mainly controlled by plate boundary forces and body forces. The influence of curvature of the Rocky Mountains salient in southern Alberta is minimal. The present-day horizontal stress orientations determined herein have important implications for the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy in the Alberta Basin.

  13. Occurrence of foodborne bacteria in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 Alberta feedlots. In cattle manure, generic E. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and Campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; E. coli O157 (7%, 143/2100) and Salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. Samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point interventions yielded only 1 isolate each of generic E. coli and Campylobacter (1/1653) and no Salmonella (0/1653). Catch basin water specimens were positive for generic E. coli in both the spring (62%, 13/21) and the fall (52%, 11/21). Other bacteria were detected only in the spring water specimens, including E. coli O157 (29%, 6/21), Salmonella (5%, 1/21), and Campylobacter (52%, 11/21). Generic E. coli was frequently isolated from soil specimens (30%, 27/88), but E. coli O157 was not found in soil samples obtained in the spring and was only occasionally detected in the fall samples (9%, 3/32). Salmonella were occasionally found in the soil specimens collected in the spring (3%, 2/56), but not in the fall season (0/32). Campylobacter jejuni was frequent in cattle manure (66%, 1070/1623), but rare in carcass and environmental samples. E. coli O157 and Salmonella were rarely detected in cattle or the environment. Generic E. coli and Salmonella were rarely detected on carcasses.

  14. Those Who Care: A Report on Approved Family Day Home Providers in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Malcolm; LaGrange, Annette

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of approved family day home providers in Alberta. Family day home agency coordinators from across Alberta completed questionnaires, as did approved providers who contracted with 12 agencies in central Alberta. Typical providers were married, had children, and had lived in their present…

  15. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Nancy; Fahy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government's Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern…

  16. Comprehensive survey of household radon gas levels and risk factors in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Fintan K.T.; Zarezadeh, Siavash; Dumais, Colin D.; Dumais, Karin; MacQueen, Renata; Clement, Fiona; Goodarzi, Aaron A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The inhalation of naturally occurring radon (222Rn) gas from indoor air exposes lung tissue to α-particle bombardment, a highly mutagenic form of ionizing radiation that damages DNA and increases the lifetime risk of lung cancer. We analyzed household radon concentrations and risk factors in southern Alberta, including Calgary, the third-largest Canadian metropolis. Methods: A total of 2382 residential homes (2018 in Calgary and 364 in surrounding townships) from an area encompassing 82% of the southern Alberta population were tested for radon, per Health Canada guidelines, for at least 90 days (median 103 d) between 2013 and 2016. Participants also provided home metrics (construction year, build type, foundation type, and floor and room of deployment of the radon detector) via an online survey. Homes that were subsequently remediated were retested to determine the efficacy of radon reduction techniques in the region. Results: The average indoor air radon level was 126 Bq/m3, which equates to an effective absorbed radiation dose of 3.2 mSv/yr. A total of 1135 homes (47.6%) had levels of 100 Bq/m3 or higher, and 295 homes (12.4%) had levels of 200 Bq/m3 or higher; the range was less than 15 Bq/m3 to 3441 Bq/m3. Homes built in 1992 or later had radon levels 31.5% higher, on average, than older homes (mean 142 Bq/m3 v. 108 Bq/m3). For 90 homes with an average radon level of 575 Bq/m3 before mitigation, radon suppression successfully reduced levels to an average of 32.5 Bq/m3. Interpretation: Our findings show that radon exposure is a genuine public health concern in southern Alberta, suggest that modern building practices are associated with increased indoor air radon accumulation, legitimatize efforts to understand the consequences of radon exposure to the public, and suggest that radon testing and mitigation are likely to be impactful cancer prevention strategies.

  17. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  18. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  19. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of…

  20. FOIPP and Technology: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, R. Peter; Whitemarsh, Judith

    This study provides suggestions and best practices for superintendents, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPP) coordinators and school information technologists in dealing with the impact of Alberta's FOIPP Act on the application of information technologies within their organizations. The study explores the relationship between…

  1. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A Classroom Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaya-Moore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this second part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour in the classroom. A proactive approach to classroom management is designed to…

  2. Towards a Research Agenda on Child Care in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    In this study, a Delphi Method was used to collect and collate opinions of 24 Alberta child care professionals regarding the creation of a research agenda on child care. Findings indicated that the 25 research questions (out of an original list of 80 questions) considered important or very important by at least three-quarters of the participants…

  3. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  4. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  5. Managing Technology Funding: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussome, Webb; Rozmahel, Kathleen

    This study examined how technology funding is planned, deployed and managed in six Alberta school jurisdictions and identified best practices and recommended strategies. Specific objectives were to research and examine, via interviews with technology personnel in each jurisdiction, the funding frameworks in place, and to report on commonalties,…

  6. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  7. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  8. Principal Quality Practice in Alberta: Education 900 Introduction Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennest, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Alberta's Principal Quality Practice Standard as a framework for the roles and responsibilities of school principals. Methodology: Three principals participated in the study, and each principal had more than 25 years of teaching and school administration experience. Each principal…

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in Canada's arctic: searching for the solutions.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen; Munday, Rachel; Heavner, Karen; Huntington, Janis; Morse, John; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Fedorak, Richard N; Corriveau, Andre; Bailey, Robert J

    2008-11-01

    The Canadian North Helicobacter pylori (CANHelp) working group is a team composed of investigators, health officials and community leaders from Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The group's initial goals are to investigate the impact of H pylori infection on Canada's Arctic communities; subsequent goals include identifying treatment strategies that are effective in this region and developing recommendations for health policy aimed at management of H pylori infection. The team's investigations have begun with the Aklavik H pylori Project in the Aboriginal community of Aklavik, Northwest Territories.

  10. The Acculturation of Chinese in North America: A Sociolinguistic Profile of an Advantaged Immigrant Group in Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jenn-Shann; Stanford, L. Marckworth

    1983-01-01

    The bicultural and bilingual family patterns and language acquisition patterns of 24 upper middle class children of foreign-born Chinese parents are outlined. Findings suggest two bilingual development patterns, one for children born in Canada or immigrating before school age, and the other for those immigrating during school years. (MSE)

  11. Library Management; Papers Presented at a Workshop Sponsored by The Library Association of Alberta, March 1969, Red Deer, Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomahac, Gertrude C., Ed.

    The first of the Occasional Papers issued by the Library Association of Alberta is a record of the papers delivered at the Association's Workshop on Library Management held in March 1969. The papers, both formal and informal, are presented as they were given. Titles of the papers are: (1) Management of Small College Libraries, (2) Management of…

  12. Noise correlation tomography of Southwest Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Shen, Luyi

    2015-07-01

    We analyse continuous recordings from 23 broadband seismic stations near Alberta, the southwestern sector of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Noise correlation tomo-graphy based on vertical-component seismograms reveals below-average shear velocities at shallow and middle crustal depths in central Alberta, spanning across Proterozoic accreted terranes and Archean microcontinents. This observation likely results from extensive plate convergence and crustal melting during the Proterozoic eon. The overall correlation between the crustal velocities and presumed basement domains is lower than expected, however. In the lower crust, the main pattern of shear velocities is relatively concordant with the reported domain boundaries and key Precambrian structures appear to be intact. The shear velocities beneath the Loverna Block, the largest constituent of the Hearne craton, are 10 per cent higher than the regional average. This prominent northeast striking seismic anomaly is moderately correlated with the regional heat flow and potentially represents the remnant core of the Archean Hearne province. The associated high velocities extend into the western part of the Medicine Hat Block, a possible Archean microcontinent with a debatable origin, and contribute to a strong east-west structural gradient in the lower crust. The presence and the continuity of this anomalous structure imply extensive communications among the various basement domains in southern Alberta during the assembly of the North American continent.

  13. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Lana A.; Paetsch, Chad D.; Jelinski, Murray D.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line. PMID:26538666

  14. Seismic facies analysis of delta-plain coals from Camrose, Alberta, and lacustrine coals from Pictou coalfield, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    Facies models of two coalfields in Canada have been developed through seismic facies analysis. Fluvial-deltaic Upper Cretaceous coals near Camrose, Alberta, are characterized by hummocky, subparallel, high-amplitude reflections that are laterally continuous over distances of several kilometers. Deposition in an extensive delta-plain swamp is inferred. Coals of Pennsylvanian age in the Pictou coalfield, Nova Scotia, occur in two distinct seismic facies. Parallel to subparallel, relatively continuous reflections are interpreted to define a basinal facies comprising thick coals and lacustrine sediments. Basinal margin facies contain a greater abundance of variable clastic sediments and are recognized by discontinuous, subparallel to chaotic reflections. Further improvements in stratigraphic analysis will require synthetic seismograms to analyze individual reflections in terms of the thickness and separation of seams, and to enable interseam multiples to be recognized. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    PubMed

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  16. Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings (29th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 6-8, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Catharine E., Ed.

    The following are among the 55 papers in this volume: "Implications of Person-Environment Congruence in Adult Learning Environments" (Agee); "Reliability and Validity of the Alternate Form of the Education Participation Scale" (Boshier); "Research and Developments in the Neurosciences" (Boucouvalas); "Professional Writing Activity among Professors…

  17. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada. [Bow River below Carseland Dam in Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The feasibility of transmitting hydrometric data to polar orbiting spacecraft and using these data for quasi-operational purposes was demonstrated.

  18. Use of thermal infrared and colour infrared imagery to detect crop moisture stress. [Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. C.; Clark, N. F.; Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the presence of variable plant cover (primarily percent cover) and variable available water content, the remotely sensed apparent temperatures correlate closely with plant cover and poorly with soil water. To the extent that plant cover is not systematically related to available soil water, available water in the root zone values may not be reliably predicted from the thermal infrared data. On the other hand, if plant cover is uniform and the soil surface is shown in a minor way, the thermal data indicate plant stress and consequently available water in the soil profile.

  19. Diagnostic study of job design in oil industry: Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.

    1986-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to diagnose the work situation of members of McMurray Independent Oil Workers (MIOW) Union, employed with Suncor, Inc., Fort McMurray and make recommendations for work improvements. Hackman and Oldham's Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and four scales of Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII were used to collect data from MIOW Union members with a sample size of 50% of the population. Ninety-eight usable questionnaires were received back by the investigator. The major concepts measured included job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback from job, feedback from agents, and dealing with others), affective outcomes (motivation, job satisfaction, and growth satisfaction), supervisory behaviors (initiating structure, consideration, production emphasis, persuasiveness) and demographic variables. Data were analyzed by using MINITAB and SPSSX statistical packages. Greater consideration and emotional support on the part of supervisors could increase affective outcomes and satisfaction with supervision and should result in greater organizational effectiveness. The overall pattern of quality of work life appeared to be production-oriented characterized by lack of supervisory considerations and less conducive for greater organizational performance.

  20. Quantifying stream temperature response to environmental change in a groundwater-dominated catchment, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Byrne, J. M.; Boon, S.

    2012-12-01

    The ecological significance of steam temperature response to environmental change has been discussed in many recent studies across a range of disciplines. We couple a stream energy and mass balance model with a catchment-scale hydrometeorological model to quantify stream temperature response to environmental change in a groundwater-dominated catchment. Given the importance of surface-subsurface interactions in simulating stream temperature, we propose a baseflow separation technique to parameterize these interactions within the model. This method forms the basis of a catchment-scale modelling approach designed specifically for data sparse regions. Using this approach we applied a sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of forest disturbance (harvest with riparian buffer) and climate change (mean air temperature and precipitation change for the 2040-2069 period) on stream temperature. We find that stream temperature following forest disturbance and climate change is primarily affected by a predicted shift towards earlier snowmelt runoff timing, which advances subsurface recharge early in the spring and subsequently decreases subsurface discharge in the summer, fall and winter. Changes in seasonal stream temperature regime may have important ecological consequences, particularly during the spawning and rearing stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  1. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions.

  2. Assessment of a reclamation cover system for phosphogypsum stacks in Central Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Ingrid L; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of the phosphate fertilizer industry, was produced and stockpiled at the Agrium Fort Saskatchewan facility from 1965 to 1991. Upon decommissioning, the outer slopes of the PG stacks were reclaimed by applying 15 cm of topsoil and planting a non-native seed mix. Physical, chemical, and hydrologic evaluations of the cover system confirmed that plants were successfully growing in various soil capping depths and were often rooting more than 200 mm into the PG. Percolation past the substrate into PG during a typical storm event was low (< 10 mm), and runoff from the stacks was negligible. Runoff quality met most guidelines, but some parameters, including fluoride, were up to 18 times higher than provincial or federal guidelines for soil and water quality. However, the cover system, when applied appropriately, does meet basic reclamation objectives. The exceedances are found in areas where the cover system has been compromised by erosion or mixing or in areas where the cover system has not been fully applied, such as roads or the inner basin. In areas where the cover system has been applied successfully, basic reclamation requirements are met.

  3. (PRESENTED IN ALBERTA, CANADA) A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE 2004 RELEASE OF MODELS-3 CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act and its Amendments require that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O3 and particulate matter and to assess current and future air quality regulations designed to protect human health and...

  4. Reconstruction of a Palaeo-Subglacial Lake Network in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, S. J.; Utting, D.; Clark, C.; Ruffell, A.; Pawley, S. M.; Atkinson, N.; Mallon, G.

    2014-12-01

    Subglacial lakes have been widely documented since first being identified beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 1960s and comprise a significant component of the subglacial hydrological system (Wright & Siegert, 2011). However, their investigation is largely limited to contemporary ice masses despite critical information that could be gleaned from palaeo-subglacial lake studies, including: (i) their influence on meltwater drainage, ice flow and ice streams; (ii) details about how they relate to palaeo-floods, ice dynamics and sub-Milankovitch-scale climate events; and (iii) as archives of long-term Quaternary climate change. They are also readily available, we can sample the sediments and maps the landforms with ease and we have comprehensive information on the lake-bed properties. Output from numerical ice sheet models and the simple Shreve equation approach has been used to diagnose where subglacial lakes are likely to have occurred in the geological record (Livingstone et al. 2013). However, their identification remains controversial due to the difficulty in distinguishing their signature from proglacial lake deposits (see Livingstone et al. 2012). Here, we present new geomorphological, geophysical and sedimentological evidence for the existence of a palaeo-subglacial lake network beneath the suture zone of the former Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. These relatively small (~1 km diameter) palaeo-subglacial lakes manifest as flat-spots in a drumlin field and are perched in upland areas behind small ridges. The flat-spots, which comprise basins in-filled with diamicton, are associated with subglacial meltwater channels and eskers that we interpret to document lake drainage events. References: Livingstone, S.J., et al., 2012. Quaternary Science Reviews,55, 88-110. Livingstone, S.J., et al., 2013. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 375, 13-33. Wright A.P., Siegert M.J. 2011. In: Siegert, M.J., Kennicutt, C., Bindschadler, B. (Eds.). Subglacial Antarctic Aquatic Environments, AGU Monograph.

  5. Evaluating the performance of a glacier erosion model applied to Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, R.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Menounos, B.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers are effective agents of erosion for many mountainous regions, but primary rates of erosion are difficult to quantify due to unknown conditions at the glacier bed. We develop a numerical model of subglacial erosion and passively couple it to a vertically integrated ice flow model (UBC regional glaciation model). The model accounts for seasonal changes in water pressure at the glacier bed which affect rates of abrasion and quarrying. We apply our erosion model to Peyto Glacier, and compare estimates of glacier erosion to the mass of fine sediment contained in a lake immediately down valley from the glacier. A series of experiments with our model and ones based on subglacial sliding rates are run to explore model sensitivity to bedrock hardness, seasonal hydrology, changes in mass balance, and longer-term dimensional changes of the glacier. Our experiments show that, as expected, erosion rates are most sensitive to bedrock hardness and changes in glacier mass balance. Silt and clay contained in Peyto Lake primarily originate from the glacier, and represent sediments derived from abrasion and comminution of material produced by quarrying. Average specific sediment yield during the period AD1917-1970 from the lake is 467×190 Mg km-2yr-1 and reaches a maximum of 928 Mg km-2yr-1 in AD1941. Converting to a specific sediment yield, modelled average abrasion and quarrying rates during the comparative period are 142×44 Mg km-2yr-1 and 1167×213 Mg km-2yr-1 respectively. Modelled quarrying accounts for approximately 85-95% of the erosion occurring beneath the glacier. The basal sliding model estimates combined abrasion and quarrying. During the comparative period, estimated yields average 427×136 Mg km-2yr-1, lower than the combined abrasion and quarrying models. Both models predict maximum sediment yield when Peyto Glacier reached its maximum extent. The simplistic erosion model shows higher sensitivity to climate, as seen by accentuated sediment yield peaks during the Little Ice Age. In all of our experiments to date, modelled sediment yield closely follow maximum ice cover. In contrast, sediment yields obtained from the lake indicate that maximum sediment delivery to the lake lagged maximum ice cover and occurred during a period of rapid glacier retreat. We interpret this lag to indicate removal of stored sediments beneath the glacier and subaerial erosion from recently exposed sediments in the glacier forefield rather than an increase in primary erosion of bedrock.

  6. Mandatory Continuing Pharmacy Education in Alberta, Canada: The Response to Live Programs and Correspondence Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Abram J. D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A survey of pharmacists revealed that most pharmacists exceeded the number of required credits, and most credits were acquired by correspondence study. Some differences in preference were found according to sex, age group, and professional position type. (MSE)

  7. Variation in methane production pathways associated with permafrost decomposition in collapse scar bogs of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, James L.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the distribution of methanogenic pathways at permafrost collapse scar bogs to test the hypothesis that microbial respiration and methane production are stimulated by the input of organic matter associated with permafrost degradation and collapse. An alternative hypothesis is that recently assimilated carbon produced by the fen-like vegetation (Carex, Eriophorum) growing in open water moats formed by the collapsing edge of these features stimulates microbial respiration. We found that CO2 reduction was the dominant pathway for methanogenesis within the Sphagnum areas that dominate the surface cover of these features, but relatively more acetate fermentation occurred near collapse scar moats. Methane emission and net CO2 uptake were correlated. Both were elevated in collapse scar moats and then decreased along a transect from the moats toward the center Sphagnum-dominated areas. There also appeared to be a shift toward relatively more acetate fermentation in deeper samples associated with increasing cation (calcium and magnesium) concentrations. Our results indicate that organic inputs from permafrost degradation alone do not appear to stimulate acetate fermentation. Permafrost decomposition provides conditions along the collapsing edge that are conducive to colonization by fen-like vegetation that stimulates acetate fermentation and increases methane production and emission rates.

  8. The 1903 Frank Slide, Alberta, Canada : a review of one hundred years of investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Couture, R.

    2003-04-01

    The Frank Slide occurred without warning at 0410h on April 29th, 1903. It involved 30 M m^3 of Paleozoic limestone, which travelled down Turtle Mountain and swept across the Crowsnest Valley, climbing 145 m up the opposite slope. H/L is 0.22. The movement lasted ca. 100 seconds suggesting an average velocity of ca. 30 m/s. The landslide was immediately investigated by R.G. McConnell and R.W. Brock, who, in their famous report, introduced the term "rock avalanche" to describe the event. No weather or seismic trigger is associated with the landslide. However, McConnell and Brock pointed to the role of coal mining in overthrust Mesozoic rocks at the base of Turtle Mountain as one of the causes of the catastrophe. A subsequent investigation in 1912, led by R.A. Daly, further documented the geology and found that the coal mining was instrumental in triggering the event. In the 1970s, D.M. Cruden and J. Krahn undertook an important re-examination of the geology of the Frank Slide, which produced a geological interpretation significantly different from earlier work. Krahn and N.R. Morgenstern applied numerical methods to assess the role of mining in the failure and carried out direct shear tests on the limestone. In the 1980s, Cruden and O.Hungr initiated the study of the debris with reference to emplacement mechanisms and D.K. Norris produced the definitive geological cross-section of Turtle Mountain. In the 1990s, a numerical analysis by B. Benko and D. Stead found that, with the slope at or near the limit equilibrium, mining-induced deformation may have been a contributory factor in the failure. Hungr and S.G. Evans undertook a dynamic simulation of the rock avalanche. K. Sassa et al. analysed the interaction between the debris and the valley floor sediments and its effect on run-out. Most recently, R. Couture studied the geomechanics of initial failure, and the fragmentation characteristics of the debris. Six key issues have thus emerged in the 100 year investigation of the Frank Slide; a) the precise geological structure of the source area and its relation to initial failure, b) the geomechanics of initial failure, c) the role of coal mining in loosening the slope, d) the present stability of the flanks of the slide and the hazard that they pose, e) the run-out mechanism, and f) the structure and sedimentology of the debris. The understanding of these issues has undergone a significant evolution since 1903; the extent to which they have been resolved has major implications for rock slope hazard assessment in the Rocky Mountains and the thematic understanding of rock avalanche initiation and subsequent motion.

  9. Rates of disturbance vary by data resolution: implications for conservation schedules using the Alberta boreal forest as a case study.

    PubMed

    Komers, P E; Stanojevic, Z

    2013-09-01

    Investigations of biophysical changes on earth caused by anthropogenic disturbance provide governments with tools to generate sustainable development policy. Canada currently experiences one of the fastest rates of boreal forest disturbance in the world. Plans to conserve the 330 000 km(2) boreal forest in the province of Alberta exist but conservation targets and schedules must be aligned with rates of forest disturbance. We explore how disturbance rate, and the accuracy with which we detect it, may affect conservation success. We performed a change detection analysis from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and SPOT satellite image data processing. Canada's recovery strategy for boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) states that ≤35% of a caribou range can be either burned or within 500 m of a man-made feature for caribou to recover. Our analyses show that by 2008 78% of the boreal forest was disturbed and that, if the current rate continues, 100% would be disturbed by 2028. Alberta plans to set aside 22% for conservation in a region encompassing oil sands development to balance economic, environmental, and traditional indigenous land-use goals. Contrary to the federal caribou recovery strategy, provincial conservation plans do not consider wildfire a disturbance. Based on analyses used in the provincial plan, we apply a 250 m buffer around anthropogenic footprints. Landsat image analysis indicates that the yearly addition of disturbance is 714 km(2) (0.8%). The higher resolution SPOT images show fine-scale disturbance indicating that actual disturbance was 1.28 times greater than detected by Landsat. If the SPOT image based disturbance rates continue, the 22% threshold may be exceeded within the next decade, up to 20 years earlier than indicated by Landsat-based analysis. Our results show that policies for sustainable development will likely fail if governments do not develop time frames that are grounded by accurate calculations of disturbance rates.

  10. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  11. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  12. International trade regulation and publicly funded health care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ostry, A S

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) creates new challenges for the Canadian health care system, arguably one of the most "socialized" systems in the world today. In particular, the WTO's enhanced trade dispute resolution powers, enforceable with sanctions, may make Canadian health care vulnerable to corporate penetration, particularly in the pharmaceutical and private health services delivery sectors. The Free Trade Agreement and its extension, the North American Free Trade Agreement, gave multinational pharmaceutical companies greater freedom in Canada at the expense of the Canadian generic drug industry. Recent challenges by the WTO have continued this process, which will limit the health care system's ability to control drug costs. And pressure is growing, through WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services and moves by the Alberta provincial government to privatize health care delivery, to open up the Canadian system to corporate penetration. New WTO agreements will bring increasing pressure to privatize Canada's public health care system and limit government's ability to control pharmaceutical costs.

  13. Linking evapotranspiration to stormwater reduction and attenuation in green roofs in Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breach, P. A.; Robinson, C. E.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green roofs have been used for centuries to insulate buildings and beautify urban environments. European countries, especially Germany, have adopted green roofs use in modern buildings, helping raise awareness of their many potential benefits. Green roofs have been shown to: effectively reduce and filter stormwater thereby decreasing the burden on urban sewer systems; provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load and reduced sensible heat flux to the urban atmosphere; and to extend the life of a roof by decreasing the temperature fluctuations which cause roof damage. Given that green buildings can mitigate against the negative impacts of storm water runoff and reduce the heating and cooling demands, use of green roofs in Canada might prove extremely beneficial due to our intense climate. However, the implementation of green roofs in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines that are supported by scientific understanding of their performance in North American climates. The capacity of a green roof installation to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the rooting medium at the start of the rainfall event which in turn is constrained by roof loading. The influence of medium depth is investigated through comparison to 15 cm and 10cm deep planting modules. Storage capacity has a finite limit, making rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss essential to restore the retardation of a subsequent storm. Sustaining live plant cover requires avoidance of saturated conditions and retention of minimum soil moisture levels. These limits constrain the design options with distinctive climatic stresses. Here the performance of experimental green roof modules is investigated under particularly high climatic stressing at Calgary Alberta Canada. 10 cm modules show rapid drying to unacceptably low residual moisture content, whereas 15

  14. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  15. InSAR Observations and Modeling of Anthropogenic Surface Deformation in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations over northern Alberta, Canada show persistent surface uplift occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/year, localized at several sites where the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technique is currently being used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use numerical reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion.

  16. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design. Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results. Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older (P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion. Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada. PMID:28127230

  17. Roquefortine in the stomach contents of dogs suspected of strychnine poisoning in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, Norman R.; Smith, Roy A.; Beck, Byron E.

    1992-01-01

    From April to September 1990, submissions in Alberta veterinary diagnostic laboratories for which strychnine analysis was requested were tested retrospectively for roquefortine, a diketopiperazine alkaloidal tremorgenic mycotoxin. Roquefortine was found only in strychnine-negative samples. The specific origins of the fungal-contaminated specimens could not be determined. Of the six roquefortine-positive cases, four dogs that vomited prior to treatment recovered. Two dogs which died had significant amounts of stomach contents present at the time of postmortem. At the present time only one veterinary laboratory in Canada is routinely testing for roquefortine when samples are negative for strychnine. It appears that a low diagnostic rate for this type of poisoning may be occurring due to incomplete testing. The inability to differentiate between roquefortine and strychnine poisoning on a clinical basis in five of our six cases emphasizes that an accurate causative diagnosis requires laboratory examination. Research in rats and sheep has shown that the tremorgenic mycotoxins penitrem A and roquefortine are excreted through bile. Although further research is required, the submission of bile and intestinal contents is recommended if stomach contents or vomitus are not available for laboratory testing. Both of these mycotoxins should be tested for when strychnine analysis is negative as fungi may produce both toxins at the same time. In this study we were unsure if roquefortine alone or in combination with other toxins was responsible for our findings. PMID:17424061

  18. Evaluation of cattle bedding and grazing BMPs in an agricultural watershed in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Olson, Barry M; Kalischuk, Andrea R; Casson, Janna P; Phelan, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental impacts of implementing beneficial management practices to address cattle bedding and direct access to the creek in a study watershed in southern Alberta, Canada. Approximately 35 cow-calf pairs grazed 194 ha of grass forage and had direct access to the creek in the spring and summer. During winter, the cattle were fed adjacent to the creek at an old bedding site. The practice changes included off-stream watering, bedding site relocation and fencing for rotational grazing. The cost was $15,225 and 60 h of labour. Four years of data were used in a before-and-after experimental design to evaluate the practice changes. After two years of post-implementation monitoring, riparian assessments showed an increase in plant diversity, but no change in the percent cover of the riparian species Salix exigua and Juncus balitus and a decrease in Carex sp. (P < 0.05). Water quality monitoring showed a decrease in the difference between upstream and downstream concentrations of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and Escherichia coli (P < 0.10). These results showed that improved environmental changes in riparian and water quality can be measured following the implementation of beneficial management practices for cattle bedding and grazing.

  19. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  20. ASA24-Canada

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  1. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Feng; Gupta, Nishi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data sources Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. Study selection After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province’s EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Synthesis Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software’s available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Conclusion Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada. PMID:27035020

  2. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  3. Geoscience Garden: an outdoor teaching installation at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, J. W.; Locock, A.

    2009-05-01

    Spatial awareness, and the abilities to position observations and inferences on a two-dimensional map and within the three-dimensional environment of the Earth's crust, are some of the the larger challenges facing beginning Earth Science students. Studies have shown that outdoor observations of outcrops are vital in the development of these spatial skills. However, teaching the techniques of field geology to Earth Science students is challenging in many parts of the continental interior, where nearly flat-lying, weakly consolidated, poorly exposed sedimentary rocks may be concealed beneath recent soils and Quaternary sediments. At the University of Alberta, these problems are offset by field courses at distant locations in more varied terrains during the spring and summer, but the distances (~300 km) and climate make fieldwork difficult during a busy teaching year that extends from September to April. The Geoscience Garden will be a unique landscaped area within the University of Alberta campus in which large (1 - 5 m), boulders and rock slabs will be built into oriented, simulated outcrops. These will be arranged in a layout that represents the geology of western and northern Canada in condensed form. The Garden, currently in the process of installation, will provide an artificial field environment in which Earth Science students can develop observational skills, and construct a simple geological map. They will be able to interpret the mapped area in terms of a three-dimensional structure, and make stratigraphic inferences about the order of deposition of the units and the environmental changes that occurred during the geologic history of the simulated area. In addition to more common rock types, the Garden will also display specimens of mineral deposits in geological context, and illustrate their importance to rural and northern communities. A buried boulder that has high magnetic susceptibility will provide a target for introductory geophysical field surveys

  4. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  5. Precipitation Processes in the New Growth Zone of Alberta Hailstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Terrence William

    1981-06-01

    An investigation was made into the precipitation processes operating within the convective zone located upwind (with respect to the mid-level winds) of four severe Alberta hailstorms which occurred on 12 August 1978, 7 July 1979, 21 July 1979, and 22 July 1979. The main research tools employed were the University of Wyoming instrumented Queen-Air aircraft and the Alberta Research Council S-Band polarization diversity meteorological radar. The microphysical observations suggested that: (1) The hydrometeors in the shelf cloud were typically cloud droplets only. (2) Ice appeared only after turrets (feeder clouds) grew to temperatures colder than approximately -10 C. (3) Embryo sized particles formed as a result of the accretional growth of ice particles. (4) The first radar echo greater than 20 dBZ was due to 1 to 2 mm size graupel particles in concentrations from about 0.1 to .01 L('-1). A conceptual model was developed for each storm by synthesizing the aircraft data with the radar data. Evidence exists for a two stage hail growth process i.e. the embryos developed in the feeder clouds and then interacted with the weak-echo region (WER) of the main storm to grow to large hail. Observations showed that graupel particles produced by the feeder clouds were transported by the mid-level winds towards the WER of the main storm. Feeder clouds which merged with the storm produced fine-scale reflectivity patterns. The transfer of melted graupel particles from the feeder clouds to the WER at levels warmer than 0 C is thought to be the source of the frozen drop embryos found within some of the hailstones from these Alberta storms.

  6. The Conceptual Approach Study in Secondary Physical Education in Alberta-1975. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, W. Geoffrey; Cooney, Daniel

    The overall purpose of this study is to evaluate the methods by which the Physical Education Committee Pilot Teachers institute the "Conceptual Guide" (Alberta 1974) in teaching secondary school physical education in experimental classes in Alberta schools. The study evaluates the impact of the conceptual guide and discovery approach…

  7. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISA Handbook for Cycle 4. 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) is a bold approach to improving student learning by encouraging teachers, parents, and the community to work collaboratively to introduce innovative projects that address local needs. Initiated in 1999 by the Alberta Government and its partners, AISI provides targeted funding to school…

  8. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective.

  9. English as a Second Language (ESL) in Alberta Schools. Parent Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Schools in Alberta provide English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program support to immigrant students while they are adjusting to Canadian culture and learning the English language. This booklet is for parents who are new to Alberta, whose children are learning ESL and/or who need more information about ESL program support. A description of the…

  10. Maintaining the Momentum. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    Alberta's apprenticeship system offers training in 50 designated trades and 4 designated occupations and includes 40,398 registered apprentices and 11,1984 employers. The main components of Alberta's apprenticeship and training system are as follows: (1) a network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated occupations; (2)…

  11. Funding Mechanisms, Cost Drivers, and the Distribution of Education Funds in Alberta: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neu, Dean; Taylor, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Critical analysis of historical financial data of the Calgary Board of Education (CBE) examined the impact of Alberta's 1994 funding changes on the CBE and the distribution of Alberta's education funding. Findings illustrate how funding mechanisms are used to govern from a distance and how seemingly neutral accounting/funding techniques function…

  12. Government Policy and Postsecondary Education in Alberta: A "Field Theory" Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, David; Wimmer, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    While the landscape of postsecondary education in Alberta continues to expand and diversify, there seems to be very little written about the organization of postsecondary education in the province over the past 15 to 20 years (Wimmer & Schmaus, 2010). This paper provides an analysis of postsecondary education in Alberta over the past 15 to 20…

  13. Selected Alberta science and research success stories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication provides a sampling of the value of science and research to Albertans, to the Alberta economy, and to the global community as revealed in stories of successful science and research activities in the province. Each story includes name of developer, inventor, company, and/or supporter; names of co-operating agencies, if any; contact name and address for further information; and a list of expected or realized benefits. The stories are organized under subject areas relating to agriculture and agri-food, arts and culture, biotechnology, construction, education, energy, environment, forest sector, health and medicine, human and community development, information and communications, manufacturing, mineral sector, tourism, and transportation.

  14. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  15. Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Over Canada From Ozonesondes: 1980-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardle, D. I.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Kerr, J. B.; Davies, J.

    2005-12-01

    Measurements of the vertical profile of ozone concentration using balloon-borne ECC ozonesondes have been made weekly since 1980 at several sites in Canada (Edmonton, Goose Bay, Churchill and Resolute), since 1987 at Alert and since 1992 at Eureka. Previous analyses of ozone trends over Canada have shown strong negative trends in tropospheric ozone. Here, with data up to the end of 2001, we find that while for the 1980-2001 period the overall linear trends are primarily negative, both in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, when the data for 1991-2001 only are considered, the trends are positive, even in the lower stratosphere. When the time series are compared with previously reported trends (to 1993), it is evident that ozone has rebounded at all levels below about 63 hPa. These differences do not appear to be related to changes in tropopause height, as the average height of the tropopause (as measured over the ozonesonde stations) has not changed over either the 22-year or the 11-year period. Nevertheless, comparison with another dynamical indicator, the wintertime frequency of occurrence of laminae in the ozone profile, suggests that this rebound may be partly a result of small changes in the atmospheric circulation, rather than a recovery of the ozone layer from halocarbon-induced depletion. The long-term trends in average tropospheric ozone concentrations over Canada are similar to corresponding lower stratospheric trends, and tropospheric ozone levels show significant correlation with lower stratospheric ozone amounts.

  16. Conference on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory (2nd).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-30

    Illinois The Rockefeller University 603 E. Daniel 1230 York Ave. Champaign, IL 61820 New York, NY 10021 Mr. Steven M. Guich Dr. Franz Hock Social Sciences...Psychology Edmonton, Alberta T6H 2B9 John Hopkins University Canada Baltimore, MD 21218 Mr. Steven Hampson Ms. Carol A. Hunt Information and Computer...Irvine, CA 92717 University of California Irvine, CA 92717 Dr. David LaBerge Cognitive Sciences Mr. Richard S. Lewis University of California Department

  17. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    concrete evidence of the USAMRJ’D’s increased productivity in 1987. These products and information, while generated for exotic and dangerous agents with...Isolation Team has maintained its skills in the isolation and transportation of patients suspected to have diseases associated with highly dangerous ...attenuated Junin viris (JV) vacine . Presented at th- International Congress of Virology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August. Malinowsld, F. J., G. F

  18. Impacts of climate and catastrophic forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC (Hydrologiska Byråns attenbalansavdelning, Environment Canada), in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (global climate model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). The GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. Flow also decreased in July and August, when irrigation is important; these reduced river flows during this season could impact agriculture production. The amplification in the streamflow is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, resulting in lower water availability during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty in streamflows were higher in spring and summer than in winter and fall. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing the winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  19. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  20. Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Gizaw, Mesgana

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events in the Oldman (ORB), Bow, (BRB) and Red Deer (RRB) River Basins of southern Alberta, Canada, was assessed using six extreme climate indices for the rainy period of May-August (MJJA), and 9-km resolution Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and A1B climate scenarios of four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Models (GCMs) dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model, MM5. R95p of the three study sites showed an increase of 4% for the 2050s (2041-2070) and 10% for the 2080s (2071-2100) period, whereas R99p increased by 39% (2050s) and 42% (2080s) which suggest a projected increase in the volume of precipitation expected in future very wet and particularly extremely wet days. Similarly, R20mm, P30yr, RX1day and RX5day are also projected to increase by about 15% by the mid- and late 21st century in the three study sites. However, compared to BRB and RRB, ORB located in the southernmost part of the study site is projected to undergo a relatively higher increase in both temperature and precipitation intensity, which is assessed in terms of indices such as P30yr, RX1day and RX5day. On the other hand, RRB and BRB are projected to experience higher increase in R20mm, which suggest a relatively higher increase in the number of very heavy precipitation days projected for these two basins. Overall, these results suggest that in the 2050s and 2080s, southern Alberta will be expected to experience more frequent and severe intensive storm events in the MJJA season that could potentially increase the risk of future flooding in this region. Ref: Gizaw, M., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta, Int. Journal Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.4338

  1. The protocol for the Families First Edmonton trial (FFE): a randomized community-based trial to compare four service integration approaches for families with low-income

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Families with low incomes experience an array of health and social challenges that compromise their resilience and lead to negative family outcomes. Along with financial constraints, there are barriers associated with mental and physical health, poorer education and language. In addition, vulnerable populations experience many services as markedly unhelpful. This combination of family and service barriers results in reduced opportunities for effective, primary-level services and an increased use of more expensive secondary-level services (e.g., emergency room visits, child apprehensions, police involvement). A systematic review of effective interventions demonstrated that promotion of physical and mental health using existing service was critically important. Methods/Design The Families First Edmonton Trial (FFE) tests four service integration approaches to increase use of available health and social services for families with low-income. It is a randomized, two-factor, single-blind, longitudinal effectiveness trial where low-income families (1168) were randomly assigned to receive either (1) Family Healthy Lifestyle plus Family Recreation service integration (Comprehensive), (2) Family Healthy Lifestyle service integration, (3) Family Recreation service integration, or (4) existing services. To be eligible families needed to be receiving one of five government income assistance programs. The trial was conducted in the City of Edmonton between January 2006 and August 2011. The families were followed for a total of three years of which interventional services were received for between 18 and 24 months. The primary outcome is the number of family linkages to health and social services as measured by a customized survey tool “Family Services Inventory”. Secondary outcomes include type and satisfaction with services, cost of services, family member health, and family functioning. Where possible, the measures for secondary outcomes were selected because

  2. Cancer incidence attributable to insufficient fibre consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insufficient fibre consumption has been associated with a increased risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancers in Alberta that could be attributed to insufficient fibre consumption in 2012. Methods: The number and proportion of colorectal cancers in Alberta attributable to insufficient fibre consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from the World Cancer Research Fund's 2011 Continuous Update Project on colorectal cancer, and the prevalence of insufficient fibre consumption (< 23 g/d) was estimated using dietary data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: Between 66% and 67% of men and between 73% and 78% of women reported a diet with insufficient fibre consumption. Population attributable risk estimates for colorectal cancer were marginally higher in men, ranging from 6.3% to 6.8% across age groups, whereas in women they ranged from 5.0% to 5.5%. Overall, 6.0% of colorectal cancers or 0.7% of all cancers in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to insufficient fibre consumption. Interpretation: Insufficient fibre consumption accounted for 6.0% of colorectal cancers in Alberta in 2012. Increasing fibre consumption in Alberta has the potential to reduce to the future burden of colorectal cancer in the province.

  3. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Monserud, Robert A; Huang, Shongming; Yang, Yuqing

    2006-06-01

    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), the major forest tree species of Alberta. The PSP network is densest in stands aged between 70 and 100 years and is well-represented by stands of all ages to 150 years of age. Stand biomass (Mg ha(-1)) was estimated for each PSP plot as the sum of the respective biomass components for each tree (live and standing dead). The biomass components for live trees were stem, bark, branches, foliage and roots. The components for standing dead trees excluded foliage. Equations from previous biomass studies were used for biomass component estimation. Biomass estimates of additional non-tree components were attempted, but without much success. Biomass of the soil organic layer was estimated once on 452 PSPs and a mean estimate of total dead fuels on the ground (28.4 Mg ha(-1)) was available only for the entire distribution of lodgepole pine. However, values of these two components were essentially constant over time and therefore did not alter the analysis or conclusions obtained by analyzing total tree biomass alone. We then used this spatial network of 1549 plots as the basis for mapping biomass across Alberta. Mapping methods were based on Australian National University SPLINe (ANUSPLIN) software, Hutchinson's thin-plate smoothing spline in four dimensions (latitude, longitude, elevation and biomass). Total tree biomass (mean = 172 Mg ha(-1)) was dominated by stem biomass (mean = 106 Mg ha(-1)), which was an order of magnitude greater than the mean estimates for the bark (11 Mg ha(-1)), branch (12 Mg ha(-1)) and foliage (12 Mg ha(-1)) components. A close relationship was found between total tree biomass and stand stem volume (R(2) = 0

  4. Improving hypertension management through pharmacist prescribing; the rural alberta clinical trial in optimizing hypertension (Rural RxACTION): trial design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with hypertension continue to have less than optimal blood pressure control, with nearly one in five Canadian adults having hypertension. Pharmacist prescribing is gaining favor as a potential clinically efficacious and cost-effective means to improve both access and quality of care. With Alberta being the first province in Canada to have independent prescribing by pharmacists, it offers a unique opportunity to evaluate outcomes in patients who are prescribed antihypertensive therapy by pharmacists. Methods The study is a randomized controlled trial of enhanced pharmacist care, with the unit of randomization being the patient. Participants will be randomized to enhanced pharmacist care (patient identification, assessment, education, close follow-up, and prescribing/titration of antihypertensive medications) or usual care. Participants are patients in rural Alberta with undiagnosed/uncontrolled blood pressure, as defined by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program. The primary outcome is the change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 24 weeks in the enhanced-care versus usual-care arms. There are also three substudies running in conjunction with the project examining different remuneration models, investigating patient knowledge, and assessing health-resource utilization amongst patients in each group. Discussion To date, one-third of the required sample size has been recruited. There are 15 communities and 17 pharmacists actively screening, recruiting, and following patients. This study will provide high-level evidence regarding pharmacist prescribing. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00878566. PMID:21834970

  5. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  6. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  7. The geometry of folds in granitoid rocks of northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Langenberg, C.; Ramsden, John

    1980-06-01

    Granitoid rocks which predominate in the Precambrian shield of northeastern Alberta show large-scale fold structures. A numerical procedure has been used to obtain modal foliation orientations. This procedure results in the smoothing of folded surfaces that show roughness on a detailed scale. Statistical tests are used to divide the study areas into cylindrical domains. Structural sections can be obtained for each domain, and horizontal and vertical sections are used to construct block diagrams. The projections are performed numerically and plotted by computer. This method permits blocks to be viewed from every possible angle. Both perspective and orthographic projections can be produced. The geometries of a dome in the Tulip Lake area and a synform in the Hooker Lake area have been obtained. The domal structure is compared with polyphase deformational interference patterns and with experimental diapiric structures obtained in a centrifuge system. The synform in the Hooker Lake area may be genetically related to the doming in the Tulip Lake area.

  8. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  9. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  10. Pre-Quaternary microfossils—A guide to errors in radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambudiri, E. M. V.; Teller, James T.; Last, W. M.

    1980-03-01

    The presence of pre-Quaternary microfossils and anomalously old radiocarbon dates frorh fine-grained organic material in Lake Manitoba sediment suggests that old noncarbonate carbon is contaminating these fine-grained deposits. The relative abundance of the pre-Quaternary microfossils in these muds is used as a guide to correcting the anomalous 14C dates. *Present addresses: (Nambudiri) Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; (Last) Alberta Research Council, 11315-87th Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2C2

  11. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  12. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM): Interpretation of imagery over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator); Dixon, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Visual analysis of HCMM images acquired over two sites in Canada and supporting aircraft and ground data obtained at a smaller subsite in Alberta show that nightime surface temperature distribution is primarily related to the near-surface air temperature; the effects of topography, wind, and land cover were low or indirect through air temperature. Surface cover and large altitudinal differences were important parameters influencing daytime apparent temperature values. A quantitative analysis of the relationship between the antecedent precipitation index and the satellite thermal IR measurements did not yield statistically significant correlation coefficients, but the correlations had a definite temporal trend which could be related to the increasing uniformity of vegetation cover. The large pixel size (resulting in a mixture of cover types and soil/canopy temperatures measured by the satellite) and high cloud cover frequency found in images covering both Canadian sites and northern U.S. were considered the main deficiencies of the thermal satellite data.

  13. Buried Proterozoic foredeep under the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, D. E.; Kurtz, R. D.; Craven, J. A.; Rondenay, S.; Qian, W.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic studies of the Precambrian basement beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin in Alberta indicate a narrow linear conductivity anomaly spatially correlated with a strong positive magnetic feature, the Red Deer high. The conductor is located below sedimentary cover near the top of the crystalline basement and has limited depth extent. We propose that this anomalous feature represents graphitic metasedimentary rocks in the euxinic-flysch facies of a Proterozoic foredeep sequence. The strong magnetic anomaly results from an associated iron formation deposited on the outer ramp of the foredeep. This model explains the geophysical anomalies, has analogues on the exposed shield, and is consistent with the timing, deformation history, and known geology of the Precambrian basement.

  14. Regulation of discharge of organochlorines from pulp mills in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Jennifer

    1991-03-01

    Organochlorines are a group of chemicals including dioxins and furans, at least some of which are highly toxic to humans. Organochlorines are formed as a byproduct of the chlorine bleaching process in pulp mills, as well as in other ways. Current federal and provincial environmental protection legislation in Canada is too general to adequately deal with the problem of organochlorine discharge. In Sweden and Germany strict new guidelines have been set for the discharge of organochlorines; strict guidelines are also planned for Alberta. The author recommends that new regulations, dealing specifically with organochlorine discharge, be promulgated under the new Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The new regulations should apply equally to all pulp mills. Strict enforcement, through cooperation of federal and provincial authorities, is also advised.

  15. Top income shares in Canada: recent trends and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Veall, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    According to Canadian taxfiler data, over the last thirty years there has been a surge in the income shares of the top 1%, top 0.1% and top 0.01% of income recipients, even with longitudinal smoothing by individual using three- or five-year moving averages. Top shares fell in 2008 and 2009, but only by a fraction of the overall surge. Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario have much more pronounced surges than other provinces. Part of the Canadian surge is likely attributable to U.S. factors, but a comprehensive explanation remains elusive. Even so, I draw implications for policies that might achieve some support from across the political spectrum, including the elimination of tax preferences that favour those with high incomes, the promotion of shareholder democracy and, to maintain Canada's relatively high intergenerational mobility, continued wide accessibility to healthcare and education.

  16. Top income shares in Canada: recent trends and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Veall, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    According to Canadian taxfiler data, over the last thirty years there has been a surge in the income shares of the top 1%, top 0.1% and top 0.01% of income recipients, even with longitudinal smoothing by individual using three- or five-year moving averages. Top shares fell in 2008 and 2009, but only by a fraction of the overall surge. Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario have much more pronounced surges than other provinces. Part of the Canadian surge is likely attributable to U.S. factors, but a comprehensive explanation remains elusive. Even so, I draw implications for policies that might achieve some support from across the political spectrum, including the elimination of tax preferences that favour those with high incomes, the promotion of shareholder democracy and, to maintain Canada's relatively high intergenerational mobility, continued wide accessibility to healthcare and education. PMID:23335814

  17. Je voyage au Canada (Travelling to Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Normand

    Designed for use in a bilingual program, this basic French reader centers around a trip to Canada. It contains reading selections, two short poems, the words and music of a song entitled "La cigale et la fourmi," and several oral and written exercises. (PMP)

  18. Isolated cases of remote dynamic triggering in Canada detected using cataloged earthquakes combined with a matched-filter approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bei, Wang; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yajing; Yu, Hongyu; Carey, Alex; van der Elst, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Here we search for dynamically triggered earthquakes in Canada following global main shocks between 2004 and 2014 with MS > 6, depth < 100 km, and estimated peak ground velocity > 0.2 cm/s. We use the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) earthquake catalog to calculate β statistical values in 1° × 1° bins in 10 day windows before and after the main shocks. The statistical analysis suggests that triggering may occur near Vancouver Island, along the border of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, in western Alberta, western Ontario, and the Charlevoix seismic zone. We also search for triggering in Alberta where denser seismic station coverage renders regional earthquake catalogs with lower completeness thresholds. We find remote triggering in Alberta associated with three main shocks using a matched-filter approach on continuous waveform data. The increased number of local earthquakes following the passage of main shock surface waves suggests local faults may be in a critically stressed state.

  19. Cancer incidence attributable to red and processed meat consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of red and processed meats has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancers in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to the consumption of red and processed meat. Methods: The number and proportion of colorectal cancers in Alberta that were attributable to red and processed meat consumption were estimated using population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from the World Cancer Research Fund's 2011 Continuous Update Project on Colorectal Cancer, and the prevalence of red and processed meat consumption was estimated using dietary data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Age- and sex-specific colorectal cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: Among participants in Alberta's Tomorrow Project, 41%-61% of men and 14%-25% of women consumed more than 500 g of red and processed meat per week, which exceeds World Cancer Research Fund cancer prevention guidelines. For red meat consumption, population attributable risks for colorectal cancer were substantially higher for men (13.6%-17.9%) than for women (1.6%-2.1%). For processed meat consumption, the population attributable risks were also higher for men (3.2%-4.8%) than for women (1.5%-2.1%). Overall, about 12% of colorectal cancers, or 1.5% of all cancers, in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to the consumption of red and processed meat. Interpretation: Red and processed meat consumption is estimated to acount for about 12% of colorectal cancers in Alberta. Decreasing its consumption has the potential to reduce to Alberta's cancer burden. PMID:28018893

  20. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  1. A methodologic framework to evaluate the number of cancers attributable to lifestyle and environment in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research to estimate population attributable risks for cancer in Alberta has been limited. Attributable burden estimates are important for planning and implementing population-based cancer prevention strategies. This article describes a methodologic framework to estimate the number of incident cancers attributable to modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors in Alberta. Methods: We estimated population attributable risks for cancer for exposures to 24 established cancer risk factors including tobacco consumption and environmental tobacco exposure, environmental factors, infectious agents, hormone therapies, dietary intake, obesity and physical inactivity. We used risk estimates to quantify the association between individual exposures and cancer sites as well as prevalence estimates for individual exposures in Alberta to estimate the proportion of cancer in Alberta that could be attributed to each exposure. These estimations were conducted in the context of a theoretical minimum risk principle, whereby exposures corresponding to the lowest levels of population risk were used as the comparisons for alternative exposure levels. Inte rpretation: We outline the main methodologic principles for the protocol used in evaluating population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors for cancer in Alberta. The data produced by this project will provide important information concerning which known cancer risk factors are responsible for the largest proportions of cancer in Alberta and could inform future cancer prevention strategies. PMID:27730111

  2. The Relationship Between Seismicity and the Oil and Gas Industry in Western Alberta and Eastern B.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Ghofrani, H.; Walker, D.; Cheadle, B.; Schultz, R.; Shcherbakov, R.; Tiampo, K. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Significantly increased production of hydrocarbons in North America is being driven by the development of unconventional resources whose commercial viability, in many cases, depends upon massive subsurface injection of fluids. Although relatively uncommon, elevated pore pressure from fluid injection of any kind can induce earthquake activity by activating slip on a proximal fault. In the western Canada sedimentary basin (which follows the Rocky Mountain foothills region and straddles the border between Alberta and B.C.), we find that hydraulic fracture treatment, wherein fluids are injected under high pressure in long laterally-drilled wells in order to induce localized fracturing of a rock formation, is the primary triggering mechanism of induced seismicity. This contrasts with the central U.S., where most induced seismicity has been attributed to large-scale wastewater injection into deep disposal wells. Our findings are based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of seismicity at the M≥3 level since 1985, along with a complete well database for the region, containing information on many thousands of oil and gas wells. Since 2010, most of the regional earthquakes of M≥3 are correlated in both time and space with hydraulic fracturing. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the observed correlations are extremely unlikely (<<1%) to have been obtained by chance. Improved understanding of regional variability in fault activation processes, accounting for operational and geological factors, will aid in the development and validation of predictive models for the time-dependent hazards from induced earthquakes.

  3. Anomalous surface heave induced by enhanced oil recovery in northern Alberta: InSAR observations and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearse, Jill; Singhroy, Vern; Samsonov, Sergey; Li, Junhua

    2014-08-01

    Recent interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations over northern Alberta, Canada, show persistent surface heave occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/yr, localized at sites where the steam-assisted gravity drainage technique is currently used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion. We also observe an unexpected localized uplift, of magnitude equal to or greater than the heave above the sites of steaming but located at clusters of wellheads which are outside the region of influence of the steam chambers. We show that this "wellhead" deformation can be explained by thermal expansion of rock near the injector wells.

  4. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  5. Adult Basic Education in Alberta: To and Beyond 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.

    The problem of adult illiteracy in Canada is now accepted as socially significant, whether defined in terms of numbers, impact on the economy, or implications for the future. A reasonable estimate would be that one in five Canadian adults has a severe enough problem with reading, writing, or arithmetic that his or her functioning in society is to…

  6. Canada: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B

    2009-01-01

    Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in other countries.

  7. First Nations, Metis, and Inuit Education: The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement Approach to Improve Indigenous Education in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Thelma M.; Pomahac, Guy; Striker, Evelyn Good; Tailfeathers, Johnel

    2011-01-01

    The education of minority students is of considerable interest within the literature. Ensuring that all children receive quality programming and that they successfully graduate from school is of concern for parents, educational stakeholders, and society alike. In Canada, the indigenous populations of First Nations, Metis, and Inuit (FNMI) students…

  8. Urbanization and Urban Life in Alberta. Report of the Urban Studies Symposium Sponsored by the Alberta Human Resources Research Council, November 21, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, R. Gordon, Ed.; And Others

    This volume attempts first to take stock of the process of urbanization in Alberta and second to identify areas in which research may be required to guide urban development policies in the years ahead. Contents include the following papers: "An Economic Perspective," Eric J. Hanson; "A Goegraphic Perspective," Dennis B. Johnson…

  9. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  10. A characterization of solution gas flaring in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Kostiuk, L W; Spangelo, J L

    2001-08-01

    Information reported here is the result of a detailed analysis of data on flared and vented solution gas in the Province of Alberta in 1999. A goal of characterizing these flares was to aid in the improved management of solution gas flaring. In total, 4499 oil and bitumen batteries reported flaring or venting with a combined gas volume of 1.42 billion m3. There was significant site-to-site variation in volumes of gas flared or vented, gas composition, and flare design. Approximately 5% of physical batteries generate 35.7% of the gas flared and vented from oil and bitumen batteries. Therefore, if one were to attempt to mitigate flaring, significant progress could be made by starting with only the largest sites. The monthly variability of gas volumes was considered because high variability could affect implementation of alternative technologies. It was found that slightly more than 40% of the sites were reasonably steady and had monthly deviations of 100% or less from the average flared volume. The variability in monthly volumes was less for the larger batteries. Data from individual well sites show significant variability in the relative concentrations of each of the major species contained in solution gas.

  11. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  12. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 μm and a 1 μm mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume

  13. Improving Health Equity: The Promising Role of Community Health Workers in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sara; Labonté, Ronald; Spitzer, Denise L.; Andrew, Caroline; Amaratunga, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from an applied case study of collaboration between a community-based organization staffed by community health workers/multicultural health brokers (CHWs/MCHBs) serving immigrants and refugees and a local public health unit in Alberta, Canada. In this study, we explored the challenges, successes and unrealized potential of CHWs/MCHBs in facilitating culturally responsive access to healthcare and other social services for new immigrants and refugees. We suggest that health equity for marginalized populations such as new immigrants and refugees could be improved by increasing the role of CHWs in population health programs in Canada. Furthermore, we propose that recognition by health and social care agencies and institutions of CHWs/MCHBs, and the role they play in such programs, has the potential to transform the way we deliver healthcare services and address health equity challenges. Such recognition would also benefit CHWs and the populations they serve. PMID:25410697

  14. Global change and rampant land and water resource development a case study in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J.; Kienzle, S.; Schindler, D.

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews the impacts of global and regional change on the land and water resources in Alberta, Canada. Alberta contains most of Canada's fossil fuel energy resources, including: extensive conventional crude oil and natural gas fields; widespread coal deposits over the southern half of the province with potential for mining and coal bed methane extraction (CBM); and the Athabasca oil sands a crude oil supply of at least several hundred billion barrels entangled in extensive sand deposits lying along the Athabasca River. The province is also a focal point for intensive agriculture in the form of irrigation that has led to over allocated rivers in the south, and a booming economy associated with rapid population growth and associated urban sprawl in support of rapid resource development. All this development is occurring in a region where global climate change is expected to have substantial impacts on land and water in the next few decades. This work outlines the potential impacts of a range of human activities associated with some of the most intensive and extensive resource development plans in North America focused on one region - Alberta. Oil sands investments alone in the next few decades are forecast to exceed one hundred billion dollars! There are plans to double and triple primary and secondary agricultural production; expand coal mining in support of conventional coal fired power plants; and establish CBM well networks over much of the southern half of the province, including extensive development of CBM on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, the principal source of water for most of the semi-arid Canadian plains. The development pace and direction will likely result in widespread environmental contamination of regional and global consequence.

  15. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels.

  16. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  17. Nos Eleves, Notre Avenir. Une Introduction a L'education en Alberta. De la Maternelle a la 12e Annee (Our Students, Our Future: An Introduction to Education in Alberta. Kindergarten to Grade 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Under the Canadian Constitution, each province and territory has exclusive jurisdiction over education. This French language publication explains the ABCs of Alberta's school system. The text details Alberta's goals, various levels of responsibility, funding, public and private schooling, academic core and optional programs, home education,…

  18. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    PubMed Central

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece), to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants) and Canada (2,400 infants). Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care. PMID:24142318

  19. Changes in the vertical distribution of ozone over Canada from ozonesondes: 1980-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; Wardle, D. I.; Kerr, J. B.; Davies, J.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical profile of ozone concentration using balloon-borne ECC ozonesondes have been made weekly since 1980 at several sites in Canada (Edmonton, Goose Bay, Churchill, and Resolute), since 1987 at Alert, and since 1992 at Eureka. Previous analyses of ozone trends over Canada have shown strong negative trends in tropospheric ozone. We present here a new analysis of trends in the vertical distribution of ozone with data up to the end of 2001. In addition, more detailed attention is paid to some potential sources of bias: total ozone correction, background current correction, and time-of-launch (diurnal) variation. For the 1980-2001 period the overall linear trends are primarily negative, both in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. However, when the data for 1991-2001 only are considered, the trends are positive, even in the lower stratosphere. When the time series are compared with previously reported trends (to 1993), it is evident that ozone has rebounded at all levels below about 63 hPa. These differences do not appear to be related to changes in tropopause height, as the average height of the tropopause (as measured over the ozonesonde stations) has not changed over either the 22-year or the 11-year period. Nevertheless, comparison with another dynamical indicator, the wintertime frequency of occurrence of laminae in the ozone profile, suggests that this rebound may be partly a result of small changes in the atmospheric circulation, rather than a recovery of the ozone layer from halocarbon-induced depletion. The long-term trends in average tropospheric ozone concentrations over Canada are similar to corresponding lower stratospheric trends, and tropospheric ozone levels show significant correlation with lower stratospheric ozone amounts.

  20. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices.

  1. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  2. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  3. Cancer incidence attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; McFadden, Alison; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption (≥ 5 servings/d) has been associated with a probable decreased risk for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach and lung (fruit only). The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and absolute number of cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods: The numbers and proportions of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using the population attributable risk. Relative risks were obtained from international collaborative panels and peer-reviewed literature. Prevalence data for insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003, 2004, 2005, 2007/08). Age-, site- and sex-specific cancer incidence data for 2012 were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Results: The proportion of men consuming 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day ranged from 25.9%-30.4% across age groups; the range among women was 46.8%-51.5% across age groups. The proportion of cancers attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in Alberta was highest for esophageal cancer (40.0%) and lowest for lung cancer (3.3%). Overall, 290 cancer cases (1.8%) in Alberta in 2012 were attributable to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. Interpretation: Almost 2% of cancers in Alberta can be attributed to insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has benefits for the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases; thus, increasing the proportion of Albertans who meet cancer prevention guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption is a priority. PMID:28018892

  4. Cancer incidence attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grevers, Xin; Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Feldman, Matthew; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies are classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We sought to estimate the proportion and total number of cancers attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Population attributable risks were used to estimate the proportion of attributable cases for each associated cancer site. Relative risk estimates were obtained from the most relevant and recent epidemiologic literature. Prevalences of the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta were collected from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Specific cancer incidence data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry for the year 2012. Results: Overall, 6.3% of breast cancers (n = 135) diagnosed in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to the use of oral contraceptives, and the exposure potentially prevented about 57.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 276) and 29.1% of ovarian cancers (n = 52). About 15.5% of breast cancers (n = 258) and 8.9% of ovarian cancers (n = 13) were estimated to be attributable to the use of hormone therapy, whereas 11.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 48) were possibly prevented by the exposure. Interpretation: Based on our estimates, oral contraceptive use resulted in a net protective effect among the cancer sites studied, thus reducing the cancer burden in Alberta in 2012. The use of hormone therapy was estimated to increase the cancer burden in the province, therefore the risk and benefit of hormone therapy should be carefully considered before use. PMID:28018891

  5. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  6. Community Radio in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Results are presented of a survey of 20 community radio organizations operating in Canada. For each of the 20 agencies, information is provided relating to: (1) the name and address of the organization; (2) the name and population of the community served; (3) the station's call letters, frequency, and power; (4) the date of the station's license;…

  7. Teaching Canada: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    This resource bibliography with over 500 descriptive annotations on Canada, a product of a conference on Canadian Studies held at the University of Maine, Orono, in September, 1969, is designed to make teachers of social studies and other fields at both the elementary and secondary levels more aware of the variety of available teaching materials…

  8. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  9. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost…

  10. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  11. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  12. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  13. DNA typing in populations of mule deer for forensic use in the Province of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Richard M; Patterson, Denise; Zhang, Youfang

    2008-06-01

    The present study involves the development of forensic DNA typing tests and databases for mule deer in the Province of Alberta. Two multiplex PCR reactions interrogating 10 loci were used to analyze samples from three populations of mule deer. Additionally, an amelogenin based sex-typing marker was used to determine the gender of samples. Results show that the tests and databases are appropriate for use in forensic applications. Additionally, the results indicate that there is little population structure in mule deer in Alberta and that no changes to management of this game species are suggested.

  14. IYPE in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  15. Pre- and postmortem tyrannosaurid bite marks on the remains of Daspletosaurus (Tyrannosaurinae: Theropoda) from Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tanke, DH

    2015-01-01

    Trace marks on the bones of non-avian dinosaurs may relate to feeding by large carnivores or as a result of combat. Here the cranium and mandible of a specimen of Daspletosaurus are described that show numerous premortem injuries with evidence of healing and these are inferred to relate primarily to intraspecific combat. In addition, postmortem damage to the mandible is indicative of late stage carcass consumption and the taphonomic context suggests that this was scavenging. These postmortem bites were delivered by a large bodied tyrannosaurid theropod and may have been a second Daspletosaurus, and thus this would be an additional record of tyrannosaurid cannibalism. PMID:25870775

  16. Forest and land inventory using ERTS imagery and aerial photography in the boreal forest region of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite imagery and small-scale (1:120,000) infrared ektachrome aerial photography for the development of improved forest and land inventory techniques in the boreal forest region are presented to demonstrate spectral signatures and their application. The forest is predominately mixed, stands of white spruce and poplar, with some pure stands of black spruce, pine and large areas of poorly drained land with peat and sedge type muskegs. This work is part of coordinated program to evaluate ERTS imagery by the Canadian Forestry Service.

  17. Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education Proceedings of the Annual Conference (7th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, James L., Ed.; Taylor, William H., Ed.

    Among the 61 papers in this volume (some in French) are the following: "Problems and Pitfalls in a Naturalistic Inquiry into the Relationship between Environmental Remembrance and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly" (Barrick); "Educating the Adult Educator" (Baskett); "Socio-Psychological Factors in Electronic…

  18. Dolomitization and porosity development in the middle and upper Wabamun Group, southeast Peace River Arch, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, A.H.; Yaremko, K.

    1994-09-01

    Dolomitization and fracturing are critical to porosity development in most Wabamun Group reservoirs in the southern part of the Peace River arch. Cores from Peoria, Normandville, and Eaglesham fields and adjacent areas were examined to determine the relationship between depositional facies, dolomitization, fracturing, and porosity. Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data indicate that most upper Wabamun dolomites are coincident with mound-like structural highs at the top of the Wabamun, with structural relief due largely to differential compaction between dolomite and adjacent limestone. When this depositional/diagenetic model for dolomitization was integrated into 3-D seismic interpretations, Canadian Occidental`s discovery rate in the Wabamun increased from approximately 25 to 80%. The early dolomite is facies, fabric, and mineralogy selective with some burrow fills and aragonitic mollusks being preferentially dolomitized in dolomitic limestones. Most fracturing occurred after early, replacive Dolornitization. Late dolomitization, karst-like dissolution and collapse apparently were localized near the margins of the early dolomites where adjacent limestones were dolomitized or dissolved. Dissolution of calcite in partially dolomitized limestones resulted in geopetal accumulations of dolomite rhombs (porous sucrosic dolomite) in some fractures and burrow fills. Hydrothermal fluids apparently moved updip through the underlying Winterburn and/or Leduc formations, and then upward through porous, early dolomites in the Wabamun, causing Dolomitization of adjacent limestones and karst-like dissolution. Stable oxygen isotope ratios of the dolomites are quite variable ({delta}{sup 18}O ranges from -2.0 to -11.4{per_thousand}, PDB), supporting multiple stages of dolomitization during progressive burial.

  19. Sedimentology and ichnology of shallow-water deltaic complex: lower Cretaceous Sparky Formation, Wainwright heavy oil pool, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Brodylo, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    Much of the 2.5 billion bbl of recoverable reserves in the Lloydminster heavy oil area lie within the Sparky Formation. In the Wainwright pool, the Sparky is 20-30 m thick and comprises three stacked parasequences interpreted to have formed during progradation of a shallow-water deltaic complex into the Cretaceous epicontinental Boreal Sea. Two 4 to 7 m-thick coarsening-upward parasequences comprise the lower Sparky member and are interpreted as progradational, brackish-water, delta lobe deposits. Intensely bioturbated prodelta mudstones grade up into delta-front siltstones/very fine sandstones, which contain low-angle stratification (HCS.), graded-laminated storm beds, and convex ripples, capped by abundant fair-weather wave ripples. Shoaling is reflected in the vertical succession of ichnofacies: Zoophycos(.)-Cruziana-Skolithos-Psilonichnus. Each parasequence is truncated by a flooding surface and overlain by a thin transgressive shale unit deposited within a bay following lobe abandonment. The 10 to 15 m-thick upper Sparky parasequence exhibits a complex three-dimensional arrangement of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, and coals and is interpreted to have formed in a mosaic of bay, marsh, and swamp environments on the lower delta plain. Following abandonment of the entire deltaic complex, peat-forming environments were established resulting in the formation of a regionally extensive 2 to 3 m-thick coal seam that caps the Sparky succession. Delta-front sublitharenites were cleaned, sorted, and laterally redistributed by storm processes, and form better reservoir facies than feldspathic litharenites of the distributaries.

  20. A dietary assessment of selenium risk to aquatic birds on a coal mine affected stream in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Casey, R.; Woodsworth, E.

    2007-07-15

    In this article, we present the results of a dietary-based assessment of the risk that selenium may pose to two aquatic bird species, the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) and the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), on one of the coal mine-affected streams, the Gregg River. The study consisted of (1) a literature-based toxicity assessment, (2) simulation of selenium exposure in the diets and eggs of the two species, and (3) a risk assessment that coupled information on toxicity and exposure. Diet and egg selenium concentrations associated with a 20% hatch failure rate were 6.4 and 17 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. Simulated dietary selenium concentrations were about 2.0-2.5 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} higher on the Gregg River than on reference streams for both species. When simulated dietary concentrations were considered, hatch failure rates on the Gregg River were predicted to average 12% higher in American Dippers and 8% higher in Harlequin Ducks than at reference streams. Corresponding values were only 3% for both species when predicted egg concentrations were used. Elevated levels of selenium in insects in some of the reference streams were unexpected and raised a question as to whether aquatic birds have evolved a higher tolerance level for dietary selenium in these areas.

  1. Paraben Levels in an Urban Community of Western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Birkholz, Detlef; Curtis, Luke; Sandau, Court

    2013-01-01

    With effective antibacterial and antifungal properties, commercially used parabens are synthetic compounds widely utilized as preservatives in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and as an additive in some foodstuffs. While long regarded as relatively safe and nontoxic, recent research has demonstrated xenoestrogenic properties of anthropogenic parabens with early evidence that paraben exposure may be linked to breast cancer, thyroid dysfunction, allergy, and obesity. In an attempt to determine the prevalence of paraben exposure in a Canadian urban community, a sample of convenience was done by measuring urinary levels of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and isobutyl parabens (MP, EP, PP, BP, and IP) in 39 consecutive patients in an Alberta primary care clinic. In 28 female patients including 9 pregnant women, the median urinary levels (in μg/L) were 25.45 for MP, 10.17 for EP, 2.80 for PP, 0.30 for BP, and 0.24 for IP. In 11 male patients, the median urinary levels (in μg/L) were 25.95 for MP, 10.37 for EP, 3.09 for PP, 0.35 for BP, and 0.22 for IP. Especially high urinary paraben levels were reported in a few patients, with the highest urinary concentrations (in μg/L) reported as 966.46 for MP, 220.6 as EP, and 612.73 for PP. It is evident that exposure to assorted parabens is a routine event for many if not most individuals, including pregnant women, in urban Alberta, Canada. PMID:24455315

  2. Radiation Modeling and Finite Cloud Effects for Atmospheric Dispersion Calculations in Near-field Applications: Modeling of the Full Scale RDD Experiments with Operational Models in Canada, Part II.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Luke; Bourgouin, Pierre; Chouhan, Sohan; Ek, Nils; Korolevych, Volodymyr; Malo, Alain; Bensimon, Dov; Erhardt, Lorne

    2016-05-01

    Three radiological dispersal devices were detonated in 2012 under controlled conditions at Defence Research and Development Canada's Experimental Proving Grounds in Suffield, Alberta. Each device comprised a 35-GBq source of (140)La. The dataset obtained is used in this study to assess the MLCD, ADDAM, and RIMPUFF atmospheric dispersion models. As a continuation of Lebel et al. (2016), this paper examines different methodologies for making dose estimates with atmospheric dispersion models.

  3. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  4. Performance and dietary preferences of white-tailed deer grazing chicory, birdsfoot trefoil or alfalfa in north central Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G A; Bork, E W; Donkor, N T; Hudson, R J

    2009-12-01

    Little information exists on the performance of deer on alternative forage species in northern temperate environments during summer and fall, the period of inherent maximum growth in deer. In performance and choice experiments, we compared live weight gain (g/kg(0.75)/day), absolute [kg/ha dry matter (DM)] and relative (% DM) herbage utilization, relative preference index (RPI) as well as plant community visitation of white-tailed deer grazing alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) in north central Alberta, Canada. Herbage phytomass and quality was also measured on the grazed pastures. Alfalfa had higher dry matter yields and crude protein concentrations than chicory and trefoil. Chicory had lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations than the other forages. Tannin concentrations were greatest in birds foot trefoil (nearly 55 g/kg DM), well above those in the other forages (<5 g/kg DM). Live weight gain was similar among deer feeding within the paddocks seeded to birds foot trefoil and chicory, and more than two times higher (p < 0.05) than deer feeding in paddocks seeded to alfalfa. Deer spent more grazing time (about 40%) on chicory pastures than on alfalfa and birds foot trefoil pastures. RPI values were greatest for birds foot trefoil at 2.11, intermediate for chicory at 1.40, and lowest for alfalfa at <0.60. Absolute herbage utilization remained similar (p > 0.05) among the three forage species. In contrast, relative herbage utilization was greater from birds foot trefoil (52% DM) than chicory (40% DM) or alfalfa (25% DM). These results suggest that the use of alfalfa with other alternative forages may prove beneficial to deer production, rather than using alfalfa pasture alone.

  5. Effects of groundwater flow on the distribution of biogenic gas in parts of the northern Great Plains of Canada and United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.

    2011-01-01

    Parts of the northern Great Plains in eastern Montana and western North Dakota and southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, were studied as part of an assessment of shallow biogenic gas in Upper Cretaceous rocks.Parts of the northern Great Plains in eastern Montana and western North Dakota and southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, were studied as part of an assessment of shallow biogenic gas in Upper Cretaceous rocks. Large quantities of shallow biogenic gas are produced from low-permeability, Upper Cretaceous reservoirs in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Rocks of similar types and age produce sparingly in the United States except on large structures, such as Bowdoin dome and Cedar Creek anticline. Significant production also occurs in the Tiger Ridge area, where uplift of the Bearpaw Mountains created stratigraphic traps. The resource in Canada is thought to be a continuous, biogenic-gas-type accumulation with economic production in a variety of subtle structures and stratigraphic settings. The United States northern Great Plains area has similar conditions but only broad structural closures or stratigraphic traps associated with local structure have produced economically to date. Numerical flow modeling was used to help determine that biogenic gas in low-permeability reservoirs is held in place by high hydraulic head that overrides buoyancy forces of the gas. Modeling also showed where hydraulic head is greater under Tertiary capped topographic remnants rather than near adjacent topographic lows. The high head can override the capillary pressure of the rock and force gas to migrate to low head in topographically low areas. Most current biogenic gas production is confined to areas between mapped lineaments in the northern Great Plains. The lineaments may reflect structural zones in the Upper Cretaceous that help compartmentalize reservoirs and confine gas accumulations.

  6. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  7. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A School-Wide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information, strategies, stories from schools and sample tools for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour. This integrated system of school-wide, classroom management, and…

  8. Report of the Progress Review Committee, Task Force on Mature Students, The University of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Univ., Edmonton. The Senate.

    Responses by various University of Alberta offices to recommendations of the Senate Task Force on Mature Students are detailed. "Mature student" is used to refer to students 23 years old or older. Attention is directed to: support services (library, offices, bookstore); choice of courses in the evening; residency requirements;…

  9. The Alberta K-9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Alberta K-9 Mathematics Program of Studies with Achievement Indicators" has been derived from "The Common Curriculum Framework for K-9 Mathematics: Western and Northern Canadian Protocol," May 2006 (the Common Curriculum Framework). The program of studies incorporates the conceptual framework for Kindergarten to Grade 9…

  10. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: AISI Handbook for Cycle 3, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the AISI (Alberta Initiative for School Improvement) Handbook for Cycle 3, 2006-2009 is to provide school authorities with the provincial and local requirements and processes for planning, funding, implementing, managing, evaluating, reporting and sharing school improvement projects. The handbook provides a framework for the…

  11. Supporting Democratic Discourses of Teacher Professionalism: The Case of the Alberta Teachers' Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond-Johnson, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores understandings related to teacher professionalism amongst a sample of highly engaged members of the Alberta Teacher's Association (ATA). Highlighting the many ways in which the Association supported members in their bid to embody roles as leaders, learners, advocates, and policy actors, I argue that the ATA serves as a platform…

  12. From Community College to University: Institutionalization and Neoliberalism in British Columbia and Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Aliyeva, Aida; Walker, Laurencia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation of higher education institutional development addresses new universities that were former community colleges in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Stemming from an original study conducted nearly two decades earlier, this investigation's data were collected from the same institutions and from similar…

  13. Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

  14. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy; Martin, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the…

  15. Availability of Non-Nutritious Foods in Alberta Schools. Research Bulletin 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    School authorities in a total of 68 Alberta school jurisdictions (representing 82 percent of the student population of the province) responded to a request for details about the availability in schools of nonnutritious foods--defined as food that contains minimal nutrients in proportion to number of calories. Foods that are commonly consumed at…

  16. Those Who Care: A Report on Child Caregivers in Alberta Daycare Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of child care personnel employed by 80 day care centers throughout Alberta. Findings indicated that, on average, child care staff had higher levels of education than the general adult population in the province. Considerable mobility within the child care field was found. Staff with…

  17. Nanometre-size diamonds in the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, David B.; Braman, Dennis R.

    1991-08-01

    Evidence is presented that the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay of the Red Deer Valley of Alberta contains diamonds, which strengthens the case for an extraterrestrial impact at the end of the Cretaceous. The diamond/iridium ratio is close to the value found in type C2 chondritic meteorites.

  18. Professional Development for Teaching Technology across the Curriculum: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W. Bruce

    This report focuses on promising practices in professional development as they relate to implementation of Alberta Education's 1998 "Information and Communication Technology, Interim Program of Studies." The first chapter examines fundamental issues, challenges some assumptions, and offers suggestions related to professional development…

  19. The Whole Economy: Resource Allocation of Alberta Farm Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Norah C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 326 women and 392 men who operate Alberta grain farms responded to a questionnaire concerning participation in the whole economy. Findings show gender differences in participation in certain economic segments. Findings are discussed in relation to farms' and families' allocation of human resources. (Author/CH)

  20. Responding to a Strong Economy. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    In 2001-2002, the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board continued its collaboration with industry, government, and educators to maintain high standards of training and improve access to technical training. The board continued to strengthen the network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees, occupational committees, and…