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Sample records for alberta subbituminous coals

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of subbituminous coals from the Red Deer River Valley, Alberta Plains, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.

    1998-11-01

    Coals and associated carbonaceous strata along the Red Deer River Valley in Alberta have a wide variation in boron concentrations (10--628 ppm). Boron concentrations decrease from bottom to top of the coal-bearing succession, closely reflecting changes in depositional environment conditions. These changes range from subaquatic deposition in the delta plain area and influence of brackish waters due to a marine transgression, to deposition in areas removed from any brackish water influence. There is good agreement between boron variation and depositional environment as interpreted from regional geology. However, the relation between boron and sulfur is not clear; samples with high boron concentrations are high in sulfur while low boron samples also have high sulfur. Compared to mean concentrations in world coals, some of the highest elemental concentrations measured in coals of this study are: As (38.0 ppm), Ba (2800 ppm), Cr (91.0 ppm), Mn (232 ppm), and V (209 ppm). There is a similarity in the vertical variation of the elements Th and Hf, while bentonite layers are enriched in Ba and Sr, pointing to the presence of gorceixite. No enrichment of REEs was observed in the bentonite layers. A comparison of elemental concentration to world mean values for coals shows that the RDRV coals are elevated in As (up to 4{times}), Cr (up to 12 {times}), Mn (up to 4 {times}), Mo (up to 12 {times}), Th (up to 5 {times}), V (up to 12 {times}) and Zn (up to 5 {times}). Compared to coals from the eastern Alberta Plains of similar rank, age, and depositional environment, the RDRV coals have higher or similar concentrations of all elements of environmental significance, with the exception of Be and Pb. When compared to coals of similar rank in the western Alberta plains deposited under freshwater conditions, the RDRV coals have higher concentration of As, B, Ba, Sb, and Sr, similar concentrations of Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Th, and U, and lower concentrations of Ni.

  2. Liquefaction of sub-bituminous coal

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    Sub-bituminous coal is directly liquefied in two stages by use of a liquefaction solvent containing insoluble material as well as 850.degree. F.+ material and 850.degree. F.- material derived from the second stage, and controlled temperature and conversion in the second stage. The process is in hydrogen balance.

  3. Short contact time liquefaction of subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    This report describes a series of continuous unit studies determining how pyrite addition, as well as other variables (including solvent quality, slurry recycle, temperature, residence time), affect the short contact time liquefaction of subbituminous coal. Dissolution of low-rank coal is much more strongly affected by pyrite addition than by solvent quality. Mild hydrotreatment of an SRC I solvent provided a solvent which increased conversion only slightly over that achieved with the original SRC I solvent. Addition of pyrite or pyrrhotite, however, resulted in a significant improvement in conversion. The low quality solvent was SRC I solvent while the high quality solvent was from the Lummus Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction Process. Essentially identical conversions were obtained with the high quality and low quality solvents. Pyrite brought about the same significant improvement in conversion in each of the solvents. Although use of a lower level of a higher quality catalyst (CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) increased hydrogenation and increased conversion of SRC to distillate more effectively than pyrite, the pyrite was more effective in decreasing the insoluble organic matter yield. Conversion was also increased by partial slurry recycle; i.e., by recycling a fraction of the dissolver effluent (containing SRC, insoluble organic matter and mineral matter) mixed with an equal amount of distillate in place of all distillate solvent of the normal short contact time SRC I process. Over the ranges investigated, conversions increased with increasing temperature or residence time. These increasing conversions were generally accompanied by increasing hydrogen consumption and/or hydrocarbon gas make.

  4. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  5. Speciation of chromium in feed coals and ash byproducts from Canadian power plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Fariborz Goodarzi; Frank E. Huggins

    2005-12-01

    The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants were examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents, chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely, Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+}, but in some cases, it is slightly lessand varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantlyCr{sup 3+}. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium, similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy for speciation determination. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Experimental Study of Hydrogasification of Lignite and Subbituminous Coal Chars

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility for pressure hydrogasification research was adapted to the pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 1300 K, which ensured repeatability of results and hydrogen heating to the process temperature. A hydrogasification reaction of chars produced from two rank coals was investigated at temperatures up to 1173 K, pressures up to 8 MPa, and the gas flow rates of 0.5–5 dmn3/min. Reactivity of the “Szczerców” lignite char was found to be slightly higher than that of the subbituminous “Janina” coal char produced under the same conditions. A high value of the char reactivity was observed to a certain carbon conversion degree, above which a sharp drop took place. It was shown that, to achieve proper carbon conversion, the hydrogasification reaction must proceed at a temperature above 1200 K. PMID:26065028

  7. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  8. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  9. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    DOEpatents

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation of scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. An oxide of sulfur, in liquid phase, is contacted with a coal feed sufficient to impregnate the pores of the coal. The impregnated coal, in particulate form, can thereafter be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of scale.

  10. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    DOEpatents

    Gorbaty, Martin L.; Taunton, John W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

  11. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  14. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 260 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  15. Flash pyrolysis of New Mexico sub-bituminous coal in helium-methane gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

    1986-04-01

    A New Mexico sub-bituminous coal was flash pyrolyzed in gas mixtures of helium and methane at 1000/sup 0/C and 50 psi in an 1-in. I.D. entrained down-flow tubular reactor. The mixture contained 0 to 40% helium in methane. Under tested experimental conditions, pyrolysis in gas mixtures resulted in higher yields of ethylene and BTX than in pure methane. For example, under a coal flow rate of 1.0 lb/hr and methane flow rate of 4.0 lb/hr, pyrolysis in pure methane produced 7.7% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 9.0% BTX on the basis of carbon contained in coal; under similar coal and methane flow rates, as high as 14.8% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 15.3% BTX were obtained on pyrolysis in 25% He + 75% CH/sub 4/ gas mixture. The data show that the coal flow rate and methane flow rate both independently effect the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTS. At constant methane flow rate, increase in coal flow rate decreases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX; at constant coal flow rate, increase in methane flow rate increases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Flash pyrolysis of New Mexico sub-bituminous coal in helium-methane gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

    1986-01-01

    A New Mexico sub-bituminous coal was flash pyrolyzed in gas mixtures of helium and methane at 1000/sup 0/C and 50 psi in an 1-in. I.D. entrained down-flow tubular reactor. The mixture contained 0 to 40% helium in methane. Under tested experimental conditions, pyrolysis in gas mixtures resulted in higher yields of ethylene and BTX than in pure methane. For example, under a coal flow rate of 1.0 lb/hr and methane flow rate of 4.0 lb/hr, pyrolysis in pure methane produced 7.7% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 9.0% BTX on the basis of carbon contained in coal; under similar coal and methane flow rates, as high as 14.8% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 15.3% BTX were obtained on pyrolysis in 25% He + 75% CH/sub 4/ gas mixture. The data show that the coal flow rate and methane flow rate both independently affect the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX. At constant methane flow rate, increase in coal flow rate decreases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX; at constant coal flow rate, increase in methane flow rate increases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX.

  17. Surface composition and chemical state of Fe and Mo impregnated subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, H.; Anderson, R.K.; Givens, E.N.; Stencel, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The surface composition and chemical states of elements in samples of Wyodak subbituminous coal impregnated with Fe and Mo were investigated. The concentrations of Fe, Mo, S, Al, Si, Ca, C, O, and N were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in samples impregnated with 0.7-2.0 wt% Fe and 500-1000 ppm Mo. The metals were deposited on the samples by an incipient wetness technique using solutions of ferric nitrate, ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate and ammonium molybdate. The effect of the metal precursor, the relative amounts of Fe and Mo loading, the effect of base-treatment with NH{sub 4}OH and the chemical states of the elements are discussed. Deconvolution of the overlapped S{sub 2}, and Mo{sub 3d} peaks is described along with a brief overview of the liquefaction performance of these coals.

  18. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Run 263 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and dispersed molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the results of Run 263 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on October 31, 1991 and continued until February 23, 1992. Tests were conducted by operating the reactors in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode and by processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal from Wyodak-Anderson seam in Wyoming Powder River Basin. Half volume reactors were used for the entire run. In the first part of Run 263, a dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance without a supported catalyst in the second stage. Molyvan L and Molyvan 822 (commercially available as friction reducing lubricants) were used as precursors for the dispersed molybdenum catalyst. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating the solids buildup was also evaluated. For the second part of the run, the hybrid catalyst system was tested with supported Criterion 324 1/1611 catalyst in the second stage at catalyst replacement rates of 2 and 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The molybdenum concentration was 100--200 ppm based on MF coal. Iron oxide was used as a slurry catalyst precursor at a rate of 1--2 wt % MF coal throughout the run with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the sulfiding agent. The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 2482 hours for an on-stream factor of 91.2% and the ROSE-SR[sup sm] unit was on-feed for 2126 hours for an on-stream factor of 96.4% for the entire run.

  1. Run 263 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and dispersed molybdenum catalysts. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the results of Run 263 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on October 31, 1991 and continued until February 23, 1992. Tests were conducted by operating the reactors in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode and by processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal from Wyodak-Anderson seam in Wyoming Powder River Basin. Half volume reactors were used for the entire run. In the first part of Run 263, a dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance without a supported catalyst in the second stage. Molyvan L and Molyvan 822 (commercially available as friction reducing lubricants) were used as precursors for the dispersed molybdenum catalyst. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating the solids buildup was also evaluated. For the second part of the run, the hybrid catalyst system was tested with supported Criterion 324 1/1611 catalyst in the second stage at catalyst replacement rates of 2 and 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The molybdenum concentration was 100--200 ppm based on MF coal. Iron oxide was used as a slurry catalyst precursor at a rate of 1--2 wt % MF coal throughout the run with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the sulfiding agent. The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 2482 hours for an on-stream factor of 91.2% and the ROSE-SR{sup sm} unit was on-feed for 2126 hours for an on-stream factor of 96.4% for the entire run.

  2. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, Vincent T.

    1989-01-01

    Organic geochemical investigations of peatified and coalified xylem from gymnosperms have provided useful information on the organic transformational processes collectively known as coalification. The combined use of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms) has allowed us to examine the organic composition of peatified and coalified xylem on both a bulk (average) compositional basis and on a detailed molecular basis. We conclude from our studies that coalification of gymnospermous xylem involves the following processes: 1. (1) early selective removal of cellulosic materials so that lignin, a primary constituent of xylem, is transformed to macromolecular aromatic components in coal; 2. (2) modification of gymnospermous lignin by demethylation to form catechol-like structures, and by condensation reactions to induce a high level of cross-linking at an early stage of coalification; and 3. (3) dehydroxylation during increasing coalification to subbituminous coal, the resultant xylem becomes more phenolic in character as the catechol-like structures decrease. ?? 1989.

  3. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally recognized that xylem from trees that are buried in peat swamps is transformed first to huminite macerals in brown coal and then to vitrinite macerals in bituminous coal by processes collectively known as coalification. In order to understand the chemical nature of coalification of xylem and the chemical structures that eventually evolve in coal, we examined a series of gymnospermous xylem samples coalified to varying degrees. The samples included modern fresh xylem, modern degraded xylem in peat, and xylem coalified to ranks of brown coal (lignite B), lignite A, and subbituminous coal. The organic geochemical methods used in this study included solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NMR method provided average compositional information, and the pyrolysis provided detailed molecular information. Although the samples examined include different plants of different geologic ages, they all share a common feature in that they are gymnospermous and presumably have or had a similar kind of lignin. The data obtained in this study provide enough details to allow delineation of specific coalification pathway for the xylem is microbial degradation in peat (peatification), leading to selective removal of cellulosic components. These components constitute a large fraction of the total mass of xylem, usually greater than 50%. Although cellulosic components can survive degradation under certain conditions, their loss during microbial degradation is the rule rather than exception during peatification. As these components of xylem are degraded and lost, lignin, another major component of xylem, is selectively enriched because it is more resistant to microbial degradation than the cellulosic components. Thus, lignin survives peatification in a practically unaltered state and becomes the major precursor of coalified xylem. During its transformation to brown coal and lignite A, lignin in xylem is altered

  4. Aqueous leaching on high sulfur sub-bituminous coals, in Assam, India

    SciTech Connect

    Bimala P. Baruah; Binoy K. Saikia; Prabhat Kotoky; P. Gangadhar Rao

    2006-08-15

    Aqueous leaching of high sulfur sub-bituminous coals from Ledo and Baragolai collieries of Makum coal fields, in Assam, India, has been investigated with respect to time at different temperatures. Leaching at 25{sup o}C up to 120 h showed that the physicochemical characteristics viz., conductivity, acidity, TDS, and SO{sub 4}-2 ions, increase with the increase in time of leaching. The generation of highly acidic leachates at 1-1.5 h (pH 2.5) and 2 h (pH 3.1) for Ledo and Baragolai coals was observed, respectively. However, it remains stable up to 120 h. The concentration of major, minor, and trace elements and their mobility along with the loss of pyritic sulfur or depyritization were also reported. The release of metals (Fe, Mg, Bi, Al, V, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Mn) above the regulatory levels during leaching was evidenced. Depyritization was found to be 79.8, 82.9, 84.7, and 89.7% for Ledo and 70.49, 73.77, 75.41, and 77.05% for Baragolai coal at 15, 25, 35, and 45 {sup o}C, respectively. A pseudo-first-order kinetic relationship with activation energies (E) of 8.1477 and 5.2378 kJ mol{sup -1} with frequency factors (A) of 8.8405 x 10{sup -4} and 2.6494 x 10{sup -4} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} was attributed to aqueous oxidation of pyrites in Ledo and Baragolai coals, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy patterns indicate the presence of illite, {alpha}-quartz, hematite, chlorite, rutile, calcite, and albite as mineral phases. This investigation justifies the formation of acid mine drainage by weathering of pyrites from coal during the mining of high sulfur Makum coal fields, in Assam, India, and demonstrates one of the possible routes for its formation. 39 refs., 3 figs. 9 tabs.

  5. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  6. Effect of temperature, sample size and gas flow rate on drying of Beulah-Zap lignite and Wyodak subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Beulah-Zap lignite and Wyodak-Anderson ([minus]100 and [minus]20 mesh from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program) were dried in nitrogen under various conditions of temperature (20--80[degree]C), gas flow rates (20--160 cc/min), and sample sizes (20--160 mg). An equation relating the initial drying rate in the unimolecular mechanism was developed to relate the drying rate and these three variables over the initial 80--85% of the moisture loss for the lignite. The behavior of the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal is very similar to that of the lignite. The nitrogen BET surface area of the subbituminous sample is much larger than the lignite.

  7. Effect of temperature, sample size and gas flow rate on drying of Beulah-Zap lignite and Wyodak subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-03-01

    Beulah-Zap lignite and Wyodak-Anderson ({minus}100 and {minus}20 mesh from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program) were dried in nitrogen under various conditions of temperature (20--80{degree}C), gas flow rates (20--160 cc/min), and sample sizes (20--160 mg). An equation relating the initial drying rate in the unimolecular mechanism was developed to relate the drying rate and these three variables over the initial 80--85% of the moisture loss for the lignite. The behavior of the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal is very similar to that of the lignite. The nitrogen BET surface area of the subbituminous sample is much larger than the lignite.

  8. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 262 with Black Thunder subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16`` catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  9. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L.

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  10. Speciation and mass-balance of mercury from pulverized coal fired power plants burning western Canadian subbituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, F

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study carried out on six pulverized coal-fired power plants in western Canada burning subbituminous coal for the mass-balance and speciation of mercury. The main objectives of this study were to: determine the total gaseous mercury (TGM) emitted from stacks of power plants using the Ontario Hydro method; identify the speciation of emitted mercury such as metallic (Hg(0)) and gaseous elemental (GEM) mercury; and perform mass-balance calculations of mercury for milled-coal, bottom ash, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) fly ash and stack-emitted mercury based on three tests. Sampling of mercury was carried out using the Ontario Hydro method and mercury was determined using the USEPA method 7473 by cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAAS). The sample collection efficiencies confirmed that both oxidized and the elemental mercury had been successfully sampled at all power plants. The total gaseous mercury emitted (TGM) is 6.95-15.66 g h(-1) and is mostly in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg(0)) form. The gaseous elemental mercury is emitted at a rate of 6.59-12.62 g h(-1). Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, Hg(2+)) is emitted at a rate of 0.34-3.68 g h(-1). The rate of emission of particulate mercury (Hg(p)) is low and is in the range 0.005-0.076 g h(-1). The range of mass-balances for each power plant is more similar to the variability in measured mercury emissions, than to the coal and ash analyses or process data. The mass-balance calculations for the six power plants, performed on results of the three tests at each power plant, are between 86% and 123%, which is acceptable and within the range 70-130%. The variation in mass-balance of mercury for the six power plants is mostly related to the variability of coal feed rate.

  11. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ayhan, F.D.

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  12. The mobile phase in coals: Its nature and modes of release: Final report: Part 1, Structural inferences from dry catalytic hydrogenation of a subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Terrer, M.T.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1986-12-01

    In a study to provide insight into the two component structural model of coal and the mechanisms of coal liquefaction, an approach was adopted in which a subbituminous coal was reacted with hydrogen in the presence of an impregnated molybdenum sulphide catalyst and in the absence of solvent. Reactions were conducted at temperatures between 300 and 400/sup 0/C and for reaction times up to 180 min. The composition and yields of gaseous products, chloroform-soluble liquids and insoluble residues were followed as a function of the reaction conditions by means of different analytical and characterization techniques: gas chromatography; /sup 1/H NMR; elemental analysis; FTIR; solvent swelling in pyridine. 105 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Surface analysis reveals biogenic oxidation of sub-bituminous coal by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Hazrin-Chong, Nur Hazlin; Marjo, Christopher E; Das, Theerthankar; Rich, Anne M; Manefield, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Direct analysis of the colonised surface on coal using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) revealed the nature of bacteria-mediated oxidation at the coal surface. Unique oxidation peaks generated by the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on coal was shown through ATR-FTIR measurements, and ATR-FTIR imaging illustrated that this peak was only observed within the region of coal colonised by bacteria. Contact angle measurements and surface free energy of adhesion calculations showed that the adhesion between P. fluorescens and coal was thermodynamically favourable, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited individual cell or monolayer cluster attachment on coal. Furthermore, Gaussian peak fitting of peroxidase-treated coal ATR-FTIR spectra revealed that peroxidase or related enzymes produced by P. fluorescens may be responsible for coal oxidation. This study demonstrated the usefulness and practicality of ATR-FTIR for analysing coal oxidation by P. fluorescens and may well be applied to other microbe-driven modifications of coal for its rapidity and reliability.

  14. Subtask 7.4 - Power River Basin Subbituminous Coal-Biomass Cogasification Testing in a Transport Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2009-03-01

    ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and oxygen/fuel ratios. During this series of tests, a previously tested baseline Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming was mixed with 20 wt% biomass. Two types of biomass were used - wood waste and switchgrass. Gas and particulate sampling at several locations in the riser provided information on coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry as a function of residence time, transport gas, and mode of operation. The goal of these tests was to compare the operating data and sample chemistry of the coal-biomass mixture to the PRB coal, with a focus on Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquid production in oxygen-blown mode. Data are to be provided to DOE to determine kinetic rates of devolatilization and tar cracking.

  15. Thermogravimetric analysis of the behavior of sub-bituminous coal and cellulosic ethanol residue during co-combustion.

    PubMed

    Buratti, C; Barbanera, M; Bartocci, P; Fantozzi, F

    2015-06-01

    The influence of the addition of cellulosic ethanol residue (CER) on the combustion of Indonesian sub-bituminous coal was analyzed by non isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of blends ratio (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), interaction mechanism, and heating rate (5°C/min, 10°C/min, 15°C/min, 20°C/min) on the combustion process was studied. The results show that the increase of the blending ratio allows to achieve the increase of the combustibility index from 7.49E-08 to 5.26E-07 at the blending ratio of 20%. Two types of non-isothermal kinetic analysis methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin) were also applied. Results indicate that the activation energy of the blends decreases with increasing the conversion rate. In particular, the blending ratio of 20% confirms to have the better combustion performance, with the average value of the activation energy equal to 41.10 kJ/mol obtained by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall model and 31.17 kJ/mol obtained by Vyazovkin model.

  16. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  17. Pyrolysis g.c.-m.s. of a series of degraded woods and coalified logs that increase in rank from peat to subbituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Kotra, R.K.; Verheyen, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    Xylem tissue from degraded wood and coalified logs or stems was examined by pyrolysis g.c.-m.s. to improve understanding of the coalification process. The pyrolysis data, when combined with solid-state 13C n.m.r. data for the same samples, show several stages of evolution during coalification. The first stage, microbial degradation in peat, involves the selective degradation of cellulosic components and preservation of lignin-like components. As coalification increases, the lignin structural units undergo a series of defunctionalization reactions. The first of these involve loss of methoxyl groups, with replacement by phenolic hydroxyls such that catechol-like structures are produced. As the xylem tissue is converted to subbituminous coal, the persistence of phenols and methylated phenols in pyrolysis g.c.-m.s. data of subbituminous coal suggests that the catechol-like structures are being converted to phenol-like structures. The ability to discern detailed changes in the chemical structural composition of a genetically and histologically related series of samples provides an ideal method for developing models of coal structure, especially that of low-rank coal. ?? 1988.

  18. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  19. Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2006-05-15

    Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Factors affecting the geochemistry of a thick, subbituminous coal bed in the Powder River Basin: volcanic, detrital, and peat-forming processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, S.S.; Ruppert, L.F.; Belkin, H.E.; Stanton, R.W.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The inorganic geochemistry and mineralogy of three cores from the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed, a 15.2-m-thick subbituminous coal bed in the Tongue River Member (Paleocene) of the Fort Union Formation, were examined (1) to determine if the cores could be correlated by geochemical composition alone over a total distance of 2 km and (2) to identify the major factors that influenced the geochemistry of the coal bed. Chemical data (46 elements on a coal-ash basis) for 81 coal samples and 4 carbonaceous rock samples, with most samples representing a 0.6-m-thick (2-ft) interval of core, were grouped into compositional clusters by means of cluster analysis. Seven major clusters were produced; two of these clusters can be used to correlate the coal bed throughout the study area. Data from scanning electron and optical microscope analyses indicate that several factors influenced the geochemistry of the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed. The majority of mineral grains in the coal bed are interpreted to be detrital (water borne); evidence includes the presence of rounded to subrounded quartz grains having two-phase, aqueous fluid inclusions characteristic of hydrothermal or low-to-moderate grade metamorphic quartz. These quartz grains are found throughout the coal bed but are most abundant in samples from the midpart of the bed, which was influenced by detrital input associated with the deposition of the clastic rocks that form the split between the Anderson and Dietz 1 coal beds 900 m to the east of the study area. In addition to the detrital minerals mentioned above, volcanic ash that was fluvially transported to the sites of peat deposition or possibly deposited as air-fall volcanic ash also affected the geochemistry of the coal bed. For example, crandallite(?), a mineral reported to form as an alteration product of volcanic ash, is found in seven samples from the coal bed. The presence of quartz grains containing silicate-melt inclusions in eight samples from the coal bed

  1. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  2. Modeling and interpretation of two-phase flow and tracer studies from a subbituminous coal seam in the San Juan basin of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, H.E.; Travis, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Field and modeling studies were performed to characterize two-phase flow within the natural cleat structure of an upper Cretaceous subbituminous coal seam. A two borehole pattern with open completion was used in a study of dewatering and tracer residence time distribution. Air was pumped into a five meter thick seam located about 170 meters below the surface. Krypton 85 was used as the airborne tracer. Air inflow and air and water production rates and tracer arrival times were monitored. The field tests were simulated with a two-phase, three component, porous flow code. Results showed that the air inflow and air and water outflow rates and breakthrough times could not be modeled assuming a uniform darcy-type permeability. The use of a pressure dependent permeability did provide, however, a much better match with the field data.

  3. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal by electron-transfer process with K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6})

    SciTech Connect

    Dipu Borah

    2006-02-01

    The desulfurization reaction involving direct electron transfer from potassium ferrocyanide, K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}), successfully removed organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal. The temperature variation of desulfurization revealed that increase of temperature enhanced the level of sulfur removal. Moreover, the desulfurization reaction was found to be dependent on the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}). Gradual increase in the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration the variation was not significant. The removal of organic sulfur from unoxidized coal slightly increased with reduced particle size. Desulfurization from oxidized coals (prepared by aerial oxidation) revealed a higher level of sulfur removal in comparison to unoxidized coal. Highest desulfurization of 36.4 wt % was obtained at 90{sup o}C and 0.1 M concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) in the 100-mesh size oxidized coal prepared at 200{sup o}C. Model sulfur compound study revealed that aliphatic types of sulfur compounds are primarily responsible for desulfurization. Because of higher stability, thiophene and condensed thiophene-type of compounds perhaps remained unaffected by the electron-transfer agent. Infrared study revealed the formation of oxidized sulfur compounds (sulfoxide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, etc.) in the oxidized coals. The desulfurization reaction in different systems is well-represented by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Application of the transition state theory indicated that the desulfurization reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat (endothermic reaction) and is nonspontaneous in nature. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  5. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  6. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  8. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes.

  9. Reactivity of heteroatom-containing organics during liquefaction of subbituminous coal: Quarterly technical progress report, March 15, 1988-June 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Aulich, T.R.; Knudson, C.L.; Hawthorne, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Deuteration of AO4 liquefaction solvent to an isotopic purity of approximately 99% was accomplished using a teflon-lined Parr bomb reactor. Tubing bomb liquefaction tests were performed using two sets of reaction conditions including coal and AO4, and coal and deuterated AO4. The THF insolubles to be used in testing the stability of the deuterated AO4 under liquefaction conditions were extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus and methylene chloride solvent. A system enabling product slurry distillation directly from the tubing bomb following completion of the liquefaction reaction was designed, constructed, and utilized to recover and quantitate volatile fractions of product slurries. The AO4 solvent was also distilled using the same equipment and procedure. Weighed amounts of eight deuterium-labeled species were added to weighed amounts of both labeled and non-labeled AO4 in preparation for the four remaining tubing bomb tests. 3 figs.

  10. Pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of a series of buried woods and coalified logs that increase in rank from peat to subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H.E. III; Verheyen, T.V.

    1987-04-01

    To better understand the coalification process, the authors have conducted numerous studies of the chemical structural composition of xylem tissue from gymnosperm wood and related woods that has been coalified to varying degrees. The studies presented in this paper examine the chemical nature of buried and coalified xylem tissue at the molecular level. To achieve this, the authors employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis techniques have been used to examine peat, coal, coalified wood, and related substances.

  11. PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A SERIES OF BURIED WOODS AND COALIFIED LOGS THAT INCREASE IN RANK FROM PEAT TO SUBBITUMINOUS COAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Lerch, Harry E.; Kotra, Rama K.; Verheyen, Vincent T.

    1987-01-01

    To better understand the coalification process, we have conducted numerous studies of the chemical structural composition of xylem tissue from gymosperm wood and related woods that has been coalified to varying degrees. The studies presented here, examine the chemical nature of buried and coalified xylem tissue at the molecular level. To achieve this, we employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis techniques have been used to examine peat, coal, coalified wood, and related substances. However, the technique has not been previously applied to a systematic and histologically-related series of coalified woods. It is particularly useful to compare the results from pyrolytic studies with the data obtained from solid-state **1**3C NMR.

  12. Depositional framework of Upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic coals, south-central Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Waheed, A.; Miall, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-bearing strata of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation near Drumheller represent a progradational fluvio-deltaic system. Lower delta-plain facies include meandering channels flanked by levees, crevasse splays and channels, bays, and well-drained and poorly-drained swamps. Upper delta-plain facies are similar except that flood basins and oxbow lakes replace bays. The ten main coal seams compose 5% of the section and are bituminous with 0.6-1.0% sulfur. They are up to 2 m thick and most extend across the 11 by 7 km area of detailed study. In order of importance, they represent bay-floor accumulations, interfleuve swamps, and oxbow-fills. In interchannel bays and flood basins, coal deposition was frequently interrupted either by influx of crevasse-sands or inundation by bays. Coal seams that accumulated in low-lying areas of flood basins are thin and are commonly interbedded with carbonaceous shales. Oxbow-fill coals are thin, lenticular and arcuate. Thickness and lateral continuity of fluvio-deltaic coals were controlled by crevassing, differential compaction, and post-depositional channel erosion. Flood basins and bays were distinguished with palynomorphs. Deltaic and fluvial channels are 1-6 m thick fining-upward sequences with well-developed epsilon cross-stratification. An embedded Markov chain analysis suggest strong asymmetrical ordering within the coal-bearing sequence. Facies paths indicate depositional control by such autocyclic and allocyclic processes as lateral accretion, crevassing, avulsion, subsidence, marine inundation, overbank flooding, water-table fluctuation, and growth and demise of vegetation.

  13. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram

    2016-07-01

    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts. PMID:27017080

  14. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wayland, Mark; Crosley, Robert

    2006-05-01

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies > caddisflies > stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites. PMID:16446991

  15. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R.

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  16. Liquefaction behavior of a Canadian subbituminous coal in comparison with several US lignites and subbituminous coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. G.; Knudson, C. L.; Farnum, S. A.; Farnum, B. W.; Willson, W. G.

    1982-09-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a preparation facility processing 1.46 million tons per year (4000 tpd) of lignite in which the sodium content of the total product is reduced from 8.5 to 4 pct (as Na2O in ash). Sodium removal from the lignite is by ion exchange using hydrogen ions from aqueous sulfuric acid. Limited experimental data was obtained using a bench scale continuous countercurrent ion exchange unit for design purposes. This includes the decision of the ion exchanger, the lignite washing and dewatering facilities, and the waste water clean-up steps. Complete material balances and energy requirements are presented. A brief discussion of instrumentation and process control is given. Most equipment can be obtained commercially. To limit the environmental impact, extensive cleaning and reuse of process water is employed. Waste effluent is discharged to an evaporation pond. The total capital investment was estimated to be $21.88 million in mid-1979 dollars with annual operating costs of $6.08 million. The unit processing cost was determined at $4.17 per ton of lignite input. Raw materials represent 9 pct of the unit cost, whereas finance charges are nearly 32 pct. It was concluded that this ion exchange process is technically feasible, and in certain favorable circumstances, may be economically viable.

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  18. A dietary assessment of selenium risk to aquatic birds on a coal mine affected stream in Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, M.; Casey, R.; Woodsworth, E.

    2007-07-15

    In this article, we present the results of a dietary-based assessment of the risk that selenium may pose to two aquatic bird species, the American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) and the Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), on one of the coal mine-affected streams, the Gregg River. The study consisted of (1) a literature-based toxicity assessment, (2) simulation of selenium exposure in the diets and eggs of the two species, and (3) a risk assessment that coupled information on toxicity and exposure. Diet and egg selenium concentrations associated with a 20% hatch failure rate were 6.4 and 17 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. Simulated dietary selenium concentrations were about 2.0-2.5 {mu} g {center_dot} g{sup -1} higher on the Gregg River than on reference streams for both species. When simulated dietary concentrations were considered, hatch failure rates on the Gregg River were predicted to average 12% higher in American Dippers and 8% higher in Harlequin Ducks than at reference streams. Corresponding values were only 3% for both species when predicted egg concentrations were used. Elevated levels of selenium in insects in some of the reference streams were unexpected and raised a question as to whether aquatic birds have evolved a higher tolerance level for dietary selenium in these areas.

  19. Fostering Innovation in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, the Minister of Alberta Advanced Education initiated a comprehensive exercise to establish a new direction for Alberta's advanced education system. Through the A Learning Alberta review, a new vision and policy outcomes for the advanced education system will be articulated. The process provides an opportunity for government, stakeholders,…

  20. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  1. Sedimentology of paleochannels on foreland coastal plain, Judith River Formation (upper Cretaceous), southeast Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    The upper 90 m (295 ft) of the sub-Bearpaw Judith River Formation, continuously exposed in the badlands along the Red Deer River 185 km (115 mi) east of Calgary, is famous for the unrivaled assemblage of dinosaur fossils. Dinosaur Provincial Park presents are a rare opportunity to view the architecture of a foreland coastal-plain sequence as well as to clarify the origin and distribution of subbituminous coal zones and gas reservoirs associated with this formation across southeast Alberta. The distal reaches of paleodrainage from the developing Cordillera to the Western Interior seaway are being examined by north-south traversed across the badlands. Sharp-based paleochannel units, enclosed by rooted, olive-gray mudstone sequences that are commonly 4-6 m (13-20 ft) thick, vary between 2 end members. The first contains laterally accreted sand-mud couplets with abundant macrofloral debris, and represents cyclical, low-energy growth of point bars, possible with an estuarine influence. The second, mainly comprising cosets of large trough cross-beds with mudstone intraclasts, was formed by episodic aggradation of high-energy systems. An intermediate composite type displays evidence for an energy increase as channel sinuosity decreased. This variation in paleochannel type is attributed to alternating alluviation/rejuvenation associated with an unstable base level. Coal zones and potential reservoirs appear to be associated with the transgressive and regressive phases, respectively, of the Bearpaw coast. Amalgamation of paleochannels - marked by laterally extensive horizons of bone fragments, lithic and intraclastic gravel - is more common seaward over the axial region of the Sweetgrass arch.

  2. Coal Quality Information Book (Second Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Parkinson, J.W. )

    1991-05-01

    This two-volume book contains raw and clean coal-quality information for coal from 66 different sources in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Represented here are 59 bituminous and subbituminous coals, three lignites, one anthracite culm (refuse), and three anthracites. For some raw coals, data for as many as five derivative clean coals are presented, but the average is two clean coals per Coal Cleanability Characterization.

  3. Advanced coal liquefaction research: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, W.; McIlvried, H.G. III

    1988-07-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) To enhance the fundamental understanding of observed differences in the short contact time, donor solvent liquefaction of bituminous and subbituminous coals. (2) To determine if physical refining of subbituminous coals could be used to give a better feedstock for the first stage of two-stage liquefaction processes. Liquefaction studies using microautoclaves were carried out. Results are discussed. 11 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. L.; Rasmussen, J. B.; Palace, V. P.; Sterling, G.; Hontela, A.

    2013-07-01

    Pit lakes are a common reclamation strategy for open pit mines; however, there is a concern about their water quality and suitability as fish habitat because they are often contaminated by metals or metalloids. This study assessed the exposure of fish and invertebrates to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were stocked into two thermal coal pit lakes (water Se < 2 μg/L, low water Se) and two metallurgical coal pit lakes (water Se > 15 μg/L, high water Se). Se accumulation in stocked fish and concentrations in invertebrates were characterized over a period of 2 years. In the metallurgical pits, invertebrates had higher Se concentrations and fish accumulated Se to higher levels (exceeding USEPA tissue Se guidelines) than biota in the thermal pits. Rainbow and brook trout accumulated similar concentrations of Se in their muscle and exhibited a similar relationship between whole-body and muscle Se concentrations. These results may be used by resource managers to assess compliance with whole-body tissue Se guidelines and to determine if pit lakes in coal mining areas pose a significant Se risk to wildlife or human health. The high Se exposure in metallurgical coal pits indicates that under the current mining and reclamation strategy, these lakes are not suitable for management as recreational "put and take" fisheries.

  5. Selenium bioaccumulation in stocked fish as an indicator of fishery potential in pit lakes on reclaimed coal mines in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Rasmussen, J B; Palace, V P; Sterling, G; Hontela, A

    2013-07-01

    Pit lakes are a common reclamation strategy for open pit mines; however, there is a concern about their water quality and suitability as fish habitat because they are often contaminated by metals or metalloids. This study assessed the exposure of fish and invertebrates to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were stocked into two thermal coal pit lakes (water Se < 2 μg/L, low water Se) and two metallurgical coal pit lakes (water Se > 15 μg/L, high water Se). Se accumulation in stocked fish and concentrations in invertebrates were characterized over a period of 2 years. In the metallurgical pits, invertebrates had higher Se concentrations and fish accumulated Se to higher levels (exceeding USEPA tissue Se guidelines) than biota in the thermal pits. Rainbow and brook trout accumulated similar concentrations of Se in their muscle and exhibited a similar relationship between whole-body and muscle Se concentrations. These results may be used by resource managers to assess compliance with whole-body tissue Se guidelines and to determine if pit lakes in coal mining areas pose a significant Se risk to wildlife or human health. The high Se exposure in metallurgical coal pits indicates that under the current mining and reclamation strategy, these lakes are not suitable for management as recreational "put and take" fisheries. PMID:23665755

  6. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  7. Coal desulfurization by low temperature chlorinolysis, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B.; Andress, D. F.; Feller, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The reported activity covers laboratory scale experiments on twelve bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coals, and preliminary design and specifications for bench-scale and mini-pilot plant equipment.

  8. Charter Schools in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn

    At the heart of the controversy over public education in a democratic system is the tension between majority rules and minority rights, and public and individual interests. This contextual framework sets the stage for the emergence of charter schools in Alberta, Canada. This paper describes the establishment and characteristics of the first…

  9. Internships in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Tom

    1987-01-01

    Reviews Canadian educational levels and teacher preparation. The professional level of teacher preparation programs in Alberta is probably the highest in North America. Education internships are part of teacher training and take place after the granting of a degree and temporary teaching certificate. (MD)

  10. A Learning Alberta: Fostering Innovation in Alberta. A Discussion Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Minister has initiated a comprehensive exercise to establish a new direction for Alberta's advanced education system. Through "A Learning Alberta," a new vision and policy outcomes for the advanced education system will be articulated. The process provides an opportunity for government, stakeholders, and the public to consider how the advanced…

  11. Alberta Demographics and the Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Shepard

    University education in Alberta during the next two decades is addressed in relation to the increasing in-migration and uncertain participation. Although Alberta has the highest rate of net population gain among all provinces due to in-migration, it is not clear how many of the 18-24-year-old cohort will be job-seekers rather than potential…

  12. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Biodegradation and bioconversion of coals by fungi: Technical report No. 7 for the period March 1, 1987-May 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1987-01-01

    We have screened fungal isolates derived from subbituminous and bituminous coals for activity on lignites and higher-ranked coals. We continued tests on methods of mild acid pretreatments of several coals to enhance biological activity. We continued testing three methods for long-term preservation of coal-solubilizing isolates.

  14. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir.

  15. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particle size distributions, morphologies, and chemical composition distributions of 14 coal fly ash (CFA) samples produced by the combustion of four western U.S. coals (two subbituminous, one lignite, and one bituminous) and three eastern U.S. coals (all bituminous) have bee...

  17. Biodegradation and bioconversions of coals by fungi: Technical report no. 5 for the period October 1, 1986-November 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1986-01-01

    We have been testing for biosolubilization of coals of higher rank than lignites, and have observed bioactivity on subbituminous and bituminous coals, although the degree of solubilization is less than that for some lignites. Pretreatment of subbituminous coals with nitric acid enhances biosolubilization. Bituminous coals have not yet been tested for acid pretreatment effects. We observed that a Colorado lignite was solubilized only slightly and to lesser degree than the higher ranked coals by some tested organisms. We have assigned taxonomic identifications to several of the active isolates. One of the strains appears to be a Streptomyces, the first prokaryote that we have shown to be an active lignite-degrader. 4 tabs.

  18. Explaining Alberta's rising mesothelioma rates.

    PubMed

    Cree, M; Lalji, M; Jiang, B; Carriere, K C; Beach, J; Kamruzzaman, A

    2009-01-01

    Although mesothelioma rates have been rising worldwide, little is known about mesothelioma trends in Alberta. This population-based descriptive study used Alberta Cancer Board Registry data from 1980 to 2004 to develop an age-period-cohort model of male pleural mesothelioma incidence rates over time. Both age and cohort effects are associated with incidence rates. The highest-risk cohort comprised men born between 1930 and 1939, reflecting widespread asbestos use and exposure beginning in the 1940s in Canada. We predict that 1393 Albertan men 40 years and older will die of pleural mesothelioma between 1980 and 2024; 783 (56.2%) of these deaths will occur between 2010 and 2024. The total number of mesothelioma deaths in Alberta will be higher when all age groups, both sexes, and all disease sites are included, with numbers likely peaking sometime between 2015 and 2019. In addition to the ongoing efforts that focus on eliminating asbestos-related disease in Alberta, the challenge is to implement surveillance systems to prevent future epidemics of preventable occupational cancers in Alberta.

  19. Alberta Learning Results Report, 1999/2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Alberta Learning was created in May 1999 to enhance the focus of the government of Alberta, Canada, on lifelong learning and equipping all Albertans with the information and skills needed to live and work in the information age. During its first year of operation, Alberta Learning focused on its core businesses of basic learning, adult learning,…

  20. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 19--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This research project is for the development of a technically and economically feasible process for drying and stabilizing of fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research activities were initiated with efforts concentrating on characterization of the two feed coals: Eagle Butte coal from AMAX Coal Company's mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming; and coal from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.'s mine located in central Alaska. Both of the feed coals are high-moisture subbituminous coals with ''as received'' moisture contents of 29% and 22% for the Eagle Butte and Usibelli coals, respectively. However, physical analyses of the crushed coal samples (--28-mesh particle size range) indicate many differences. The minimum fluidization velocity (MFV) of the feed coals were experimentally determined. The MFV for --28-mesh Eagle Butte coal is approximately 1 ft/min, and the MFV for --28-mesh Usibelli coal is approximately 3 ft/min. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  2. 1981 Alberta Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Designed for teachers of students in grades 1-12, this document provides an overview of program content and objectives for the 1981 Alberta social studies curriculum. Minimum expectations regarding core and elective components, evaluation, and time allocations are briefly described and the status and availability of various learning resources are…

  3. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  4. Satisfaction with Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1998-01-01

    Annual Alberta surveys of parents, high school students, and the public are part of accountability processes and provide public consultation on policy issues and reform efforts. Selected results of the 1995 and 1996 surveys are presented, related to provincial educational objectives, and compared to similar U.S. and Ontario surveys and established…

  5. Carbon dioxide from coal combustion: Variation with rank of US coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.C.; Glick, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from combustion of US coal systematically varies with ASTM rank indices, allowing the amount of CO2 produced per net unit of energy to be predicted for individual coals. No single predictive equation is applicable to all coals. Accordingly, we provide one equation for coals above high volatile bituminous rank and another for lower rank coals. When applied to public data for commercial coals from western US mines these equations show a 15% variation of kg CO2 (net GJ)-1. This range of variation suggests reduction of US CO2 emissions is possible by prudent selection of coal for combustion. Maceral and mineral content are shown to slightly affect CO2 emissions from US coal. We also suggest that CO2 emissions increased between 6 and 8% in instances where Midwestern US power plants stopped burning local, high-sulfur bituminous coal and started burning low-sulfur, subbituminous C rank coal from the western US.

  6. Biosolubilization of coal by Candida in glucose limited cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mitter, J.; Guillory, L.; Bose, N.K.; Misra, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Coal biodegradation is attracting the attention of many workers because of its significance for efficient bioconversion of coal into useful chemicals. The authors work is based upon the beneficiation of a fungus (candida) on subbituminous coal. Candida was grown on both solid and liquid sabouraud medium and the coal solubilizing activity was studied at varying glucose concentration and temperature. Lower glucose concentration and higher temperature enhanced coal solubilizing activity by this fungus. Preliminary work has begun on analyzing organic extractions (alumina chromatography) of the liquid produced after microbial solubilization, including elemental analysis, solubility, molecular weights and chemical structure. This preliminary work suggests that the candida could metabolize naturally occurring coal as substrate.

  7. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; SanFilipo, J.R.; Azizi, G.P.; Davis, P.A.; Starratt, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30. km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0. vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500. m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50. ??C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to >95 vol%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5. wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time.Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90. wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39. wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860. Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI=0), consistent with fuels utilized in

  8. Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Anderson-Redick, S

    1989-01-01

    The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health, Government of Alberta: birth notice and certificates of death and stillbirth; increased sources of ascertainment have greatly improved data quality. We present the data for 1980-86 and compare the prevalence rates of selected anomalies with the rates from three other surveillance systems. Surveillance systems do not guarantee that a new teratogen will be detected, but they are extremely valuable for testing hypotheses regarding causation. At the very least they provide baseline data with which to compare any deviation or trend. For many, if not most, congenital anomalies total prevention is not possible; however, surveillance systems can be used to measure progress in prevention. PMID:2819634

  9. Estimation and modeling of coal pore accessibility using small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Shimin; Bahadur, Jitendra; Elsworth, Derek; Melnichenko, Yuri; He, Lilin; Wang, Yi

    2015-09-04

    Gas diffusion in coal is controlled by nano-structure of the pores. The interconnectivity of pores not only determines the dynamics of gas transport in the coal matrix but also influences the mechanical strength. In this study, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was employed to quantify pore accessibility for two coal samples, one of sub-bituminous rank and the other of anthracite rank. Moreover, a theoretical pore accessibility model was proposed based on scattering intensities under both vacuum and zero average contrast (ZAC) conditions. Our results show that scattering intensity decreases with increasing gas pressure using deuterated methane (CD4) at low Q values for both coals. Pores smaller than 40 nm in radius are less accessible for anthracite than sub-bituminous coal. On the contrary, when the pore radius is larger than 40 nm, the pore accessibility of anthracite becomes larger than that of sub-bituminous coal. Only 20% of pores are accessible to CD4 for anthracite and 37% for sub-bituminous coal, where the pore radius is 16 nm. For these two coals, pore accessibility and pore radius follows a power-law relationship.

  10. Estimation and modeling of coal pore accessibility using small angle neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Shimin; Bahadur, Jitendra; Elsworth, Derek; Melnichenko, Yuri; He, Lilin; Wang, Yi

    2015-09-04

    Gas diffusion in coal is controlled by nano-structure of the pores. The interconnectivity of pores not only determines the dynamics of gas transport in the coal matrix but also influences the mechanical strength. In this study, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was employed to quantify pore accessibility for two coal samples, one of sub-bituminous rank and the other of anthracite rank. Moreover, a theoretical pore accessibility model was proposed based on scattering intensities under both vacuum and zero average contrast (ZAC) conditions. Our results show that scattering intensity decreases with increasing gas pressure using deuterated methane (CD4) at low Qmore » values for both coals. Pores smaller than 40 nm in radius are less accessible for anthracite than sub-bituminous coal. On the contrary, when the pore radius is larger than 40 nm, the pore accessibility of anthracite becomes larger than that of sub-bituminous coal. Only 20% of pores are accessible to CD4 for anthracite and 37% for sub-bituminous coal, where the pore radius is 16 nm. For these two coals, pore accessibility and pore radius follows a power-law relationship.« less

  11. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V

    2012-10-23

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as 3 cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  12. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  13. 1979 summary of coal resources in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Colorado, with 8 coal-bearing regions and 20 coal fields, contains at least 11 percent of the total remaining coal resources of the United States to a depth of 6000 feet. Colorado coals range from early Late Cretaceous to Eocene in age. The higher rank bituminous coals and the largest reserves generally are found in the Upper Cretaceous Dakota and Mesa Verde Groups/Formations in western Colorado. The younger coals, generally of lower rank (subbituminous a to lignite), are found in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary rocks in the Green River, North and South Park, Raton Mesa, and Denver coal regions. Marginal and premium grades of coking coal are found in the Carbondale, Crested Butte, and Somerset fields, Uinta coal region; in the Trinidad field, Raton Mesa region; and in the Durango field, San Juan River region. Colorado coals range in rank from lignite to anthracite; over 70 percent of the resource is bituminous, approximately 23 percent is subbituminous, 5 percent lignite, and less than one percent anthracite. Moisture, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents of Colorado coals vary considerably with rank from region to region. According to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Colorado ranks seventh in the total U.S. demonstrated reserve base of coal (16.3 billion short tons) and fourth in the reserve base of bituminous coal. Furthermore, Colorado ranks first in the reserve base of underground-minable low sulphur bituminous coal. The Green River region produced over 9 million tons of the total 1978 state-wide coal production of 14.3 million tons. Projections for Colorado coal production through 1985 is in the order of 32.2 million tons per year.

  14. Development of Highly Reactive Nanometer Fe-Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, James A.; Linehan, John C.; Matson, Dean W.; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes research involving the liquefaction of coal and the removal of oxygen from coal product constituents. Subbituminous Coal and early stage coal liquefaction products contain a substantial fraction of hydroxy-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (phenols). An important reaction for upgrading of coal-derived organic materials is to remove oxygen groups. This paper describes the hydro-deoxygenation of naphthols and the liquefaction of subbituminous Wyodak coal using a catalyst prepared by in-situ sulfidation of nanometer scale 6-line iron ferrihydrite. The FeS catalyst enables the conversion of naphthol in substantial yields to tetralin and naphthalene at 400 degrees C in 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. The kinetics and procedures to observe coal liquefaction and hydro-deoxygenation, and the effects of in-situ sulfidation on conversion kinetics are described.

  15. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  16. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  17. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  18. Lichen biomonitoring networks in alberta.

    PubMed

    Case, J W

    1984-09-01

    Lichen biomonitoring of air pollution has developed over a period of about 150 yr. Several valuable techniques now exist which could complement physical/chemical air quality monitoring programmes. The affects of air pollution and acid rain, in areas such as Alberta, where lichens and bryophytes make up a significant portion of the forest vegetation, must be considered important. In addition, bioaccumulation studies can be used to map the areas of 'heavy metal' deposition, estimate actual depositional rates, and check the accuracy of pollutant dispersion models. Lichen biomonitoring techniques must now be calibrated with more 'glamorous' effects on plant physiology, ecosystem processes, cancer incidence, etc.

  19. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  20. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal.

  1. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  2. Coal deposits of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Nelson W.

    1987-01-01

    The coal fields of the Unites States can be divided into six major provinces. The Appalachian and Interior Provinces contain dominantly bituminous coal in strata of Pennsylvanian age. The coal seams are relatively thin and are mined both by surface and underground methods. Sulfyur content is low to moderate in the Appalachian Province, generally high in the Interior province. The Gulf Coastal Plain Province, in Texas and neighboring states, contains lignite of Eocene age. The seams are 3-25 ft (0.9-7.5 m) thick and are minded in large open pits. The Northern Great Plains Province has lignite and subbituminous coal of Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene age. The coal, largely very low in sulfur, occurs in beds up to 100 ft (30 m) thick and is strip-mined. The Rocky Mountain Province contains a great variety of coal deposits in numerous separate intermontane basins. Most of it is low-sulfur subbituminous to bituminous coal iof Creatceous and early Tertiary age. The seams range from a few feet to over 100 ft (30 m) thick. Strip-mining dominates but underground mines are important in Utah and Colorado. The Pacific Coast Province, which includes Alaska, contains enormous cola resources but has seen little mining. The coal is highly diverse in physical character and geologic setting. ?? 1987.

  3. Two-stage, close coupled catalytic liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Panvelker, S.V.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

    1990-09-01

    During the first quarter of 1990, work was carried out in the microautoclave, microreactor, and Bench-Scale units. An economics analysis on sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities was also completed. Several supported catalysts and a sample of iron oxide were screened in the microautoclave unsulfided and sulfided with DMDS and TNPS. A second shipment of Black Thunder coal from Wilsonville, oil agglomerated cleaned Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City, OTISCA cleaned coal a New Mexico coal were evaluated for relative conversions with and without catalyst. Results of Bench-Scale developments with cleaned, oil agglomerated, Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City(CC-6), Dispersed Catalyst/Supported Catalyst Two-Stage and reversed sequential operation (CC-7), on Black Thunder Coal (CC-7), and preliminary observations on OTISCA cleaned coal are presented. The oil agglomerated cleaned coal gave higher conversion and distillate production than the OTISCA cleaned coal. The Dispersed/Supported Two-Stage operation yielded higher gas production than the reverse sequence but also showed the higher coal conversion. Economic analysis of sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities showed a 3% higher return on investment with a 50% increase in space velocity. 13 tabs.

  4. Bioassay for estimating the biogenic methane-generating potential of coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Corum, M.D.; Cohn, A.; Bunnell, J.E.; Clark, A.C.; Orem, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of secondary biogenic methane in coal beds is likely controlled by a combination of factors such as the bioavailability of coal carbon, the presence of a microbial community to convert coal carbon to methane, and an environment supporting microbial growth and methanogenesis. A set of treatments and controls was developed to bioassay the bioavailability of coal for conversion to methane under defined laboratory conditions. Treatments included adding a well-characterized consortium of bacteria and methanogens (enriched from modern wetland sediments) and providing conditions to support endemic microbial activity. The contribution of desorbed methane in the bioassays was determined in treatments with bromoethane sulfonic acid, an inhibitor of microbial methanogenesis. The bioassay compared 16 subbituminous coal samples collected from beds in Texas (TX), Wyoming (WY), and Alaska (AK), and two bituminous coal samples from Pennsylvania (PA). New biogenic methane was observed in several samples of subbituminous coal with the microbial consortium added, but endemic activity was less commonly observed. The highest methane generation [80????mol methane/g coal (56??scf/ton or 1.75??cm3/g)] was from a south TX coal sample that was collected from a non-gas-producing well. Subbituminous coals from the Powder River Basin, WY and North Slope Borough, AK contained more sorbed (original) methane than the TX coal sample and generated 0-23????mol/g (up to 16??scf/ton or 0.5??cm3/g) new biogenic methane in the bioassay. Standard indicators of thermal maturity such as burial depth, nitrogen content, and calorific value did not explain differences in biogenic methane among subbituminous coal samples. No original methane was observed in two bituminous samples from PA, nor was any new methane generated in bioassays of these samples. The bioassay offers a new tool for assessing the potential of coal for biogenic methane generation, and provides a platform for studying the

  5. Structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project is an intensive effort on the application of laser to the microscopic structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal particles pyrolysis, char combustion and ash transformation at combustion level heat fluxes in a laser beam. Research emphasis in FY91 is placed on setup and calibration of the laser pyrolysis system, preparation and mass loss studies of Beulah lignite and subbituminous coals. The task is therefore divided into three subtasks.

  6. Quality of economically extractable coal beds in the Gillette coal field as compared with other Tertiary coal beds in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Margaret S.

    2002-01-01

    The Powder River Basin, and specifically the Gillette coal field, contains large quantities of economically extractable coal resources. These coal resources have low total sulfur content and ash yield, and most of the resources are subbituminous in rank. A recent U.S Geological Survey study of economically extractable coal in the Gillette coal field focused on five coal beds, the Wyodak rider, Upper Wyodak, Canyon, Lower Wyodak-Werner, and Gates/Kennedy. This report compares the coal quality of these economically extractable coal beds to coal in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin and in the Gillette coal field (Flores and others, 1999) and other produced coal in the Gillette coal field (Glass, 2000). The Upper Wyodak, Canyon, and Lower Wyodak/Werner beds are within the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone. Compared with all coal in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, both throughout the Powder River Basin and just within the Gillette coal field; the thick, persistent Upper Wyodak coal bed in the Gillette coal field has higher mean gross calorific value (8,569 Btu/lb), lower mean ash yield (5.8 percent), and lower mean total sulfur content (0.46 percent).

  7. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  8. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  9. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  10. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  11. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  12. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  13. Polar polycyclic aromatic compounds from different coal types show varying mutagenic potential, EROD induction and bioavailability depending on coal rank.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have rarely considered the heterogeneity of coals and the impact of more polar PAC besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Earlier, we investigated the toxicity of eight heterogeneous coals and their extracts. In the present study, the hazard potential with respect to mechanism-specific toxicity of polar fractions of dichloromethane extracts from coals was studied. Polar extract fractions of all coal types except for anthracite induced EROD activity (determined in RTL-W1 cells), independent of coal type (Bio-TEQs between 23 ± 16 and 52 ± 22 ng/g). The polar fractions of all bituminous coal extracts revealed mutagenic activity (determined using the Ames Fluctuation test). No significant mutation induction was detected for the polar extract fractions from the lignite, sub-bituminous coal and anthracite samples, which indicates a higher dependency on coal type for polar PAC here. Additionally, information on bioavailability was derived from a bioaccumulation test using the deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus which was exposed for 28 days to ground coal samples. Despite the high toxic potential of most coal extracts and a reduced biomass of Lumbriculus in bituminous coal samples, bioaccumulation of PAH and mortality after 28 days were found to be low. Limited bioaccumulation of PAH (up to 3.6 ± 3.8 mg/kg EPA-PAH) and polar PAC were observed for all coal samples. A significant reduction of Lumbriculus biomass was observed in the treatments containing bituminous coals (from 0.019 ± 0.004 g to 0.046 ± 0.011 g compared to 0.080 ± 0.025 g per replicate in control treatments). We conclude that bioavailability of native PAC from coals including polar PAC is low for all investigated coal types. In comparison to lignite, sub-bituminous coals and anthracite, the bioavailability of PAC from bituminous coals is slightly increased.

  14. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  15. Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.E.; Riaz, Khan M.; Ahmed, Khan S.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightlydifferent techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small

  16. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006 contains…

  17. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  18. Coal desulfurization by low temperature chlorinolysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ernest, J.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale, bench scale batch reactor, and minipilot plant tests were conducted on 22 bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Chemical pretreatment and post treatment of coals relative to the chlorination were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization by the chlorinolysis process. Elevated temperature (500-700 C) hydrogen treatment of chlorinolysis-processed coal at atmospheric pressure was found to substantially increase coal desulfurization up to 90 percent. Sulfur forms, proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coal are included. Minipilot plant operation indicates that the continuous flow reactor provides coal desulfurization results comparable to those obtained in the batch reactor. Seven runs were conducted at coal feed rates of 1.5 to 8.8 kg per hour using water and methylchloroform solvents, gaseous chlorine feed of 3 to 31.4 SCFH at 21 to 70 C, and atmospheric pressure for retention times of 20 to 120 minutes.

  19. Flash pyrolysis of coal by an argon ion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.S.; Egsgaard, H.

    1994-12-31

    A novel approach to laser induced pyrolysis of coal by using the visible blue-green emission from an argon ion laser is presented. The gaseous pyrolysis products are identified by on-line gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Five different subbituminous to bituminous coals have been studied and results for the low-molecular weight hydrocarbons up to C{sub 3} are discussed. Mechanisms for the formation of the unsaturated hydrocarbons, ethylene and acetylene, during laser pyrolysis of coal have been disclosed utilizing deuterium as a buffer gas in the pyrolysis cell.

  20. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  1. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  2. Senior Executive Views on Education in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meanwell, Richard J.; Barrington, Gail V.

    Interviews were conducted with 60 senior executives in the private sector to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the education system in Alberta, Canada from their perspective. The executives' views were solicited on the following topics: (1) current strengths of the education system; (2) necessary improvements in educational programs and…

  3. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  4. Assessment in Alberta: Six Areas of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Nola; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy; Scott, Shelleyann; Runte, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report on the Alberta Student Assessment Study describes the context, methodology, and emergent themes. It outlines the purposes and uses of assessment according to the various stakeholder groups. Using both qualitative and quantitative data from students and parents, as well as educators at all levels, there were six areas or themes that…

  5. Development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Frank G.; Machura, Shirley

    The development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program (ADRP) was based on a current psycholinguistic theory that describes reading as a process in which the reader uses background information to communicate with the author. To ensure its usefulness and effectiveness, the developers of the ADRP sought the advice and direct involvement of many…

  6. Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Kathy; Ettrich, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks are organized by division: kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, and grades 10-12. They are descriptors of language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The descriptors are arranged in a continuum of seven language competences across five proficiency levels. Several…

  7. Counselor Training in Canada: An Alberta Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Darlene L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines initiatives of Alberta/Northwest Territories Region of Employment and Immigration Canada in implementation and continuing development of employment counselor training within context of changing economic conditions and policy changes. Describes such initiatives as innovative group approaches, program of competence maintenance and…

  8. Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G; Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J; Kutz, Susan J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids.

  9. Education in Alberta: Facts and Figures, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    A statistical overview of the educational system in Alberta (Canada) for 1989 is presented. The report includes data and analyses concerning demographics; family and social structure; economy and workforce; early childhood services enrollments and projections; public and separate school enrollments and projections; private school enrollments;…

  10. Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A crisis always seems like something that happens somewhere else - that is, until it arrives on your doorstep. Although other issues and challenges scream for your attention, School Authorities should not postpone developing an influenza pandemic plan. The "Pandemic Planning Guide for Alberta School Authorities" (the "Guide") is designed to assist…

  11. Alberta's Performance-Based Funding Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    This paper provides an overview of the performance indicator-based accountability and funding mechanism implemented in the higher education system of Alberta, Canada. The paper defines the terms accountability and regulation, examines the use of performance indicators to demonstrate accountability, and explains how performance indicator-based…

  12. A Guide to Native Organizations in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Native Affairs, Edmonton.

    Names, addresses, names of directors, and telephone numbers for 182 organizations formed by or serving Canada Natives in Alberta are presented, grouped by their area of interest. Listed are 17 arts and crafts organizations, 10 business and employment development services, 8 radio stations and newspapers, 12 cultural groups, 19 educational…

  13. Alberta`s oil sands: Update on regulatory and development issues

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, P.L.; Germain, R.R.; McMurray, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, two papers were presented by staff from the Alberta Department of Energy to the Fourth UNITAR Conference. The first paper outlined various elements of the fiscal regimes applicable to Alberta`s oil sands. The second paper provided an overview of the economic development of the oil sands in Alberta. In 1991, a paper was presented to the Fifth UNITAR Conference outlining Alberta`s new oil sands lease tenure policy. This 1995 paper will update those earlier papers, outlining recent developments that have occurred in the oil sands respecting projects, production, fiscal regimes, and lease tenure policy. The 1988 papers were presented at the time of what was expected to be a {open_quotes}mega-project boom,{close_quotes} with governments and industry actively engaged in negotiating fiscal terms that would apply to the proposed mega-projects. Within months following the Fourth UNITAR Conference, there were government/industry announcements that agreements had been reached that would allow the Bi-Provincial and OSLO projects to proceed. At the time of the 1991 paper, these projects were still in the engineering phase or under construction. We now know the mega-project boom was a bust. This paper is intended to provide an objective and reasonable comprehensive overview of project and policy developments since 1988.

  14. Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Spaceborne Methane Observations by Airs Over Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.; Chance, K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from natural (e.g. wetland) and anthropogenic (e.g. oil and gas industry, and waste management) sources contribute to Alberta's GHG emission. The focus of this study is to examine the spatio-temporal variation of total column CH4 over Alberta, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite from 2003 to 2013. Spaceborne measurements by AIRS provide a global view of CH4 distribution in the mid-upper troposphere. This study demonstrates a significant rise of CH4 levels in Alberta in the last ten years. This ascending trend is consistent with the increase of global methane levels in the same time period. Monthly variations indicate a significant increase of CH4 levels in summer with maximum in August, which is probably driven by enhanced convection. Spatial distributions of CH4 reveal a strong west-east gradient with maximum levels in northern regions (55-65 N). The enhanced summer levels over northern and eastern regions suggest possible pathways for CH4 emitted from natural sources (wetlands, lakes and permafrost) in high northern latitude regions and Canadian wetlands (e.g. Hudson Bay wetland). However, the abrupt increase of CH4 concentration coincides with significant change in economic activities during that time period. Since some of the wetland CH4 fluxes are collocated with large anthropogenic source, it is difficult to account for different source contribution. Thus, further studies about CH4 emission and transport over Alberta are recommended to reduce the uncertainties about the natural and anthropogenic contributions of Alberta to Canada's CH4 emissions.

  16. Utilization of low rank coal and peat

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.J.

    1987-11-10

    A composition is described including a fuel selected from the group consisting of an oil coated low rank coal and an oil coated peat. The fuel has a moisture content of less than about 5% by weight ground to a 75% minus 200 mesh and water. The composition comprises on a weight percent basis between about 44 to about 70% coal, from about 29 to about 55% water and from about 1 to about 5% oil. The composition is described wherein the low rank coal is selected from the group consisting of sub-bituminous, lignite and brown coal. The composition is described further including a suspension stabilizing agent. The composition is described wherein the suspension stabilizing agent is selected from the group consisting of starch graft polymers, anionic surfactants, alkyl phosphates, alkyl sulfates and alkane sulfuric acids.

  17. Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefaction Using a Novel Batch Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1997-01-30

    The primary objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction in tetralin of a Montana Lignite, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, Illinois #6 hv bituminous coal, Pittsburgh #8 hv bituminous coals, and Pocohontas lV bituminous coal at short contact times. All of these coals showed a distinct extraction stage. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.

  18. Huminite reflectance measurements of Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous coals from borehole cuttings, Zavala and Dimmit counties, South Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    The reflectance of huminite in 19 cuttings samples was determined in support of ongoing investigations into the coal bed methane potential of subsurface Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous coals of South Texas. Coal cuttings were obtained from the Core Research Center of the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin. Geophysical logs, mud-gas logs, driller's logs, completion cards, and scout tickets were used to select potentially coal-bearing sample suites and to identify specific sample depths. Reflectance measurements indicate coals of subbituminous rank are present in a wider area in South Texas than previously recognized.

  19. Nova is an old hand at big deals in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.

    1980-09-10

    Nova, an Alberta Corporation, formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd., and Shell Canada Resources Ltd. will build a 600 million lb/yr styrene plant near Edmonton, Alberta. For feedstock, 5000 bbl/day of benzene will come from a $350 million, 100,000 bbl/day refinery that will be built by Shell at Edmonton. Husky Oil Ltd., which is controlled by Nova, will take a 40% equity in the refinery. According to Nova, which has a monopoly on gas transmission in Alberta, continued collaboration with Shell could lead to the spending of an additional $2 billion in the next few years. Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd. and Nova will put together an ethane extraction system in Alberta which will feed their jointly owned 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene plant near Red Deer, Alberta. Dow uses the entire output of the ethylene plant at its recently completed Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, complex. Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. Ltd., a Nova subsidiary, has begun work on a second 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene unit scheduled for completion in early 1984, and will soon start work on a third ethylene unit at Red Deer. According to J. Sutherland (Nova, Alberta Corp.), Nova is rapidly expanding its ethylene capacity because, for at least a certain period of time, world-scale plants using Alberta natural gas will be very competitive.

  20. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1991-01-01

    The project will quantify the effect of the following pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and on the subsequent reactivity of chars: (a) pyrolysis heating rate; (b) final heat treatment temperature (HTT); (c) duration of heat treatment at HTT (or soak time); (d) pyrolysis atmosphere (N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures); (e) coal particle size (100 {endash} 1000 {mu}m in diameter); (f) sulfur-capturing additives (limestone); and (g) coal rank. Pyrolysis experiments will be carried out for three coals from the Argonne collection: (1) a high-volatile bituminous coal with high ash content (Illinois {number sign}6), (2) a bituminous coal with low ash content (Utah Blind Canyon) and (3) a lower rank subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam).

  1. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Analytical methods were finalized and all analyses completed on shake flask tests with Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. A column leaching-rotating biological contractor (RBC) unit was used to bioleach pyrite and hazardous air pollutant precursors from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Shake flask tests with Rosebud subbituminous coal were begun. In connection with upcoming slurry column reactor tests, coal was prepared and shipped to INEL, and a detailed work plan was developed for operation and sampling for the tests. A manuscript and poster was prepared for presentation at the PETC contractors conference.

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  3. Organic intermediates in the anaerobic biodegradation of coal to methane under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Voytek, M.A.; Jones, E.J.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Corum, M.D.; Warwick, P.D.; Clark, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Organic intermediates in coal fluids produced by anaerobic biodegradation of geopolymers in coal play a key role in the production of methane in natural gas reservoirs. Laboratory biodegradation experiments on sub-bituminous coal from Texas, USA, were conducted using bioreactors to examine the organic intermediates relevant to methane production. Production of methane in the bioreactors was linked to acetate accumulation in bioreactor fluid. Long chain fatty acids, alkanes (C19-C36) and various low molecular weight aromatics, including phenols, also accumulated in the bioreactor fluid and appear to be the primary intermediates in the biodegradation pathway from coal-derived geopolymers to acetate and methane. ?? 2010.

  4. Superintendents' Reactions to School Finance in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Donald M.

    The purpose of this paper was to report on the system of school finance in the province of Alberta. The first part of the paper consists of an outline of the legal framework in the Canadian constitution, a descriptlon of the current school finance plan, and a summary of a 1979 study of the plan. The bulk of the document concerns a survey of 94…

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a uraniferous coal from the Red Desert Area, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, Irving A.; Deul, Maurice; Meyrowitz, Robert; Rubinstein, Samuel

    1953-01-01

    A sample of subbituminous uraniferous coal from the Red Desert, Sweetwater County, Wyo., was studied mineralogically. The coal contains gypsum (6 percent), kaolinite (1 percent), quartz (0.3 percent), calcite (trace), and limonite (trace). This suite of minerals and the absence of pyrite show that the coal has been subjected to weathering and oxidation. No uranium minerals have been found; mechanical fractionation has indicated that the uranium is associated with the organic constituents of the coal. The minerals that have been isolated contain 0.0006 percent uranium, a content which is to be expected for nonuraniferous sedimentary rocks. The organic components of the coal contain approximately 0.002 percent uranium. On the basis of material balance calculations, the organic components carry 98 percent of the uranium in the coal. Fischer assays of this weathered coal from the Red Desert indicate a yield of 16.7 gallons of tar per ton on low-temperature retorting. In view of the large reserve of subbituminous coal in the Red Desert, its probable ease of mining, and its tar yield, it may be desirable to carry out further evaluation of the coal as a fuel or raw material for the manufacture of tar or chemicals. If economic factors permit utilization of the coal, the uranium, although present in small percentages, could be recovered as a byproduct.

  6. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. PMID:26476065

  7. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Humez, P; Mayer, B; Ing, J; Nightingale, M; Becker, V; Kingston, A; Akbilgic, O; Taylor, S

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n=63) in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n=26) in dissolved gas. δ(13)C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ(13)C values in concert with average δ(2)HCH4 values of -289 ± 44‰ (n=45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed.

  8. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. [Quarterly] technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Saini, A.K.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1993-07-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) effects of drying and mild oxidation on conversion and product distribution during non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9); and (2) effects of solvent and catalyst on conversion and structural changes of a Texas subbituminous coal (DECS-1). Influence of drying and mild oxidation on catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction (at 350C for 30 min with 6.9 MPa (cold) H{sub 2} was studied using Wyodak subbituminous coal. For non-catalytic runs, fresh raw coal gave higher conversion and higher oil yield than both the vacuum- and air-dried coals, regardless of the solvent. Compared to the vacuum-dried coal, the coal dried in air in 100C for 2 h gave a better conversion in the presence of either a hydrogen donor tetralin or a non-donor 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) solvent. Catalytic runs were performed using in-situ generated molybdenum sulfide catalyst from ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) precursor impregnated on either raw coal or predried coal samples. The solvent-free runs using ATTM loaded on the raw coal gave higher conversion and higher oil yield than loading ATTM on vacuum- or air-dried coal. In the presence of either tetralin or 1-MN, however, the runs using ATTM loaded on air-dried coal afford better conversions and oil yields as compared to the runs using vacuum-dried coal. Upon drying coal in air at 150C for 20 h, the conversion significantly decreased to a lower value than that of the vacuum-dried coal in the non-catalytic runs, and the same trend was observed in the runs of the dried coals loaded with ATTM. Physical, chemical, and surface chemical aspects of effects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed in the report.

  9. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  10. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS.

  11. Structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal pyrolysis. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objectives of this project is an intensive effort on the application of laser to the microscopic structure and thermochemical kinetic studies of coal particles pyrolysis, char combustion and ash transformation at combustion level heat fluxes in a laser beam. Research emphasis in FY91 is placed on setup and calibration of the laser pyrolysis system, preparation and mass loss studies of Beulah lignite and subbituminous coals. The task is therefore divided into three subtasks.

  12. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

    2005-11-15

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

  13. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-08-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS [sup 13]C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425[degree]C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

  15. Physical structure changes of Canadian coals during combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Chambers, A.

    1995-01-01

    A subbituminous (Coal A), and both high-volatile (Coal B) and low-volatile bituminous (Coal C) coals were chosen to examine coals of different rank and reactivity. Coal A and Coal B were very reactive, with burnouts of 95% and 88% achieved under stable operating conditions. Coal C was relatively unreactive. It was not possible to achieve a stable flame with the burnout decreasing below 50% in less than 1 h. Direct comparison of the partially burnt samples from the three coals was difficult because of the different reactivities. Coals A and B burned so rapidly that it was not possible to collect samples below 70% burnout. Conversely, it was not possible to generate samples of Coal C char at burnouts above 72%. Coal A showed a continuous decrease in particle size with burnout. Coal B showed a significant size decrease only before 70% burnout, whereas coal C actually increased in size up to 60% burnout, followed by a slight decrease. Surface area analysis of Coal A indicated a large surface area contained in micropores. At high levels of burnout (above 90%), the surface area decreased. The same behavior was observed for coal B. While coal C also showed this large increase in surface area, the decrease occurred at about 50% burnout, much earlier than for the other coals. Results of mercury porosimetry tests on the partially burnt samples revealed a significant change in the pore volume for both Coals A and B, while no large changes were observed for Coal C. It was difficult to draw any conclusions from the porosimetry results due to the different particle size of the chars and wide variance in the measurements.

  16. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  17. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  18. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  19. Biodegradation and bioconversion of coals by fungi: Technical report No. 6 for the period December 1, 1986-February 28, 1987. [Candida sp. , Cunninghamella sp. , Acremonium sp. , and Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1987-02-01

    We continued our tests for biosolubilization activity on lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coals, using both surface solubilization and agar diffusion assays for selected lignite-solubilizing strains challenged with untreated and treated coals shown in earlier tests to be resistant to biosolubilization. These latter were subjected to treatments with heat or pressurized oxygen atmosphere, or to combinations of the same. We have observed biosolubilization of some weathered high-rank coals by some of the fungal isolates tested. 1 tab.

  20. New coal technology to flourish at Kentucky plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-08-15

    Within four years a 76 MW (net) advanced supercritical coal unit, TC2, will go into service at the Trimble County power plant on the Ohio River near Louiseville, KY, USA. The unit is designed to burn a blend of eastern bituminous and western sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coals. TC2 is one of four US power plants to receive a $125 m tax credit under the 2005 EPACT Qualifying Advanced Coal Program for high efficiency and low emission generating units. Trimble County is owned and operated by E.ON US subsidiaries Kentucky Utilities and Louiseville Gas & Electric. It was originally designed to accommodate four 500 MW coal-fired units fired by bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin. 1 photo.

  1. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  2. Biodegradation and bioconversions of coals by fungi. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 1-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1986-01-01

    We have continued the screening of 11 more new lignite-solubilizing isolates tested for activity on the three different lignites as described in previous reports. We have worked on the identification of several strains, especially those which are most active, and have narrowed IDs down to possible genera. Samples were collected in Colorado of weathered and unweathered subbituminous coals of two grades, and a lignite which is different from any already tested. We have several goals in mind: to isolate subbituminous-solubilizing strains from the subbituminous coals; to test our lignite-solubilizing strains on the subbituminous; and to see if we can isolate one or more strains which will solubilize bituminous coals. We have tested several of our lignite-solubilizers on the Colorado subbituminous, and now have good and rapid solubilization on the weathered samples of one coal by some, but not all strains tested. We are screening all isolates to assess their abilities to solubilize lignite on the surface of the mycelial mat. We have tested over 20 strains. We have identified a few strains which, for various reasons of culture habit, ease of handling, and rapidity and degree of solubilization, seem to be good organisms to apply to production of liquid product for further study. We have used a qualitative assay (the syringaldazine spot color test) for laccase and peroxidase activity on both lignite-solubilizers and several strains which will not solubilize lignite. Of the over 50 strains tested, only 6 gave positive tests for laccase, and each of these is an active lignite-solubilizer. Yet about 35 lignite-solubilizers tested did not test positive for laccase, and of these, one tested positive for peroxidase, and a different one gave evidence of catalase. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  4. Thermogravimetric properties and H/C, O/C and H/O ratios for coals of several ranks

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, O.C.; Harris, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Initial volatilization temperatures (IVT) and average voltilization rates (AVR) have been determined for thirty-six coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. The relationship between rank, thermal behavior and chemical ratios has been investigated. For example, when IVT is plotted against O/C, IVT's increase rapidly while the O/C ratio decreases from 0.24 to 0.14 for lignites and sub-bituminous coals. In the high-volatile bituminous rank, IVT's hover near 360/sup 0/C while the O/C ratio decreases rapidly form 0.15 to 0.04. In the medium- and low-volatile bituminous ranks IVT's again increase rapidly while the O/C ratio decreases only slightly from 0.04 to 0.02. When IVT's are compared with H/C ratios, the ratios decrease gradually for lignites and sub-bituminous coals and from 0.72 to 0.61 for medium- and low-volatile bituminous coals. During the major transition between sub-bituminous and high-volatile bituminous coals the H/C ratio falls in the overlapping range from 0.88 to 0.75. The authors conclude that during the early coalification little oxygen is lost while the H/C ratio decreases through the loss of methane. During the transition from sub-bituminous to high-volatile bituminous, oxygen is lost more rapidly while hydrogen remains in the coal to produce new organic compounds which give high-volatile bituminous coal its unique properties.

  5. Fostering a Provincial Identity: Two Eras in Alberta Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Heyking, Amy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyse how schools in Alberta have defined the province's identity and its role in Confederation. During two eras, the 1930s and the 1980s, social studies curriculum and teaching resources contained assertions of provincial uniqueness. In the late 1930s, the progressive curriculum implemented in Alberta's schools represented…

  6. Final Report of the Steering Committee. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is the final report and recommendations of the Steering Committee for "A Learning Alberta": a report gleaned from a series of discussions and reports to review the Advanced Education system in Alberta. In order to foster a strong system, the committee recommended the achievement of six key goals and provided a 20 year strategic plan to…

  7. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  8. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  9. FOIPP and Technology Highlights: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The information in this document is based on a study that Alberta Education commissioned on establishing technology systems that are responsive to the requirements of Alberta's Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FOIPP). This document provides an overview of key issues and suggested strategies in the following areas: (1)…

  10. Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

    The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

  11. Evolving Nature of School Psychology in Alberta: Politics and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Coranne; Zwiers, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the practice of school psychology in the province of Alberta reflects the entrenchment of assessment with the emerging possibility of a broader service provider role. This article articulates the influence that politics and government has had on the role of school psychologists in Alberta schools as special education…

  12. Alberta Health Services: journey to accreditation.

    PubMed

    Mumme, Susan; Nicklin, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, Alberta Health Services (AHS) successfully completed phase one of its journey to accreditation, meeting 683 of 774 criteria and earning Accreditation with Condition. AHS entered accreditation during its infancy (18 months, to be exact) in an environment shaped by seismic organizational and structural changes. In this article, the authors share some of the successes, challenges and ongoing opportunities that have emerged during the first years of AHS's accreditation journey, as well as details of the strong collaborative relationship between AHS and Accreditation Canada.

  13. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  14. Alberta Transfer Guide, 2003-2004: A Guide To Transfer Credit at Alberta Post-Secondary Institutions. 28th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer, Edmonton.

    The Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer maintains a database of negotiated and approved transfer agreements between postsecondary institutions. Information from the data base is accessible online or in this annual printed guide. Section 1 is an introduction that explains the activities of the Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer.…

  15. A geochemical investigation into the effect of coal rank on the potential environmental effects of CO2 sequestration in deep coal beds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 to evaluate the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons during CO2 sequestration or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep coal beds. The concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the subbituminous C, high-volatile C bituminous, and anthracite coal samples were 41.2, 43.1, and 3.11 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. Substantial, but lower, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were mobilized from these samples: 2.19, 10.1, and 1.44 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. The hydrocarbon distributions within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from each coal sample also varied with coal rank and reflected changes to the coal matrix associated with increasing degree of coalification. Bitumen present within the coal matrix may affect hydrocarbon partitioning between coal and supercritical CO2. The coal samples continued to yield hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2. The amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction, and the relative proportion of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons increased during successive extractions. These results demonstrate that the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating coal beds for CO2 storage.

  16. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  17. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  18. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

  19. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-04-30

    Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

  20. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Hou, L.; Saini, A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-06-01

    Residues of two subbituminous coals from their liquefaction at 300-425{degrees}C were analyzed using cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) and dipolar dephasing (DD) solid-state {sup 13}C NMR techniques. The DDMAS and CPMAS NMR analysis of a Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9) indicate that it has 63-64% aromatic carbons among total carbons; 34-35% of the aromatic carbons are protonated carbons, and 23-24% of the aromatic carbons are oxygen-bound carbons, with the remaining 31-33% bound primarily to other carbon atoms. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of Wyodak subbituminous coal (DECS-8) is similar to that of Montana subbituminous coal (DECS-9). CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR of the residues from DECS-9 coal revealed that catechol-like structures and phenolic structures in the coal are thermally sensitive and diminish gradually with increasing temperature. The carbon aromaticity increased monotonically with increasing reaction temperature, whereas hydrogen aromaticity reached a maximum for residue from a 300{degrees}C run and then declines with further increase in temperature. The increase in carbon aromaticity is mainly driven by temperature, rather than by the adduction of aromatic solvents. DDMAS NMR analysis indicates that the degree of protonation of aromatic carbons decreased from 35% (for THF-extracted but unreacted DECS-9 coal) to 13% (for residue from a non-catalytic run) with increasing reaction temperature up to 375{degrees}C. DDMAS {sup 13}C NMR of the residues from DECS-8 Wyodak coal revealed that the degree of protonation of aromatic carbons (f{sub a}{sup ah}) is lower with the residues from catalytic liquefaction a 350{degrees}C.

  1. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  2. Short Contact Time Direct Coal Liquefactionn Using a Novel Batch Reactor. Quarterly Report. May 16 - August 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    He Huang; Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins

    1996-08-30

    The objective of this research is to optimize the design and operation of the bench scale batch reactor (SCTBR) for studying direct coal liquefaction at short contact times (.01 to 10 minutes or longer). Additional objectives are to study the kinetics of direct coal liquefaction particularly at short reaction times and to investigate the role of organic oxygen components of coal and their reaction pathways during coal liquefaction. Many of those objectives have already been achieved. This quarterly report discusses further kinetic studies of the liquefaction of Illinois #6 bituminous coal, Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal, and Pittsburgh #8 bituminous coal. The thermodynamic characteristics of the extraction stage at the start of the liquefaction process in the liquefaction of Illinois #6 coal is also discussed. Further work has also been done to attempt to clarify the role of the liquefaction solvent in the direct liquefaction process.

  3. Flash pyrolysis of coal in non-reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Coal pyrolysis experiments were carried out with a New Mexico subbituminous coal in the presence of nonreactive He, N/sub 2/, and Ar gases in an entrained downflow tubular reactor. The percent carbon conversions to CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, BTX, CO and CO/sub 2/ were determined as a function of temperature and residence time at 50 psi. In helium atmosphere, the yields of methane and CO/sub x/ reached asymptotic values in about 1 sec and ethylene was produced throughout the length of the BNL reactor corresponding to a coal particle residence time of 1.7 sec. The relative yields of individual products were influenced by the pyrolysis atmosphere but the total carbon conversion remained almost unaffected. A reduction in the cationic content of coal by acid treatment enhanced the production of CO and CO/sub 2/ but inhibited the formation of ethylene. 13 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  5. The single electron chemistry of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II.

    1990-07-24

    TCNQ Charge Transfer Complexes with Coals. TCNQ can be readily deposited in coals from pyridine solution. IR spectra of TCNQ and TCNQ in Illinois No. 6 coal are shown in Fig. 1. It is clear that the stretching frequency has been shifted by the full 44 cm[sup [minus]1] caused by the transfer of a single electron. Similar behavior has been observed with a variety of coals, including lignites, subbituminous and a range of bituminous coals. There are two possible explanations for the observed shift. The simplest explanation is that there exist in coals structures which are excellent single electron donors capable of transferring an electron to TCNQ in the ground state. All of the TCNQ dissolved in the coal is shifted. No uncomplexed TCNQ remains in the sample, as demonstrated by the absence of the unaltered CN stretch at 2227 cm[sup [minus]1]. The spectrum shown is for TCNQ in coal in a molar concentration equivalent to approximately 20% of the PNA systems in this coal as deduced from the NMR studies of Solum et al. (1989). It is highly unlikely that 20% of the PNA systems in coal are such good electron donors that the charge transfer complex would have an electron transferred in the ground state. The second explanation is that cooperative interactions between the TCNQ and the aromatic systems in coal have led to the formation of an extended valance band structure, that the TCNQ LUMO is part of this band structure, and that the band is half filled.

  6. Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982

    PubMed Central

    Rosatte, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

  7. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

  8. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that using a more effective hydrogen donor solvent in the low severity coal liquefaction reaction improves coal conversion. In order to understand the results of these methods, both independently and combined, a factorial experiment was designed. Pretreating coal with hydrochloric and sulfurous acid solutions in both water and methanol is compared with pretreating coal using only methanol and with no pretreatment. The effects of these pretreatments on coal liquefaction behavior are contrasted with the ammonium acetate pretreatment. Within each of these, individual reactions are performed with the hydroaromatic 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, TET) and the cyclic olefin 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene (isotetralin, ISO). The final aspect of the factorial experiment is the comparison of Wyodak subbituminous coal (WY) from the Argonne Premium Sample Bank and Black Thunder subbituminous coal (BT) provided by Amoco. Half of the reactions in the matrix have now been completed. In all but one case, Black Thunder-HCl/H{sub 2}O, the ISO proved to be more reactive than TET. After the other four reactions using this combination are complete, the average conversion may be greater with the cyclic olefin. The second part of this paper describes the current and future work with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The objective of this work is to determine the kinetics of reaction of isotetralin at high temperatures and pressures. This quarter combinations of three products typically produced from isotetralin were used in spectral subtraction.

  9. Release of inorganic material during coal devolatilization. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    Experimental results presented in this paper indicate that coal devolatilization products convectively remove a fraction of the nonvolatile components of inorganic material atomically dispersed in the coal matrix. Results from three facilities burning six different coals illustrate this mechanism of ash transformation and release from coal particles. Titanium is chosen to illustrate this type of mass release from coal particles on the basis of its low volatility and mode of occurrence in the coal. During moderate rates of devolatilization (10{sup 4} K/s heating rate), no significant loss of titanium is noted. At more rapid rates of heating/devolatilization (10{sup 5} K/s) a consistent but minor (3-4 %) loss of titanium is noted. During rapid devolatilization (5xl0{sup 5} K/s and higher), significant (10-20 %) amounts of titanium leave the coal. The loss of titanium monitored in coals ranging in rank from subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous coals and under conditions typical of pulverized-coal combustion. The amount of titanium lost during devolatilization exhibits a complex rank dependence. These results imply that other atomically dispersed material (alkali and alkaline earth elements) may undergo similar mechanisms of transformation and release.

  10. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  11. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods. Ninth quarterly report, October, November, December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1989-12-31

    A new base catalyzed C-alkylation reaction that employs a mixture of n-butyllithium and potassium t-butoxide in refluxing heptane to produce coal anions that are subsequently treated with n-alkyl halides at 0{degree}C has been developed. Almost quantitative pyridine solubilization was achieved by C-octylation of a Lower Kittanning coal, PSOC 1197. C-Octylation was less successful for the solubilization of bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal, APCSP 3, and subbituminous Wyodak coal, APCSP 2, which gave 35 and 33% soluble material, respectively. Their O-methyl derivatives yielded 43 and 20% soluble material in the same reaction. The observations are in accord with the concept of Ouchi and his associates that higher rank coals, although more aromatic in character, have a lower degree of polymerization than low rank coals. Relatively mild chemical reactions, such as Calkylation, that lead to modest changes in molecular dimensions, can disrupt intermolecular forces and accomplish solubilization.

  12. 57Fe NGR studies on three-stage hydroliquefaction of coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamond, M.; Bacaud, R.; Bussiere, P.; Charcosset, H.; Nickel-Pepin-Donat, B.

    1990-06-01

    Iron Mössbauer spectroscopy has been performed on liquefaction residues of two different French coals. In a three-stage liquefaction of high volatile bituminous coal (Freyming), without an added catalyst, the coal pyrite is not entirely converted into pyrrhotites, whereas in the presence of an added catalyst, coal pyrite is totally transformed into more dispersed pyrrhotites than those from the sample without an added catalyst; furthermore, the whole added catalyst precursor is reduced into pyrrhotites. In the case of liquefaction of subbituminous coal (Gardanne), full conversion of coal pyrite into pyrrhotites (even without an added catalyst) occurs. In addition, in the presence of the added catalyst, besides pyrrhotites, FeS is evidenced. When molybdenum-iron oxide is added as a catalyst precursor, no mixed Fe-Mo phase is detected.

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Winshel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The first objective will utilize analytical techniques which have not been fully demonstrated; the second objective involves more previously proven methods. This quarter, two feed coals and 39 process oils from Wilsonville Run 258 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 258 was operated in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. The subbituminous feed coals were from the Spring Creek Mine (Anderson and Dietz seams) and from the Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seams). Shell 324 catalyst was used in the second stage. Various coal samples related to Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed for chemical and petrographic composition. These results will be given in a future report, which covers all of Run 259. 18 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dallas Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  15. Alberta Initiative for School Improvement: Opportunities and Challenges. Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly, Ed.

    This document describes the outcome of a 1999 symposium that was convened to develop the goal, principles, key considerations, and administrative requirements for a student-improvement program in Alberta. Named the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI), this program is an extension of Alberta's accountability framework that has been in…

  16. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  17. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  18. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Technical progress report, January 1, 1983-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The most significant work this year involved two methods of improving product quality which advanced the SRC II process far beyond that envisioned for the original demonstration plant. With both bituminous and subbituminous feedstocks, all distillate product boiling above 345/sup 0/C (653/sup 0/F) was recycled to extinction without loss of total oil yield or significant increase in hydrogen consumption. In a further refinement, all of the overhead from the high temperature, high pressure separator was passed through a vapor-phase hydrotreater. This resulted in a dramatic improvement in product quality. A proportional blend of distillate product contained less than 1 ppM of nitrogen. Total oil yield was similar to the low quality product produced in the conventional SRC II process. A large number of multiple-stage liquefaction experiments were carried out to better understand each step in the process. These included 3-stage operations; dissolution, hydrogenation and hydrocracking; and several variations of 2-stage processes. Variables investigated were temperature and residence time in each stage and both slurry and fixed-bed catalyst systems. The effect of residence time on conversion in single pass experiments was found to be quite different for the subbituminous Belle Ayr Mine and bituminous Illinois No. 6 coals studied. With bituminous coal, conversion to soluble material was quite high and the limit of conversion was approached in only a few minutes. With a subbituminous coal, however, conversion was much lower and the limit of conversion was approached much more slowly. In other work, the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal beneficiated in various ways was studied in both SRC II and short contact time modes of operation. Additional short contact time experiments explored the effects of solvent quality and catalysts with Belle Ayr coal and the effects of residence time with Loveridge coal. 32 figures, 8 tables.

  19. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  20. Coal-transformation chemistry. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, Leon M.; Blain, D. A.; Handy, C. I.; Heimann, P.; Huang, C. B.; King, H. -H.; Landschulz, W.; Willis, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Pyrene, perylene, anthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, naphthalene and biphenyl have been employed as electron transfer agents in the reduction of Illinois No. 6 coal with potassium in tetrahydrofuran. These electron transfer agents are about equally effective for the reduction of this coal at short reaction times (3 hours). We conclude that the anions of biphenyl and naphthalene achieve a greater degree of electron transfer to the coal molecules and that the use of these anions enhances the fragmentation reactions of the coal. Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Colorado subbituminous coal were reacted with potassium dissolved in a mixture of monoglyme and triglyme at -50/sup 0/C. The reduction reaction proceeded via solvated electrons rather than by an electron transfer reaction. The coals were then alkylated with methyl iodide and their solubilities in tetrahydrofuran were determined. The Illinois coal reductively alkylated via solvated electrons was considerably less soluble in tetrahydrofuran than the same coal reductively alkylated with potassium and naphthalene in tetrahydrofuran. A sample of Illinois No. 6 coal which had been reductively butylated with n-butyl-1-/sup 13/C iodide was hydrolyzed. Carbon nmr spectroscopy of the hydrolyzed coal revealed that the resonances previously assigned either to the presence of n-butyl carboxylates or to n-butyl tertiary ethers were removed. This observation provides definite evidence that only carboxylates were present in the original alkylated product. Selective alkylation of the acidic hydroxyl groups in Illinois No. 6 coal was carried out using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst and iodomethane or 1-iodobutane as alkylating agent as described by Liotta. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the product was significantly improved in a reaction where reductively butylated coal was subsequently coal was subsequently methylated using Liotta's procedure.

  1. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-08-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425{degree}C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

  2. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  3. Geology, coal resources, and chemical analyses of coal from the Fruitland Formation, Kimbeto EMRIA study site, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Gary B.; Hildebrand, Rick T.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1979-01-01

    The Kimbeto EMRIA study site, an area of about 20 square miles (52 km2), is located on the south margin of the San Juan Basin on the gently northward-dipping strata of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and the Kirtland Shale. The coal beds are mainly in the lower 150 feet (45 m) of the Fruitland Format ion. Coal resources--measured, indicated, and inferred--with less than 400 feet (120 m) of overburden in the site are 69,085,000 short tons (62,660,100 metric tons), 369,078,000 short tons (334,754,000 metric tons), and 177,803,000 short tons (161,267,000 metric tons) respectively. About 68 percent of these resources are overlain by 200 feet (60 m) or less of overburden. The apparent rank of the coal ranges from subbituminous B to subbituminous A. The average Btu/lb value of 14 core samples from the site on the as-received basis is 8,240 (4580 Kcal/kg), average ash content is 23.4 percent, and average sulfur content is 0.5 percent. Analyses of coal from the Kimbeto EMRIA study site show significantly higher ash content and significantly lower contents of volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon, and a significantly lower heat of combustion when compared with other coal analyses from the Rocky Mountain province.

  4. Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01

    Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and

  5. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

    2006-03-01

    U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

  6. Desulfurization behavior in rapid pyrolysis of coal treated by KOH solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Katsuyasu; Abe, Keiko; Tozuka, Yasuhito; Sugawara, Takuo; Sholes, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Three kinds of subbituminous and bituminous coals containing potassium hydroxide were heated at 523 K in a nitrogen atmosphere in an attempt to transform thermally stable forms of organic sulfur to reactive ones. Desulfurization extents were 27--52% by alkali leaching while weight loss was observed to be 8-10%. The desulfurization extents were proportional linearly to internal surface area of the parent coals. The parent coals and alkali leached samples were pyrolyzed rapidly by using a free fall reactor in a nitrogen stream up to 1,233K. The alkali-leached samples provided higher extents of reduction for organic sulfur than the parent coals. The combined process of rapid pyrolysis with alkali leaching was effective for reduction of organic sulfur except for a high range coal having small internal surface area.

  7. Activation of Canadian coals in a fixed-bed reactor: effect of the particle size on product quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ajay K. Dalai; Narayan C. Pradhan; Jian Liu; Amitabha Majumdar; Eric L. Tollefson

    2008-07-15

    Three Canadian coals, namely, Bienfait lignite, Montgomery sub-bituminous C, and Coal Valley high volatile bituminous C were activated in a fixed-bed reactor. For each coal, two different sizes of particles in the ranges of 0-1.25 mm (fines) and 1.25-2.5 mm (granules) along with cylindrical pellets of 3.18 mm in diameter and 7{+-}2 mm long were activated. The qualities of the products were determined by measuring iodine and methylene blue numbers, specific Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, bulk densities, and ash contents. The specific surface areas and iodine and methylene blue numbers of bituminous coal products were lower than the values obtained with the lignite and sub-bituminous coals, although the product yields were higher. Products obtained from pellets were found to have superior quality compared to that obtained from fines. The ash content of the feed coal influences the quality of the product activated carbon. It was established that a first-order reaction between steam and coal pellets occurred in the process. The activation energies for the process were also determined. 17 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Enhancing low severity coal liquefaction reactivity using mild chemical pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shams, K.G.; Miller, R.L.; Baldwin, R.M.

    1992-07-13

    In this paper, we describe results from a study in which mild chemical pretreatment of coal has been used to enhance low severity liquefaction reactivity. We have found that ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid improves THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt% (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt% for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt% for liquefaction of the eight coals at 623 K (350{degree}C) reaction temperature and 30 min. reaction time. Similar enhancement results occurred using, hexane or acetone in place of methanol. Pretreatment with methanol and HCI separately indicated that both reagents were necessary to achieve maximum liquefaction improvement. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol%. No appreciable effect on reactivity was observed at higher acid concentrations. Although vapor phase alcohol/HCI mixtures have been shown to partially alkylate bituminous coals, analysis of Wyodak and Illinois {number sign}6 coal samples indicated that no organic phase alteration occurred during pretreatment; however, over 90 wt% of the calcium was removed from each coal. Calcium is thought to catalyze retrogressive reactions during coal pyrolysis, and thus calcium removal prior to low severity liquefaction minimizes the rate of THF-insoluble product formation.

  9. CO2 sequestration potential of Charqueadas coal field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Santarosa, C; Crandall, D; Haljasmaa, I; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Warzinski, R; Heemann, R; Ketzer, J M

    2013-02-01

    Although coal is not the primary source of energy in Brazil there is growing interest to evaluate the potential of coal from the south of the country for various activities. The I2B coal seamin the Charqueadas coal field has been considered a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO2 sequestration. A detailed experimental study of the samples from this seam was conducted at the NETL with assistance from the Pontif?cia Universidade Cat?lica Do Rio Grande Do Sul. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study. The samples used were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam. It was observed that the temperature effect on adsorption capacity correlates negatively with as-received water and mineral content. Langmuir CO2 adsorption capacity of the coal samples ranged 0.61?2.09 mmol/g. The upper I2B seam appears to be overall more heterogeneous and less permeable than the lower I2B seam. The lower seam coal appears to have a large amount of micro-fractures that do not close even at 11 MPa of confining pressure.

  10. Release of mercury vapor from coal combustion ash.

    PubMed

    Heebink, Loreal V; Hassett, David J

    2002-08-01

    The long-term stability of Hg in coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was evaluated at ambient and near-ambient temperatures. Six CCB samples with atypically high levels of total Hg were selected for study assuming a greater potential for release of measurable amounts of Hg vapor. The samples selected included two fly ash samples from U.S. eastern bituminous coal, two fly ash samples from South African low-rank coal, one fly ash from Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal blended with petroleum coke, and one PRB subbituminous coal fly ash incorporated with flue gas desulfurization material. Air scrubbed of Hg was passed through compacted 100-g aliquots of each sample at 1 mL/min and vented to a gold-coated quartz trap to collect released Hg vapor. The samples were maintained at ambient and near-ambient (37 degrees C) temperatures. All samples released low-picogram levels of Hg after 90 days. No pattern was evident to link the total Hg content to the rate of release of Hg vapor. An average of 0.030 pg Hg/g CCB/day was released from the samples, which equates to 2.2 x 10(-8) lb Hg/ton CCB/year. If this were applied to a coal-fired power plant production of 200,000 tons of fly ash per year, there would be a maximum potential release of 0.0044 lb, or 2.00 g, of Hg per year. Experiments are continuing to determine long-term vapor release of Hg from CCBs. All samples have been set up in duplicate at ambient temperature with an improved apparatus to reevaluate results reported in this article.

  11. Occurrence of foodborne bacteria in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 Alberta feedlots. In cattle manure, generic E. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and Campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; E. coli O157 (7%, 143/2100) and Salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. Samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point interventions yielded only 1 isolate each of generic E. coli and Campylobacter (1/1653) and no Salmonella (0/1653). Catch basin water specimens were positive for generic E. coli in both the spring (62%, 13/21) and the fall (52%, 11/21). Other bacteria were detected only in the spring water specimens, including E. coli O157 (29%, 6/21), Salmonella (5%, 1/21), and Campylobacter (52%, 11/21). Generic E. coli was frequently isolated from soil specimens (30%, 27/88), but E. coli O157 was not found in soil samples obtained in the spring and was only occasionally detected in the fall samples (9%, 3/32). Salmonella were occasionally found in the soil specimens collected in the spring (3%, 2/56), but not in the fall season (0/32). Campylobacter jejuni was frequent in cattle manure (66%, 1070/1623), but rare in carcass and environmental samples. E. coli O157 and Salmonella were rarely detected in cattle or the environment. Generic E. coli and Salmonella were rarely detected on carcasses.

  12. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  13. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  14. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1991--December 1, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1991-12-31

    The project will quantify the effect of the following pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and on the subsequent reactivity of chars: (a) pyrolysis heating rate; (b) final heat treatment temperature (HTT); (c) duration of heat treatment at HTT (or soak time); (d) pyrolysis atmosphere (N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures); (e) coal particle size (100 {endash} 1000 {mu}m in diameter); (f) sulfur-capturing additives (limestone); and (g) coal rank. Pyrolysis experiments will be carried out for three coals from the Argonne collection: (1) a high-volatile bituminous coal with high ash content (Illinois {number_sign}6), (2) a bituminous coal with low ash content (Utah Blind Canyon) and (3) a lower rank subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam).

  15. Finding order in coal pyrolysis kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    A number of experiments have suggested that the rate constants for the release of tar and for the thermal decomposition of the various functional groups in coal pyrolysis depend on the nature of the bridging bond or of the functional group, but appears relatively insensitive to coal rank for lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals. The principal variation of pyrolysis behavior with rank is due to variations in the concentrations of functional groups and hence, the amount of each pyrolysis product. If the insensitivity of coal pyrolysis kinetics to coal rank can be generally demonstrated, it represents an important simplifying assumption in any general theory of coal pyrolysis. But the rank insensitivity of rate constants is controversial. There are two major questions. What species exhibit rank insensitive kinetics. Quantitatively, what does insensitivity mean, variations less than factors of two, ten, hundred, etc. This paper considers whether pyrolysis data in the literature support the hypothesis of rank insensitive kinetic rate constants. The experiments considered vary duration from 1.4 millisecond to 12 hours and in temperature from 350/sup 0/C to 1800/sup 0/C. Considering the available data, it appears that the decomposition of aliphatic and methyl functional groups, the loss of aromatic hydrogen and the evolution of tar and hydrocarbon species have rates which are relatively insensitive to rank variation. The rate varies by at most a factor of 5 between lignite and bituminous coals. Oxygen species are somewhat more rank sensitive. The factor of 5 variation in rate due to coal rank is substantially less than the factors of 100 to 10,000 in varition typical of reported rates. 56 references, 49 figures, 4 table.

  16. Evaluation of occupational exposure to free silica in Alberta foundries.

    PubMed

    Ayalp, A; Myroniuk, D

    1982-11-01

    The Occupational Hygiene Branch of Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation conducted a comprehensive study of the foundry industry in Alberta. The surveys assessed both the degree of health hazards present and the effectiveness of existing control systems for airborne contaminants. All nine of Alberta's ferrous foundries were surveyed in the course of the project. The foundries varied from those which were small with limited mechanization to those which were large and highly automated. The concentrations of free silica in the work environment are correlated to the different attempts to control silica using substitution and various ventilation systems. The particular foundry processes evaluated for airborne free silica were sand preparation, shakeout, dry sand transport and sand molding. Workers' exposure to free airborne silica was evaluated by personal and area samples. The free silica content of the samples was determined by infra-red spectrophotometry. The results indicated most control systems were inadequate. Effective control methods are described to reduce the health hazard.

  17. Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ladwig; B. Hensel; D. Wallschlager; L. Lee; I Murarka

    2005-10-19

    Field leachate samples are being collected from coal combustion product (CCP) management sites from several geographic locations in the United States to provide broad characterization of major and trace constituents in the leachate. In addition, speciation of arsenic, selenium, chromium, and mercury in the leachates is being determined. Through 2003, 35 samples were collected at 14 sites representing a variety of CCP types, management approaches, and source coals. Samples have been collected from leachate wells, leachate collection systems, drive-point piezometers, lysimeters, the ash/water interface at impoundments, impoundment outfalls and inlets, and seeps. Additional sampling at 23 sites has been conducted in 2004 or is planned for 2005. First-year results suggest distinct differences in the chemical composition of leachate from landfills and impoundments, and from bituminous and subbituminous coals. Concentrations of most constituents were generally higher in landfill leachate than in impoundment leachate. Sulfate, sodium, aluminum, molybdenum, vanadium, cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations were higher in leachates for ash from subbituminous source coal. Calcium, boron, lithium, strontium, arsenic, antimony, and nickel were higher for ash from bituminous source coal. These variations will be explored in more detail when additional data from the 2004 and 2005 samples become available.

  18. 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey Employers of Alberta High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey was commissioned by Alberta Education and Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. Data collection for the survey was conducted by CCI Research Inc. between December 1st, 2007 and January 11th, 2008. The objective of the survey was to assess employer satisfaction with recent graduates from Alberta's…

  19. Those Who Care: A Report on Approved Family Day Home Providers in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Malcolm; LaGrange, Annette

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of approved family day home providers in Alberta. Family day home agency coordinators from across Alberta completed questionnaires, as did approved providers who contracted with 12 agencies in central Alberta. Typical providers were married, had children, and had lived in their present…

  20. "A Work Second to None": Positioning Extension at the University of Alberta, 1912-75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott

    2007-01-01

    From 1912 to 1975 the Department of Extension at the University of Alberta provided an impressive range of programmes and services to people across the Canadian province of Alberta. The four Directors of Extension at the University of Alberta during this period became leading figures in the history of adult education in Canada. They positioned…

  1. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  2. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples). PMID:19350990

  3. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples).

  4. Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun W; Srivastava, Ravi K; Ghorishi, S Behrooz; Karwowski, Jarek; Hastings, Thomas W; Hirschi, Joseph C

    2006-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur [S] and chlorine [Cl]) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg0), decreasing the percentage of Hg0 at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg0 by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg0 decreasing from approximately 96% at the inlet of the reactor to approximately 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation.

  5. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Chander, S.; Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  6. Petrography, palynology and depositional environment of Gelibolu coals, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koşun, Erdal

    2014-05-01

    Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal samples collected from two outcrops in the Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey were analyzed petrographically and palynologically to determine the depositional environment of the coals. Microscopic studies reveal that the studied coal samples from both locations are characterized by high amount of huminite group macerals, ranging from 46 to 78% (mineral-included basis). The prevailing maceral from this group is gelinite (31-65%), it can be easily seen on all studied samples, indicative of high gelification degree of organic matter. Relatively low amount of liptinite (does not exceed 9%) and inertinite (does not exceed 8%) are also observed in the coals. The mineral matter content is variable but generally high, varying from 5 to 37%, as in other Turkish coals and consists mostly of clay minerals, quartz, calcite and pyrite. The mean reflectance values range from 0.502 to 0.564% suggesting that rank of coal is subbituminous (ASTM). The chemical properties of coal including calorific value, volatile matter and fixed carbon content are also in accordance with rank of coal. Facies indices based on maceral ratios (Tissue Preservation Index vs. Gelification Index and ABC ternary diagrams) were used to interpret to depositional environment of coals. Low tissue preservation index (TPI) and high gelification index (GI) values are observed. These indices indicate that the coals deposited in limnic environment. High pH and strongly reducing conditions inferred from the presence of framboidal pyrite and also evidenced by low TPI values. The palynological assembly of the coals dominated by angiosperm pollen and spore, however, gymnosperms were rarely seen. Herbaceous/sedge plants are common in Miocene coal samples.

  7. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhil, S. S. A.; Hasini, H.; Shuaib, N. H.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential "ring-like" region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  8. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

  9. Highly dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B.

    1992-11-05

    The objectives of this project are to study the effect of pretreatment methods on the two-stage liquefaction process. In particular, the effects of dispersed catalysts and carbon monoxide atmospheres on a coal liquefaction process. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Task 1 and 2 deal with the analyses and liquefaction experiments, respectively, whereas Task 3 deals with the economic impact of utilizing the pretreatment methods. This quarter we concentrated on Tasks 1 and 2, which are summarized below. Samples of Black Thunder Subbituminous coal and the corresponding recycle solvent were received from Wilsonville. These particular samples were obtained from run [number sign]263. The samples were analyzed for a proximate and ultimate analysis, as well as heat content. We have also received samples of the iron oxide used in the Wilsonville coal liquefaction runs as well as Shell 324 and molyVanL for use in future runs. Base-line screening experiments were conducted in 300 mL autoclaves using 2.5 parts by weight of recycle solvent to 1 part Black Thunder coal at 425[degree]C for one hour. In preliminary results for the comparison of iron oxide and iron carbonyl, the iron carbonyl appears to give higher yields to soluble products.

  10. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, D.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedure followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the Eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified from the bench-and pilot-scale studies.

  12. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; Honaker, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  13. Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

  14. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  15. Organizational and Individual Responses to Educational Reforms in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith Ellen

    Alberta's (Canada) recent educational reforms exhibit the characteristic elements of new public management (NPM), an international government reform trend that has emerged and grown over the past two decades. This paper describes a study undertaken to explore the impacts of the educational reforms on schools, including the behavior of school staff…

  16. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of individual…

  17. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A Classroom Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaya-Moore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this second part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour in the classroom. A proactive approach to classroom management is designed to provide…

  18. Alberta Language Arts (Reading and Writing) Achievement Study. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Research, Calgary (Alberta).

    To determine specific objectives for language arts programs in Alberta schools, a study was conducted in which a comprehensive list of specific objectives was compiled for use in developing tests of reading and writing in grades three, six, nine, and twelve. Measurable objectives were ranked in terms of their importance to the total program, and…

  19. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  20. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  1. First record of Lipoptena depressa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M J; Newman, R A; Chalmers, G A

    1987-07-01

    Lipoptena depressa is reported for the first time from Alberta on a 2 1/2-mo-old white-tailed deer fawn. This ked fly is one of four species occurring on deer in North America. The fawn had severe hemorrhagic enteritis of undetermined cause. PMID:3625915

  2. First record of Lipoptena depressa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M J; Newman, R A; Chalmers, G A

    1987-07-01

    Lipoptena depressa is reported for the first time from Alberta on a 2 1/2-mo-old white-tailed deer fawn. This ked fly is one of four species occurring on deer in North America. The fawn had severe hemorrhagic enteritis of undetermined cause.

  3. Giving Employers What They Want? New Vocationalism in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Wolfgang; Taylor, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with Alberta government, business, and labor representatives examined three school-to-work initiatives using "new vocationalism" discourse: career and technology studies, registered apprenticeships, and tech prep. Results suggest that vocational education remains focused on employer expectations and workplace socialization rather than…

  4. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  5. FOIPP and Technology: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, R. Peter; Whitemarsh, Judith

    This study provides suggestions and best practices for superintendents, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy (FOIPP) coordinators and school information technologists in dealing with the impact of Alberta's FOIPP Act on the application of information technologies within their organizations. The study explores the relationship between…

  6. Economic and Demographic Futures in Education -- Alberta 1970-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seastone, Don

    This document reports on a study conducted to (1) consider probable levels and distribution of Alberta's population from 1970 to 1980 and from 1980 to 2005, and to explore the implications of these population data for enrollment at various levels of the provincial educational process; and (2) to consider the growth potential of the provincial…

  7. Educational Quality Indicators: Developing Indicator Systems in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    The Educational Quality Indicators (EQI) initiative, a collaboration between Alberta Education and 12 school jurisdictions in the province, is described, and its implications are discussed. The EQIs developed are designed to provide information to assist practitioners in assessing the quality of educational programs and the delivery system by…

  8. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  9. Indian Tribes of Alberta. Revised, Expanded, and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Hugh A.

    This book recounts the story of the Indians in Alberta, Canada. Pictures and maps help in the explanation of these facts. The Indians described include the: (1) Blackfoot Nation (Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan Tribes); (2) Sarcee Tribe; (3) Stoney Indians; (4) Plains Cree; (5) Woodland Cree; (6) Chipewyan Indians; (7) Beaver Indians; (8) Slavey Indians;…

  10. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  11. Alberta North Needs Assessment Task Force. Interim Report Number One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, F. J.

    Contracted for 18 months and employing local people, the Alberta North Needs Assessment (ANNA) Task Force assessed the educational, social and cultural needs of North Albertans, and translated these needs into potential programs integrated, where desirable, with other government and local programs. The Task Force examined the community, client,…

  12. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  13. Alaska has 4. 0 trillion tons of low-sulfur coal: Is there a future for this resource

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D. )

    1990-05-01

    The demand for and use of low-sulfur coal may increase because of concern with acid rain. Alaska's low-sulfur coal resources can only be described as enormous: 4.0 trillion tons of hypothetical onshore coal. Mean total sulfur content is 0.34% (range 0.06-6.6%, n = 262) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. There are 50 coal fields in Alaska; the bulk of the resources are in six major fields or regions: Nenana, Cook Inlet, Matanuska, Chignik-Herendeen Bay, North Slope, and Bering River. For comparison, Carboniferous coals in the Appalachian region and Interior Province have a mean total sulfur content of 2.3% (range 0.1-19.0%, n = 5,497) with a mean apparent rank of high-volatile A bituminous coal, and Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains Cretaceous and Tertiary coals have a mean total sulfur content of 0.86% (range 0.02-19.0%, n = 2,754) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. Alaskan coal has two-fifths the total sulfur of western US coals and one-sixth that of Carboniferous US coals. Even though Alaska has large resources of low-sulfur coal, these resources have not been developed because of (1) remote locations and little infrastructure, (2) inhospitable climate, and (3) long distances to potential markets. These resources will not be used in the near future unless there are some major, and probably violent, changes in the world energy picture.

  14. Source Apportionment of VOCs in Edmonton, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; Aklilu, Y.; Lyder, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Regional emissions at Edmonton, Alberta, are complex, containing emissions from (1) transportation sources, such as cars, trucks, buses, and rail; (2) industrial sources, such as petroleum refining, light manufacturing, and fugitive emissions from holding tanks or petroleum terminals; and (3) miscellaneous sources, such as biogenic emissions and natural gas use and processing. From 2003 to 2009, whole air samples were collected at two sites in Edmonton and analyzed for over 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs were sampled in the downtown area (Central) and the industrial area on the eastern side of the city (East). Concentrations of most VOCs were highest at the East site. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model was used to apportion ambient concentration measurements of VOCs into eleven factors, which were associated with emissions source categories. Factors of VOCs identified in the final eleven-factor solution include transportation sources (both gasoline and diesel vehicles), industrial sources, a biogenic source, and a natural-gas-related source. Transportation sources accounted for more mass at the Central site than at the East site; this was expected because Central is in a core urban area where transportation emissions are concentrated. Transportation sources accounted for nearly half of the VOC mass at the Central site, but only 6% of the mass at the East site. Encouragingly, mass from transportation sources has declined by about 4% a year in this area; this trend is similar to the decline found throughout the United States, and is likely due to fleet turnover as older, more highly polluting cars are replaced with newer, cleaner cars. In contrast, industrial sources accounted for ten times more VOC mass at the East site than at the Central site and were responsible for most of the total VOC mass observed at the East site. Of the six industrial factors identified at the East site, four were linked to petrochemical industry production

  15. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  16. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  17. KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  18. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  19. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-02-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on the development of novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed liquefaction. The ultimate goal of the present research is to develop novel catalytic hydroliquefaction process using highly active dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research is to develop novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular that can be used in low precursors concentrations (< 1 %) but exhibit high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. The major technical approaches are, first, to prepare the desired heteronuclear organometallic molecules as catalyst precursors that contain covalently bound, two different metal atoms and sulfur in a single molecule. Such precursors will generate finely dispersed bimetallic catalysts such as Fe-Mo, Co-Mo and Ni-Mo binary sulfides upon thermal decomposition. The second major technical approach is to perform the liquefaction of coals unpregnated with the organometallic precursors under temperature-programmed conditions, where the programmed heat-up serves as a step for both catalyst activation and coal pretreatment or preconversion. Two to three different complexes for each of the Fe-Mo, Co-Mo, and Ni-Mo combinations will be prepared. Initial catalyst screening tests will be conducted using a subbituminous coal and a bituminous coal. Effects of coal rank and solvents will be examined with the selected bimetallic catalysts which showed much higher activity than the dispersed catalysts from conventional precursors.

  20. Microcomputers in Alberta Schools--1985. A Final Report on the Results of a Resource Survey of Alberta Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruk, Milton W.

    To determine the number and current use of microcomputers in Alberta's elementary, junior, and senior high schools, a total of 1,509 schools were surveyed. The results, as reported by 1,271 schools (84.2%), showed the total number of microcomputers to be 13,748. To provide more in-depth information, schools were categorized by six instructional…

  1. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Technical progress report, January 1-April 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The significant improvement in product quality reported last year for bituminous and subbituminous coals has been demonstrated with lignite. As discussed previously, use of a vapor-phase hydrotreater and recycle of all heavy distillate advances the SRC II process far beyond that envisioned for the original demonstration plant. As with the other coal ranks, all net distillate product from the lignite boils below 345/sup 0/C (653/sup 0/F) and has a nitrogen concentration on the order of 1 ppM. It was also confirmed that the Texas Big Brown lignite can be processed successfully in this mode without added catalyst. Both subbituminous Belle Ayr and bituminous Illinois No. 6 coals were processed in an integrated two-stage mode, without depressurization or solids separation between stages. Operation was relatively smooth with a fixed-bed second stage employing a high-void-volume (star-shaped) catalyst support, which was operated upflow. There was no evidence that H/sub 2/S addition improved yields with Belle Ayr coal and added pyrite or that H/sub 2/S could be used in place of pyrite to catalyze the reaction. 84 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Shake flask tests were completed of microbial pyrite and HAP precursor removal from Rosebud subbituminous coal. Significant amounts of Ni, F, Mn, Cd, Co and Be were removed from this coal. Analyses in connection with leach column tests of Pittsburgh coal were completed and confirmed significant removal of Ni, F, Mn, Cd, Co and As from this coal. Although Hg was not removed from Pittsburgh coal by microbial attack, there was a correlation between HCl leaching of Hg from this coal and the extent of depyritization. Since HgS is soluble in HCl, the results suggest HgS is exposed by chemical and microbial dissolution of coal pyrite. Column tests with cleaned Indiana No. 5 coal are in progress and show significant early dissolution of Ni, Mn, Cd, Co and As. A final shake flask test with Kentucky No. 9 coal was begun. Pittsburgh coal with a low content of fines was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in preparation for slurry column tests of HAP precursor removal. Project results were presented at the PETC contractor`s conference held in Pittsburgh. A project progress review meeting was also held with the PETC technical project monitor.

  3. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. Zeta potential studies show that the surfaces of the lignite are negatively charged between about pH2 to 11, the negative charge density increasing with increase in pH. Highly alkaline media promoted calcium adsorption due to high negative charge on the coal, while calcium uptake was inhibited in strongly acidic solutions.

  4. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  5. Preparation and analyses of low-rank coals for combustion applications. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1985-March 31, 1985. [Physical and chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Maas, D.J.

    1985-04-30

    This report covers the second quarter of activity on an 18-month project to prepare low-rank coal (LRC) fuel for research applications in DOE advanced combustion technologies programs. Coals from five mines were characterized by physical and chemical cleaning and hot water drying amenability tests. Subbituminous coal from the Eagle Butte Mine was selected from the five for future use as feed stock for production of bulk lots of low ash and low sodium LRC and LRC slurry fuels. The amenability tests indicated that a combination of physical and chemical cleaning would produce a fuel containing 1.36% ash, 8 ppM Na/sub 2/O and 18 ppM K/sub 2/O from the Eagle Butte coal on a dry basis. A micronized slurry loading of 57.5% coal was projected for the hot-water dried coal. 8 refs., 13 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  7. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  8. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  10. Key operating and financial ratios for Alberta hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M

    1994-01-01

    Comparative financial and operating ratios in Canadian hospitals are examined to reveal sources of increased efficiency. The study involved 70 Alberta hospitals, which were divided into three groups: teaching hospitals, regional hospitals and smaller rural hospitals. Data were obtained from HS-1 and HS-2 reports. Hospitals across Canada can calculate their own ratios to give them a general idea of how they compare with the hospitals in this report.

  11. Assessment of physician performance in Alberta: the Physician Achievement Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, W; Violato, C; Lewkonia, R; Lockyer, J; Fidler, H; Toews, J; Jennett, P; Donoff, M; Moores, D

    1999-01-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta, in collaboration with the Universities of Calgary and Alberta, has developed a program to routinely assess the performance of physicians, intended primarily for quality improvement in medical practice. The Physician Achievement Review (PAR) provides a multidimensional view of performance through structured feedback to physicians. The program will also provide a new mechanism for identifying physicians for whom more detailed assessment of practice performance or medical competence may be needed. Questionnaires were created to assess an array of performance attributes, and then appropriate assessors were designated--the physician himself or herself (self-evaluation), patients, medical peers, consultants and referring physicians, and non-physician coworkers. A pilot study with 308 physician volunteers was used to evaluate the psychometric and statistical properties of the questionnaires and to develop operating policies. The pilot surveys showed good statistical validity and technical reliability of the PAR questionnaires. For only 28 (9.1%) of the physicians were the PAR results more than one standard deviation from the peer group means for 3 or more of the 5 major domains of assessment (self, patients, peers, consultants and coworkers). In post-survey feedback, two-thirds of the physicians indicated that they were considering or had implemented changes to their medical practice on the basis of their PAR data. The estimated operating cost of the PAR program is approximately $200 per physician. In February 1999, on the basis of the operating experience and the results of the pilot survey, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta implemented this innovative program, in which all Alberta physicians will be required to participate every 5 years. PMID:10420867

  12. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  13. Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

    1988-05-01

    We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

  14. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P.

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  15. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  16. Experimental study on the minimum ignition temperature of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dejian; Norman, Frederik; Verplaetsen, Filip; Van den Bulck, Eric

    2016-04-15

    BAM furnace apparatus tests were conducted to investigate the minimum ignition temperature of coal dusts (MITC) in O2/CO2 atmospheres with an O2 mole fraction from 20 to 50%. Three coal dusts: Indonesian Sebuku coal, Pittsburgh No.8 coal and South African coal were tested. Experimental results showed that the dust explosion risk increases significantly with increasing O2 mole fraction by reducing the minimum ignition temperature for the three tested coal dust clouds dramatically (even by 100°C). Compared with conventional combustion, the inhibiting effect of CO2 was found to be comparatively large in dust clouds, particularly for the coal dusts with high volatile content. The retardation effect of the moisture content on the ignition of dust clouds was also found to be pronounced. In addition, a modified steady-state mathematical model based on heterogeneous reaction was proposed to interpret the observed experimental phenomena and to estimate the ignition mechanism of coal dust clouds under minimum ignition temperature conditions. The analysis revealed that heterogeneous ignition dominates the ignition mechanism for sub-/bituminous coal dusts under minimum ignition temperature conditions, but the decrease of coal maturity facilitates homogeneous ignition. These results improve our understanding of the ignition behaviour and the explosion risk of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres.

  17. Experimental study on the minimum ignition temperature of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dejian; Norman, Frederik; Verplaetsen, Filip; Van den Bulck, Eric

    2016-04-15

    BAM furnace apparatus tests were conducted to investigate the minimum ignition temperature of coal dusts (MITC) in O2/CO2 atmospheres with an O2 mole fraction from 20 to 50%. Three coal dusts: Indonesian Sebuku coal, Pittsburgh No.8 coal and South African coal were tested. Experimental results showed that the dust explosion risk increases significantly with increasing O2 mole fraction by reducing the minimum ignition temperature for the three tested coal dust clouds dramatically (even by 100°C). Compared with conventional combustion, the inhibiting effect of CO2 was found to be comparatively large in dust clouds, particularly for the coal dusts with high volatile content. The retardation effect of the moisture content on the ignition of dust clouds was also found to be pronounced. In addition, a modified steady-state mathematical model based on heterogeneous reaction was proposed to interpret the observed experimental phenomena and to estimate the ignition mechanism of coal dust clouds under minimum ignition temperature conditions. The analysis revealed that heterogeneous ignition dominates the ignition mechanism for sub-/bituminous coal dusts under minimum ignition temperature conditions, but the decrease of coal maturity facilitates homogeneous ignition. These results improve our understanding of the ignition behaviour and the explosion risk of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres. PMID:26799218

  18. Advanced coal-liquefaction research. Technical progress report, August 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report describes progress on the Advanced Coal-Liquefaction Project by the Gulf Research and Development Company's Merriam Laboratory. It was demonstrated that all oil products from the SRC II Processing of Powhatan No. 3 (Pittsburgh seam), Elkol-Sorensen or Belle Ayr coals boiling above 270/sup 0/C (518/sup 0/F) can be recycled to extinction. There was no loss in liquid yield, no increase in gas make and no significant change in hydrogen requirement. It has also been demonstrated that the net C/sub 5/-270/sup 0/C (518/sup 0/F) product is inactive in the Ames test and presumably poses substantially less threat than the conventional product as a potential carcinogen. The potential impact of coal cleaning and pyrite addition on liquefaction were determined with a high-reactivity Pittsburgh seam coal from the Ireland Mine. The results indicate that deep cleaning (to 6-8 wt % ash) by heavy media separation with add back of pyrite would give a better yield structure than the normal cleaning (to 12 wt % ash) envisioned for liquefaction plants. Screening of feedstocks for liquefaction processes was extended to the low-ash (5 wt % MF basis), subbituminous Elkol-Sorensen coal. Although the low ash content allowed increased recycle of bottoms product, the relatively low reactivity of the organic matrix resulted in a lower oil yield than with subbituminous Belle Ayr coal. A simulation of staged liquefaction was carried out by preparing filtrate in the SRC I mode and then studying the production of gas and distillate at lower temperature (420/sup 0/C, 788/sup 0/F) using a molybdenum emulsion catalyst. Distillate yields were low (29 wt %, based on MF coal) compared to single-stage, high temperature runs. Multiple-pass operations indicated no mechanistic barriers to high distillate yields although reaction rates were unacceptably low at the conditions employed in these preliminary experiments.

  19. Preparation and analyses of low-rank coals for combustion applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Maas, D.J.

    1986-10-01

    The preparation of low-ash and low-sodium micronized low-rank coal (LRC) fuels for test firing in a gas-turbine combustor module is described in this report. Four subbituminous coals and one lignite were examined for their amenability to the preparation of high-quality powder and coal-water slurry fuels (CSF). The data base included the proximate, ultimate, ash composition, trace element, heating value, and free swelling index determinations and the slurry rheology for the raw coals and for the same coals after various physical separations, chemical treatments and hydrothermal processing. Eagle Butte subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin was selected for preparation of ''available-quality'' and ''improved-quality'' micronized powder and slurry fuels for the combustion tests. This coal was cleaned in a dense-medium separator for preparation of available-quality fuels. Two advanced beneficiation steps were added for preparation of improved-quality fuels. The additional steps were (1) acid treatment to remove sodium and soluble ash minerals and (2) hydrothermal processing at 330/sup 0/C to improve the heating value and the rheology of the CSF. Twenty-four hundred pounds (dry basis) of minus 30-micrometer fuel were prepared for the combustion testing. A conceptual design was developed and costed for a 650,000 tpy improved-quality micronized CSF plant fueling 100 MW of gas-turbine generating capacity. The plant would be located adjacent to a mine in northeastern Wyoming. The capital construction cost for the plant was estimated to be $86.9 million and the operating cost for the plant (including amortization) was projected to be $4.55 per million Btu (HHV), FOB plant. The operating cost could be reduced to $3.22/MBtu if the plant were scaled for 500 MW of generating capacity instead of 100 MW. 19 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. Crustal Seismic Structure of Central Alberta from Receiver Function Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Dokht, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    It is widely believed that the basement structure of central Alberta represents the tectonic assembly and evolution of several Archean lithospheric fragments. These fragments underwent episodes of rifting, collision, subduction and melting during the Proterozoic, giving rise to a complex network of tectonic domains with considerable differences in the crustal magnetic and seismic signatures. Observational support for these episodes, e.g., the coeval subduction around the Hearne province, has been limited due to the lack of exposed geology and insufficient teleseismic data prior to 2006. Since mid 2007, the establishment of the Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE) has greatly improved the broadband seismic data coverage in central and southern Alberta. Based on 5+ years of CRANE data, we systematically analyze crust and shallow mantle shear velocities through simultaneous inversions of low and high frequency receiver functions. P-to-S converted waves from several stations in central Alberta suggest a significant mid crustal low velocity zone (LVZ), where shear velocity could vary by as much as 35 percent in a depth range of 15-35 km. This structure is not required by the receiver functions from stations along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. While LVZ of notable magnitudes have been suggested previously in an overlapped part of the study region and attributed to the presence of serpentine or intrusive sill, the spatial dimensions of the anomaly reported in the current study is significantly larger: this anomaly spans hundreds of kilometers horizontally and is generally thicker than 10 km. The presence of mid/lower crustal LVZ in central Alberta is supported by recent group velocity maps based on noise correlation tomography, and the southeastward orientation of this LVZ is consistent with the proposed direction of the subducted oceanic microplate beneath the northwestern Hearne province during the Proterozoic. Still, the cause of the LVZ remains

  1. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by [sup 13]C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  2. Ion exchange and absorption techniques to apply catalysts for liquefaction of lower rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.; Cronauer, D.C.; Curtis, C.W.; Brannan, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Samples of Beulah-zap lignite, Black Thunder and Wyodak subbituminous, and Illinois No. 6 high volatile bituminous coals have been prepared by acid treatment to remove exchangeable cations. Subsequent treatments were made with solutions of catalytic metals including iron or cobalt or nickel to exchange with the acid sites, or with molybdate to adsorb on the surface. Samples were then subjected to liquefaction conditions in microautoclave tubular microreactors and solvent extraction was used to establish total conversion or yields of oils, asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Results of the liquefaction experiments are compared with the catalyst loadings.

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  4. Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic

  5. TRACE ELEMENT PARTITIONING AND TRANSFORMATIONS DURING COMBUSTION OF BITUMINOUS AND SUBBITUMINOUS U.S. COALS IN A 7-KW COMBUSTION SYSTEM. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The preliminary evaluation of the kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of a novel laboratory-scale batch reactor, designed by the University of Delaware, to study the kinetics of coal liquefaction resid reactivity. The short time batch reactor (STBR) is capable of conducting reactions at temperatures up to 450{degrees}C and pressures up to 2500 psi at well-defined reaction times from a few seconds to 30 min or longer. Sixty experiments were conducted with the STBR in this project. The products of the resid/tetralin/hydrogen reaction were separated by solubility, and several analytical procedures were used to evaluate the reaction products, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Changes were monitored in the boiling ranges of the products, as a function of process conditions (time, temperature, and tetralin donor solvent-to-resid ratio), with and without catalysts. Two distillation resid samples were studied; Sample 1 is the resid of the second stage product stream from Wilsonville Run 259 which used Pittsburgh seam coal (Ireland mine) bituminous coal, and Sample 2 is the resid of the same streak from Wilsonville Run 260 which used Wyodak and Anderson (Black Thunder Mine) subbituminous coal. It was determined that the resid reactivity was different for the two samples studied. The results demonstrate that further development of this experimental method is warranted to empirically assess resid reactivity and to provide data for use in the construction of an empirical model of coal conversion in the direct liquefaction process.

  8. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction

  9. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 4 wt% ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt% ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases.

  10. Coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  11. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  12. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A.

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  13. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Gregory D.; Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-09-15

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

  14. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Quarterly technical progress report, September--November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal`s inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

  15. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  16. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.; Bhatt, B.L.

    1980-02-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) when the caking bituminous coals are used with diluents, only 20% Pittsburgh No. 8 coal can be added to the diluent swhile 40% Illinois No. 6 could be added due to the higher free swelling index of the Pittsburgh No. 8; (2) When limestone is used as a diluent, considerably more sulfur is retained in the char than when using sand; (3) when the char from an experiment using limestone is recycled as the diluent for another experiment, the char continually retains additional sulfur through at least three recycles; (4) decomposition of the limestone and reduction is indicated by the high concentrations of CO observed at 900/sup 0/C; (5) increasing the coal feed rate by a factor of 4 from 2.4 to 10.7 lb/hr at low H/sub 2//Coal ratios (approx. = 0.6) results in no appreciable change in gaseous HC yields (approx. = 27%) or concentration (approx. = 45%) but higher BTX yields (1.1% vs. 5.4%); (6) although only one experiment was conducted, it appears that hydrogasification of untreated New Mexico sub-bituminous coal at 950/sup 0/C does not give an increase in yield over hydrogasification at 900/sup 0/C; (7) the hydrogasification of Wyodak lignite gives approximately the same gaseous HC yields as that obtained from North Dakota lignite but higher BTX yields particularly at 900/sup 0/C and 1000 psi (9% vs. 2%); (8) treating New Mexico sub-bituminous coal with NaCO/sub 3/ does not increase its hydrogasification qualities between 600/sup 0/C and 900/sup 0/C at 1000 psi but does decrease the BTX yield.

  17. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  18. Nature of natural gas in anomalously thick coal beds, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Anomalously thick coal beds (as much as 250 ft thick) occur in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River basin, Wyoming. These laterally discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs of fluvial environments. The coal beds include the Anderson-Canyon, Wyodak-Anderson, and Big George zones in the Powder River-Recluse area, Gillette area, and central part of the basin, respectively. The coal resources in these areas are approximately 155 billion short tons. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub 0} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amounts of CO{sub 2} (less than 10%). The methane is isotopically light ({delta}{sup 13}C{sup 1} values of {minus}56.7 to {minus}60.9%). Based on the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases and on the low rank of the coals, the gases are interpreted to be microbial in origin: they were generated by anaerobic bacteria that broke down the coals at low temperatures, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. The adsorbed amounts of methane-rich microbial gas per unit of coal in the Powder River basin are relatively low compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases from other basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource is considered to be large (as much as several trillion cubic feet) because of the vast coal resources.

  19. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  20. Interchange of pollutants between groundwater and mineral strata as applied to waste chemical dumps and 'in situ' coal gasification sites. Completion report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E.; Tobben, P.; Gale, R.; Hoeffner, S.; Bornhop, D.

    1981-03-15

    The overall objective of this research was to study the interchange of pollutants between minerals and groundwater produced as leachate from waste chemical dumps and as a by-product of in situ (underground) coal gasification. Particular emphasis was placed upon the development of methods to evaluate the chemical interaction between contaminated groundwaters and specific solids so that these methods could be applied to specific situations which other investigators might need to study. Of particular importance was the development of methods to obtain chemical data which in turn can be used to provide meaningful bases for modelling groundwater contamination. Water contaminated by vapor from laboratory-simulated in situ coal gasification was employed as a model polluted water. The solids used to sorb organics from this waster were subbituminous coal, non-activated coal char, activated coal char, and coal ash.

  1. Coal hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1981-01-06

    Disclosure is made of a method and apparatus for reacting carbonaceous material such as pulverized coal with heated hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases and liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. The heated hydrogen and entrained coal are injected through a rocket engine type injector device. The coal particles are reacted with hydrogen in a reaction chamber downstream of the injector. The products of reaction are rapidly quenched as they exit the reaction chamber and are subsequently collected.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  3. Improving Access to Eye Care: Teleophthalmology in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ng, ManCho; Nathoo, Nawaaz; Rudnisky, Chris J.; Tennant, Matthew T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Backround Diabetic retinopathy in Alberta and throughout Canada is common, with a prevalence up to 40% in people with diabetes. Unfortunately, due to travel distance, time, and expense, a third of patients with diabetes do not receive annual dilated eye examinations by ophthalmologists, despite universal health care access. In an effort to improve access, a teleophthalmology program was developed to overcome barriers to eye care. Prior to clinical implementation, teleophthalmology technology was clinically validated for the identification of treatable levels of diabetic retinopathy. Method Patients undergoing a teleophthalmology assessment underwent stereoscopic digital retinal photographs following pupillary dilation. Digital images were then packaged into an encrypted password-protected compressed file for uploading onto a secure server. Images were digitally unpackaged for review as a stereoscopic digital slide show and graded with a modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study algorithm. Reports were then generated automatically as a PDF file and sent back to the referring physician. Results Teleophthalmology programs in Alberta have assessed more than 5500 patients (9016 visits) to date. Nine hundred thirty patients have been referred for additional testing or treatment. Approximately 2% of teleophthalmology assessments have required referral for in-person examination due to ungradable image sets, most commonly due to cataract, corneal drying, or asteroid hyalosis. Conclusions In Alberta and throughout Canada, many patients with diabetes do not receive an annual dilated eye examination. Teleophthalmology is beneficial because patients can be assessed within their own communities. This decreases the time to treatment, allows treated patients to be followed remotely, and prevents unnecessary referrals. Health care costs may be reduced by the introduction of comprehensive teleophthalmology examinations by enabling testing and treatment to be planned prior

  4. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  5. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Applications, Benefits, and Barriers of Alberta's SuperNet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry; Christiansen, Jo-An

    2007-01-01

    The Alberta SuperNet, a very high speed, broadband network, was built to bring high-speed connectivity to every school, library, and municipal office in Alberta. This CDN $294 million investment was made based on the perceived need for high-speed connectivity to stimulate economic and community development and to enhance government services,…

  6. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  7. The Support Service Approach to University Education for Native Students in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Eyman, Evelyn

    Of the four universities within the Province of Alberta, the University of Calgary has most effectively met the bicultural needs of Native students. Athabasca University's correspondence courses are usually not effective for Native students. The University of Alberta's "Morningstar" program allows teacher certification before completion of degrees…

  8. Instructional Leadership in Alberta: Research Insights from Five Highly Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Larry; Parsons, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews original research, sponsored by the Alberta Teachers Association (ATA), to gain evidence-based insights from five case studies of leadership in exemplary elementary schools in Alberta, Canada. Schools were identified by the ATA as sites where effective leadership was practiced. In this study, effective leadership was…

  9. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  10. ASPEN, the Alberta Special Education Network: Using Appropriate Technology to Bring the Community Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, W. Leigh; Anthony, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    The Alberta Special Education Network (ASPEN) is a computer-based communications and information network geared to the teaching and learning of exceptional children in rural Alberta, Canada. Network features include toll-free telephone access, a menu-driven user interface, training and awareness, electronic mail, weekly news, forums, and a…

  11. Native Education in Alberta. Committee on Tolerance and Understanding Discussion Paper #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Committee on Tolerance and Understanding reviewed the current state of Native education in Alberta in the context of six principles: respect for diversity, parental involvement, rights of the child, mission of education, role of public education, and shared experiences. The investigation revealed that Alberta Natives are still suffering from…

  12. Government Policy and Postsecondary Education in Alberta: A "Field Theory" Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, David; Wimmer, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    While the landscape of postsecondary education in Alberta continues to expand and diversify, there seems to be very little written about the organization of postsecondary education in the province over the past 15 to 20 years (Wimmer & Schmaus, 2010). This paper provides an analysis of postsecondary education in Alberta over the past 15 to 20…

  13. A Financial Plan for Alberta Colleges and Universities: Recommendations and Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Bernard S.; And Others

    This is the final report of the Financial Plan Project for Colleges and Universities. Its primary purpose is to present proposals on a financial plan for Alberta universities and public colleges. Following a brief review of financing postsecondary education in Canada, it focuses on the last ten years of Alberta practice; the treatment is…

  14. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective.

  15. Visions 2000. A Vision of Educational Technology in Alberta by the Year 2000. A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Arguing that technology should be incorporated into the curriculum so that students learn "about technology,""in technology," and "through technology," the Alberta Technology in Education Committee looks forward to the year 2000 and assesses ways in which technology can be applied both in the classroom and in distance education in Alberta, Canada.…

  16. Survey of Fascioloides magna in farmed wapiti in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M J; Acorn, R C; Moraiko, D T

    1999-01-01

    The formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedure was used to detect ova of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in feces of farmed wapiti in Alberta. Twenty (3.2%) of the 629 fecal samples examined contained ova of F. magna. Thirteen (33.3%) of the 39 farms surveyed had wapiti positive for F. magna. The presence of F. magna in farmed wapiti north of the North Saskatchewan River is confirmed, and 3 areas where the infection has become endemic are identified. Images Figure 1. PMID:10200881

  17. Selected Alberta science and research success stories. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication provides a sampling of the value of science and research to Albertans, to the Alberta economy, and to the global community as revealed in stories of successful science and research activities in the province. Each story includes name of developer, inventor, company, and/or supporter; names of co-operating agencies, if any; contact name and address for further information; and a list of expected or realized benefits. The stories are organized under subject areas relating to agriculture and agri-food, arts and culture, biotechnology, construction, education, energy, environment, forest sector, health and medicine, human and community development, information and communications, manufacturing, mineral sector, tourism, and transportation.

  18. Glaciotectonism and landsliding in Little Sandhill Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian A.; Evans, David J. A.

    1990-11-01

    Slope failure and gully erosion along Little Sandhill Creek, a tributary of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada, has exposed large stratigraphic sections in which the effects of glaciotectonism and landsliding are clearly revealed. Six main units are identified ranging from a deposit of coarse fluvial sands, through various glacial diamictons and gravels and sands, to postglacial fluvial and lacustrine (pond) and aeolian sediments. Incision by Little Sandhill Creek since late Wisconsinan deglaciation ca. 12,500 B.P., resulted in periodic landslides culminating in the main slope failure which occurred post ca. 5400 B.P. The slide was reactivated by irrigation water return flow from the adjacent prairie surface.

  19. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  20. Literacy, More Than Words: Summary of Input on a Literacy Framework for Alberta. Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes comments from 539 individuals on a literacy framework for Alberta, provided during the Alberta Literacy Forum held in Edmonton from April 14 to 16, 2008. The Forum was Alberta's contribution to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) Pan-Canadian Interactive Literacy Forum, which involved all of Canada's…

  1. Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer. Twenty-Eighth Annual Report, 1 April 2002-31 March 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer, Edmonton.

    The Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer, Alberta, Canada, serves as the body through which Albertas postsecondary institutions work in a cooperative manner to ensure effective transferability. Basic to the work of the Council is the principle that a student should not have to repeat previous learning experiences in which competence has been…

  2. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  3. Ignition and combustion of coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, C.O.; Vastola, F.J.

    1983-09-01

    A subbituminous coal was used in this study. Particles from the 850 to 1000 ..mu.. sieve fraction were injected into a reaction furnace swept with air at temperature levels of 928/sup 0/, 980/sup 0/, 1076/sup 0/, 1118/sup 0/ and 1273/sup 0/K. The experimental technique, based upon the simultaneous measurement of the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and the intensity of the light generated during the combustion, provides quantitative information about the ignition and the subsequent burn-off of the residual particle. Homogeneous ignition is detected at temperatures of 1076/sup 0/K and higher. The apparatus designed provides the special characteristics required in this study, and the transition between the ignition mechanisms is achieved within the range of operation conditions for this particular coal. The ignition mechanism is determined not only from the measurement of light intensity during the combustion, but also from the gas evolution curves. The results show the convenience of using these complementary techniques for the measurement of the ignition mechanism. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  5. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  6. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them.

  8. Titers to Leptospira species in horses in Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, V W; Gale, S P

    1994-01-01

    Sera from horses in Alberta, submitted to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada for routine testing for equine infectious anemia from January 1987 to June 1989, were tested for antibody against 13 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira spp., using the microscopic agglutination test. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of serum titers to those serovars in horses in Alberta, and to analyze the associated risk factors. Descriptive statistics were compiled and logistic regressions were computed. Titers to L. interrogans serovars icterohaemorrhagiae, bratislava, copenhageni, and autumnalis were common (94.6%, 56.6%, 46.5%, and 43.5%, respectively). The prevalence of titers to other serovars ranged from 0.8% to 27.2%. Age was almost always significantly associated with the presence of titers. In general, the chances of being seropositive rose by approximately 10% with each year of life. Horses managed individually (eg, track horses) were approximately half as likely to be seropositive as were horses managed in groups (eg, rodeo horses). PMID:7994706

  9. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16'' catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  10. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  11. Correlation of Coal Calorific Value and Sulphur Content with 57Fe Mössbauer Spectral Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynter, C. I.; May, L.; Oliver, F. W.; Hall, J. A.; Hoffman, E. J.; Kumar, A.; Christopher, L.

    Coal is the most abundant, most economical and widely distributed fossil fuel in the world today. It is also the principal form of reductant in the iron and steel industry. This study was undertaken to not only add to the growing use of Mössbauer spectroscopy application in industry but also to increase the chemistry and physics knowledge base of coal. Coal is 40 to 80 percent carbon with small amounts of sulphur and iron as pyrite and ferrous sulphate. The environmental concern associated with mining and burning of coal has long been a subject of investigation with emphasis on the sulphur content. We examined five ranks of coal: anthracite, Eastern bituminous, bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite. Relationships were investigated between the Calorific Value (CV) of coal and inorganic sulphur content, 57Fe Mössbauer absorption, and ratio of pyrite (FeS2) to FeSO4. Twenty-eight samples of the five different types of coal had CVs ranging from 32,403 to 16,100 kJ/kg and sulphur concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 2.5 percent. CV appeared to be positively correlated with concentrations of sulphur and of iron-sulphur salts, although there appears to be little connection with the distribution of their oxidation states.

  12. Stimulation of methane generation from nonproductive coal by addition of nutrients or a microbial consortium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Voytek, Mary A.; Corum, Margo D.; Orem, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships.

  13. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  14. Assessment of the Coal-Bed Gas Total Petroleum System in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cook Inlet-Susitna region of south-central Alaska contains large quantities of gas-bearing coal of Tertiary age. The U.S. Geological Survey in 2011 completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources underlying the Cook Inlet-Susitna region based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The Cook Inlet Coal-Bed Gas TPS covers about 9,600,000 acres and comprises the Cook Inlet basin, Matanuska Valley, and Susitna lowland. The TPS contains one assessment unit (AU) that was evaluated for coal-bed gas resources between 1,000 and 6,000 feet in depth over an area of about 8,500,000 acres. Coal beds, which serve as both the source and reservoir for natural gas in the AU, were deposited during Paleocene-Pliocene time in mires associated with a large trunk-tributary fluvial system. Thickness of individual coal beds ranges from a few inches to more than 50 feet, with cumulative coal thickness of more than 800 feet in the western part of the basin. Coal rank ranges from lignite to subbituminous, with vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.6 percent throughout much of the AU. The AU is considered hypothetical because only a few wells in the Matanuska Valley have tested the coal-bed reservoirs, so the use of analog coal-bed gas production data was necessary for this assessment. In order to estimate reserves that might be added in the next 30 years, coal beds of the Upper Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana were selected as the production analog for Tertiary coal beds in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region. Upper Fort Union coal beds have similar rank (lignite to subbituminous), range of thickness, and coal-quality characteristics as coal beds of the Tertiary Kenai Group. By use of this analog, the mean total estimate of undiscovered coal-bed gas in the Tertiary Coal-Bed Gas AU is 4.674 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

  15. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  16. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  17. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Monserud, Robert A; Huang, Shongming; Yang, Yuqing

    2006-06-01

    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), the major forest tree species of Alberta. The PSP network is densest in stands aged between 70 and 100 years and is well-represented by stands of all ages to 150 years of age. Stand biomass (Mg ha(-1)) was estimated for each PSP plot as the sum of the respective biomass components for each tree (live and standing dead). The biomass components for live trees were stem, bark, branches, foliage and roots. The components for standing dead trees excluded foliage. Equations from previous biomass studies were used for biomass component estimation. Biomass estimates of additional non-tree components were attempted, but without much success. Biomass of the soil organic layer was estimated once on 452 PSPs and a mean estimate of total dead fuels on the ground (28.4 Mg ha(-1)) was available only for the entire distribution of lodgepole pine. However, values of these two components were essentially constant over time and therefore did not alter the analysis or conclusions obtained by analyzing total tree biomass alone. We then used this spatial network of 1549 plots as the basis for mapping biomass across Alberta. Mapping methods were based on Australian National University SPLINe (ANUSPLIN) software, Hutchinson's thin-plate smoothing spline in four dimensions (latitude, longitude, elevation and biomass). Total tree biomass (mean = 172 Mg ha(-1)) was dominated by stem biomass (mean = 106 Mg ha(-1)), which was an order of magnitude greater than the mean estimates for the bark (11 Mg ha(-1)), branch (12 Mg ha(-1)) and foliage (12 Mg ha(-1)) components. A close relationship was found between total tree biomass and stand stem volume (R(2) = 0

  18. Preliminary report on coal resources of the Otter Creek EMRIA site, Powder River County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, E.J.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Landis, Edwin R.

    1976-01-01

    The Knoblock coal bed in the Otter Creek EMRIA (Energy Minerals Rehabilitation Inventory and Analysis) site--an area of about 1,177 acres (476 hectares)--contains estimated identified coal resources of about 126 million short tons (114 million metric tons). The area around and including the Otter Creek EMRIA slte--an area of about 2,975 acres (1,204 hectares)--contalns estimated identified coal resources of about 318 million short tons (289 million metric tons). All estimated coal resources in the Knoblock bed are categorized as measured and indicated resources, and all but about 62 million tons (56 million metric tons) are at depths of less than 200 feet (60 metres). The average thickness of the Knoblock is about 61 feet (18.6 metres) and the overall relationship of quantity of overburden to tons of coal in the area with 200 feet (60 metres) or less of overburden is about 2 cubic yards (1.5 cubic metres) of overburden per ton of coal. The coal is subbituminous C in rank, has an average sulfur content of less than 0.2 percent, and has an average ash content of about 5.5 percent. The major and minor element composition of coal, coal-ash, and rock samples from the area is similar to the average composition of other coals of the Northern Great Plains and to the average rock composition of the Earth's crust. Only the selenium content of the Knoblock coal is more than an order of magnitude higher than that in the continental crust.

  19. The single electron chemistry of coals. [Quarterly] report, April 1, 1990--June 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II

    1990-07-24

    TCNQ Charge Transfer Complexes with Coals. TCNQ can be readily deposited in coals from pyridine solution. IR spectra of TCNQ and TCNQ in Illinois No. 6 coal are shown in Fig. 1. It is clear that the stretching frequency has been shifted by the full 44 cm{sup {minus}1} caused by the transfer of a single electron. Similar behavior has been observed with a variety of coals, including lignites, subbituminous and a range of bituminous coals. There are two possible explanations for the observed shift. The simplest explanation is that there exist in coals structures which are excellent single electron donors capable of transferring an electron to TCNQ in the ground state. All of the TCNQ dissolved in the coal is shifted. No uncomplexed TCNQ remains in the sample, as demonstrated by the absence of the unaltered CN stretch at 2227 cm{sup {minus}1}. The spectrum shown is for TCNQ in coal in a molar concentration equivalent to approximately 20% of the PNA systems in this coal as deduced from the NMR studies of Solum et al. (1989). It is highly unlikely that 20% of the PNA systems in coal are such good electron donors that the charge transfer complex would have an electron transferred in the ground state. The second explanation is that cooperative interactions between the TCNQ and the aromatic systems in coal have led to the formation of an extended valance band structure, that the TCNQ LUMO is part of this band structure, and that the band is half filled.

  20. Two-stage, closed coupled catalytic liquefaction of coal. Sixteenth quarterly report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly report covers activities of the Two-Stage, Close-Coupled Catalytic Liquefaction of Coal Program during the period of July 1--September 30, 1992, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE contract period is from October 1, 1998 to December 31, 1992. The overall purpose of the program is to achieve higher yields of better quality transportation and turbine fuels and to lower the capital and production costs in order to make the products from direct coal liquefaction competitive with other fossil fuel products. The quarterly report covers work on Laboratory testing, Bench Scale Studies and PDU Activities focusing on scale-up of the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Coal.

  1. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1990-12-31

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. Zeta potential studies show that the surfaces of the lignite are negatively charged between about pH2 to 11, the negative charge density increasing with increase in pH. Highly alkaline media promoted calcium adsorption due to high negative charge on the coal, while calcium uptake was inhibited in strongly acidic solutions.

  2. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  3. NUANCE: Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In this article, we describe the Naturalistic University of Alberta Nonlinear Correlation Explorer (NUANCE), a computer program for data exploration and analysis. NUANCE is specialized for finding nonlinear relations between any number of predictors and a dependent value to be predicted. It searches the space of possible relations between the predictors and the dependent value by using natural selection to evolve equations that maximize the correlation between their output and the dependent value. In this article, we introduce the program, describe how to use it, and provide illustrative examples. NUANCE is written in Java, which runs on most computer platforms. We have contributed NUANCE to the archival Web site of the Psychonomic Society (www.psychonomic.org/archive), from which it may be freely downloaded.

  4. Care of the elderly program at the University of Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lesley; Dobbs, Bonnie; Triscott, Jean; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed The population is aging rapidly and there are implications for health care delivery in the face of few physicians specializing in care of the elderly (COE). Objective of program To train physicians wishing to provide COE services. Program description The COE program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton is an enhanced skills diploma program lasting 6 months to 1 year, with core program requirements including geriatric inpatient care, geriatric psychiatry, ambulatory care, continuing care, and outreach. There is a longitudinal clinic component and a research project requirement. The program is designed to cover the 85 core competencies in the CanMEDS– Family Medicine roles. Conclusion There is a need for COE physicians to provide clinical care as well as fill educational, administrative, and research roles to meet the health care needs of medically complex seniors. These physicians require alternative funding and a departmental home within a university if they are to provide an academic service. PMID:25551143

  5. Spontaneous mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis in Finn cross lambs from Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Frelier, P F; Pritchard, J; Armstrong, D L; Nagge, W T; Lewis, R M

    1984-01-01

    A spontaneous mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis occurred in three, one to three month old Finnish Landrace cross lambs from a flock in northern Alberta. The ram was a purebred Finn sheep, and the ewes were Finn-Rambouillet and Finn-Suffolk-Rambouillet crosses. The lambs were found dead without previous clinical signs. Histologically there was marked thickening of glomerular capillary basement membranes, proliferation of mesangial cells, and peri-glomerular fibrosis. An interstitial infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was present with occasional tubular degeneration and proteinaceous cast formation. Focal leukoencephalomalacia was present in one lamb. Electron microscopy demonstrated deposition of electron-dense deposits in a subendothelial location with occasional fusion of overlying foot processes in glomerular capillaries. Indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrated positive staining material in glomerular capillary walls. These findings in Finnish Landrace cross lambs are characteristic of mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, a condition heretofore not reported in North America. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6372972

  6. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  7. The geometry of folds in granitoid rocks of northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Langenberg, C.; Ramsden, John

    1980-06-01

    Granitoid rocks which predominate in the Precambrian shield of northeastern Alberta show large-scale fold structures. A numerical procedure has been used to obtain modal foliation orientations. This procedure results in the smoothing of folded surfaces that show roughness on a detailed scale. Statistical tests are used to divide the study areas into cylindrical domains. Structural sections can be obtained for each domain, and horizontal and vertical sections are used to construct block diagrams. The projections are performed numerically and plotted by computer. This method permits blocks to be viewed from every possible angle. Both perspective and orthographic projections can be produced. The geometries of a dome in the Tulip Lake area and a synform in the Hooker Lake area have been obtained. The domal structure is compared with polyphase deformational interference patterns and with experimental diapiric structures obtained in a centrifuge system. The synform in the Hooker Lake area may be genetically related to the doming in the Tulip Lake area.

  8. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  9. Enhancing low severity coal liquefaction reactivity using mild chemical pretreatment. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shams, K.G.; Miller, R.L.; Baldwin, R.M.

    1992-07-13

    In this paper, we describe results from a study in which mild chemical pretreatment of coal has been used to enhance low severity liquefaction reactivity. We have found that ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid improves THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt% (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt% for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt% for liquefaction of the eight coals at 623 K (350{degree}C) reaction temperature and 30 min. reaction time. Similar enhancement results occurred using, hexane or acetone in place of methanol. Pretreatment with methanol and HCI separately indicated that both reagents were necessary to achieve maximum liquefaction improvement. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol%. No appreciable effect on reactivity was observed at higher acid concentrations. Although vapor phase alcohol/HCI mixtures have been shown to partially alkylate bituminous coals, analysis of Wyodak and Illinois {number_sign}6 coal samples indicated that no organic phase alteration occurred during pretreatment; however, over 90 wt% of the calcium was removed from each coal. Calcium is thought to catalyze retrogressive reactions during coal pyrolysis, and thus calcium removal prior to low severity liquefaction minimizes the rate of THF-insoluble product formation.

  10. Study of the United States coal resources. [Appalachian Plateau, Interior Basins, Gulf Coastal Plain, Rocky Mountain Basins, High Plains, North Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ferm, J.C.; Muthig, P.J.

    1982-09-15

    The objectives of this study were: (1) the identification of geologically significant coal resources for the United States, including Alaska; and (2) the preparation of statistically controlled tonnage estimates for each resource type. Particular emphasis was placed on the identification and description of coals in terms of seam thickness, inclination, depth of cover, discontinuities caused by faulting and igneous intrusion, and occurrence as isolated or multiseam deposits. The national resource was organized into six major coal provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Interior Basins, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Rocky Mountain Basins, the High Plains, and North Alaska. Total coal tonnage for a subarea was estimated from an analysis of the cumulative coal thickness derived from borehole or surface section records and subsequently categorized in terms of seam thickness, dip, overburden, multiseam proportions, coal quality, and tonnage impacted by severe faulting and igneous intrusions. Results indicate an aggregate resource in place of 11.6 trillion tons, of which North Alaska accounts for 3.5 trillion tons of subbituminous and bituminous coal; the Rocky Mountains, 2.2 trillion tons of bituminous and subbituminous deposits; and the Gulf Coast, 3.8 trillion tons of lignites. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each of bituminous coal, and the High Plains slightly more than 0.5 trillion tons of lignite. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each, and the High Plains Province is estimated to contain a bit more than 0.5 trillion tons. The implications of the results for research on advanced mining systems are discussed. 27 figures, 25 tables.

  11. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  12. Is promise of Alberta's tar sands nearing reality

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.

    1993-10-15

    Alberta's far north shares a vital element with Saudi Arabia: Many hundreds of billions of barrels of oil. The Energy Resources and Conservation Board counts one trillion barrels, four to five times above Saudi Arabia's reserves. To date, though, it has not been economic to tap these reserves, which are in the form of tar sands. Now, however, a new process, proven at the pilot stage, finally may transform these resources into a possible competitor to OPEC. Its unpronounceable acronym, SAGD, stands for steam-assisted gravity drainage. The SAGD technique involves a couple of major innovations. First, it reverses the traditional approach. Instead of mining the sands from the surface downward, the systems developed and proven by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) starts from the bottom up. The oil is produced from underneath the bedded tar sands. Second, the system is intrinsically small scale. It does not rely upon megaprojects to try to realize economies of scale. The earlier surface-mining projects were sized at 100,000-200,000 barrels per day (b/d). In contrast, the optimum economic scale of the SAGD system is roughly 30,000 b/d, making it a more manageable and less risky technology. SAGD involves the marriage of conventional shaft and tunnel mining with the new precision possible in horizontal drilling. The cost savings are dramatic, and the environmental insult from the operation is greatly reduced. Instead of stripping overburden and then strip-mining the tarry sands, the SAGD technique starts underground with tunnels drilled beneath the tar sands strata. From the tunnels, pairs of horizontal wells are drilled up into the beds. Steam injected into the upper well fluidizes the tar, creating a void, from which the liquid tar flows down into the lower producing well.

  13. Controls on bacterial gas accumulations in thick Tertiary coal beds and adjacent channel sandstones, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Coal beds, as much as 250 ft thick, and adjacent sandstones in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation are reservoirs for coal-derived natural gas in the Powder River basin. The discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs about 3 mi{sup 2} in size, adjoining networks of fluvial channels infilled by sand. Coal-bed thickness was controlled by basin subsidence and depositional environments. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub o} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Although the coals are relatively low rank, they display fracture systems. Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amount of Co{sub 2} ({lt}10%). The methane is isotopically light and enriched in deuterium. The gases are interpreted to be generated by bacterial processes and the fermentation pathway, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. Large amounts of bicarbonate water generated during early stages of coalification will have to be removed from the fracture porosity in the coal beds before desorption and commercial gas production can take place. Desorbed amounts of methane-rich, bacterial gas in the Powder River basin are relatively low ({lt}60 Scf/ton) compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases (hundreds of Scf/ton) from other Rocky Mountain basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource in both the coal beds and the adjacent sandstones is considered to be large (as much as 40 Tcf) because of the vast coal resources (as much as 1.3 trillion tons).

  14. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  16. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  17. Vocational Training for Native Students in Alberta and the N.W.T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Doug

    1985-01-01

    Describes the inequity in funding for and access to vocational education for Canadian native and non-native groups, with special attention to the situation in Alberta and the Northwest Territories. (NEC)

  18. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holdgate, G.R.; McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N.; Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  19. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  20. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) in Alberta: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Wide Area Measurement of Particulates, CO2, and CH4 Emissions from Energy Extraction and Production Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Crowther, B. G.; Valupadas, P.; Fu, L.; Yang, Z.; Huda, Q.; Leung, B.; Chambers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency (AEMERA) in cooperation with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) of Utah State University, have developed a mobile DIAL sensor designed specifically for particle, CO2 and CH4 emissions measurement. Rapid expansion of the oil and gas industry in Alberta, including the oil sands, has challenged the Alberta Government to keep pace in its efforts to monitor and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. The limitations of current monitoring systems has pushed the provincial government to seek out advanced sensing technologies such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to help assess the impact of energy development and industrial operations. This instrument is housed inside a 36' trailer and can be quickly staged and used to characterize source emissions and to locate fugitive leaks. DIAL is capable of measuring concentrations for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at ranges of up to 3 km with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m. DIAL can map both CO2 and CH4, as well as particulate matter (PM) in a linear fashion; by scanning the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation, DIAL can create images of emissions concentrations and ultimately can be used to determine emission factors, locate fugitive leaks, assess plume dispersion and confirm air dispersion modeling. The DIAL system has been deployed at a landfill, a coal-fired power plant, and an oil sands production area. A system overview of the DIAL instrument and recent results will be discussed.

  1. A methodologic framework to evaluate the number of cancers attributable to lifestyle and environment in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Anne; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research to estimate population attributable risks for cancer in Alberta has been limited. Attributable burden estimates are important for planning and implementing population-based cancer prevention strategies. This article describes a methodologic framework to estimate the number of incident cancers attributable to modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors in Alberta. Methods: We estimated population attributable risks for cancer for exposures to 24 established cancer risk factors including tobacco consumption and environmental tobacco exposure, environmental factors, infectious agents, hormone therapies, dietary intake, obesity and physical inactivity. We used risk estimates to quantify the association between individual exposures and cancer sites as well as prevalence estimates for individual exposures in Alberta to estimate the proportion of cancer in Alberta that could be attributed to each exposure. These estimations were conducted in the context of a theoretical minimum risk principle, whereby exposures corresponding to the lowest levels of population risk were used as the comparisons for alternative exposure levels. Inte rpretation: We outline the main methodologic principles for the protocol used in evaluating population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors for cancer in Alberta. The data produced by this project will provide important information concerning which known cancer risk factors are responsible for the largest proportions of cancer in Alberta and could inform future cancer prevention strategies. PMID:27730111

  2. Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

  3. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  4. Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

  5. Reconnaissance of the water resources and potential effects of mining of the Joliet-Fromberg coal tract, Carbon County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Joliet-Fromberg coal tract in Carbon County, Montana, contains subbituminous to bituminous coal suitable for underground mining. A reconnaissance study of the area was conducted to identify water resources of the coal tract and to determine general effects that underground mining could have on the water resources. Surface-water resources consist of Elbow Creek, a small perennial stream that drains most of the area, plus irrigation water diverted into the basin from Rock Creek and the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River. Groundwater resources consist of sandstone aquifers in several formations of Late Cretaceous age and alluvial aquifers of Pleistocene and Holocene age. Chemical analyses were made of water in Elbow Creek and water from seven wells in the area. Water from Elbow Creek is suitable for use by all livestock, based on the concentration of dissolved solids. Water from most sampled wells had dissolved-solids concentrations larger than the maximum (500 milligrams/L) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public water supply. Effects of underground mining on water resources would be minimal. The Bridger coal bed in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Sandstone has no significant hydraulic connection with Elbow Creek in most of the area and the Bridger coal bed does not appear to be a significant aquifer. Mining and dewatering of the coal could temporarily lower water levels in aquifers overlying the coal if mining causes subsidence and fracturing of rocks above the mine workings. (USGS)

  6. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true

  7. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1992--February 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    The mixed iron/alumina pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported iron catalysts have been shown in previous reports of this project to significantly improve yields of heptane-soluble products obtained in the liquefaction of both as received and acid-exchanged Wyodak subbituminous coal and Blind Canyon bituminous coal. In this quarter, the soluble product (LSW) obtained from the noncatalytic low-severity liquefaction of Wyodak coal was used as a feed to determine the activity of iron based catalysts for the hydrogenation and depolymerization steps. Comparison data for liquefaction of the soluble LSW with other catalysts were desired, and these data were obtained for a dispersed form of iron sulfide, prepared via iron hydroxyoxide (PETC method). The iron oxyhydroxide catalyst was directly precipitated on LSW product using either water or ethanol as the solvent. An insight into the functioning of the mixed iron/alumina pillared clay in coal liquefaction was investigated by preparing and studying an iron oxoaluminate structure. An investigation of new methods for the production of tetralin soluble iron oxometallate catalysts and the determination of their catalytic activities was continued in this quarter. The hydrogenation activity of iron oxoaluminate was investigated using pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene as the test compounds, and results were compared with thermal reactions. In order to determine the loss of activity, recovered catalyst was recycled a second time for the hydrotreating of pyrene. Reaction of 1-methylnaphthalene with iron oxoaluminate also gave very high conversion to 1- and 5-methyltetralins and small amount of 2- and 6-methyltetralins. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous and Blind Canyon bituminous coal was investigated using an in situ sulfided soluble iron oxoaluminate catalyst.

  8. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  9. Permeability Evolution of Shale and Coal Under Differential Sorption of He, CH4 And CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, H.; Elsworth, D.; Marone, C. J.; Mathews, J.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection in coal seams or in shales may be an option for geological sequestration of CO2 each with concurrent methane production. Permeability of the fractured porous medium is a crucial parameter influencing injectivity of CO2. The evolution of permeability is further complicated by dynamic changes in the coal/shale shrinkage/swelling with the reduction/increase in gas content. Complex geomechanical processes (transport of gas, adsorption, desorption, adjusting horizontal stresses and vertical strains) and chemical interaction between CO2, water and mineral matter content are some factors responsible for the various responses in permeability evolution. Adsorption of CO2 in micropores may result in matrix swelling therefore closing the existing natural fractures and lowering the ability of fluid flow. On the other hand presence of water may react with CO2 forming carbonic acid and removing carbonaceous mineral matter - either increasing or decreasing permeability. To address these issues we report experimental measurements of permeability evolution in shales infiltrated by helium, methane and carbon dioxide under varying pore pressure and deviatoric stresses. The role of gas (CO2 and CH4) adsorption and desorption under variable moisture contents and pore pressures have also been examined for sub-bituminous coals. Adsorption of CO2 in Coal and shale reduces the reservoir permeability even when the fractured media are mechanically unconstrained. However we found that permeability loss is temporary. In the specific case of Marcellus shale, adsorption of CO2 in the sample reduces the permeability to half the original value. Permeability values returns to its original value if sample is allowed to interact for sufficient time. Variation of permeability with deviotoric stress suggests the compaction band formation above a threshold value of stress. These deformations are permanent and shale loses its permeability. Several observations on permeability

  10. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  11. Microbial and chemical factors influencing methane production in laboratory incubations of low-rank subsurface coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Stephen H.; Smith, Richard L.; Barker, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Lignite and subbituminous coals were investigated for their ability to support microbial methane production in laboratory incubations. Results show that naturally-occurring microorganisms associated with the coals produced substantial quantities of methane, although the factors influencing this process were variable among different samples tested. Methanogenic microbes in two coals from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, produced 140.5-374.6 mL CH4/kg ((4.5-12.0 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton) in response to an amendment of H2/CO2. The addition of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of acetate did not support substantive methane production under the laboratory conditions. However, acetate accumulated in control incubations where methanogenesis was inhibited, indicating that acetate was produced and consumed during the course of methane production. Acetogenesis from H2/CO2 was evident in these incubations and may serve as a competing metabolic mode influencing the cumulative amount of methane produced in coal. Two low-rank (lignite A) coals from Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA, demonstrated a comparable level of methane production (131.1-284.0 mL CH4/kg (4.2-9.1 scf/ton)) in the presence of an inorganic nutrient amendment, indicating that the source of energy and organic carbon was derived from the coal. The concentration of chloroform-extractable organic matter varied by almost three orders of magnitude among all the coals tested, and appeared to be related to methane production potential. These results indicate that substrate availability within the coal matrix and competition between different groups of microorganisms are two factors that may exert a profound influence on methanogenesis in subsurface coal beds.

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  13. Analyses of an Elmworth hydraulic fracture in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.E.; Holditch, S.A.; Randolph, P.L.

    1980-09-01

    The Elmworth gas field in Alberta's Deep basin could hold more than 400 trillion CF of recoverable gas reserves. To obtain more information on the economics and technology required to produce this gas, Canadian engineers performed a large (700-ft) hydraulic foam fracture over the Cretaceous Falher Zones A and B in a tight sand having an in situ permeability of about 1 microdarcy. The sand produced at rates close to those predicted: after each perforation was broken down, the flow was 21,000 CF/day; after the minifracture (9450 lbm of sand), 35,000 CF/day; and following the main fracture (5.65 million CF of nitrogen injecting 250,000 lbm of sand), 1 million CF/day, which declined within 23 days to 300,000 CF/day. Although at current gas prices, such sands can not be economically produced, model runs indicate that dual completions with hydraulic fractures of at least 700 ft would be profitable at a netback to the producer of $3.50/1000 CF, assuming a 10%/yr gas-price increase and a 7%/yr operating expense.

  14. Creating new landscapes and ecosystems: the Alberta Oil Sands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E A; Miyanishi, K

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of oil from the Alberta Oil Sands through surface mining involves the removal of the overburden and oil sand to a depth of up to 100 m and over extremely large areas. While the operation of the bitumen processing plants has serious environmental impacts on downstream habitats, this article focuses on the reclamation of areas from which the oil sands have been removed, processed, and returned. This reclamation following closure of the mines will entail the complete re-creation of landforms and ecosystems at a landscape scale, with the goal of producing suitable habitats for plants, animals, and people. Such projects will require a reasonable understanding of the geophysical and ecological processes that operate at a wide range of scales. Some information is provided on the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and land use (past and current) of the Oil Sands area, situated within the Boreal Plain ecozone, to provide a framework for discussion of issues to be addressed in, and proposed guidelines for, such large-scale reclamation. Although none of the mines has yet closed, numerous consultant reports have been produced with recommendations for various aspects of such reclamation projects (e.g., wetland hydrology, vegetation, wildlife habitat). The scientific basis of such reports is found to vary with respect to depth of understanding of the relevant processes. PMID:18566092

  15. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  16. Urbanization and Urban Life in Alberta. Report of the Urban Studies Symposium Sponsored by the Alberta Human Resources Research Council, November 21, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, R. Gordon, Ed.; And Others

    This volume attempts first to take stock of the process of urbanization in Alberta and second to identify areas in which research may be required to guide urban development policies in the years ahead. Contents include the following papers: "An Economic Perspective," Eric J. Hanson; "A Goegraphic Perspective," Dennis B. Johnson and Peter J. Smith;…

  17. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  18. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-05-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the second quarterly period. Significant progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of Wyodak subbituminous coals, catalytic and thermal low-temperature pretreatments in the absence and presence of hydrogen-donor and non-donor solvents, and the spectroscopic characterization of thermally and catalytically pretreated coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FT-IR techniques.

  19. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This report describes progress on the Advanced Coal Liquefaction project by the Gulf Research and Development Company's Merriam Laboratory during the months of January through March 1983. The liquefaction behavior of Illinois No. 6 coal beneficiated in various ways was studied in both single-stage recycle (SRC II) and short contact time (SCT) modes of operation. The distillate yield increased as the iron level in the feed slurry increased in both modes of operation. In the SCT mode, the conversion increased at greater depths of cleaning. In the SRC II mode, the distillate yield and conversion were much higher with deep cleaning and add-back of pyrite than with conventional cleaning. Pyrite addition resulted in a significant increase in short contact time conversion of subbituminous Belle Ayr coal in both high and low quality solvents. Solvent quality itself, however, had little effect on conversion. With Loveridge coal, the hydrocarbon gas yield and conversion decreased as the residence time was reduced in the range of 3 to 8 minutes. The bottoms product was filterable only at residence times of 6 minutes or greater. Addition of a small amount of nickel to a molybdenum emulsion catalyst improved yields slightly with Belle Ayr coal in the SRC II mode. Higher levels of nickel resulted in the same oil yield as with none at all.

  20. Advanced coal liquefaction research: Technical progress report, October 1, 1986-December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, W.; McIlvried, H.G. III

    1988-03-01

    This report describes studies made during the fourth quarter of 1986 using the revised microautoclave experimental technique. Studies were made of the effect of reaction time on conversion using Kemmerer coal. Results that, at least during the first 30 minutes, conversion is a monotonically increasing function of reaction time and temperature. A study was also made of the effect of temperature on conversion. In general, conversion increased with temperature. The reactivity of coal appears to be unaffected by exposure to Certigrav fluid, if the exposed coal is subjected to two acetone washings under a nitrogen blanket. Work was started on using SCR-II process solvent in place of tetralin. Results indicate that SRC-II process solvent is a satisfactory solvent donor for high reactivity, high ash bituminous coals, but slightly less effective for low ash, subbituminous coals. Some tests were made to examine the effect of operating the Soxlett extraction equipment at higher temperatures. In general, higher temperature operations gave product yields 2--4 wt% higher than the uninsulated columns. 2 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Petrography of feed coals in the Soma power plant, Manisa, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Bulut, Y.; Karayigit, A.I.

    2006-12-15

    The coal-bearing Soma basin is one of the most productive lacustrine coal basins of western Anatolia-Turkey. This study mainly focuses on petrography of the feed coals (FCs) in the Soma power plant. A total of 16 feed coal samples were systematically collected once a week over an eight-week period from both group boiler units, B1-4 with 660 MW and B5-6 with 330 MW capacity. The most abundant maceral group of FCs is huminite, in which texto-ulminite, eu-ulminite, attrinite, densinite are rich. Liptinite group macerals in FCs include mainly sporinite, resinite, and liptodetrinite, which are considerably higher than the other identified liptinite macerals. In the inertinite group, fusinite and inertodetrinite are more abundant. Identifiable minerals with petrographical studies are pyrite, siderite, other minerals (e. g., carbonates, clay minerals, quartz, feldspar, etc.), and fossil shells. This study shows that FCs used are subbituminous in rank with mean random ulminite reflectance of 0.43% Rr oil from B1-4 units and 0.39% Rr oil from B5-6 units. This indicates that coal rank is slightly higher in the central mines (southern Soma) than in the Denis mines (northern Soma).

  2. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions.

  3. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-03-15

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

  4. Predicting extents of mercury oxidation in coal-derived flue gases.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    The proposed mercury (Hg) oxidation mechanism consists of a 168-step gas phase mechanism that accounts for interaction among all important flue gas species and a heterogeneous oxidation mechanism on unburned carbon (UBC) particles, similar to established chemistry for dioxin production under comparable conditions. The mechanism was incorporated into a gas cleaning system simulator to predict the proportions of elemental and oxidized Hg species in the flue gases, given relevant coal properties (C/H/O/N/S/Cl/Hg), flue gas composition (O2, H2O, HCl), emissions (NO(X), SO(X), CO), the recovery of fly ash, fly ash loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a thermal history. Predictions are validated without parameter adjustments against datasets from lab-scale and from pilot-scale coal furnaces at 1 and 29 MWt. Collectively, the evaluations cover 16 coals representing ranks from sub-bituminous through high-volatile bituminous, including cases with Cl2 and CaCl2 injection. The predictions are, therefore, validated over virtually the entire domain of Cl-species concentrations and UBC levels of commercial interest. Additional predictions identify the most important operating conditions in the furnace and gas cleaning system, including stoichiometric ratio, NO(X), LOI, and residence time, as well as the most important coal properties, including coal-Cl.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. is conducted a program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. In this program, CONSOL obtains samples from current process development activities in coal liquefaction and coal-oil coprocessing, and characterizes them using established analytical techniques. In addition, selected samples are characterized by other analytical techniques to evaluate their potential for aiding process development. These analyses and interpretation of the results in relation to process operations are provided by the subcontractor. Major topics reported in this thirteenth quarterly report are the following: (1) Analyses were performed on three coals and eleven process oils from HRI, Inc. process development unit Run 260--03, which was the first process development unit test of Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal, significant operating problems were encountered, and sample properties are discussed in context to the operational problems; (2) a summary of the status of the Participants Program is given; (3) summaries of the final reports produced by the University of Chicago, the University of Utah, Iowa State University, and the University of Kentucky under the Participants Program, are presented.

  6. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-02-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on the development of novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed liquefaction. The ultimate goal of the present research is to develop novel catalytic hydroliquefaction process using highly active dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research is to develop novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular that can be used in low precursors concentrations (< 1 %) but exhibit high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. The major technical approaches are, first, to prepare the desired heteronuclear organometallic molecules as catalyst precursors that contain covalently bound, two different metal atoms and sulfur in a single molecule. Such precursors will generate finely dispersed bimetallic catalysts such as Fe-Mo, Co-Mo and Ni-Mo binary sulfides upon thermal decomposition. The second major technical approach is to perform the liquefaction of coals unpregnated with the organometallic precursors under temperature-programmed conditions, where the programmed heat-up serves as a step for both catalyst activation and coal pretreatment or preconversion. Two to three different complexes for each of the Fe-Mo, Co-Mo, and Ni-Mo combinations will be prepared. Initial catalyst screening tests will be conducted using a subbituminous coal and a bituminous coal. Effects of coal rank and solvents will be examined with the selected bimetallic catalysts which showed much higher activity than the dispersed catalysts from conventional precursors.

  7. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  8. Combined Tree-Ring Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes to infer past atmospheric deposition in Northeastern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial centers in North America is significantly younger than the emitting activities themselves. Attention should be placed on SOx and NOx emissions as they have been increasing over the last 15 years in western Canada. In Northeastern Alberta in particular, two distinct diffuse pollution contexts deserve attention: the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands (OS) district (north of Fort McMurray), and the coal fired power plant (CFPP) area (west of Edmonton). The NOx and SO2 emissions started in 1967 and 1956, but the direct air quality monitoring has been initiated in 1997 and 1985, in these respective contexts. In an attempt to address the gap in emission and deposition monitoring, we explored the δ13C and δ15N patterns of spruce trees (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) growing in four stands in the OS district and one stand, in the CFPP area. Tree-ring series collected from these five sites all covering the 1880-2010 period were analyzed and their δ13C and δ15N values examined along with the climatic parameters and SOx and NOx emission proxies. For two stands in the OS district where soil drainage was poor δ15N series did not vary significantly, but the intermediate and long-term δ13C and δ15N trends inversely correlate in the three other studied stands. For these three sites statistical analyses for the pre-operation calibration periods (1910-1961 and 1900-1951) allowed developing transfer functions and predicting the natural δ13C and δ15N responses to climatic conditions for the operation periods. The measured series all depart from the modeled natural trends, depicting anomalies. Interestingly, the anomalies in the two regions can be nicely reproduced by multiple-regression models combining local climatic parameters with acidifying emissions. Notwithstanding the significant inverse correlations between the δ13C and δ15N series for the three well drained sites and their link to acidifying emissions, it is too early to

  9. Subsurface temperature signature of a large Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in the North Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, J.; Gosnold, W.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent results from a 2.3km deep temperature log in northern Alberta, Canada acquired as part of the University of Alberta Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) geothermal energy project in 2010-2011shows that there is a significant increase in thermal gradient in the granites. Inversion of the measured T-z profile between 550 - 2320 m indicates a temperature increase of 9.6 ± 0.3 °C, at 13.0 ± 0.6 ka and that the glacial base surface temperature was - 4.4± 0.3 °C. This inversion computation accounted for granite heat production of 3 µW/m3. This is the largest amplitude of Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in Canada inferred from borehole temperature logs, and is compatible with the results of similar studies in Eurasia (KTB, Outokumpu, Torun-1 etc.) reported previously. Reference: Majorowicz, J., Unsworth, M., Chacko, T., Gray, A., Heaman L., Potter, D., Schmitt, D., and Babadagli, T., 2011. Geothermal energy as a source of heat for oilsands processing in northern Alberta, Canada, in: Hein, F. J., Leckie, D., Suter , J., and Larter, S., (Eds), Heavy Oil/Bitumen Petroleum Systems in Alberta and beyond, AAPG Mem., in press.

  10. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    Work this quarter focused on staged liquefaction. The effect of residence time on conversion in single pass experiments was found to be quite different for the subbituminous Belle Ayr Mine and bituminous Illinois No. 6 coals studied. With bituminous coal, conversion to soluble material is quite high and the limit of conversion is approached in only a few minutes. With a subbituminous coal, however, conversion is much lower and the limit of conversion is approached much more slowly. Short contact time (SCT) dissolution of Belle Ayr coal was studied as a possible first stage in a two-stage process. Conversion, hydrocarbon gas yield and hydrogen consumption were increased as residence time or temperature were increased. Conversion was also significantly increased by partial slurry recycle. Pyrite was found to be the most effective slurry catalyst for increasing conversion, followed by ammonium molybdate emulsion and finally nickel-molybdenum on alumina. Illinois No. 6 coal was liquefied in two stages. Conditions in the first stage dissolution were varied to determine the effect on upgradability in the second stage. An SCT (6 minute) coal dissolution stage is preferred over one at 30 minutes because hydrocarbon gas yield was much lower while overall oil yields for the combined dissolution and upgrading stages were nearly the same. Use of a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst in a trickle-bed second stage resulted in a higher oil yield and lower product heteroatom content than use of the same catalyst in the slurry phase. The total oil yield was lower with a pyrite slurry catalyst than with a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ slurry catalyst. With Belle Ayr coal and added pyrite, there was no change in total oil yield, conversion or product quality brought about by adding an 8-minute first stage at 450/sup 0/C (842/sup 0/F) to a 2-hour second stage operated at 420/sup 0/C (788/sup 0/F). 39 figures, 12 tables.

  11. Timing and petroleum sources for the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta based on 4-D modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Lewan, M.D.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Henry, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta have an estimated 270.3 billion m3 (BCM) (1700 billion bbl) of in-place heavy oil and tar. Our study area includes oil sand accumulations and downdip areas that partially extend into the deformation zone in western Alberta. The oil sands are composed of highly biodegraded oil and tar, collectively referred to as bitumen, whose source remains controversial. This is addressed in our study with a four-dimensional (4-D) petroleum system model. The modeled primary trap for generated and migrated oil is subtle structures. A probable seal for the oil sands was a gradual updip removal of the lighter hydrocarbon fractions as migrated oil was progressively biodegraded. This is hypothetical because the modeling software did not include seals resulting from the biodegradation of oil. Although the 4-D model shows that source rocks ranging from the Devonian-Mississippian Exshaw Formation to the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group coals and Ostracode-zone-contributed oil to Mannville Group reservoirs, source rocks in the Jurassic Fernie Group (Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale) were the initial and major contributors. Kinetics associated with the type IIS kerogen in Fernie Group source rocks resulted in the early generation and expulsion of oil, as early as 85 Ma and prior to the generation from the type II kerogen of deeper and older source rocks. The modeled 50% peak transformation to oil was reached about 75 Ma for the Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale near the west margin of the study area, and prior to onset about 65 Ma from other source rocks. This early petroleum generation from the Fernie Group source rocks resulted in large volumes of generated oil, and prior to the Laramide uplift and onset of erosion (???58 Ma), which curtailed oil generation from all source rocks. Oil generation from all source rocks ended by 40 Ma. Although the modeled study area did not include possible western

  12. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15 IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15 IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  13. Porosity and Velocity Relations of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keehm, Y.; Hu, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results on porosty-velocity relations of Grosmont formation, Alberta, Canada, which is one of largest bitumen carbonate reservoirs. Grosmont formation is divided into four units: LG; UG-1; UG-2; and UG-3 from the bottom. Two lower units are mainly imestone, while upper units are mostly dolomite with vuggy porosity and fractures, which makes the upper units be a good reservoir. Rock physics modeling was then performed to quantify porosity-velocity relations for the four units, which enables us to predict porosity from seismic data. To incorporate the pore-scale details in the modeling, we used DEM (differential effective medium) models. Two lower units are very similar in velocity-porosity domain, thus the relations can be represented by one velocity-porosity model, which is used as our reference model. For the UG-2 unit, we found that one model cannot represent the unit since the degree of fracturing are heterogeneous from location to location. We thus suggested three different DEM models for the UG-2 unit: vuggy-dominant; mildly-fractured; and heavily-fractured. The UG-3 units can be modeled with vuggy porosity, and fractures were not very noticeable. We also investigated the spatial variation of the UG-2 unit, and found that the degree of fracturing is generally proportional to the proximity to the unconformity boundary, where the fresh water invasion can be dominant. In conclusion, we proposed velocity-porosity relations for the four units in Grosmont formation, and believe that these models can help to characterize the reservoir quality. In addition, since the proximity of reservoir to the unconformity boundary highly affects the degree of fracturing, a careful analysis of spatial variation would be essential for the successful characterization of Grosmont formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government

  14. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  15. Distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Dergousoff, S J

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones was examined in Alberta, Canada. Sampling was conducted weekly using blacklight traps at eight locations in 2009, and 10 locations during 2010-2012. Nine supplemental sites were sampled twice annually during both 2011 and 2012. Abundance of C. sonorensis was consistently greatest at a site near the U.S. border, and declined in a northerly direction. Mean annual abundance at this site ranged from 6.4- to > 1,000-fold greater across positive sites. Data from a less extensive survey conducted during 2002-2006 were included in the remaining analyses. C. sonorensis was distributed below a diagonal spanning 49 degrees 30' N, 113 degrees 0' W to 51 degrees 21' N, 110 degrees 40' W. The relationship between the proportion of weekly samples positive and mean annual abundance at a site was determined and indicated that the proportion of positive samples could be used as a surrogate measure of abundance to overcome issues associated with the extreme variation in abundance. A series of logistic regression models were developed and evaluated to determine the effects of spatial (latitude and longitude), climatic (historic temperature and precipitation during the warmest quarter), and weather (temperature during the sample interval and spring precipitation) on abundance as measured by the proportion of positive samples. Spatial and climatic variables set the overall level of abundance, while weather variables added seasonal fluctuations within years, and also fluctuations between years. These data will be useful for long-term monitoring of C. sonorensis and as a baseline for detecting shifts in abundance that might occur because of climate change. PMID:24897848

  16. Aerosol Characterisitics Over Alberta Using Modis and OMI Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first detailed analysis of optical aerosol characterization over Alberta based on satellite data analysis. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm for 11 years (2003-2013), derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard NASA's Aqua satellite, was analyzed. Additionally, UV aerosol index (AI) data for 9 years (2005-2013) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite was used to examine absorbing aerosols. Comparing AERONET to MODIS 3 km and 10 km products indicated a stronger correlation (r=0.9 for the latter vs 0.7 for the former) thus 10 km product has been utilized for this study. Overall, gridded seasonal maps (0.1 deg.) of the 11 yr averaged AOD illustrate the highest AOD during summer, followed by spring, with the lowest observed values during fall (there is no enough valid MODIS data in winter due to cloud cover). Aerosol optical properties exhibited large spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the summer with mean AOD of 0.25, followed by spring, while the fall had less variability with mean AOD below 0.1 for the entire region. However, the spatial analysis indicated hot spots around Edmonton and Calgary cities even in the fall when AODs are very low (close to background). All of the datasets showed interannual variability with no significant trend. The AI values ranged from 0.5 during winter to as high as 5 during summer suggesting mid- and long range transport of boreal fire emissions. Map correlation between AOD and UV AI showed large variability (0.2 to 0.7) indicating presence of different types of aerosols. These low correlations imply the presence of non-absorbing particles (e.g. sulfate) that comprise a relatively large mass fraction of AOD and/or low altitude particles.

  17. Sour-gas potential in Devonian of western Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Podruski, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada is presently conducting an assessment of the undiscovered gas resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin using the exploration play analysis technique. The first system being examined is the Devonian, which as been divided into four exploration districts based on differences in depositional and tectonic histories, hydrocarbon compositions, and exploration practices. The western Alberta sour gas district contains most of the Devonian gas reserves (10 trillion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas) and potential in 12 exploration plays. Production in the Upper Devonian Swan Hills, Leduc, and Nisku formations is from the updip (northeast), basinward termination of carbonate shelves or large reef complexes and their associated patch and pinnacle reefs. Mapping the reef or shelf carbonate transition to basinal shale and carbonate delineates the play areas in these formations. Production in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Formation is from stratigraphic traps at shelf carbonate/shelf evaporite transitions and in structural-stratigraphic traps in dolomitized shelf carbonate. Pools in these plays typically contain from 50 to 500 billion ft/sup 3/ of marketable gas, have 10-30% H/sub 2/S, and occur at depths from 8000 to 15,000 ft. Potential in most plays is large, considering that between 90 and 99% of the play areas are unexplored. Present exploration is still concentrating on the conventional shelf margin or reef traps, such as in the area of the recent Caroline discovery. Subtle intrashelf traps are only beginning to be explored and could constitute a major resource target of the future, provided that economic conditions and improvements in seismic technology and geologic understanding will sustain the exploration effort in this district.

  18. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1995-08-01

    The project will quantify the effect of the following pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and on the subsequent reactivity of chars: (a) pyrolysis heating rate; (b) final heat treatment temperature (HTT); (c) duration of heat treatment at HTT (or soak time); (d) pyrolysis atmosphere (N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures); (e) coal particle size (100--1000 {mu}m in diameter); (f) sulfur-capturing additives (limestone); and (g) coal rank. Pyrolysis experiments will be carried out for three coals from the Argonne collection: (1) a high-volatile bituminous coal with high ash content (Illinois {number_sign}6), (2) a bituminous coal with low ash content (Utah Blind Canyon) and (3) a lower rank subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam). A systematic study was carried out in the past quarter to validate the mathematical model for ignition phenomena presented in the previous quarterly report. Model predictions of the effect of pyrolysis heating rate, particle size, and oxygen concentration on ignition behavior are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Moreover, our results show that the model can be used to estimate the particle temperature during ignition and the minimum ignition temperature for various process conditions.

  19. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1994-12-31

    The project will quantify the effect of the following pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and on the subsequent reactivity of chars: (a) pyrolysis heating rate; (b) final heat treatment temperature (HTT); (c) duration of heat treatment at HTT (or soak time); (d) pyrolysis atmosphere (N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures); (e) coal particle size (100-1,000 {mu}m in diameter); (f) sulfur-capturing additives (limestone); and (g) coal rank. Pyrolysis experiments will be carried out for three coals from the Argonne collection: (1) a high-volatile bituminous coal with high ash content (Illinois {number_sign}6), (2) a bituminous coal with low ash content (Utah Blind Canyon) and (3) a lower rank subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam). A mathematical model was developed to study the thermal ignition of char particles. The model assumes a bimodal pores size distribution with small micropores (of the order of a few {angstrom}) and large micropores in the {mu}m size range. All the model parameters can be estimated using data obtained previously in our laboratory. We are currently testing this model to determine its validity and to investigate how char properties (porosity, particle size, macropore surface area, micropore radius) and operating conditions (temperature, oxygen concentration, flow rate) affect ignition phenomena.

  20. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of inverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effects of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined.

  1. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  2. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  3. Alberta Science Achievement Study: A Study Conducted for the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Morris

    This report is an executive summary of a study conducted for the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA) of Alberta, Canada. It was designed to investigate levels of student achievement in science in Alberta at grades three, six, nine and twelve and to provide a data base for future assessment. Between 2,000 and 3,000…

  4. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  5. The Socioeconomic Benefits Generated by 16 Community Colleges and Technical Institutes in Alberta. Executive Summary [and] Volume 1: Main Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Kjell A.; Robison, M. Henry

    This document contains an executive summary and main report that examine the ways in which the Alberta, Canada, economy benefits from the presence of the 16 community and technical colleges in the province. The colleges served an unduplicated headcount of 241,992 students in fiscal year 2001. The Alberta community colleges employed 8,374 full-time…

  6. Alberta Grade 12 Examination Study. A study commissioned by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA). Condensed Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Fred J.

    In 1973, compulsory province-wide grade 12 examinations, administered in Alberta since 1906, were dropped; teachers were given the responsibility of assigning final grades. Mandated by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in 1976, this study by the Minister's Advisory Committee on Student Achievement (MACOSA) surveyed education professionals,…

  7. New tainted-blood class actions in Québec and Alberta.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    In two cases in Québec and Alberta, people infected with HIV and HCV through infected blood and blood products have successfully defended motions to strike out all or parts of their legal actions against federal and provincial governments and the Canadian Red Cross Society (CRCS). On 16 January 2003, the Québec Superior Court ruled that the plaintiffs in a class action could rely on the Krever Commission Report in their application for certification of a class proceeding. On 20 February 2003, the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench dismissed an application brought by the Canadian and Alberta governments to strike out the legal action brought against them. These cases illustrate that the settlement schemes proposed by the federal and provincial governments and the CRCS, and approved by the courts, have not put an end to the civil and constitutional claims brought by people seeking compensation for infection through tainted blood.

  8. Descriptive analysis of the inequalities of health information resources between Alberta's rural and urban health regions.

    PubMed

    Stieda, Vivian; Colvin, Barb

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to understand the extent of the inequalities in health information resources across Alberta, SEARCH Custom, HKN (Health Knowledge Network) and IRREN (Inter-Regional Research and Evaluation Network) conducted a survey in December 2007 to determine what library resources currently existed in Alberta's seven rural health regions and the two urban health regions. Although anecdotal evidence indicated that these gaps existed, the analysis was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the exact nature of these gaps. The results, coupled with the published literature on the impact, effectiveness and value of information on clinical practice and administrative decisions in healthcare management, will be used to build momentum among relevant stakeholders to support a vision of equitably funded health information for all healthcare practitioners across the province of Alberta.

  9. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  10. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  11. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  12. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  13. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  14. Coal resources of the Alton, Utah, EMRIA site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, William E.; Aigen, A.A.; Landis, Edwin R.

    1976-01-01

    The estimated original identified coal resources of the Alton, Utah, EMRIA (Energy Minerals Rehabilitation Inventory and Analysis) site--an area of about 3.6 square miles (9.3 square kilometres)--total almost 49 million tons (45 megatonnes). A larger area that surrounds and includes the Alton EMRIA site proper contains estimated original identified coal resources of almost 309 million tons (281 megatonnes). Of these estimated resources in the EMRIA site proper, almost 27 million tons (25 megatonnes) are in beds more than 10 feet thick (3 metres); these beds are overlain by less-than 200 feet (60 metres) of overburden. In the larger area around and including the EMRIA site, about 88.5 million tons (81 megatonnes) are in beds more than ten feet (3 metres) thick with less than 200 feet (60 metres) of overburden. All the estimated resources are in the Smirl zone in the upper part of the Dakota Formation of Cretaceous age. The coal has an apparent rank of subbituminous B, an average heating value of about 9,560 Btu, an average sulfur content of about 1.0 percent, and an average ash content of 7.2 percent. When compared with the average abundance of elements in the crust of the Earth as a whole, only selenium and boron were present in the Alton area coal samples in amounts an order of magnitude greater than the average crustal abundance. Beryllium, fluorine, nickel, zinc, and zirconium are all present in the Alton area samples in amounts that are about an order of magnitude less than the average crustal abundance.

  15. The economic adaptation of Vietnamese refugees in Alberta: 1979-84.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, R

    1987-01-01

    During 1979 and 1980, about 7500 South East Asian refugees entered Alberta. The number has been steadily rising since 1982 due to the sponsoring of family and relatives by those who came earlier; by mid-1984, there were an estimated 15,000 South East Asian immigrants in Alberta, 92% from Vietnam. Montgomery explores the situation of the Vietnamese in Alberta by administering a survey consisting of a structured interview schedule containing 249 questions. The actual field work took from mid-November 1983 to March 31, 1984. A quota of 500 was targeted; it was decided to apportion the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers were able to interview 148 of all the non-Edmonton Vietnamese; 389 interviews were conducted in Edmonton. All of the dependent variables used in the survey were cross-tabulated or correlated with English skill on arrival, current English skill, progress in English, education or training level on arrival, current marital status, escape trauma (where applicable), gender, age, population of municipality in which currently residing, ethnicity, level of involvement in ethnic social network, type of sponsorship, and length of residence in Canada. Montgomery compares Richmond's 1981 summary generalization from the 25 studies he reviewed of immigrant economic adaptation to Canada to his own study. Montgomery's findings are almost completely congruent with Richmond's. Richmond found that immigrants from the developing countries experienced the highest unemployment rates and the slowest economic integration; this is because they must contend with more, and more severe, obstacles than do other immigrants. This is precisely what has happened to the Vietnamese in Alberta. Richmond found that after 3 years, at least 1/3 of newcomers had not reached their intended occupations. In the present study, the Vietnamese had only hazy notions of what kinds of work

  16. Population reduction as a factor in the control of skunk rabies in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rosatte, R C; Pybus, M J; Gunson, J R

    1986-10-01

    Population reduction is being used currently to combat skunk rabies in Alberta. A total of 2,398 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were removed from three counties of southern Alberta during 1980-1983 in an effort to combat rabies outbreaks in those areas. The methods employed included trapping, poisoning, and shooting. Skunks in Forty Mile County have been rabies-free for 4 yr and the outbreaks in Newell and Warner counties appear to be under control. The data suggest that population reduction has been effective in controlling rabies in those areas.

  17. Rats in Alberta: looking at pest-control posters from the 1950s.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Lianne; Zheng, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    How did the rat-control program, launched by the Government of Alberta in 1950, become associated with the identity and heritage of the province? The authors answer this question by undertaking close visual analyses of the anti-rat posters and pamphlets that were distributed by the government throughout the 1950s. Using a visual methodology inspired by semiotics, they argue that the early rat-control program ambitiously promoted Alberta as a unified, clean province that was both distinct from its prairie neighbours and for the most part populated with vigilant, hardworking citizens eager to remove unwanted intruders.

  18. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  19. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  1. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  2. Coal and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  4. VHF EPR analysis of organic sulfur in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L.; Ho, K.

    1993-05-01

    One important goal of this project is the development of methods to analyze the Very High Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (VHF EPR) spectra from Illinois coals in order to determine the concentration of organic sulfur in them. We have begun that development work, utilizing a two-species, axially symmetric model for the simulation of VHF EPR coal spectra. Such a model provides quantitative information on the concentration of sulfur species that can be directly related to the organic sulfur content as measured by more conventional chemical methods. The computer modeling technique which we are developing makes use of a multi-dimensional simplex strategy for optimization. Utilizing our newly developed method, we have analyzed the VHF EPR spectra from several sub-bituminous coals containing organic sulfur in the range from 2% to 12%. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between VHF EPR results and chemical analyses. In addition to providing information on the concentration of organic sulfur present in coal, the analysis of VHF EPR spectra also provides detailed spectral parameters. These parameters are related to the molecular structures giving rise to the EPR signals.

  5. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Francine; Agblevor, Foster; Klein, Michael; Sheikhi, Reza

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  6. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  7. EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath

    2002-08-01

    Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U

  8. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  9. Stimulation of Methane Generation from Nonproductive Coal by Addition of Nutrients or a Microbial Consortium▿

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Elizabeth J. P.; Voytek, Mary A.; Corum, Margo D.; Orem, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic formation of methane from coal is of great interest as an underexploited source of clean energy. The goal of some coal bed producers is to extend coal bed methane productivity and to utilize hydrocarbon wastes such as coal slurry to generate new methane. However, the process and factors controlling the process, and thus ways to stimulate it, are poorly understood. Subbituminous coal from a nonproductive well in south Texas was stimulated to produce methane in microcosms when the native population was supplemented with nutrients (biostimulation) or when nutrients and a consortium of bacteria and methanogens enriched from wetland sediment were added (bioaugmentation). The native population enriched by nutrient addition included Pseudomonas spp., Veillonellaceae, and Methanosarcina barkeri. The bioaugmented microcosm generated methane more rapidly and to a higher concentration than the biostimulated microcosm. Dissolved organics, including long-chain fatty acids, single-ring aromatics, and long-chain alkanes accumulated in the first 39 days of the bioaugmented microcosm and were then degraded, accompanied by generation of methane. The bioaugmented microcosm was dominated by Geobacter sp., and most of the methane generation was associated with growth of Methanosaeta concilii. The ability of the bioaugmentation culture to produce methane from coal intermediates was confirmed in incubations of culture with representative organic compounds. This study indicates that methane production could be stimulated at the nonproductive field site and that low microbial biomass may be limiting in situ methane generation. In addition, the microcosm study suggests that the pathway for generating methane from coal involves complex microbial partnerships. PMID:20817801

  10. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  11. The combustion kinetics of coal chars in oxygen-enriched environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Murphy, Jeffrey J.

    2004-09-01

    Oxygen-enhanced and oxygen-fired pulverized coal combustion is actively being investigated to achieve emission reductions and reductions in flue gas cleanup costs, as well as for coal-bed methane and enhanced oil recovery applications. To fully understand the results of pilot scale tests and to accurately predict scale-up performance through CFD modeling, accurate rate expressions are needed to describe coal char combustion under these unconventional combustion conditions. In the work reported here, the combustion rates of two pulverized coal chars have been measured in both conventional and oxygen-enriched atmospheres. A combustion-driven entrained flow reactor equipped with an optical particle-sizing pyrometry diagnostic and a rapid-quench sampling probe has been used for this investigation. Highvale subbituminous coal and a high-volatile eastern United States bituminous coal have been investigated, over oxygen concentrations ranging from 6 to 36 mol% and gas temperatures of 1320-1800 K. The results from these experiments demonstrate that pulverized coal char particles burn under increasing kinetic control in elevated oxygen environments, despite their higher burning rates in these environments. Empirical fits to the data have been successfully performed over the entire range of oxygen concentrations using a single-film oxidation model. Both a simple nth-order Arrhenius expression and an nth-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic equation provide good fits to the data. Local fits of the nth-order Arrhenius expression to the oxygen-enriched and oxygen-depleted data produce lower residuals in comparison to fits of the entire dataset. These fits demonstrate that the apparent reaction order varies from 0.1 under near-diffusion-limit oxygen-depleted conditions to 0.5 under oxygen-enriched conditions. Burnout predictions show good agreement with measurements. Predicted char particle temperatures tend to be low for combustion in oxygen-depleted environments.

  12. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations.

    PubMed

    Suriyawong, Achariya; Magee, Rogan; Peebles, Ken; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    During the past decade, there has been substantial interest in recovering energy from many unwanted byproducts from industries and municipalities. Co-combustion of these products with coal seems to be the most cost-effective approach. The combustion process typically results in emissions of pollutants, especially fine particles and trace elements. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic [As], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], manganese [Mn], molybdenum [Mo], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter [dp] > 0.5 microm), a submicrometer-mode ash (dp < 0.5 microm), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co

  13. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  14. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    CONSOL completed characterization of 64 samples from five run conditions of HTI Run ALC-1 (227-94), in which raw and cleaned (oil-agglomerated at low pH) Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal was fed and processed using only dispersed catalysts in the liquefaction reactors. Extraction of THF-soluble resid from the pressure-filter cakes was more complete when agglomerates were fed, leaving only 5% or less THF solubles in the extracted cakes. When raw coal was fed, the extracted cakes contained 9-34% THF solubles. HTI also observed improved filtration during the periods that agglomerates were fed. Improved operability, if verified by additional work, could be an economically significant benefit of coal cleaning by oil agglomeration at low pH. An apparently higher Mo addition rate (see fourth bullet) may have contributed to the benefits of using oil-agglomerated coal. Other stream sample characteristics changed when oil-agglomerated coal was fed in Conditions 2-4, relative to when uncleaned coal was fed in Conditions 1 and 5. The ash content of the 0-6 bottoms samples was lower when oil-agglomerates were fed. The THF-soluble 524{degrees}C+ resid concentration in the feed slurry doubled when agglomerated coal was fed. Three factors may have influenced these characteristics. Higher coal conversion would have produced more resid. More efficient toluene-extraction of the filter cake would have recycled more resid. Removal of distillate as product to offset oil fed as part of the agglomerated coal would preferentially recycle the heaviest components.

  16. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  18. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  19. Principal Leadership: Blending the Historical Perspective with the Current Focus on Competencies in the Alberta Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mombourquette, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the impact of the standards movement on the principalship in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2009 the minister of education approved a set of practice guidelines for school leaders. The "Guidelines" list seven practice standards called leadership competencies. In 2012 a review was conducted to see…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Role in Educational Marketing: Insights from the Case of Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2006-01-01

    Based on semi-structured interviews with high school teachers in Edmonton, Alberta, the reported study examined teachers' attitudes towards their roles and responsibilities in marketing their school, and the perceived impact of educational markets upon teachers' well-being. The teachers define marketing negatively and narrowly, resist any…

  1. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A School-Wide Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information, strategies, stories from schools and sample tools for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour. This integrated system of school-wide, classroom management, and individual…

  2. Alberta Career Events: A Planning Guide and Workbook for Counsellors and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    Information on planning career events in Alberta, Canada, is presented in this guide. Information is divided into these 10 areas: (1) establishing a realistic timeline; (2) setting goals and clarifying one's purpose; (3) establishing support and selling the idea; (4) setting the budget and anticipating expenses with a sample budget; (5)…

  3. Manufacturing (Il)Literacy in Alberta's Classrooms: The Case of an Oil-Dependent State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines involvement of education-business "partnerships" presently occurring in the province of Alberta, Canada. Specific attention is paid to the promotion and sponsorship by oil multinational corporations (MNCs) of corporate propaganda masquerading as energy and environmental literacy programs targeted for the K-12 school system. The…

  4. Professional Development for Teaching Technology across the Curriculum: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W. Bruce

    This report focuses on promising practices in professional development as they relate to implementation of Alberta Education's 1998 "Information and Communication Technology, Interim Program of Studies." The first chapter examines fundamental issues, challenges some assumptions, and offers suggestions related to professional development and…

  5. Institutional Development Plan. Presented to the Department of Advanced Education, Government of Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Community Coll. (Alberta).

    At Lethbridge Community College (LCC) in Lethbridge, Alberta, widely acknowledged as Canada's first community college, personal and professional development is stressed for all staff and students. The mission of LCC is to meet the needs of adults throughout their lives by providing excellent learning opportunities through high quality programs and…

  6. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  7. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of a…

  8. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy; Martin, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the…

  9. Computers in Schools. A Strategic Planning Symposium (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, January 29-31, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaniuk, Gene, Ed.

    This report of a symposium for educators in the province of Alberta provides background information on the symposium, a set of six major recommendations made by the participants, reports from the working groups to which participants were assigned; and the text of 12 papers presented at the meeting. The nine chapters of the report document the…

  10. Those Who Care: A Report on Child Caregivers in Alberta Daycare Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of child care personnel employed by 80 day care centers throughout Alberta. Findings indicated that, on average, child care staff had higher levels of education than the general adult population in the province. Considerable mobility within the child care field was found. Staff with…

  11. WiFi in Schools, Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Phones: Alberta Health Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Wireless devices and the networks that support them are becoming more common in Alberta schools. WiFi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. Typically the signal is carried by radio waves over an area of up to 100 meters. Through the implementation of a WiFi network,…

  12. History of Education and the Rite of Passage to Teaching: The Alberta Experience 1893-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, R. J.; Hodysh, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the purpose of the history of education, as a core element in the rite of passage to teaching in Alberta from the 1890s to the 1950s, was to provide beginning teachers with a set of professional values and standards and to relate theoretical principles to educational practice. (KS)

  13. Using Cognitive Coaching to Build School Leadership Capacity: A Case Study in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd; Hauserman, Cal P.; Skytt, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Cognitive Coaching? included as part of the Leader2Leader (L2L) Leadership Pilot Program for beginning principals in Alberta, Canada, was evaluated in the present study. Fifteen qualified principals (coaches) and 23 new principals completed the L2L Pilot Program that took place over 18 months. Questionnaires for coaches and new…

  14. The People: A Historical Guide to the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Donald

    This book focuses on the history and culture of the First Nations of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Canada). An introductory chapter briefly overviews the history of the First Nations, based on evidence found at archaeological sites in the plains and subarctic areas within the three provinces. Although there were many notable differences…

  15. Housing and Living Arrangements of South Asian Immigrant Seniors in Edmonton, Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Cheuk Fan; Northcott, Herbert C.; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian population is aging and becoming more ethnically diverse. This paper focuses on South Asian immigrant seniors and examines differences in housing and living arrangements among seniors who immigrated at different life stages. We interviewed a convenience sample of 161 immigrant seniors of South Asian descent in Edmonton, Alberta, to…

  16. Flexible and Alternative Approaches to Providing School Infrastructure in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matichuk, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Like many other jurisdictions, the western Canadian province of Alberta is seeking cost-effective and creative ways of providing school infrastructure that meets the needs of 21st century learning. Solutions are being found through the use of alternative financing and procurement arrangements and through innovative approaches to creating flexible…

  17. DETAILED ENDOCRINE ASSESSMENTS IN WILD FISH DOWNSTREAM OF PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN NORTHERN ALBERTA, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    2001. Detailed Endocrine Assessments in Wild Fish Downstream of Pulp and Paper Mills in Northern Alberta, Canada (Abstract). In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, N...

  18. Nanometre-size diamonds in the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, David B.; Braman, Dennis R.

    1991-08-01

    Evidence is presented that the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay of the Red Deer Valley of Alberta contains diamonds, which strengthens the case for an extraterrestrial impact at the end of the Cretaceous. The diamond/iridium ratio is close to the value found in type C2 chondritic meteorites.

  19. Knowledge, Power, and Social Policy: John M. MacEachran and Alberta's 1928 Sexual Sterilization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how academic knowledge and power have shaped the discourse on human classification and how political authorities use academic knowledge producers to legitimize public policy. Specifically, the article draws on the role of John M. MacEachran, a former academic at the University of Alberta, in the implementation of the Alberta…

  20. Financing Schooling in Alberta. Summary Report of the Minister's Task Force on School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    In this report the 1982 Alberta Task Force summarizes its conclusions and presents 19 recommendations under 4 priorities. The first prioriity includes recommendations in the following areas having general impact and/or involving substantial general funding: local shares of costs, assessment distribution, supplementary requisitions, supplementary…

  1. Neo-Conservatism and Child Care Services in Alberta: A Case Study. Occasional Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline

    The development and delivery of child care services in Canada has never been without controversy. This case study examines the development of the child care system in Alberta, Canada, showing how the role of the government proceeded through four distinct phases, each determining a different outcome for child care stakeholders. Power mechanisms and…

  2. Responding to a Strong Economy. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    In 2001-2002, the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board continued its collaboration with industry, government, and educators to maintain high standards of training and improve access to technical training. The board continued to strengthen the network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees, occupational committees, and…

  3. The Learning Circle: A New Model of BSW Education for Alberta's Rural, Remote, and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapf, M. K.; Bastien, B.; Bodor, R.; Carriere, J.; Pelech, W.

    In 1998, a consortium including the University of Calgary (Alberta) and representatives from social service agencies and Native organizations developed a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) model for delivery in rural, remote, and Aboriginal communities. The model called for innovative course content that was culturally and geographically relevant to…

  4. Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

  5. From Community College to University: Institutionalization and Neoliberalism in British Columbia and Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Aliyeva, Aida; Walker, Laurencia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative investigation of higher education institutional development addresses new universities that were former community colleges in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Stemming from an original study conducted nearly two decades earlier, this investigation's data were collected from the same institutions and from similar…

  6. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  7. The History of Post-Secondary Finance in Alberta - An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Calvin P.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2005-01-01

    Post-secondary systems throughout Canada and the United States have struggled with funding issues during most of the last decade of the 20th Century, and the new millennium did not open with great enthusiasm for change. This article examines the impact of post-secondary education funding changes in Alberta, Canada, by tracing the historical…

  8. Supporting Democratic Discourses of Teacher Professionalism: The Case of the Alberta Teachers' Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmond-Johnson, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores understandings related to teacher professionalism amongst a sample of highly engaged members of the Alberta Teacher's Association (ATA). Highlighting the many ways in which the Association supported members in their bid to embody roles as leaders, learners, advocates, and policy actors, I argue that the ATA serves as a platform…

  9. Rural Alberta Home-Based Businesses: A Profile of Workshop Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capjack, M. Linda; Fetterman, Nelma I.

    1992-01-01

    Of 252 rural Alberta attendees of home-based business workshops, 60 were in business. Of these, 65 percent produced sewing, textile, or food-related products; 73 percent contributed less than 5 percent of family income; 72 percent worked at home because a hobby became profitable; and the majority were married women over 40. (SK)

  10. An Evaluation of a Distance Education Project Designed To Provide Equity in Rural Alberta High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, E.; Clark, W. B.

    Alberta (Canada) is experiencing a phenomenon common to many other regions the world over: there is a movement of population away from rural areas to urban centers. Such migration has a profound impact on rural schools and school systems in these areas, including a decrease in school population, school staff, and school programs. In an attempt to…

  11. Perceived Conflict between Urban Cross-Country Skiers and Snowmobilers in Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edgar L.; Wong, Robert A. G.

    1982-01-01

    Three indicators of the perceived conflict between urban cross-country skiers and snowmobilers in Alberta show that the conflict is asymmetrical. Skiers perceive snowmobilers as interfering negatively with their activity, while snowmobilers enjoy or are indifferent to meeting skiers. (Authors/JN)

  12. Complementary Social Sciences Courses in the Alberta High School Curriculum: A Conceptual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staszenski, Donna; Smits, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with Alberta Education's goals and responsibilities to develop and evaluate curriculum and to set standards and assess outcomes, the Ministry is reviewing the status and purpose of social sciences courses as part of the high school curriculum. The present social sciences curriculum was revised in 1985. As part of the social sciences…

  13. The Atlee School Question: The Effects of School Consolidation in Rural Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddington, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, a bitter dispute broke out between parents in the Atlee-Jenner School District in Southern Alberta Canada, and the Medicine Hat School Board over the bussing of children for the first time to a new school a long distance away. The move was precipitated by the consolidation of several smaller school districts and the subsequent…

  14. Cultural Competence in Alberta Schools: Perceptions of ESL Families in Four Major School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Hieu V.

    2012-01-01

    Complex linguistic, acculturative, and social needs of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners challenge the K-12 education system to develop cultural competence in working with culturally diverse families. This study surveyed 242 self-identified ESL students and their parents from four of Alberta's major school boards. Results of the survey…

  15. Corporate Competencies for Executive Women in Alberta: Oh, the Places You'll Go!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocchio, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to develop consensus opinion on the core competencies required to succeed as a female executive in the C-Suites of Alberta, Canada. The study was prompted by the significant under-representation of women in Canadian corporate executive positions and by a post-secondary institution's interest in determining whether a market exists…

  16. Temporal and Spatial Changes of the Agroclimate in Alberta, Canada, from 1901 to 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S. S. P.; Yin, H.; Cannon, K.; Howard, A.; Chetner, S.; Karl, T. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term (1901-2002) temporal trends in the agroclimate of Alberta, Canada, and explores the spatial variations of the agroclimatic resources and the potential crop-growing area in Alberta. Nine agroclimatic parameters are investigated: May-August precipitation (PCPN), the start of growing season (SGS), the end of the growing season (EGS), the length of the growing season (LGS), the date of the last spring frost (LSF), the date of the first fall frost (FFF), the length of the frost-free period (FFP), growing degree-days (GDDs), and corn heat units (CHUs). The temporal trends in the agroclimatic parameters are analyzed by using linear regression. The significance tests of the trends are made by using Kendall's tau method. The results support the following conclusions. 1) The Alberta PCPN has increased 14% from 1901 to 2002, and the increment is the largest in the north and the northwest of Alberta, then diminishes (or even becomes negative over two small areas) in central and southern Alberta, and finally becomes large again in the southeast corner of the province. 2) No significant long-term trends are found for the SGS, EGS, and LGS. 3) An earlier LSF, a later FFF, and a longer FFP are obvious all over the province. 4) The area with sufficient CHU for corn production, calculated according to the 1973-2002 normal, has extended to the north by about 200-300 km, when compared with the 1913-32 normal, and by about 50-100 km, when compared with the 1943-72 normal; this expansion implies that the potential exists to grow crops and raise livestock in more regions of Alberta than was possible in the past. The annual total precipitation follows a similar increasing trend to that of the May-August precipitation, and the percentile analysis of precipitation attributes the increase to low-intensity events. The changes of the agroclimatic parameters imply that Alberta agriculture has benefited from the last century's climate change.

  17. The microstructure of selected, small, isolated, cumulus clouds near Red Deer, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochtubajda, B.

    Physical experiments designed to explore the potential of rain augmentation through airborne glaciogenic seeding on small, isolated non-precipitating cumuliform clouds near Red Deer, Alberta were carried out during the period 1982-1985. The microstructure of 90 cumulus congestus clouds have been documented through repeated in-situ sampling using a cloud physics instrumented aircraft platform. Observations from the inspection passes of 57 clouds seeded with either dry ice pellets or silver iodide pyrotechnics, and all the passes of 33 natural clouds are presented. Measurements of the cloud droplet concentration indicate that Alberta cumulus clouds are typically continental in nature, with an average droplet concentration of 535 cm -3 and an average droplet diameter of 10.6 μm. Alberta clouds have average liquid water contents of 0.57 g m -3, with a peak 1-sec value of 3.17 g m -3. The 1-km average liquid water contents are 0.83 g m -3, with a peak value of 2.81 g m -3. Cloud lifetimes vary between 11 and 20 minutes. Concentrations of naturally occurring ice crystals are found to be low. The average maximum 1-km ice concentration was 31 -1, and the peak 1-km concentration was 73.11 -1 in the natural cloud dataset. Evidence of precipitation-sized particles was detected in 21% (7 of 33) of the clouds, and precipitation below cloud base was detected in 6% (2 of 33) of the clouds. A comparison of the Alberta cloud characteristics to the cumulus clouds from different locations showed that there are some distinct differences between Alberta clouds and the clouds from the other regions.

  18. Quetiapine use in adults in the community: a population-based study in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Diane; Cooke, Lara; Symonds, Chris; Gardner, David; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in prescribing of the second-generation antipsychotic medication quetiapine to adults in the province of Alberta from 2008 to 2013 through examination of dispensed prescriptions, and diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine in 2013. Methods We analysed administrative data from Alberta Health; the Alberta Pharmaceutical Information Network (PIN) Dispenses health data set, the Practitioner Payments (Fee-For-Service claims) health data set and the Population Registry health data set. These data sets allowed us to identify discrete quetiapine recipients for each calendar year from 2008 to 2013. To evaluate diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine, we evaluated diagnostic codes used by physicians in billings claims in 2013. Results Quetiapine use increased over the 6-year time period studied. In 2008, there were 16 087 unique quetiapine recipients in Alberta (7.2 per 1000). By 2013, there were 35 314 unique quetiapine recipients (13.3 per 1000). Use by women was higher than men at all time points. Depression was most common diagnosis associated with quetiapine recipients, which was present in 56% of users of quetiapine. Other common diagnoses associated with quetiapine use included neurotic disorders, bipolar disorder and sleep disturbances. Conclusions The current study of quetiapine use in the province of Alberta provides confirmatory data of the increasing use of quetiapine for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Safe and rational prescribing practices must be encouraged in light of the modest advantages of quetiapine over no treatment as an adjunctive treatment of major depression, and the known harms of this medication. PMID:27000788

  19. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  20. Noble gases in CH 4-rich gas fields, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyagon, H.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1992-04-01

    The elemental and isotopic compositions of helium, neon, argon, and xenon in twenty-one CH 4-rich natural gas samples from Cretaceous and Devonian reservoirs in the Alberta, Canada, sedimentary basin were measured. In all but a few cases, radiogenic ( 4He, 40Ar, and 131-136Xe) and nucleogenic ( 21,22Ne) isotopes dominated. Based solely on the noble gas composition, two types of natural gas reservoirs are identified. One (Group B) is highly enriched in radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases and varies little in composition: 3He /4He = 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10 -8, 40Ar /36Ar = 5000-6500 , 40∗Ar /4He = 0.10 , 136∗Xe /4He ~ 0.7 × 10 -9, and 21∗Ne /22∗Ne = 0.452 ± 0.041 (∗ denotes radiogenic or nucleogenic origin; all 4He is radiogenic). High nitrogen content with 4He /N 2 ~ 0.06 is also characteristic of Group B samples. The remaining samples (Group A) contain a radiogenic-nucleogenic component with a different composition and, relative to Group B samples, the extent of enrichment in this component is less and more variable: 3He /4He = 10-70 × 10 -8, 40Ar /36Ar < 1550 , and 40∗Ar /4He ~ 0.25 . The composition of Group B radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases is consistent with production in crust of average composition. Enrichment in Group B noble gases and nitrogen increases with proximity to the underlying Precambrian basement, consistent with a present-day mass flux into the overlying sedimentary basin. Inferred 40∗Ar /136∗Xe 4He ratios imply a basement source enriched in thorium relative to uranium and potassium (Th/U > 20). Combined, the overall lower total radiogenic-nucleogenic content of Group A reservoirs, the greater variability in composition, and the appearance of Group A noble gases in reservoirs higher in the sedimentary sequence relative to the underlying basement implies that the Group A radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases are indigenous to the sediments. The most interesting aspect of the Group A noble gases are the very high 3He /4He ratios; ~ 10

  1. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  2. Modelling of a coal seam of the deposit Đurđevik (BiH) by means of 2D reflection seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenović, Siniša; Urošević, Milovan; Sretenović, Branislav; Cvetkov, Vesna; Životić, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    A low cost 2D reflection seismic survey was used to map the continuity of the main seams as well as the numerous faults at the Đurđevik sub-bituminous coal deposit (BiH). A 24-channel seismic data acquisition system was available for this survey. The natural high reflectivity of the coal seams and a favourable geometry of seismic profiles enabled the identification and correlation of major faults across the area. Rugged terrain presented challenges to both data acquisition and processing. Stacks of acceptable quality were obtained only after the application of surface consistent statics and careful application of multi-channel filtering. A set of recorded 2D lines was interpreted in a 3D environment. Inferred structural elements disrupting the seam continuity were identified and were in agreement with available drilling results and mine workings. The result of this work was used to reduce mining hazards and also to help optimise mine planning.

  3. Coalification of cuticle and compressed leaf tissue of the Carboniferous seed fern, Macroneuropteris (Neuropteris) scheuchzeri--Implications for coalification to the bituminous coal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C.; Orem, W.H. . National Center); Zodrow, E.L. )

    1992-01-01

    C-13 NMR analyses of leaf cuticle and the compressed and coalified leaf tissues of the late Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris (Neuropteris) scheuchzeri from shale from the Sydney Mines Formation, Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, indicate a variable degree of coalification. In preliminary NMR spectra the cuticle shows a dominantly aliphatic region and a subdued aromatic region, whereas the compressed leaf tissues show two subequal aromatic and aliphatic regions, which are typical of high volatile bituminous coals. The spectrum of the cuticle shows some indication of resonance in the 60- to 80-ppm region, possibly indicating the presence of residual cellulose that is found in lignite and subbituminous coal, but not in bituminous coal. The compressed tissues show an indication of a shoulder in the 150- to 160-ppm region, possibly phenolic moieties from lignin, which is found in high volatile bituminous coals. Leaf tissue is thought to be rich in cellulose and poor in lignin, so it is surprising that the C-13 NMR spectrum of the compressed leaf tissue appears identical to spectra from vitrinite-rich, high volatile bituminous coal. These results indicate that the nature of plant precursors plays a significant role in coalification and also that the selective loss of cellulosic components and the attendant enrichment in lignin are not necessarily a precondition for the generation of the macromolecular structure of bituminous coal. The authors suggest that dominantly cellulose-based molecules from leaf tissue coalify in much the same way as lignin-based molecules from woody tissue.

  4. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  5. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.

    2005-07-01

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  6. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations

    SciTech Connect

    Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Study of coal and graphite specimens by means of Raman and cathodoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, Irena; Tormo, Laura; Crespo-Feo, Elena; Garcia-Guinea, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The weak luminescence shown by coals has been attributed to accessorial minerals and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, such as exinite, vitrinite or inertinite, while the luminescence quenching has been found in asphaltenes produced by coal hydrogenation or in pyridine extracts. Nowadays, the spatial resolution and the improved luminescence efficiency of the modern spectrometers allow some details of the luminescent emission centers to be explained. We have selected museum historical coal specimens with different rank, i.e., peat, lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite to be analyzed by their spectra from cathodoluminescence probe (CL) of an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), with an energy dispersive spectrometry analyzer (EDS). Additional analytical controls were also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectrometries. We conclude that coals may display different luminescence emission features coming from several different sources, as follows: (i) broadband of intense luminescence from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, (ii) weakly visible broadband luminescence attributed to band-tail states caused by variations in the energy gap of individual sp2 carbon clusters, which are different in size and/or shape, (iii) silicate impurities causing the common luminescence peak at 325 nm observed in coals. This peak is due to non-bridging oxygen hole centres (tbnd Sisbnd Orad ) probably generated by precursor Sisbnd Osbnd C species formed by tbnd Sisbnd Orad defects and carbon atoms; (iv) a 710 nm CL emission commonly detected also in wood and ivory, which has been correlated with hydrocarbon groups of chlorophyll or lignine. Coals are very complex rocks, composed by both organic and inorganic phases with variable and complex spectra. More analyses are necessary and carbonaceous standards of graphite, silicon carbide, stuffed carbon silica and diamond at variable experimental conditions have to be

  8. Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2005-10-01

    Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

  9. Study of coal and graphite specimens by means of Raman and cathodoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Irena; Tormo, Laura; Crespo-Feo, Elena; Garcia-Guinea, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The weak luminescence shown by coals has been attributed to accessorial minerals and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, such as exinite, vitrinite or inertinite, while the luminescence quenching has been found in asphaltenes produced by coal hydrogenation or in pyridine extracts. Nowadays, the spatial resolution and the improved luminescence efficiency of the modern spectrometers allow some details of the luminescent emission centers to be explained. We have selected museum historical coal specimens with different rank, i.e., peat, lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite to be analyzed by their spectra from cathodoluminescence probe (CL) of an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), with an energy dispersive spectrometry analyzer (EDS). Additional analytical controls were also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectrometries. We conclude that coals may display different luminescence emission features coming from several different sources, as follows: (i) broadband of intense luminescence from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, (ii) weakly visible broadband luminescence attributed to band-tail states caused by variations in the energy gap of individual sp(2) carbon clusters, which are different in size and/or shape, (iii) silicate impurities causing the common luminescence peak at 325 nm observed in coals. This peak is due to non-bridging oxygen hole centres (≡Si-O·) probably generated by precursor Si-O-C species formed by ≡Si-O· defects and carbon atoms; (iv) a 710 nm CL emission commonly detected also in wood and ivory, which has been correlated with hydrocarbon groups of chlorophyll or lignine. Coals are very complex rocks, composed by both organic and inorganic phases with variable and complex spectra. More analyses are necessary and carbonaceous standards of graphite, silicon carbide, stuffed carbon silica and diamond at variable experimental conditions have to be developed.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the coal resources for part of the Wilcox Group (Paleocene through Eocene), central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Aubourg, Claire E.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Podwysocki, Steven M.; Schultz, Adam C.

    2002-01-01

    The Wilcox Group of central Texas contains shallow (<500 ft) coal deposits that are mined for use in mine-mouth electric power generating plants. These coal deposits range in apparent rank from lignite to sub-bituminous (Tewalt, 1986), and are similar in rank and composition to shallow coal deposits in the northeast and south Texas areas (fig. 1). The coal zones and associated strata in the central Texas study area generally dip to the southeast toward the Gulf of Mexico coastline and basin center. The central Texas resource assessment area includes parts of eight counties (fig. 2). The assessment area was selected to encompass current mining areas and because of the availability of subsurface stratigraphic data in the area. The assessment area is roughly 160 miles long and 5 to 25 miles wide and generally follows the outcrop of the Paleocene - Eocene Wilcox Group in central Texas (figs. 1 and 2). Approximately 1,800 subsurface stratigraphic records from rotary and core drill holes were used to assess the resources of the central Texas assessment area. Of the 1,800 drill holes, only 168 are public data points and are primarily located in the areas that have been permitted for surface mining (fig. 2; Appendix 1). The remaining 1632 drill holes, which are distributed throughout the assessment area, were provided to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on a confidential basis by various coal companies for use in regional studies. Nine coal zones were identified and assessed in the central Texas assessment area. Several other coal zones (as many as 9 unassessed zones) were identified but were not assessed due to the thinness of the coal beds or the lack of deep stratigraphic data (fig. 3). A total of 7.7 billion short tons of coal was identified in this assessment that excluded the resources within current coal mine lease areas (fig. 2). Corresponding maps were constructed to show the overburden, structure contour of the top of the coal zone, and cumulative coal

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  12. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  14. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  15. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  16. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  18. Mineralogy of ash of some American coals: variations with temperature and source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, R.S.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ten samples of mineral-matter residue were obtained by the radio-frequency low-temperature ashing of subbituminous and bituminous coals. The low-temperature ash samples were then heated progressively from 400 ??C to 1400 ??C at 100 ??C intervals. Mineral phases present at each temperature interval were determined by X-ray diffraction analyses. The minerals originally present in the coals (quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, gypsum, dolomite, and sphalerite) were all altered to higher temperature phases. Several of these phases, including kaolinite, metakaolinite, mullite, anhydrite, and anorthite, were found only in limited temperature ranges. Therefore the temperature of formation of the ashes in which they occur may be determined. Mineralogical differences were observed between coal samples from the Rocky Mountain Province, the Illinois Basin, and the Appalachians; and as a result of these mineralogical differences, different high-temperature phases resulted as the samples were heated. However, regional generalizations cannot be made until a greater number of samples have been studied. ?? 1976.

  19. Neural network predictions of slagging and fouling in pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.; Smouse, S.; Chi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks were trained to relate the occurrence and characteristics of troublesome slagging and fouling deposits in utility boilers to coal properties, boiler design features, and boiler operating conditions. The data used in this effort were from a survey of utility boilers conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories in an Electric Power Research Institute project. Two networks were developed in this study, one for slagging and one for fouling, to predict ash deposition in various types of boilers (wall-, opposed wall-, tangentially, and cyclone-fired) that fire bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Both networks predicted the frequency of deposition problems, physical nature (or state) of the deposit, and the thickness of the deposit. Since deposit characteristics vary with boiler location and operating conditions, the worst documented cases of ash deposition were used to train the neural networks. Comparison of actual and predicted deposition showed very good agreement in general. The relative importance of some of the input variables on the predicted deposit characteristics were assessed in a sensitivity analysis. Also, the slagging and fouling characteristics of a blend of two coals with significant different deposition characteristics were predicted to demonstrate a practical application of developed neural networks.

  20. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.