Science.gov

Sample records for albino leaf patches

  1. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zemin; Tan, Jianjie; Shi, Zhenying; Xie, Qingjun; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3' untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  2. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  3. Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2003-12-01

    Radiomodulatory effect of Rajgira leaf extract against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation has been evaluated by 30 day survival of Swiss albino mice. Animals of control groups (untreated irradiated) showed diarrhoea, ruffled hairs, epilation, facial edema and consistent decrease in body weight. These signs were less severe/absent in experimental groups (Rajgira treated irradiated), and recovery in body weight was also early and faster. Thirty day survivability was 66 per cent in control group, exposed to 6 Gy, whereas no animal survived beyond 14 and 10 days after irradiation with 8 and 10 Gy gamma rays respectively. However, 100, 60 and 25 percent survivability was observed in experimental groups at 6, 8 and 10 Gy respectively. Regression analysis of survival data showed that the LD50/30 values were 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for control and experimental animals respectively. The dose reduction factor (DRF) was computed as 1.36. A significant decrease in GSH content and increase in LPO level was observed in control animals, whereas in Rajgira pretreated irradiated animals the level of GSH was recorded significantly higher but LPO level decreased significantly. The results from the present study suggest that Rajgira pretreatment provide protection against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:14669247

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  5. Antioxidative effect of Rajgira leaf extract in liver of Swiss albino mice after exposure to different doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2005-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rajgira leaf extract (800 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in the liver of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals between day 1 and 30 after its oral administration for 15 consecutive days prior to whole body gamma irradiation with 6, 8 and 10 Gy of gamma rays. In this study, abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes were counted in both the control and experimental sets because these hepatocytes are good indicators of radiation-induced damage. In the experimental (RLE + irradiation) sets, the percentage of abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes was lower compared with their respective control (irradiation alone) sets at each autopsy interval with all three radiation doses studied. The increase in the percentage of these hepatocytes was also found to be dose-dependent in the control as well as in the RLE treated (experimental) sets. Thus, Rajgira leaf extract (RLE) treatment given before irradiation protects mouse liver against radiation-induced lesions by increasing the GSH content and decreasing the LPO level. PMID:16177977

  6. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jianjie; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3′ untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  7. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

  8. Leaf-level gas exchange and scaling-up of forest understory carbon fixation rates with a ``patch-scale'' canopy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedler, M.; Geyer, R.; Heindl, B.; Hahn, S.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    1996-03-01

    During the Hartheim experiment (HartX) 1992, conducted in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany, we estimated water vapor flux from the understory by several methods as reported in Wedler et al. (this issue). We also examined the photosynthetic gas exchange of the dominant understory species Brachypodium pinnatum, Carex alba, and Carex flacca at the leaf level with an CO2/H2O porometer. A mechanisticallybased leaf gas exchange model was parameterized for these understory species and validated via the measured diurnal courses of carbon dioxide exchange. Leaf CO2 gas exchange was scaled-up to patch- and then to stand-level utilizing the leaf gas exchange model as a component of the canopy light interception/energy balance model GAS-FLUX, and by further considering variation in vegetation “patch-type” distribution, patch-specific spatial structure, patch-type leaf area index, and microclimate beneath the tree canopy. At patch-level, C. alba exhibited the lowest net CO2 uptake of ca. 75 mmol m-2 d-1 due to a low leaf-level photosynthetic capacity, whereas net CO2 fixation of B. pinnatum- and C. flacca-patches was approx. 178 and 184 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. Highest CO2 uptake was estimated for mixed patches where B. pinnatum grew together with the sedge species C. alba or C. flacca. Scaling-up of leaf gas exchange to stand level resulted in an estimated average rate of total CO2 fixation by the graminoid understory patches of approximately 93 mmol m-2 d-1 during the HartX period. The conservative gas exchange behavior of C. alba at Hartheim and its apparent success in space capture seems to affect overall functioning of this pine forest ecosystem by limiting understory CO2 uptake. The CO2 uptake by the understory is approximately 20% of stand total CO2 uptake. CO2 uptake fluxes mirror the relative differences in water loss from the understory and crown layer during the HartX period. Comparative measurements indicate that understory vegetation in spruce and pine

  9. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  10. Assessment of hepatoprotective potential of N. indicum leaf on haloalkane xenobiotic induced hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyankar; Dutta, Somit; Sarkar, Mousumi Poddar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2015-06-25

    CCl4 is a potent environmental toxin which cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. In this study, hepatoprotective capacity of Nerium indicum leaf extract (NILE) was evaluated on CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity in murine model. Animals were divided into 5 groups and treated as following: control group (received only normal saline), CCl4 group (received only CCl4), silymarin group (received CCl4 and 100mg/kg silymarin), NILE low group (received CCl4 and 50mg/kg NILE) and NILE high group (received CCl4 and 200mg/kg NILE). After 10 consecutive days of treatment, the levels of hepatic biochemical markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase and catalase activities were measured as well as histopathological study was performed. Furthermore, liver explant cultures were set up as following: control (no treatment), CCl4 group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4), silymarin group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 100 μg/ml silymarin), NILE low group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 25 μg/ml NILE) and NILE high group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 100 μg/ml NILE). Hepatic transaminases and phosphatases, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, nitric oxide (NO) release and cell viability were studied on the explant cultures. Phytochemical fingerprinting of NILE was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the biochemical parameters were overexpressed due to CCl4 administration, which were significantly normalized by NILE treatment. The findings were further supported by histopathological evidences showing less hepatocellular necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis in NILE and silymarin treated groups, compared to CCl4 group. GC-MS analysis revealed presence of different bioactive phytochemicals with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the present study indicate that NILE possesses potent hepatoprotective capacity to ameliorate haloalkane xenobiotic induced injured liver in murine model

  11. Salmon Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

  12. Patch tests*

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida; Ferreira, Alessandra Lindmayer

    2013-01-01

    Patch tests were introduced as a diagnostic tool in the late nineteenth century. Since then, they have improved considerably becoming what they are today. Patch tests are used in the diagnostic investigation of contact dermatitis worldwide. Batteries or series previously studied and standardized should be used in patch testing. The methodology is simple, but it requires adequate training for the results to be correctly interpreted and used. Despite having been used for over a century, it needs improvement like all other diagnostic techniques in the medical field. PMID:24474094

  13. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout. PMID:23106502

  14. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  15. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch. Each patch is stuck onto a thin plastic liner and a separate rigid plastic film. Do not open the pouch in advance, ... cut the patch into pieces. Peel the thin plastic liner off of the printed side of the ...

  16. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... still remove the patch at your regular patch removal time. Do not apply extra patches to make ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not refrigerate or ...

  17. Rivastigmine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... still remove the patch at your regular patch removal time. If it is almost time for the ... room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any patches ...

  18. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  19. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the patch. Each patch is stuck onto a thin plastic liner and a separate rigid plastic film. Do not open the pouch in advance, because ... to cut the patch into pieces. Peel the thin plastic liner off of the printed side ... one piece of the plastic film from the sticky side of the patch. Be ...

  20. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  1. Scopolamine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch from its protective pouch. To expose the adhesive surface of the patch, the clear plastic protective ... peeled off and discarded. Contact with the exposed adhesive layer should be avoided to prevent contamination of ...

  2. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... that area. Use scissors to remove the outer seal from the package. Then pull apart the zipper seal. Remove up to three patches from the package and press the zipper seal tightly together. The remaining patches may dry out ...

  3. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  4. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078

  5. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  6. Fentanyl Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain, pain after an operation or medical or dental procedure, or pain that can be controlled by medication that is ... transdermal patch.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the ... to prevent or treat constipation while you are using fentanyl patches.

  7. A Survey of Patch Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhill, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Patch methods are someshow a response to the fact that surface geometry is local, that is, only small parts of a surface are created at a time. The two categories of patches, transfinite patches and finite dimensional patches are examined and a discussion of trivariate patches is presented.

  8. Nicotine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patches are used to help people stop smoking cigarettes. They provide a source of nicotine that reduces ... cause harm to the fetus.do not smoke cigarettes or use other nicotine products while using nicotine ...

  9. Diclofenac Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... and making sure not to cut the zipper seal just below it. Pull apart the zipper seal on the envelope and remove one patch. Reseal the envelope by squeezing the zipper seal together. Make sure the envelope is closed tightly ...

  10. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patches are used to relieve the pain of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pains, or ... in your eye, wash it with plenty of water or saline solution. Wash your hands after handling ...

  11. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance) including shaking of parts of the body, stiffness, slowed movements, and problems with balance. Rotigotine transdermal patches are also used to treat ...

  12. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... that was covered by the patch seizures motion tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  13. DyninstAPI Patches

    2012-04-01

    We are seeking a code review of patches against DyninstAPI 8.0. DyninstAPI is an open source binary instrumentation library from the University of Wisconsin and University of Maryland. Our patches port DyninstAPI to the BlueGene/P and BlueGene/Q systems, as well as fix DyninstAPI bugs and implement minor new features in DyninstAPI.

  14. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  15. Tunable circular patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, G.-L.; Sengupta, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    A method to control the resonant or operating frequencies of circular patch antennas has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. It consists of the placement of passive metallic or tuning posts at approximate locations within the input region of the antenna. Comparison of measured and analytical results seems to establish the validity of a theoretical model proposed to determine the input performance of such circular patch antennas.

  16. Sperm Patch-Clamp

    PubMed Central

    Lishko, Polina; Clapham, David E.; Navarro, Betsy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Sperm intracellular pH and calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) are two central factors that control sperm activity within the female reproductive tract. As such, the ion channels of the sperm plasma membrane that alter intracellular sperm [Ca2+] and pH play important roles in sperm physiology and the process of fertilization. Indeed, sperm ion channels regulate sperm motility, control sperm chemotaxis toward the egg in some species, and may trigger the acrosome reaction. Until recently, our understanding of these important molecules was rudimentary due to the inability to patch-clamp spermatozoa and directly record the activity of these ion channels under voltage clamp. Recently, we overcame this technical barrier and developed a method for reproducible application of the patch-clamp technique to mouse and human spermatozoa. This chapter covers important aspects of application of the patch-clamp technique to spermatozoa, such as selection of the electrophysiological equipment, isolation of spermatozoa for patch-clamp experiments, formation of the gigaohm seal with spermatozoa, and transition into the whole-cell mode of recording. We also discuss potential pitfalls in application of the patch-clamp technique to flagellar ion channels. PMID:23522465

  17. Population densities and density-area relationships in a community with advective dispersal and variable mosaics of resource patches.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jill; Downes, Barbara J

    2014-12-01

    Many communities comprise species that select resources that are patchily distributed in an environment that is otherwise unsuitable or suboptimal. Effects of this patchiness can depend on the characteristics of patch arrays and animal movements, and produce non-intuitive outcomes in which population densities are unrelated to resource abundance. Resource mosaics are predicted to have only weak effects, however, where patches are ephemeral or organisms are transported advectively. The running waters of streams and benthic invertebrates epitomize such systems, but empirical tests of resource mosaics are scarce. We sampled 15 common macroinvertebrates inhabiting distinct detritus patches at four sites within a sand-bed stream, where detritus formed a major resource of food and living space. At each site, environmental variables were measured for 100 leaf packs; invertebrates were counted in 50 leaf packs. Sites differed in total abundance of detritus, leaf pack sizes and invertebrate densities. Multivariate analysis indicated that patch size was the dominant environmental variable, but invertebrate densities differed significantly between sites even after accounting for patch size. Leaf specialists showed positive and strong density-area relationships, except where the patch size range was small and patches were aggregated. In contrast, generalist species had weaker and variable responses to patch sizes. Population densities were not associated with total resource abundance, with the highest densities of leaf specialists in sites with the least detritus. Our results demonstrate that patchy resources can affect species even in communities where species are mobile, have advective dispersal, and patches are relatively ephemeral. PMID:25190216

  18. STS-62 crew patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The STS-62 crew patch depicts the world's first reusable spacecraft on its sixteenth flight. Columbia is in its entry-interface attitude as it prepares to return to Earth. The varied hues of the rainbow on the horizon connote the varied, but complementary, nature of all the payloads united on this mission. The upward-pointing vector shape of the patch is symbolic of America's reach for excellence in its unswerving pursuit to explore the frontiers of space. The brilliant sunrise just beyond Columbia suggests the promise that research in space holds for the hopes and dreams of future generations. The STS-62 insignia was designed by Mark Pestana.

  19. Image inpainting by patch propagation using patch sparsity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongben; Sun, Jian

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel examplar-based inpainting algorithm through investigating the sparsity of natural image patches. Two novel concepts of sparsity at the patch level are proposed for modeling the patch priority and patch representation, which are two crucial steps for patch propagation in the examplar-based inpainting approach. First, patch structure sparsity is designed to measure the confidence of a patch located at the image structure (e.g., the edge or corner) by the sparseness of its nonzero similarities to the neighboring patches. The patch with larger structure sparsity will be assigned higher priority for further inpainting. Second, it is assumed that the patch to be filled can be represented by the sparse linear combination of candidate patches under the local patch consistency constraint in a framework of sparse representation. Compared with the traditional examplar-based inpainting approach, structure sparsity enables better discrimination of structure and texture, and the patch sparse representation forces the newly inpainted regions to be sharp and consistent with the surrounding textures. Experiments on synthetic and natural images show the advantages of the proposed approach. PMID:20129864

  20. Nitroglycerin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... verapamil (Calan, Isoptin); ergot-type medications such as bromocriptine (Parlodel), cabergoline, dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45, Migranal), ... at any time, especially if you have been drinking alcoholic beverages. To ... during your treatment with nitroglycerin patches.you should know that you ...

  1. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  2. Identification of genes involved in spontaneous leaf color variation in Pseudosasa japonica.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Xia, X W; Fang, W; Fu, Y; An, M M; Zhou, M B

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous leaf color variation in bamboo provides the opportunity to study the mechanisms of leaf color formation and the breeding of ornamental bamboos. Despite the fact that many genes are known to be involved in leaf color variation in model plants, molecular mechanisms governing natural leaf color variation in bamboo have remained obscure. This study aimed to identify the genes responsible for the occurrence of such phenomena in bamboo using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method between green and albino leaves in Pseudosasa japonica f. A total of 1062 and 1004 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. Subsequently, 59 differentially expressed unigenes with potential roles in leaf color formation, predicted via computational analysis of their functional relevance, were selected for further analysis using qPCR. Ten genes, involved in photosynthesis, plastid development, and cation signal transduction, showed 2-fold changes in expression levels between green and albino leaves. Further expression pattern analyses of these genes at three developmental stages revealed much lower expression abundance of Lhca1-encoded chlorophyll a/b binding protein in the albino leaves than in the green leaves. Our results suggest that, together with the concatenated negative pressure for subsequent photosynthetic processes, the albino phenotype is at least partly attributable to chloroplast inner membrane damage or to the impairment of photosynthetic pigment accumulation, which results from low Lhca1 expression. PMID:26436507

  3. [Patch testing: historical aspects].

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, J-M

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the key points in the history of patch testing, which spans more than a century, starting with the first description of the method by J. Jadassohn in 1895. Special attention is paid to the contribution of French schools in this field, which led to the foundation of the Groupe d'études et de recherches en dermato-allergologie (GERDA). PMID:19686889

  4. Polymer concrete patching manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Bartholomew, J.

    1982-06-01

    The practicality of using polymer concrete to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete bridge decks and pavements was demonstrated. This manual outlines the procedures for using polymer concrete as a rapid patching material to repair deteriorated concrete. The process technology, materials, equipment, and safety provisions used in manufacturing and placing polymer concrete are discussed. Potential users are informed of the various steps necessary to insure successful field applications of the material.

  5. Growing vortex patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that two well-known equilibrium solutions of the Euler equations—the corotating point vortex pair and the Rankine vortex—are connected by a continuous branch of exact solutions. The central idea is to "grow" new vortex patches at two stagnation points that exist in the frame of reference of the corotating point vortex pair. This is done by generalizing a mathematical technique for constructing vortex equilibria first presented by Crowdy [D. G. Crowdy, "A class of exact multipolar vortices," Phys. Fluids 11, 2556 (1999)]. The solutions exhibit several interesting features, including the merging of two separate vortex patches via the development of touching cusps. Numerical contour dynamics methods are used to verify the mathematical solutions and reveal them to be robust structures. The general issue of how simple vortex equilibria can be continued continuously to more complicated ones with very different vortical topologies is discussed. The solutions are examples of exact solutions of the Euler equations involving multiple interacting vortex patches.

  6. Con-Patch: When a Patch Meets Its Context.

    PubMed

    Romano, Yaniv; Elad, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Measuring the similarity between the patches in images is a fundamental building block in various tasks. Naturally, the patch size has a major impact on the matching quality and on the consequent application performance. Under the assumption that our patch database is sufficiently sampled, using large patches (e.g., 21 × 21 ) should be preferred over small ones (e.g., 7 × 7 ). However, this dense-sampling assumption is rarely true; in most cases, large patches cannot find relevant nearby examples. This phenomenon is a consequence of the curse of dimensionality, stating that the database size should grow exponentially with the patch size to ensure proper matches. This explains the favored choice of small patch size in most applications. Is there a way to keep the simplicity and work with small patches while getting some of the benefits that large patches provide? In this paper, we offer such an approach. We propose to concatenate the regular content of a conventional (small) patch with a compact representation of its (large) surroundings-its context. Therefore, with a minor increase of the dimensions (e.g., with additional ten values to the patch representation), we implicitly/softly describe the information of a large patch. The additional descriptors are computed based on a self-similarity behavior of the patch surrounding. We show that this approach achieves better matches, compared with the use of conventional-size patches, without the need to increase the database-size. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on three distinct problems: 1) external natural image denoising; 2) depth image super-resolution; and 3) motion-compensated frame-rate up conversion. PMID:27295669

  7. Con-Patch: When a Patch Meets Its Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Yaniv; Elad, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Measuring the similarity between patches in images is a fundamental building block in various tasks. Naturally, the patch-size has a major impact on the matching quality, and on the consequent application performance. Under the assumption that our patch database is sufficiently sampled, using large patches (e.g. 21-by-21) should be preferred over small ones (e.g. 7-by-7). However, this "dense-sampling" assumption is rarely true; in most cases large patches cannot find relevant nearby examples. This phenomenon is a consequence of the curse of dimensionality, stating that the database-size should grow exponentially with the patch-size to ensure proper matches. This explains the favored choice of small patch-size in most applications. Is there a way to keep the simplicity and work with small patches while getting some of the benefits that large patches provide? In this work we offer such an approach. We propose to concatenate the regular content of a conventional (small) patch with a compact representation of its (large) surroundings - its context. Therefore, with a minor increase of the dimensions (e.g. with additional 10 values to the patch representation), we implicitly/softly describe the information of a large patch. The additional descriptors are computed based on a self-similarity behavior of the patch surrounding. We show that this approach achieves better matches, compared to the use of conventional-size patches, without the need to increase the database-size. Also, the effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on three distinct problems: (i) External natural image denoising, (ii) Depth image super-resolution, and (iii) Motion-compensated frame-rate up-conversion.

  8. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  9. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  10. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medaka Oryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  11. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977

  12. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y. Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  13. Statistics for Patch Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingee, K. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the application of remote sensing it is common to investigate processes that generate patches of material. This is especially true when using categorical land cover or land use maps. Here we view some existing tools, landscape pattern indices (LPI), as non-parametric estimators of random closed sets (RACS). This RACS framework enables LPIs to be studied rigorously. A RACS is any random process that generates a closed set, which encompasses any processes that result in binary (two-class) land cover maps. RACS theory, and methods in the underlying field of stochastic geometry, are particularly well suited to high-resolution remote sensing where objects extend across tens of pixels, and the shapes and orientations of patches are symptomatic of underlying processes. For some LPI this field already contains variance information and border correction techniques. After introducing RACS theory we discuss the core area LPI in detail. It is closely related to the spherical contact distribution leading to conditional variants, a new version of contagion, variance information and multiple border-corrected estimators. We demonstrate some of these findings on high resolution tree canopy data.

  14. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:23669532

  15. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:24029911

  16. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  17. Local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches.

    PubMed

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; Mechant, E; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2011-01-01

    Molecular markers can provide valuable information on the spread of resistant weed biotypes. In particular, tracing local spread of resistant weed patches will give details on the importance of seed migration with machinery, manure, wind or birds. This study investigated the local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches in the southwest region of the province West-Flanders (Belgium). During the summer of 2009, leaf and seed samples were harvested in 27 patches, distributed over 10 sugar beet fields and 1 maize field. The fields were grouped in four local clusters. Each cluster corresponded with the farmer who cultivated these fields. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) procedure identified the Ser264 to Gly mutation in the D1 protein, endowing resistance to metamitron, a key herbicide applied in sugar beet. The majority of the sampled plants within a patch (97% on average) carried this mutation. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed with 4 primer pairs and yielded 270 molecular markers, polymorphic for the whole dataset (303 samples). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that a significant part of the genetic variability was attributed to variation among the four farmer locations (12 %) and variation among Chenopodium album patches within the farmer locations (14%). In addition, Mantel tests revealed a positive correlation between genetic distances (linearised phipt between pairs of patches) and geographic distances (Mantel-coefficient significant at p = 0.002), suggesting isolation-by-distance. In one field, a decreased genetic diversity and strong genetic relationships between all the patches in this field supported the hypothesis of a recent introduction of resistant biotypes. Furthermore, genetic similarity between patches from different fields from the same farmer and from different farmers indicated that seed transport between neighbouring fields is likely to have an important impact on the

  18. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  19. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  20. Ecophysiological responses to different forest patch type of two codominant tree seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Renyan; Huang, Minyi; Kong, Xiaoquan; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    According to gap-phase dynamics theory, forests can be divided into four distinct patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M), and degeneration patch (D). Varying light conditions across patch types are one of the most important factors affecting the coexistence of vegetation. Mechanisms of coexistence can be understood through detailed knowledge of ecophysiological responses of codominant tree seedlings to patch types. The following study was conducted to determine ecophysiological responses of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (an evergreen broad-leaved species) and Bothrocaryum controversum (a deciduous broad-leaved species) to four different patch types. During the gap-phase dynamics, light intensity and the magnitude of change in the four different patches followed the order of: G > B > D > M. Both species had the greatest photosynthetic capacity in the G patch. Dry leaf mass per area (LMA), Chlorophyll a + b concentration (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrogen content per area (Na) all responded to changes in light across patch type, but B. controversum showed greater sensitivity and changes than C. glauca. From G to M patch, the maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) had a larger variation magnitude for B. controversum than for C. glauca. From G to M patch, B. controversum showed significant changes in gas exchange, while C. glauca showed only small changes. Ecophysiological trait partitioning of response to light in different patches provides a possible explanation of a coexistence mechanism. PMID:25691956

  1. Bright patches on Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus' five largest satellites. Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers (1.56 million miles). The clear-filter image, obtained with the narrow-angle camera, shows a resolution of 47 km (29 miles). Ariel is about 1,300 km (800 mi) in diameter. This image shows several distinct bright areas that reflect nearly 45 percent of the incident sunlight; on average, the satellite displays a reflectivity of about 25-30 percent. The bright areas are probably fresh water ice, perhaps excavated by impacts. The south pole of Ariel is slightly off center of the disk in this view. Voyager 2 will obtain its best views of the satellite on Jan. 24, at a closest-approach distance of 127,000 km (79,000 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Granuloma annulare, patch type.

    PubMed

    Victor, Frank C; Mengden, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred to the Bellevue Hospital Center Dermatology Clinic for evaluation of an asymptomatic eruption on his left inner arm, which had been present for 4 months and was unresponsive to topical anti-fungal therapy. One month after the initial eruption, 2 similar, asymptomatic lesions appeared on the right inner arm. The lesions were slowly expanding. A biopsy specimen from the left medial arm was consistent with interstitial granuloma annulare. The patient's clinical presentation was consistent with patch-type granuloma annulare. He was treated with a mid-potency topical glucocorticoid twice daily for 4 weeks without benefit. Since the eruption was asymptomatic, treatment was discontinued. PMID:18627757

  3. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible. PMID:24030367

  4. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin. One patch is applied once a week for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ... new patch on the same day of the week (the Patch Change Day). Apply a new patch ...

  5. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  6. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  7. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  8. Synthesis of Conjugated Chitosan and its Effect on Drug Permeation from Transdermal Patches

    PubMed Central

    Satheeshababu, B. K.; Shivakumar, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesis the conjugated chitosan by covalent attachment of thiol moieties to the cationic polymer, mediated by a carbodiimide to improve permeation properties of chitosan. Thioglycolic acid was covalently attached to chitosan by the formation of amide bonds between the primary amino groups of the polymer and the carboxylic acid groups of thioglycolic acid. Hence, these polymers are called as thiomers or thiolated polymers. Conjugation of chitosan was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. Matrix type transdermal patches of carvedilol were prepared using the different proportions of chitosan and chitosan-thioglycolic acid conjugates (2:0, 1.7:0.3, 1.4:0.6, 1:1, 0.6:1.4 and 0.3:1.7) by solvent casting technique. Prepared matrix type patches were evaluated for their physicochemical characterization followed by in vitro evaluation. Selected formulations were subjected for their ex vivo studies on Wistar albino rat skin and human cadaver skin using the modified Franz diffusion cell. As the proportion of conjugated chitosan increased, the transdermal patches showed increased drug permeation. The mechanism of drug release was found to be nonFickian profiles. The present study concludes that the transdermal patches of carvedilol using conjugated chitosan with different proportions of chitosan were successfully developed to provide improved drug permeation. The transdermal patches can be a good approach to improve drug bioavailability by bypassing the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism of the drug. PMID:24019564

  9. Formulation, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation of matrix-type transdermal patches containing olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; Harikumar, S L

    2013-01-01

    Transdermal patches of olanzapine were aimed to be prepared to overcome the side effects by oral application. The strategy was formulation of eudragit-based polymeric films to prepare transdermal patches by using nonionic (span-20), anionic (sodium lauryl sulfate), cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and vegetable oil (olive oil) as permeation enhancers. The patches were subjected to physicochemical, in vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies. On the basis of in vitro release performance, ERL 100:ERS 100 in the ratio of 3:2 was selected for incorporation of permeation enhancers. The permeation studies showed that formulation containing 10% span 20 (OD3) exhibited greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (19.02 ± 0.21 mg) in 72 h, so OD3 was concluded as optimized formulation and assessed for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and skin irritation potential. In vivo studies of optimized olanzapine patch in rabbit model revealed prolongation of action with Frel 116.09% during 72-h study period. Neuroleptic efficacy of transdermal patch was comparable to oral formulation during rotarod and grip test in Wistar albino rats with no skin irritation. Thus, developed formulation of olanzapine is expected to improve the patient compliance, form better dosage regimen, and provide maintenance therapy to psychotic patients. PMID:21913873

  10. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches. PMID:27166538

  11. Creation of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  12. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline. PMID:24707220

  13. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  14. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  15. Periodicities of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Aoki, T.

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive all-sky electron multiplier charge-coupled device airglow imager has been operative in Longyearbyen, Norway since October 2011. The imager captures 630.0 nm all-sky images with an exposure time of 4 s, which is about 10 times shorter than that achieved by conventional cooled CCD imagers. This allows us to visualize the structure of polar cap patches without blurring effects and better estimate their periodicities. We present, as one of the first results from the imager, an event of successive appearance of patches on the night of 21 December 2011. A time series of the optical intensity at zenith showed modulations having two distinguished periods, one at 40 min and the other at 5-12 min. One possible explanation is that such a coexistence of two different periodicities is a manifestation of simultaneous occurrence of patch generation processes on the 40 min periodicity was created by large-scale reconfiguration of the dayside convection pattern while the 5-12 min modulations were closely associated with mechanisms driven by pulsed reconnection on the dayside magnetopause. Such a combined effect of multiple patch generation processes may play a role in structuring patches; thus, it would be of particular importance for evaluating the space weather effects in the trans-ionospheric communications environment in the polar cap.

  16. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2014-01-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast. PMID:24744503

  17. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  18. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  19. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-02-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  20. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  1. OpenSSO Project Patches

    2009-06-08

    These are patches to Sun Microsystems open source OpenSSO project to fix various bugs and incorporate changes for Sandia and NNSA to use the product including fixes to improve OpenSSO's authentication and authorization abilities. These fixes will then by incorporated by Sun into their Sun Access Manager product, which is used by various DOE/NNSA plants and labs. Having Sun maintain these changes will relieve SNL and DOE from the cost of maintaining the changes themselves.

  2. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks. PMID:10387579

  3. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  4. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  5. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  6. Improving effectiveness of coke oven patching

    SciTech Connect

    Withrow, J.A.; McCollum, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    An effective patching program is essential to protect the battery against severe damage which would result from air, foul gas, and fuel gas leaks; and to keep it in operating condition for a reasonable life span. In addition to that basic purpose of patching, other areas such as heating efficiency, coke quality, and emissions performance can benefit from an effective program. Clairton Works and US Steel Research have made improvements in the patching program in several broad categories: equipment used for application of patching material, the patching material itself, and practices used in administration of the patching program. The equipment changes include a pusher machine ram-mounted roof patching unit and a new type of patching buggy for use with materials which tend to settle or cake. New materials have been formulated which develop a ceramic bond on the oven refractories and provide superior adherance. Battery Temperature Profiles, Charging Surveys, and Stack Observation Reports are used on a regular basis to identify critical areas for patching beyond those which can be identified by operating personnel on an incidental basis. This paper reviews each of these improvements in Clairton's patching program in terms of the equipment, materials, and practices per se and also discusses the results of implementing these changes.

  7. ERTS-1 anomalous dark patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Through combined use of imagery from ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 satellites was found that when the sun elevation exceeds 55 degrees, the ERTS-1 imagery is subject to considerable contamination by sunlight even though the actual specular point is nearly 300 nautical miles from nadir. Based on sea surface wave slope information, a wind speed of 10 knots will theoretically provide approximately 0.5 percent incident solar reflectance under observed ERTS multispectral scanner detectors. This reflectance nearly doubles under the influence of a 20 knot wind. The most pronounced effect occurs in areas of calm water where anomalous dark patches are observed. Calm water at distances from the specular point found in ERTS scenes will reflect no solar energy to the multispectral scanner, making these regions stand out as dark areas in all bands in an ocean scene otherwise comprosed by a general diffuse sunlight from rougher ocean surfaces. Anomalous dark patches in the outer parts of the glitter zones may explain the unusual appearance of some scenes.

  8. Exogenous pigment in Peyer's patches

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, N.A.; Crocker, P.R.; Smith, A.P.; Levison, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dark brown granular pigment was found consistently in macrophages in the deep aspect of adult Peyer's patches. Tissue sections from intestinal resections of 35 patients with a variety of pathologic diagnoses and of seven postmortem cases with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease were examined for the presence of this pigment. It was found in all patients over the age of 6 years (34 cases) but was not found in any children below that age (eight cases). Scanning electron microscopy with secondary and backscattered electron imaging and x-ray energy spectroscopy were performed on routine histologic sections. The pigmented macrophages contained aluminum and silicon, diffusely present throughout the cytoplasm, and numerous discrete foci of titanium. Pigment containing these same elements has also been found around dilated submucosal lymphatics, in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in some transmural inflammatory aggregates of Crohn's disease. The pigment probably is derived from the diet and actively taken up by Peyer's patches, which are able to incorporate inert particulate matter.

  9. Electrochemical cell with a cadmium patch electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.E.; Bloom, S.M.; Hoffman, A.; Norland, K.

    1980-01-22

    A cadmium patch laminar electrode, comprising a dispersion of particulate cadmium in a binder matrix on a conductive plastic substrate is prepared by contacting a zinc patch electrode comprising a dispersion of particulate zinc in a binder matrix on a conductive plastic substrate with an aqueous solution of a cadmium salt. The cadmium patch electrode can be used in a primary electrochemical cell such as that employing a manganese dioxide cathode and a cadmium chloride electrolyte.

  10. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  11. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  12. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  13. Transdermal fentanyl patches in small animals.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Egger, Christine M

    2004-01-01

    Fentanyl citrate is a potent opioid that can be delivered by the transdermal route in cats and dogs. Publications regarding transdermal fentanyl patches were obtained and systematically reviewed. Seven studies in cats and seven studies in dogs met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Dogs achieved effective plasma concentrations approximately 24 hours after patch application. Cats achieved effective plasma concentrations 7 hours after patch application. In dogs, transdermal fentanyl produced analgesia for up to 72 hours, except for the immediate 0- to 6-hour postoperative period. In cats, transdermal fentanyl produced analgesia equivalent to intermittent butorphanol administration for up to 72 hours following patch application. PMID:15533967

  14. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  15. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  16. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  17. Patch voltage clamp of squid axon membrane.

    PubMed

    Fishman, H M

    1975-12-01

    A small area (patch) of the external surface of a squid axon can be "isolated" electrically from the surrounding bath by means of a pair of concentric glass pipettes. The seawater-filled inner pipette makes contact with the axon and constitutes the external access to the patch. The outer pipette is used to direct flowing sucrose solution over the area surrounding the patch of membrane underlying the inner pipette. Typically, sucrose isolated patches remain in good condition (spike amplitude greater than 90 mV) for periods of approximately one half hour. Patches of axon membrane which had previously been exposed to sucrose solution were often excitable. Membrane survival of sucrose treatment apparently arises from an outflow of ions from the axon and perhaps satellite cells into the interstitial cell space surrounding the exolemma. Estimate of the total access resistance (electrode plus series resistance) to the patch is about 100 komega (7 omega cm2). Patch capacitance ranges from 10-100 pF, which suggests areas of 10(-4) to 10(-5) cm2 and resting patch resistances of 10-100 Momega. Shunt resistance through the interstitial space exposed to sucrose solution, which isolates the patch, is typically 1-2 Momega. These parameters indicate that good potential control and response times can be achieved on a patch. Furthermore, spatial uniformity is demonstrated by measurement of an exoplasmic isopotential during voltage clamp of an axon patch. The method may be useful for other preparations in which limited membrane area is available or in special instances such as in the measurement of membrane conduction noise. PMID:1214276

  18. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  19. HotPatch Web Gateway: Statistical Analysis of Unusual Patches on Protein Surfaces

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pettit, Frank K.; Bowie, James U. [DOE-Molecular Biology Institute

    HotPatch finds unusual patches on the surface of proteins, and computes just how unusual they are (patch rareness), and how likely each patch is to be of functional importance (functional confidence (FC).) The statistical analysis is done by comparing your protein's surface against the surfaces of a large set of proteins whose functional sites are known. Optionally, HotPatch can also write a script that will display the patches on the structure, when the script is loaded into some common molecular visualization programs. HotPatch generates complete statistics (functional confidence and patch rareness) on the most significant patches on your protein. For each property you choose to analyze, you'll receive an email to which will be attached a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors (temp. factors) are replaced by patch indices; and the PDB file's Header Remarks will give statistical scores and a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors are replaced by the raw values of the property used for patch analysis (for example, hydrophobicity instead of hydrophobic patches). [Copied with edits from http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu/

  20. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  1. Combined effects of leaf litter and soil microsite on decomposition process in arid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Analía Lorena; Bertiller, Mónica Beatriz

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the combined effects of leaf litter quality and soil properties on litter decomposition and soil nitrogen (N) mineralization at conserved (C) and disturbed by sheep grazing (D) vegetation states in arid rangelands of the Patagonian Monte. It was hypothesized that spatial differences in soil inorganic-N levels have larger impact on decomposition processes of non-recalcitrant than recalcitrant leaf litter (low and high concentration of secondary compounds, respectively). Leaf litter and upper soil were extracted from modal size plant patches (patch microsite) and the associated inter-patch area (inter-patch microsite) in C and D. Leaf litter was pooled per vegetation state and soil was pooled combining vegetation state and microsite. Concentrations of N and secondary compounds in leaf litter and total and inorganic-N in soil were assessed at each pooled sample. Leaf litter decay and soil N mineralization at microsites of C and D were estimated in 160 microcosms incubated at field capacity (16 month). C soils had higher total N than D soils (0.58 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively). Patch soil of C and inter-patch soil of D exhibited the highest values of inorganic-N (8.8 and 8.4 μg/g, respectively). Leaf litter of C was less recalcitrant and decomposed faster than that of D. Non-recalcitrant leaf litter decay and induced soil N mineralization had larger variation among microsites (coefficients of variation = 25 and 41%, respectively) than recalcitrant leaf litter (coefficients of variation = 12 and 32%, respectively). Changes in the canopy structure induced by grazing disturbance increased leaf litter recalcitrance, and reduced litter decay and soil N mineralization, independently of soil N levels. This highlights the importance of the combined effects of soil and leaf litter properties on N cycling probably with consequences for vegetation reestablishment and dynamics, rangeland resistance and resilience with implications

  2. Immunoisolation Patch System for Cellular Transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An immunoisolation patch system, and particularly a patch system comprising multiple immunoisolation microcapsules, each encapsulating biological material such as cells for transplantation, which can be used in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of disease in large animals and humans without the need for immunosuppression.

  3. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. PMID:25560046

  4. Bulkhead interface chassis for optical fiber patching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  5. Tendon graft substitutes-rotator cuff patches.

    PubMed

    Coons, David A; Alan Barber, F

    2006-09-01

    Over the past few years, many biologic patches have been developed to augment repairs of large or complex tendon tears. These patches include both allograft and xenografts. Regardless of their origins, these products are primarily composed of purified type I collagen. Many factors should be considered when choosing an augmentation patch including tissue origin, graft processing, cross-linking, clinical experience, and physical properties. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the sports medicine community with several tendon augmentation grafts: GraftJacket (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN), CuffPatch (Organogenesis, Canton, MA, licensed to Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN), Restore (Depuy, Warsaw, IN), Zimmer Collagen Repair (Permacol) patch (Tissue Science Laboratories Covington, GA, licensed to Zimmer, Warsaw, IN), TissueMend (TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA, licensed to Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Kalamazoo, MI), OrthoADAPT (Pegasus Biologics, Irvine, CA), and BioBlanket (Kensey Nash, Exton, PA). PMID:17135966

  6. Engineered Tissue Patch for Cardiac Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianyi

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cell therapy can be administered via injections delivered directly into the myocardium or as engineered cardiac tissue patches, which are the subject of this review. Engineered cardiac patches can be created from sheets of interconnected cells or by suspending the cells in a scaffold of material that is designed to mimic the native extracellular matrix. The sheet-based approach produces patches with well-aligned and electronically coupled cardiomyocytes, but cell-containing scaffolds are more readily vascularized by the host's circulatory system and, consequently, are currently more suitable for applications that require a thicker patch. Cell patches can also be modified for the co-delivery of peptides that may promote cell survival and activate endogenous repair mechanisms; nevertheless, techniques for controlling inflammation, limiting apoptosis, and improving vascular growth need continue to be developed to make it a therapeutic modality for patients with myocardial infarction. PMID:26122908

  7. Safe patch version 0.9 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M

    1999-03-01

    The SafePatch version 0.9 provides automated analysis of network-based computer systems to determine the status of security patches and distributes needed patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed and what patches are installed on a system. SafePatch will distribute needed patches to the remote system for later installation. For those patches that are installed, SafePatch checks the permissions and ownership of the files referenced in the patch and reports on the attributes that differ from those recommended by the patch. SafePatch also ensures that the system software is authentic (that is, belonging to either a release of an operating system or a patch). The process SafePatch uses to authenticate the software on a system is more reliable and secure than other vendor-specific tools. SafePatch compares the remote system's files with the files from the patches to determine what is actually installed and what needs to be installed. This approach ensures accurate reporting of a system's patch status. It also allows SafePatch to identify files that do not belong to either the original system distribution (for example, Solaris 2.5) or to any patch. These unidentified files may be customized or trojan. Either way these files should be investigated further to determine their exact origin.

  8. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  9. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  10. Image Quality Assessment Based on Inter-Patch and Intra-Patch Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fei; Lu, Zongqing; Wang, Can; Sun, Wen; Xia, Shu-Tao; Liao, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR) image quality assessment (IQA) scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC). On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:25793282

  11. Patch shape, connectivity, and foraging by oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent J

    2005-06-01

    We examined how corridors and patch shape affect foraging by the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) by deploying foraging trays and live traps in experimental landscapes with 3 different patch types: patches connected with a corridor, unconnected patches with projecting corridorlike portions (winged patches), and unconnected rectangular patches. Corridors did not lead to different levels of activity of P. polionotus among the 3 patch types. Rather, corridors influenced activity by changing patch shape: foraging in seed trays and total number of captures of P. polionotus tended to be greater at the patch center than at the patch edge, but only in connected and winged patches where corridors or wings increased the amount of patch edge relative to the amount of core habitat in the patch. P. polionotus avoided open microhabitats near the patch edge in winged and connected patches, but not open microhabitats near the patch interior, suggesting that predation risk caused shifts in foraging near edges in connected and winged patches. Foraging in corridors and wings was generally low, suggesting that both are high-risk habitats where predation risk is not ameliorated by proximity to vegetative cover. By changing patch shape, corridors caused changes in within-patch activity of P. polionotus, changing foraging patterns and potentially altering the dynamics of P. polionotus and the seeds they consume.

  12. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and loadmore » the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports« less

  13. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and load the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

  15. Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

  16. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain tissue revealed patch-like areas of disorganized neurons. Arrows show a patch of decreased or absent ... autistic brain is speckled with patches of abnormal neurons, according to research partially funded by the National ...

  17. Deformation of vortex patches by boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, A.; Johnson, E. R.; Morrison, P. J.

    2013-02-01

    The deformation of two-dimensional vortex patches in the vicinity of fluid boundaries is investigated. The presence of a boundary causes an initially circular patch of uniform vorticity to deform. Sufficiently far away from the boundary, the deformed shape is well approximated by an ellipse. This leading order elliptical deformation is investigated via the elliptic moment model of Melander, Zabusky, and Styczek [J. Fluid Mech. 167, 95 (1986), 10.1017/S0022112086002744]. When the boundary is straight, the centre of the elliptic patch remains at a constant distance from the boundary, and the motion is integrable. Furthermore, since the straining flow acting on the patch is constant in time, the problem is that of an elliptic vortex patch in constant strain, which was analysed by Kida [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 3517 (1981), 10.1143/JPSJ.50.3517]. For more complicated boundary shapes, such as a square corner, the motion is no longer integrable. Instead, there is an adiabatic invariant for the motion. This adiabatic invariant arises due to the separation in times scales between the relatively rapid time scale associated with the rotation of the patch and the slower time scale associated with the self-advection of the patch along the boundary. The interaction of a vortex patch with a circular island is also considered. Without a background flow, the conservation of angular impulse implies that the motion is again integrable. The addition of an irrotational flow past the island can drive the patch towards the boundary, leading to the possibility of large deformations and breakup.

  18. Routine patch testing with paraben esters.

    PubMed

    Menné, T; Hjorth, N

    1988-09-01

    Paraben esters are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetics and topical medicaments. Their sensitization potential is low, based on both experimental and human experience. A paraben mixture is included in the ICDRG standard series, and in patch test studies, approximately 1% of eczema patients react to it. The present study confirms this frequency in 8020 patients patch tested consecutively. Testing with the individual paraben esters was employed as confirmation, which makes it unlikely that the excited skin syndrome is a significant problem in this context. It remains undetermined whether the present paraben mixture is the optimal patch test material for diagnosing paraben sensitivity. PMID:3191679

  19. Electrostatic patch potentials in Casimir force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between interacting surfaces. The force can be minimized by applying a potential to one of the two surfaces. However, electrostatic patch potentials remain and contribute an additional force which can obscure the Casimir force signal. We will discuss recent measurements of patch potentials made with Heterodyne Amplitude-Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy that suggest patches could be responsible for >1% of the signal in some Casimir force measurements, and thus make the distinction between different theoretical models of the Casimir force (e.g. a Drude-model or a plasma-model for the dielectric response) difficult to discern.

  20. Koch fractal boundary patch over reactive impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy V, Venkateshwar; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the enhancement of bandwidth and miniaturization for patch antennas. Introduction of fractal structure (Square Koch) over reactive impedance surface (RIS) is used to enhance impedance bandwidth while minimizing the patch size. Comparison has been made with those of a single-layer (sub1) antenna and the corresponding dual-layer (RIS) antenna. Approximately double the impedance bandwidth is achieved with the proposed RIS Square Koch antenna 1 when compared with Square Koch antenna 1without RIS. There is a 55 % reduction in the patch size. The simulated results indicate that the presented antennas provide gain of about 2.5dBi over the entire band of frequencies.

  1. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device. PMID:23781766

  2. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptive patch is a very effective method of birth control, but it does not prevent the spread of ... period, you must use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  3. Scattering from arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, Capers R.

    1992-01-01

    The scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas are examined. The electric field integral equation for a current element on a grounded dielectric slab is developed for a rectangular geometry based on Galerkin's technique with subdomain rooftop basis functions. A shape function is introduced that allows a rectangular grid approximation to the arbitrarily shaped patch. The incident field on the patch is expressed as a function of incidence angle theta(i), phi(i). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the unknown current modes on the patch, and the electromagnetic scattering is calculated for a given angle. Comparisons are made with other calculated results as well as with measurements.

  4. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats.

    PubMed

    al-Yahya, M A; Rafatullah, S; Mossa, J S; Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Tariq, M

    1989-01-01

    The cytoprotective and gastric anti-ulcer studies of ginger have been carried out in albino rats. Cytodestruction was produced by 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl. Whereas gastric ulcers were produced by ulcerogenic agents including indomethacin, aspirin and reserpine, beside hypothermic restraint stress and by pylorus ligated Shay rat technique. The results of this study demonstrate that the extract in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl induced gastric lesions. The extract also prevented the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypothermic restraint stress. These observations suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect of the ginger. PMID:2589236

  5. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  6. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  7. An evaluation of patch connectivity measures.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R

    2009-07-01

    Measuring connectivity is critical to the study of fragmented populations. The three most commonly used types of patch connectivity measures differ substantially in how they are calculated, but the performance of these measures has not been broadly assessed. Here I compare the ability of nearest neighbor (NN), buffer, and incidence function model (IFM) measures to predict the patch occupancy and colonization patterns of 24 invertebrate, reptile, and amphibian metapopulations. I predicted that NN measures, which have been criticized as being overly simplistic, would be the worst predictors of species occupancy and colonization. I also predicted that buffer measures, which sum the amount of habitat in a radius surrounding the focal patch, would have intermediate performance, and IFM measures, which take into account the areas and distances to all potential source patches, would perform best. As expected, the simplest NN measure (distance to the nearest habitat patch, NHi) was the poorest predictor of patch occupancy and colonization. Contrary to expectations, however, the next-simplest NN measure (distance to the nearest occupied [source] patch, NSi) was as good a predictor of occupancy and colonization as the best-performing buffer measure and the general IFM measure Si. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that area-based connectivity measures perform better than distance-based ones, my results indicate that the exclusion of vacant habitat patches from calculations is the key to improved measure performance. I highlight several problems with the parameterization and use of IFM measures and suggest that models based on NSi are equally powerful and more practical for many conservation applications. PMID:19688936

  8. Aspects and applications of patched grid calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert W.; Switzer, George F.; Thomas, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Patched grid calculations within the framework of an implicit, flux vector split upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler equations are presented. Aspects of computing on patched grids are discussed including the effect of a metric-discontinuous interface on the convergence rate of the algorithm, and the effect of curvature along an interface. Applications to a converging-diverging nozzle including effects of choking and bypass slots in two dimensions are presented.

  9. Design, development and permeation studies of nebivolol hydrochloride from novel matrix type transdermal patches

    PubMed Central

    Jatav, Vijay Singh; Saggu, Jitender Singh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Sharma, Anil; Jat, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nebivolol hydrochloride is a third generation β-blocker with highly selective β1-receptor antagonist with antihypertensive properties having plasma half life of 10 h and 12% oral bioavailability. The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride to avoid its extensive hepatic first pass metabolism, lesser side effect and increase bioavailability of drug. Materials and Methods: Matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride were prepared using EudragitRS100, HPMC K100M (2:8) polymers by solvent evaporation technique. Aluminum foil was used as a backing membrane. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was used as plasticizer and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a penetration enhancer. Drug polymer interactions determined by FTIR and standard calibration curve of Nebivolol hydrochloride were determined by using UV estimation. Result: The systems were evaluated physicochemical parameters and drug present in the patches was determined by scanning electron microscopy. All prepared formulations indicated good physical stability. In vitro drug permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells using abdomen skin of Wistar albino rat. Result showed best in vitro skin permeation through rat skin as compared to all other formulations prepared with hydrophilic polymer containing permeation enhancer. Conclusions: It was observed that the formulation containing HPMC: EudragitRS100 (8:2) showed ideal higuchi release kinetics. On the basis of in vitro drug release through skin permeation performance, Formulation F1 was found to be better than other formulations and it was selected as the optimized formulation. PMID:24223377

  10. Design and characterization of diclofenac diethylamine transdermal patch using silicone and acrylic adhesives combination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The objective of the study was to develop and characterize Diclofenac Diethylamine (DDEA) transdermal patch using Silicone and acrylic adhesives combination. Methods Modified solvent evaporation method was employed for casting of film over Fluoropolymer coated polyester release liner. Initial studies included solubilization of drug in the polymers using solubilizers. The formulations with combination of adhesives were attempted to combine the desirable features of both the adhesives. The effect of the permeation enhancers on the drug permeation were studied using pig ear skin. All the optimized patches were subjected to adhesion, dissolution and stability studies. A 7-day skin irritancy test on albino rabbits and an in vivo anti-inflammatory study on wistar rats by carrageenan induced paw edema method were also performed. Results The results indicated the high percent drug permeation (% CDP-23.582) and low solubility nature (1%) of Silicone adhesive and high solubility (20%) and low% CDP (10.72%) of acrylic adhesive. The combination of adhesives showed desirable characteristics for DDEA permeation with adequate % CDP and sufficient solubility. Release profiles were found to be dependent on proportion of polymer and type of permeation enhancer. The anti-inflammatory study revealed the sustaining effect and high percentage inhibition of edema of C4/OLA (99.68%). The acute skin irritancy studies advocated the non-irritant nature of the adhesives used. Conclusion It was concluded that an ideal of combination of adhesives would serve as the best choice, for fabrication of DDEA patches, for sustained effect of DDEA with better enhancement in permeation characteristics and robustness. PMID:23351568

  11. Pericardial patch venoplasty heals via attraction of venous progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hualong; Wang, Mo; Foster, Trenton R; Hu, Haidi; He, Hao; Hashimoto, Takuya; Hanisch, Jesse J; Santana, Jeans M; Xing, Ying; Dardik, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Pericardial patches are commonly used during cardiovascular surgery to close blood vessels. In arteries, patches accumulate arterial progenitor cells; we hypothesized that venous patches would accumulate venous progenitor cells, in the absence of arterial pressure. We developed a novel rat inferior vena cava (IVC) venotomy model and repaired it with a pericardial patch. Cells infiltrated the patch to form a thick neointima by day 7; some cells were CD34(+)/VEGFR2(+) and CD31(+)/Eph-B4(+) consistent with development of venous identity in the healing patch. Compared to arterial patches, the venous patches had increased neointimal thickness at day 7 without any pseudoaneurysms. Addition of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) to increase blood flow on the patch resulted in reduced patch neointimal thickness and proliferation, but neointimal thickness was not reversible with AVF ligation. These results show that rat patch venoplasty is a novel model of aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:27354544

  12. Pulse Dynamics in Endocytic Protein Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-03-01

    During the process of endocytosis in yeast, submicron-sized protein patches assemble, exert forces on the membrane to bend it, and finally disassemble. The patches contain an initial coat that establishes the endocytic site and binds cargo, polymers of the protein actin, ``nucleation-promoting factors'' (NPFs) that catalyze actin polymerization, and curvature-generating proteins. We model the dynamics of protein patches in yeast using a variant of the activator-inhibitor ``Fitzhugh-Nagumo'' model. We treat NPFs as the activator, and polymerized actin as the inhibitor, on the basis of findings that the lifetime of NPF patches is extended when actin polymerization is inhibited. Using this model, we find that as the polymerization rate is reduced, there is a discontinuous transition from protein pulses to persistent patches. We also find, surprisingly, that in some parameter regimes reducing the polymerization rate can increase the polymerized-actin content of the patch. We present data for NPF dynamics budding yeast, which confirm some of the predictions of the model. Supported by NIH under Grant R01-GM107667.

  13. Montage of Apollo Crew Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This montage depicts the flight crew patches for the manned Apollo 7 thru Apollo 17 missions. The Apollo 7 through 10 missions were basically manned test flights that paved the way for lunar landing missions. Primary objectives met included the demonstration of the Command Service Module (CSM) crew performance; crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities performance and testing during a manned CSM mission; CSM rendezvous capability; translunar injection demonstration; the first manned Apollo docking, the first Apollo Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), performance of the first manned flight of the lunar module (LM); the CSM-LM docking in translunar trajectory, LM undocking in lunar orbit, LM staging in lunar orbit, and manned LM-CSM docking in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 through 17 were lunar landing missions with the exception of Apollo 13 which was forced to circle the moon without landing due to an onboard explosion. The craft was,however, able to return to Earth safely. Apollo 11 was the first manned lunar landing mission and performed the first lunar surface EVA. Landing site was the Sea of Tranquility. A message for mankind was delivered, the U.S. flag was planted, experiments were set up and 47 pounds of lunar surface material was collected for analysis back on Earth. Apollo 12, the 2nd manned lunar landing mission landed in the Ocean of Storms and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) was deployed, and 75 pounds of lunar material was gathered. Apollo 14, the 3rd lunar landing mission landed in Fra Mauro. ALSEP and other instruments were deployed, and 94 pounds of lunar materials were gathered, using a hand cart for first time to transport rocks. Apollo 15, the 4th lunar landing mission landed in the Hadley-Apennine region. With the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), the crew was bale to gather 169 pounds of lunar material. Apollo 16, the 5th lunar

  14. Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Several recent studies have demonstrated that following short-term monocular deprivation in normal adults, the patched eye, rather than the unpatched eye, becomes stronger in subsequent binocular viewing. However, little is known about the site and nature of the underlying processes. In this study, we examine the underlying mechanisms by measuring steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as an index of the neural contrast response in early visual areas. Methods: The experiment consisted of three consecutive stages: a pre-patching EEG recording (14 minutes), a monocular patching stage (2.5 hours) and a post-patching EEG recording (14 minutes; started immediately after the removal of the patch). During the patching stage, a diffuser (transmits light but not pattern) was placed in front of one randomly selected eye. During the EEG recording stage, contrast response functions for each eye were measured. Results: The neural responses from the patched eye increased after the removal of the patch, whilst the responses from the unpatched eye remained the same. Such phenomena occurred under both monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions. Conclusions: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID:26410580

  15. Yellow leaf blotch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow leaf blotch occurs worldwide in temperate climates. The disease is reported from countries in Asia, Australasia, Oceania, Europe, North America, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In the northern Great Plains of North America, it is often the major leaf disease on alfalfa....

  16. Methods of Making and Using Shape Memory Polymer Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A method of repairing a composite component having a damaged area including: laying a composite patch over the damaged area: activating the shape memory polymer resin to easily and quickly mold said patch to said damaged area; deactivating said shape memory polymer so that said composite patch retains the molded shape; and bonding said composite patch to said damaged part.

  17. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  18. A Novel Virus-Patch Dynamic Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    The distributed patch dissemination strategies are a promising alternative to the conventional centralized patch dissemination strategies. This paper aims to establish a theoretical framework for evaluating the effectiveness of distributed patch dissemination mechanism. Assuming that the Internet offers P2P service for every pair of nodes on the network, a dynamic model capturing both the virus propagation mechanism and the distributed patch dissemination mechanism is proposed. This model takes into account the infected removable storage media and hence captures the interaction of patches with viruses better than the original SIPS model. Surprisingly, the proposed model exhibits much simpler dynamic properties than the original SIPS model. Specifically, our model admits only two potential (viral) equilibria and undergoes a fold bifurcation. The global stabilities of the two equilibria are determined. Consequently, the dynamical properties of the proposed model are fully understood. Furthermore, it is found that reducing the probability per unit time of disconnecting a node from the Internet benefits the containment of electronic viruses. PMID:26368556

  19. A Novel Virus-Patch Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    The distributed patch dissemination strategies are a promising alternative to the conventional centralized patch dissemination strategies. This paper aims to establish a theoretical framework for evaluating the effectiveness of distributed patch dissemination mechanism. Assuming that the Internet offers P2P service for every pair of nodes on the network, a dynamic model capturing both the virus propagation mechanism and the distributed patch dissemination mechanism is proposed. This model takes into account the infected removable storage media and hence captures the interaction of patches with viruses better than the original SIPS model. Surprisingly, the proposed model exhibits much simpler dynamic properties than the original SIPS model. Specifically, our model admits only two potential (viral) equilibria and undergoes a fold bifurcation. The global stabilities of the two equilibria are determined. Consequently, the dynamical properties of the proposed model are fully understood. Furthermore, it is found that reducing the probability per unit time of disconnecting a node from the Internet benefits the containment of electronic viruses. PMID:26368556

  20. Patch-primitive driven compressive ghost imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuemei; Suo, Jinli; Yue, Tao; Bian, Liheng; Dai, Qionghai

    2015-05-01

    Ghost imaging has rapidly developed for about two decades and attracted wide attention from different research fields. However, the practical applications of ghost imaging are still largely limited, by its low reconstruction quality and large required measurements. Inspired by the fact that the natural image patches usually exhibit simple structures, and these structures share common primitives, we propose a patch-primitive driven reconstruction approach to raise the quality of ghost imaging. Specifically, we resort to a statistical learning strategy by representing each image patch with sparse coefficients upon an over-complete dictionary. The dictionary is composed of various primitives learned from a large number of image patches from a natural image database. By introducing a linear mapping between non-overlapping image patches and the whole image, we incorporate the above local prior into the convex optimization framework of compressive ghost imaging. Experiments demonstrate that our method could obtain better reconstruction from the same amount of measurements, and thus reduce the number of requisite measurements for achieving satisfying imaging quality. PMID:25969205

  1. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/. PMID:22806945

  2. Leaf growth is conformal.

    PubMed

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour. PMID:27597439

  3. Antifertility activity of Ailanthus excelsa Linn. in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, S; Suresh, B; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S; Dubey, R

    1993-04-01

    Alcoholic extract of leaf and stem bark of A. excelsa at a dose of 250 mg equivalent of plant material/kg body weight, exhibited remarkably high anti-implantation and early abortifacient activities. The results are in agreement with the traditional use of this plant as a abortifacient by the Irula women of the Nilgiri district. PMID:8359839

  4. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  5. Comparative acceptance of three transdermal nitroglycerin placebo patches.

    PubMed

    Rayment, C M; Kaul, A F; Garfield, J M

    1985-06-01

    Factors that might affect patient acceptance of transdermal drug-delivery system patches were evaluated in healthy volunteers using placebo patches. Placebo transdermal nitroglycerin patches (Transderm-Nitro 5 placebo, Ciba Pharmaceutical Company; Nitro-Dur 10 cm2 placebo, Key Pharmaceuticals; and Nitrodisc 5 placebo, Searle Laboratories) were supplied by the manufacturers. Eighty-two healthy subjects were randomly assigned to begin using one of the three brands of patches. Using a Latin-square crossover design, subjects applied each brand of patch daily for five days and crossed over to the other brands on study days 6 and 11. At the end of each study phase, subjects completed a written questionnaire designed to evaluate their overall acceptance of each brand of patch. A total of 80 subjects completed all three phases of the study. According to forced rank preference, 84% of subjects preferred the Ciba patch to one of the other two brands. Subjects judged the Ciba patch to be the easiest of the three brands to use and reported significantly fewer side effects and skin irritation while using the Ciba patch; they also preferred the size of the Ciba patch and experienced significantly fewer problems with adherence of the Ciba patch. A significant percentage of subjects indicated that they would prefer a transdermal patch over tablets or ointment. Most subjects preferred the Ciba patch over the Key patch or Searle patch. PMID:3925770

  6. Dimensionality reduction via locally reconstructive patch alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Yin, Jun; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2012-07-01

    Based on the local patch concept, we proposed locally reconstructive patch alignment (LRPA) for dimensionality reduction. For each patch, LRPA aims to find the low-dimensional subspace in which the reconstruction error of the within-class nearest neighbors is minimized and the reconstruction error of the between-class nearest neighbors is maximized. LRPA preserves the local structure hidden in the high-dimensional space. More importantly, LRPA has natural connections with linear regression classification (LRC). While LRC uses reconstruction errors as the classification rule, a sample can be classified correctly when the within-class reconstruction error is minimal. The goal of LRPA makes it cooperate well with LRC. The experimental results on the extended Yale B (YALE-B), AR, PolyU finger knuckle print, and the palm print databases demonstrate LRPA plus LRC is an effective and robust pattern-recognition system.

  7. Easier patch testing with TRUE Test.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Maibach, H I

    1989-03-01

    TRUE Test, a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system, is made from polyester covered with a film of allergens incorporated in a hydrophilic polymer. The patches are mounted on nonwoven cellulose tape with acrylic adhesive, covered with siliconized plastic, and packed in an air-tight and light-impermeable envelope. When the test strip is taped on the skin, perspiration hydrates the film and transforms it to a gel, which causes the allergen to be released. The first panel of 12 allergens and allergen mixes is standardized and tested for stability in vitro and in vivo. The accuracy of the test panel has been certified in international multicenter studies by comparing it with present patch test techniques. A second panel of 11 more allergens was completed in 1988. The two test panels include the full standard panel of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. PMID:2918115

  8. Patch-Clamp Fluorometry: Electrophysiology meets Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Jana; Zifarelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters are membrane proteins whose functions are driven by conformational changes. Classical biophysical techniques provide insight into either the structure or the function of these proteins, but a full understanding of their behavior requires a correlation of both these aspects in time. Patch-clamp and voltage-clamp fluorometry combine spectroscopic and electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously detect conformational changes and ionic currents across the membrane. Since its introduction, patch-clamp fluorometry has been responsible for invaluable advances in our knowledge of ion channel biophysics. Over the years, the technique has been applied to many different ion channel families to address several biophysical questions with a variety of spectroscopic approaches and electrophysiological configurations. This review illustrates the strength and the flexibility of patch-clamp fluorometry, demonstrating its potential as a tool for future research. PMID:24655500

  9. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C(1)-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  10. Leaf Tissue Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Manos, Peter J.; Goldthwaite, Jonathan

    1975-01-01

    During winter, excised leaf tissue from Rumex obtusifolius degrades chlorophyll at twice the summer rate but the plant hormones, gibberellic acid and zeatin, inhibit the senescence rate by a constant percentage, regardless of season. PMID:16659225

  11. Patch testing with cement containing iron sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Fregert, S; Gruvberger, B

    1990-01-01

    Addition of iron sulfate to cement means transformation of water-soluble hexavalent chromium into nonwater-soluble trivalent chromium. This has been the basis for preventive measures concerning sensitization to hexavalent chromium (chromate) in cement. For some years, iron sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in the Scandinavian countries. In the present in vivo study, cements with and without iron sulfate were compared concerning their capacity to elicit allergic patch-test reactions in eight chromate-hypersensitive individuals. No patch-test reactions were obtained from a water extract of cement with iron sulfate when appropriately buffered. PMID:2137395

  12. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  13. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  14. Reproductive toxic potential of panmasala in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Mojidra, Bn; Gautam, Ak; Verma, Y; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-09-01

    Some ingredients of panmasala have the ability to penetrate the blood-testis barrier but the reproductive toxic potential of panmasala has not been studied. This study is aimed to assess the possible damage caused by panmasala to male reproductive system in mice. Swiss albino male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving either standard control diet or panmasala-containing diet. Three doses (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%) of panmasala plain (PMP) as well as panmasala with tobacco (PMT)-gutkha were given for a period of 6 months. Assessment of organ weight, sperm count and morphology, spermatid count, sperm production, testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity and histology were conducted. A nonsignificant decrease in absolute and relative weight of testis and epididymis was observed. Spermatid count, sperm count and production were significantly decreased and 17β-HSD activity was found considerably declined at 3% of both PMP- and PMT-treated groups as compared to control. The histological observations revealed panmasala induced testicular damage. Abnormal morphology of sperm head shape was significantly elevated in higher doses of both types of panmasala-treated groups than control. The results suggests that panmasala has reproductive toxic potential and more alteration is seen with gutkha as compared to panmasala plain, indicating that similar effects might also be possible in humans. PMID:21343226

  15. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  16. Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Meena, Punar Dutt; Kaushik, Pallavi; Shukla, Shalini; Soni, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    We report the chemopreventive activity of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) gum, flower and leaf aqueous extracts, on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into following groups: Group I (Controls) given DMBA and croton oil, with no extract ; Group II (treatment) animals treated with Acacia nilotica gum (Group II-a) (800 mg/kg body weight), flowers (Group II-b) (800 mg/kg body weight), or leaves (Group II-c) (800 mg/kg body weight) during the peri- and post initiation periods of DMBA and croton oil application. A significant reduction in the values of tumor burden, tumor incidence and cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the Acacia nilotica gum, flower and leaf extracts as compared with the control group. The latency period in treatment Group-II (b) and Group-II (c) was significantly increased as compared with the control group. A significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was also observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the aqueous extracts, along with significant decrease in total chromosomal aberrations in the form of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, acentric fragments and exchange. Treatment with Acacia nilotica flower (Group II-B) and leaf (Group II-C) aqueous extracts by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a highly significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the liver, but this was less evident with the gum (Group II-A) . Conversely, reduced glutathione (GSH) content was observed to be significantly elevated as compared with the control group with leaves (Group II-C) and flowers (Group II-B). The chemopreventive and antimutagenic activity of the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica was most significant followed by the flower extract and then by gum. PMID:17250441

  17. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  18. Protective effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Kumaraguruparan, Ramasamy; Abraham, Suresh K; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei, the extent of hepatic lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidants-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate biomarkers of chemoprotection. In DMBA-treated mice, the increases in micronuclei and lipid peroxides were accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced DMBA-induced micronuclei and lipid peroxides and enhanced GSH-dependent antioxidant activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract exerts protective effects against DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:16635967

  19. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of Persea americana leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Odetola, A A; Agomo, P U

    2007-06-01

    The effect of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Persea americana on plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHOL), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHOL) in rats was investigated. Albino rats were fed a diet containing 20% groundnut oil, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.25% cholic acid to induce hypercholesterolemia. They were then treated daily with aqueous or methanolic extract of P. americana leaf (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 8 weeks. There were no significant (P > .05) differences in the overall body weight gain of the hypercholesterolemic rats compared to normal control. Liver to body weight ratio, plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-CHOL), and LDL-CHOL levels were significantly (P < .05) elevated in rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet compared to normal controls. The administration of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. americana induced reductions in plasma glucose (16% and 11%,respectively), T-CHOL (8% and 5%, respectively), and LDL-CHOL (19% and 20%, respectively) in the treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. Also, plasma HDL-CHOL concentrations increased by 85% and 68%, respectively, in the aqueous and methanolic extract-treated rats compared to the hypercholesterolemic controls. These results suggest that aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P. americana lower plasma glucose and influence lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats with consequent lowering of T-CHOL and LDL-CHOL and a restoration of HDL-CHOL levels. This could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:17651074

  20. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  1. Juno Microwave Radiometer Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, N.; Chen, J.; Focardi, P.; Hodges, R.; Hughes, R.; Jakoboski, J.; Venkatesan, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Juno is a mission in the NASA New Frontiers Program with the goal of significantly improving our understanding of the formation and structure of Jupiter. This paper discusses the modeling and measurement of the two patch array antennas. An overview of the antenna architecture, design and development at JPL is provided, along with estimates of performance and the results of measurements.

  2. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Ferraz, Goncalo; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species.

  3. Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas of a proposed type would be tunable over broad wavelength ranges. These antennas would be attractive for use in a variety of microwave communication systems in which there are requirements for transmission and/or reception at multiple, widely separated frequencies. Prior efforts to construct tunable microstrip patch antennas have involved integration of microstrip circuitry with, variously, ferrite films with magneticfield tuning, solid-state electronic tuning devices, or piezoelectric tuning actuators. Those efforts have been somewhat successful, but have yielded tuning ranges of 20 percent and smaller much smaller than needed in typical practical cases. Like prior microstrip patch antennas (both tunable and non-tunable), the proposed antennas would have instantaneous bandwidths of about 1 percent of their nominal or resonance frequencies. However, these would be tunable over much broader frequency ranges as much as several octaves, depending on specific designs. They could be fabricated relatively simply and inexpensively by use of conventional photolithography, and without need for integration with solid-state electronic or piezoelectric control devices. An antenna as proposed (see figure) would include a microstrip patch radiating element on a thin ferroelectric film on a semiconductor substrate with a ground-plane conductor on the underside of the substrate. The ferroelectric film could be, for example, SrTiO3 with a thickness of the order of 1 or 2 micrometers.

  4. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  5. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  6. A new, albino-beige mouse: giant granules in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Robison, W G; Kuwabara, T

    1978-04-01

    Albino-beige mice were produced in order to combine two experimentally useful characteristics, albinism and lysosomal dysfunction, in the same animal. The retinal pigment epithelium of albino-beige mice formed giant intracellular granules. Exposure of albino-beige mice to white light of 150 foot-candles for 3 to 10 hr induced marked phagocytosis of rod outer segment fragments by the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in intracellular accumulations of undigested disk membranes within the giant granules. Additional, incompletely processed membranes accumulated as the mice aged or were exposed to 150 foot-candle light for longer periods. Such accumulations of ingested membranes were not observed in the pigment epithelium of exposed or aging albino mice heterozygous for the beige gene. Because of its altered processing of ingested outer segment membranes, this new albino mouse should be useful for studying the possible roles of the retinal pigment epithelium in the maintenance of photoreceptor cells and in their recovery from light damage and other insults. PMID:640784

  7. Patch burning: implications on water erosion and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ozaslan Parlak, Altingul; Parlak, Mehmet; Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Schacht, Walter H; Guretzky, John A; Mamo, Martha

    2015-05-01

    Patch burning can be a potential management tool to create grassland heterogeneity and enhance forage productivity and plant biodiversity, but its impacts on soil and environment have not been widely documented. In summer 2013, we studied the effect of time after patch burning (4 mo after burning [recently burned patches], 16 mo after burning [older burned patches], and unburned patches [control]) on vegetative cover, water erosion, and soil properties on a patch-burn experiment established in 2011 on a Yutan silty clay loam near Mead, NE. The recently burned patches had 29 ± 8.0% (mean ± SD) more bare ground, 21 ± 1.4% less canopy cover, and 40 ± 11% less litter cover than older burned and unburned patches. Bare ground and canopy cover did not differ between the older burned and unburned patches, indicating that vegetation recovered. Runoff depth from the older burned and recently burned patches was 2.8 times (19.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.1 ± 3.0 mm [mean ± SD]) greater than the unburned patches. The recently burned patches had 4.5 times greater sediment loss (293 ± 89 vs. 65 ± 56 g m) and 3.8 times greater sediment-associated organic C loss (9.2 ± 2.0 vs. 2.4 ± 1.9 g m) than the older burned and unburned patches. The recently burned patches had increased daytime soil temperature but no differences in soil compaction and structural properties, dissolved nutrients, soil C, and total N concentration relative to older burned and unburned patches. Overall, recently burned patches can have reduced canopy and litter cover and increased water erosion, but soil properties may not differ from older burn or unburned patches under the conditions of this study. PMID:26024270

  8. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  9. Damped leaf flexure hinge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage. PMID:26026549

  10. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  11. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  12. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, N.

    1999-01-22

    Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

  13. Genetic and Physical Interaction Studies Reveal Functional Similarities between ALBINO3 and ALBINO4 in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trösch, Raphael; Töpel, Mats; Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ALBINO3 (ALB3) is a well-known component of a thylakoid protein-targeting complex that interacts with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and the cpSRP receptor, chloroplast filamentous temperature-sensitive Y (cpFtsY). Its protein-inserting function has been established mainly for light-harvesting complex proteins, which first interact with the unique chloroplast cpSRP43 component and then are delivered to the ALB3 integrase by a GTP-dependent cpSRP-cpFtsY interaction. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a subsequently discovered ALB3 homolog, ALB4, has been proposed to be involved not in light-harvesting complex protein targeting, but instead in the stabilization of the ATP synthase complex. Here, however, we show that ALB3 and ALB4 share significant functional overlap, and that both proteins are required for the efficient insertion of cytochrome f and potentially other subunits of pigment-bearing protein complexes. Genetic and physical interactions between ALB4 and ALB3, and physical interactions between ALB4 and cpSRP, suggest that the two ALB proteins may engage similar sets of interactors for their specific functions. We propose that ALB4 optimizes the insertion of thylakoid proteins by participating in the ALB3-cpSRP pathway for certain substrates (e.g. cytochrome f and the Rieske protein). Although ALB4 has clearly diverged from ALB3 in relation to the partner-recruiting C-terminal domain, our analysis suggests that one putative cpSRP-binding motif has not been entirely lost. PMID:26265777

  14. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  15. On the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration.

    PubMed

    Gyllenberg, Mats; Kisdi, Éva; Weigang, Helene C

    2016-04-21

    Empirical studies of dispersal indicate that decisions to immigrate are patch-type dependent; yet theoretical models usually ignore this fact. Here, we investigate the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration of a population inhabiting and dispersing in a heterogeneous landscape, which is structured by patches of low and high reward. We model the decision to immigrate in detail from a mechanistic underpinning. With the methods of adaptive dynamics, we derive both analytical and numerical results for the evolution of immigration when life-history traits are patch-type dependent. The model exhibits evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range and the subsequent coevolution can lead to a stable coexistence of a generalist, settling in patches of any type, and a specialist that only immigrates into patches of high reward. We find that individuals always settle in the patches of high reward, in which survival until maturation, relative fecundity and emigration probability are high. We investigate how the probability to immigrate into patches of low reward changes with model parameters. For example, we show that immigration into patches of low reward increases when the emigration probability in these patches increases. Further, immigration into patches of low reward decreases when the patches of high reward become less safe during the dispersal season. PMID:26860659

  16. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  17. American crew patch of the ASTP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the American crew patch of the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) scheduled for July 1975. Of circular design, the patch as a colored border area, outlined in red, with the names of the five crewmen and the words Apollo in English and Soyuz in Russian around an artist's concept of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft about to dock in Earth orbit. The bright Sun and the blue and white Earth are in the background. The white stars on the blue background represent American Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, Vance D. Brand, and Donald K. Slayton. The dark gold stars on the red background represent Soviet Cosmonauts Aleskey A. Leonov, and Valeriy N. Kubasov.

  18. A novel, non-invasive, online-monitoring, versatile and easy plant-based probe for measuring leaf water status

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, D.; Reuss, R.; Westhoff, M.; Geßner, P.; Bauer, W.; Bamberg, E.; Bentrup, F-W.; Zimmermann, U.

    2008-01-01

    A high-precision pressure probe is described which allows non-invasive online-monitoring of the water relations of intact leaves. Real-time recording of the leaf water status occurred by data transfer to an Internet server. The leaf patch clamp pressure probe measures the attenuated pressure, Pp, of a leaf patch in response to a constant clamp pressure, Pclamp. Pp is sensed by a miniaturized silicone pressure sensor integrated into the device. The magnitude of Pp is dictated by the transfer function of the leaf, Tf, which is a function of leaf patch volume and ultimately of cell turgor pressure, Pc, as shown theoretically. The power function Tf=f(Pc) theoretically derived was experimentally confirmed by concomitant Pp and Pc measurements on intact leaflets of the liana Tetrastigma voinierianum under greenhouse conditions. Simultaneous Pp recordings on leaflets up to 10 m height above ground demonstrated that changes in Tf induced by Pc changes due to changes of microclimate and/or of the irrigation regime were sensitively reflected in corresponding changes of Pp. Analysis of the data show that transpirational water loss during the morning hours was associated with a transient rise in turgor pressure gradients within the leaflets. Subsequent recovery of turgescence during the afternoon was much faster than the preceding transpiration-induced water loss if the plants were well irrigated. Our data show the enormous potential of the leaf patch clamp pressure probe for leaf water studies including unravelling of the hydraulic communication between neighbouring leaves and over long distances within tall plants (trees). PMID:18689442

  19. Atypical scabies presenting as annular patches.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Delwar

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a common parasitic disease that can be recognized by the development of itchy lesions and a predilection for certain places on the body. It may infrequently present with patchy lesions. We report a patient with well-defined annular patches. Histopathology showed an egg of the scabies mite in the epidermis. Treatment with permethrin cream resulted in complete resolution of her disease. PMID:22967356

  20. Design of an innovative magnetostrictive patch actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Giberti, H.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive actuators can be profitably used to reduce vibration in structures. However, this technology has been exploited only to develop inertial actuators, while patches actuators have not been ever used in practice. Patches actuators consist on a layer of magnetostrictive material, which has to be stuck to the surface of the vibrating structure, and on a coil surrounding the layer itself. However, the presence of the winding severely limits the use of such devices. As a matter of fact, the scientific literature reports only theoretical uses of such actuators, but, in practice it does not seem they were ever used. This paper presents an innovative solution to improve the structure of the actuator patches, allowing their use in several practical applications. The principle of operation of these devices is rather simple. The actuator patch is able to generate a local deformation of the surface of the vibrating structure so as to introduce an equivalent damping that dissipates the kinetic energy associated to the vibration. This deformation is related to the behavior of the magnetostrictive material immersed in a variable magnetic field generated by the a variable current flowing in the winding. Contrary to what suggested in the theoretical literature, the designed device has the advantage of generating the variable magnetic field no longer in close proximity of the material, but in a different area, thus allowing a better coupling. The magnetic field is then conveyed through a suitable ferromagnetic structure to the magnetostrictive material. The device has been designed and simulated through FEA. Results confirm that the new configuration can easily overcome all the limits of traditional devices.

  1. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  2. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.

  3. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P; Brigham, Mark D; Naik, Shreesh R; Karajanagi, Sandeep S; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches. PMID:21946708

  4. Raspberry leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

  5. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  6. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  7. Study of wound healing activity of Tectona grandis Linn. leaf extract on rats

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sushilkumar B.; Giri, Sapna P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the wound healing activity of Tectona grandis (TG) Linn. leaf extract on rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy albino rats (150-200 g) of either sex were taken for excision and incision wound model. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals in each group. For Group simple ointment served as control. The Groups 2 and 3 had 5 and 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and Group 4 soframycin ointment served as standard. In excision wound percentage of wound contraction was assessed, whereas in incision wound tensile strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by t-test. Results: In excision wound model, 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed a reduction in wound area 8th day onwards. Reduction in wound area was very significant (P < 0.01) as compared to control. Whereas 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and standard showed a reduction in wound area fourth day onwards, which was highly significant (P < 0.001) as compared to control. In incision wound model, animals treated with 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in tensile strength as compare to control. However, animals treated with 10% ointment of TG leaf extract showed very significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. However, animals treated with soframycin showed highly significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. Conclusions: TG leaf extract showed significant wound healing activity. PMID:24991074

  8. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  9. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  10. Analytical solutions for rotating vortex arrays involving multiple vortex patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren; Marshall, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A continous two-parameter family of analytical solutions to the Euler equations are presented representing a class of steadily rotating vortex arrays involving N+1 interacting vortex patches where N ≥ 3 is an integer. The solutions consist of a central vortex patch surrounded by an N-fold symmetric alternating array of satellite point vortices and vortex patches. One of the parameters governs the size of the central patch, the other governs the size of the N satellite patches. In the limit where the areas of the satellite vortex patches tend to zero, the solutions degenerate to the exact solutions of Crowdy (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 469, 2002, p. 209). Limiting states are found in which cusps form only on the central patch, only on the satellite patches, or simultaneously on both central and satellite patches. Contour dynamics simulations are used to check the mathematical solutions and test their robustness. The linear stability of a class of "point-vortex models" (in which the patches are replaced by point vortices) are also studied in order to examine the stability of the distributed-vorticity configurations to pure-displacement modes. On the other hand, a desingularization of all point vortices to Rankine vortices leads to a class of "quasi-equilibria" consisting purely of interacting vortex patches close to hydrodynamic equilibrium.

  11. Transcatheter patch occlusion of experimental atrial septal defects.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Eleftherios B; Sideris, Chrysoula E; Stamatelopoulos, Stamatis F; Moulopoulos, Spyridon D

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of transcatheter patch atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion were studied in 20 piglets. Experimental atrial septal defects were created by foramen ovale dilation. ASDs were corrected by polyurethane patches of two types (flat and sleeve). Specially made balloon catheters supported the patches for periods varying from 1 to 6 days; after this period, the supporting catheters were withdrawn and the patches were released. All transcatheter patches were safely embedded in the atrial septum 48 hr or more after implantation. All defects were fully occluded. One patch became infected. The transcatheter patch experimental ASD occlusion method was found effective and safe, potentially applicable in the occlusion of human ASDs. PMID:12410521

  12. Development and evaluation of a tampering resistant transdermal fentanyl patch.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bing; Engqvist, Håkan; Bredenberg, Susanne

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing number of misuse and abuse of opioids, the resistance to tampering becomes an important attribute for transdermal opioid patches. In this study, drug-containing geopolymer granules were integrated into an adhesive matrix to improve the resistance of fast drug release against some common abuse techniques. Bench testing showed that fentanyl loaded geopolymer granules had better resistance to tampering compared to a commercial fentanyl patch. Moreover, in a pilot in vivo study on a few rats, the granules showed potential to give similar drug plasma concentrations as the commercial fentanyl patch. After integrating geopolymer granules into an adhesive matrix, the new patch showed a better resistance against the investigated tampering tests compared with the commercially available patch. In this study, we showed that incorporating drug loaded geopolymer granules into a patch adhesive has potential to improve the resistance of the fentanyl patch against tampering without compromising the drug release. PMID:25913120

  13. Stress field sensitivity of a composite patch repair as a result of varying patch thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siener, Michael P.

    The feasibility of increasing the efficiency of a composite scarf joint and, hence, of the composite patch repair, was investigated by using single lap joint configurations based on a variety of patch material thicknesses and stiffnesses, and testing for the elastic response and the strength capability. Stress analyses of these configurations were carried out and compared to the results from tests. It was found that, by reorienting plies in the principal stress direction, it is possible to reduce the number of plies and thickness required to form a usable composite repair patch. The results also show that it may be necessary to incorporate the nonlinear adhesive behavior into the model to account for the extensional response of the adherends.

  14. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual’s exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  15. [Phase morphometric differences among Locusta migratoria cinerascens, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and their mutant albinos (Orthoptera)].

    PubMed

    Rakotondrainibe, K; Nicolas, G; Fuzeau-Braesch, S

    1975-12-22

    A first canonical variate analysis (factor analysis) of two geographic strains of L. m. shows that the same axes distinguish crowded from isolated animals as well as their geographical origins. Two other analyses between normal and albino strains of both localities show no differences for one strain; however for the other strain, the pigmentary mutation coincides with a solitary tendency. PMID:816517

  16. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  17. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  18. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of O. basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  19. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities

  20. Wideband Patch Antenna for Land based Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. P. S.; Dutt, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an irregular pentagon shaped patch antenna has been presented. The proposed antenna operates over a wide band in frequency range from 12 to 26 GHz with VSWR < 2. It has a partial ground plane with two-inverted L and one I shaped slots in the radiation patch to attain wide bandwidth. The antenna consists of FR4 epoxy as a dielectric substrate with dielectric constant 4.4 and loss tangent 0.002. The size of the antenna is 30 × 30 × 1.57 mm3 and is fed by the microstrip line. The size of the fabricated proposed antenna is smaller than that of the antenna under reference (elliptical radiating patch with defected ground plane). The simulation has been done using high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) which is a finite element method (FEM) based tool. The proposed antenna exhibits the return loss of 21.85, 28.03 and 29.14 dB and gain of 6.6, 5.67 and 7.0 dB at resonant frequencies 16.7, 19.00 and 21.4 GHz, respectively. The bandwidth of the antenna is 10 GHz with normalized radiation efficiencies of 65, 69 and 70 % at corresponding resonant frequencies. The measured results of the fabricated proposed antenna have been compared with the simulated results and there has been a close agreement between both the results. Also the simulated results of the proposed antenna have been compared with the antenna under reference and it is found that the performance of the proposed antenna is far better. The proposed antenna can be used for land based vehicles in both Ku-band (12-18 GHz) and K-band (18-26 GHz).

  1. Expression of distinct α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the iris of pigmented and albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, I; Suzuki, F; Nishimune, A; Anisuzzaman, ASM; Yoshiki, H; Su, T-H; Chang, C-K; Morishima, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The expression of multiple pharmacological phenotypes including α1L-adrenoceptor has recently been reported for α1-adrenoceptors. The purpose of the present study was to identify α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the irises of pigmented and albino rabbits. Experimental approach: Radioligand binding and functional bioassay experiments were performed in segments or strips of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits, and their pharmacological profiles were compared. Key results: [3H]-silodosin at subnanomolar concentrations bound to intact segments of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits at similar densities (approximately 240 fmol·mg−1 protein). The binding sites in the iris of a pigmented rabbit were composed of a single component showing extremely low affinities for prazosin, hydrochloride [N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-α,α-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethamine hydrochloride (RS-17053)] and 5-methylurapidil, while two components with high and low affinities for prazosin, RS-17053 and 5-methylurapidil were identified in irises from albino rabbits. In contrast, specific binding sites for [3H]-prazosin were not clearly detected because a high proportion of non-specific binding and/or low affinity for prazosin occurred. Contractile responses of iris dilator muscle to noradrenaline were antagonized by the above ligands, and their antagonist affinities were consistent with the binding estimates at low-affinity sites identified in both strains of rabbits. Conclusions and implications: A typical α1L phenotype with extremely low affinity for prazosin is exclusively expressed in the iris of pigmented rabbits, while two distinct phenotypes (α1A and α1L) with high and moderate affinities for prazosin are co-expressed in the iris of albino rabbits. This suggests that a significant difference in the expression of phenotypes of the α1-adrenoceptor occurs in the irises between the two strains of rabbits. PMID:19466984

  2. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  3. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  4. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  5. Aspects and applications of patched grid calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. W.; Switzer, G. F.; Thomas, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Patched grid calculations within the framework of an implicit, flux-vector split upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler equations are presented. The effect of a metric-discontinuous interface on the convergence rate of the algorithm is discussed along with the spatial accuracy of the solution and the effect of curvature along an interface. Results are presented and discussed for the free-stream problem, shock reflection problem, supersonic inlet with a 5 degree ramp, aerodynamically choked inlet, and three-dimensional analytic forebody.

  6. Complex suicide with homemade nicotine patches.

    PubMed

    Lardi, C; Vogt, S; Pollak, S; Thierauf, A

    2014-03-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is rather common around the world. This paper presents an exceptional complex suicide in which nicotine was applied in the form of self-made patches soaked with an extraction from fine-cut tobacco. In addition, the 51-year-old suicide victim took a lethal dose of diphenhydramine. Toxicological analysis also revealed the presence of tetrazepam in subtherapeutic concentrations. The scene of death suggested an autoerotic accident at first, as the body was tied with tapes, cables and handcuffs. As a result of the entire investigations, the fatality had to be classified as a suicidal intoxication by nicotine and diphenhydramine. PMID:24439154

  7. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  8. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  9. Patch forest: a hybrid framework of random forest and patch-based segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    The development of an accurate, robust and fast segmentation algorithm has long been a research focus in medical computer vision. State-of-the-art practices often involve non-rigidly registering a target image with a set of training atlases for label propagation over the target space to perform segmentation, a.k.a. multi-atlas label propagation (MALP). In recent years, the patch-based segmentation (PBS) framework has gained wide attention due to its advantage of relaxing the strict voxel-to-voxel correspondence to a series of pair-wise patch comparisons for contextual pattern matching. Despite a high accuracy reported in many scenarios, computational efficiency has consistently been a major obstacle for both approaches. Inspired by recent work on random forest, in this paper we propose a patch forest approach, which by equipping the conventional PBS with a fast patch search engine, is able to boost segmentation speed significantly while retaining an equal level of accuracy. In addition, a fast forest training mechanism is also proposed, with the use of a dynamic grid framework to efficiently approximate data compactness computation and a 3D integral image technique for fast box feature retrieval.

  10. Laser-assisted patch clamping: a methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, G. H.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Laser microsurgery can be used to perform both cell biological manipulations, such as targeted cell ablation, and molecular genetic manipulations, such as genetic transformation and chromosome dissection. In this report, we describe a laser microsurgical method that can be used either to ablate single cells or to ablate a small area (1-3 microns diameter) of the extracellular matrix. In plants and microorganisms, the extracellular matrix consists of the cell wall. While conventional patch clamping of these cells, as well as of many animal cells, requires enzymatic digestion of the extracellular matrix, we illustrate that laser microsurgery of a portion of the wall enables patch clamp access to the plasma membrane of higher plant cells remaining situated in their tissue environment. What follows is a detailed description of the construction and use of an economical laser microsurgery system, including procedures for single cell and targeted cell wall ablation. This methodology will be of interest to scientists wishing to perform cellular or subcellular ablation with a high degree of accuracy, or wishing to study how the extracellular matrix affects ion channel function.

  11. Quantized image patches co-occurrence matrix: a new statistical approach for texture classification using image patch exemplars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Jingyan; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Chao

    2011-06-01

    The statistical distribution of image patch exemplars has been shown to be an effective approach to texture classification. In this paper, the joint distribution of pairs of patches for texture classification from single images is investigated. We developed a statistical method of examining texture that considers the spatial relationship of image patches, which is called the quantized patches co-occurrence matrix (QPCM). In our method, the images are first slipt into small image patches, and then the patches are quantized to the closest patch cluster centers (textons) which is learned form training images. By calculating how often pairs of patches with specific quantized values (texton labels) and in a specified spatial relationship occur in an image, we create the QPCM for images representation. Moreover, we developed a fusion framework for texture classification by fusing 4 QPCM functions with specified neighboring spatial relationship and 3 other statistical representations of image patches, which is called QPCM-SVM classifier. The effectiveness of the proposed texture classification methodology is demonstrated via an extensive consistent evaluation in standard benchmarks that clearly shows better performance against state-of-the-art statistical approach using image patch exemplars.

  12. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  13. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species. PMID:22268847

  14. Suspended-Patch Antenna With Inverted, EM-Coupled Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An improved suspended-patch antenna has been designed to operate at a frequency of about 23 GHz with linear polarization and to be one of four identical antennas in a rectangular array. The antenna includes a parasitic patch on top of a suspended dielectric superstrate, an active patch on top of a suspended dielectric substrate, a microstrip on the bottom of the dielectric substrate, and a ground plane. The microstrip, the ground plane, the airgap between them, and the dielectric substrate together constitute a transmission line that has an impedance of 50 Ohm and is electromagnetically (EM) coupled to the active patch. The parasitic patch is, in turn, excited by the active patch. The microstrip feed is characterized as inverted because the microstrip is on the bottom of the substrate, whereas microstrips are usually placed on the tops of dielectric substrates

  15. SafePatch for Windows Version 1.0 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, D; Meier, T

    2003-05-01

    SafePatch for Windows provides automated analysis of network-based Microsoft Windows{trademark} computer systems to determine the status of security patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed on a system or group of systems. SafePatch collects and packages the necessary patches and the script to install those patches for the selected remote systems. SafePatch for Windows also supports browsing the Microsoft{trademark} patch database and the viewing of the bulletins associated with the patches.

  16. Dendritic Actin Filament Nucleation Causes Traveling Waves and Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders E.

    2010-06-01

    The polymerization of actin via branching at a cell membrane containing nucleation-promoting factors is simulated using a stochastic-growth methodology. The polymerized-actin distribution displays three types of behavior: (a) traveling waves, (b) moving patches, and (c) random fluctuations. Increasing actin concentration causes a transition from patches to waves. The waves and patches move by a treadmilling mechanism not involving myosin II. The effects of downregulation of key proteins on actin wave behavior are evaluated.

  17. Facile route to morphologically tailored silver patches on colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Klupp Taylor, Robin N; Bao, Huixin; Tian, Chenting; Vasylyev, Serhiy; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2010-08-17

    Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of silver patches on submicrometer silica spheres. While patches can be grown directly onto native silica particles, it is shown that a higher patch yield can be obtained by first treating the silica with a mixture of an alkanolamine and silver nitrate. Variation of the pretreatment and subsequent coating reactions allowed the patch yield, number, size, thickness, and shape to be adjusted. The patchy particles were shown to possess plasmon modes extending from the visible into the near-IR region, making these structures highly interesting for both their asymmetric morphological and functional properties. PMID:20695605

  18. An Optimal Cell Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    While there are several hardware techniques for the automated patch clamping of cells that describe the equipment apparatus used for patch clamping, very few explain the science behind the actual technique of locating the ideal cell for a patch clamping procedure. We present a machine vision approach to patch clamping cell selection by developing an intelligent algorithm technique that gives the user the ability to determine the good cell to patch clamp in an image within one second. This technique will aid the user in determining the best candidates for patch clamping and will ultimately save time, increase efficiency and reduce cost. The ultimate goal is to combine intelligent processing with instrumentation and controls in order to produce a complete turnkey automated patch clamping system capable of accurately and reliably patch clamping cells with a minimum amount of human intervention. We present a unique technique that identifies good patch clamping cell candidates based on feature metrics of a cell's (x, y) position, major axis length, minor axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, thinness and whether or not the cell is only particularly in the field of view. A patent is pending for this research.

  19. Learning Multiscale Active Facial Patches for Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin; Liu, Qingshan; Yang, Peng; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new idea to analyze facial expression by exploring some common and specific information among different expressions. Inspired by the observation that only a few facial parts are active in expression disclosure (e.g., around mouth, eye), we try to discover the common and specific patches which are important to discriminate all the expressions and only a particular expression, respectively. A two-stage multitask sparse learning (MTSL) framework is proposed to efficiently locate those discriminative patches. In the first stage MTSL, expression recognition tasks are combined to located common patches. Each of the tasks aims to find dominant patches for each expression. Secondly, two related tasks, facial expression recognition and face verification tasks, are coupled to learn specific facial patches for individual expression. The two-stage patch learning is performed on patches sampled by multiscale strategy. Extensive experiments validate the existence and significance of common and specific patches. Utilizing these learned patches, we achieve superior performances on expression recognition compared to the state-of-the-arts. PMID:25291808

  20. Comparative study of patches for liquid cooled garments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chambers, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were performed on 12 cooling patches of various designs to establish criteria for the evaluation of their performance in liquid-cooled suits in industrial, military and aerospace applications. The thermal effectiveness value was 0.088 for patch designs with a double spiral flow pattern, and 0.075 for patch designs with a parallel flow pattern. The ratio of thermal energy transfer rate to cooling-medium pumping power requirement is indicated as the prime performance characteristic to be considered in the selection and rating of cooling patches.

  1. Intestinal Peyer's patches prevent tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kyoko; Fujii, Gen; Sakurai, Hitomi; Yoshitome, Hiroko; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wada, Morimasa

    2015-01-01

    Peyer's patches are nodules that play a central role in intestinal immunity. Few studies demonstrate the relationship between the number of Peyer's patches and intestinal polyps. Here we identify a statistically significant inverse correlation between the quantity of Peyer's patches and of the development of intestinal polyps in Apc (Min/+) mice, which are a useful model to clarify the role of Peyer's patches in intestinal tumorigenesis. Using this model, we increased the number of Peyer's patches using 0.1% and 1% corn husk arabinoxylan through feed. Intestinal polyp formation significantly decreased, concomitant with an increase in Peyer's patches development (n = 12/group). In Aly (-/-) Apc (Min/+) mice (negative control; no Peyer's patches) there was no change in the amount of intestinal polyps (n = 10/group). Immune reaction following corn husk arabinoxylan treatment was measured by cytokine array. Increasing the number of Peyer's patches decreased interleukin-17 production, which showed a dose dependent correlation with transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor. This study identified a relationship between levels of Peyer's patches and intestinal polyp formation, partly explained by the involvement of interleukin-17 production and β-catenin signaling in Apc (Min/+) mice. PMID:25678750

  2. Leaf development: a cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

  3. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture...

  4. Cooperative polymerization of one-patch colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, Teun; Smallenburg, Frank; Munaò, Gianmarco; Preisler, Zdeněk; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-04-14

    We numerically investigate cooperative polymerization in an off-lattice model based on a pairwise additive potential using particles with a single attractive patch that covers 30% of the colloid surface. Upon cooling, these particles self-assemble into small clusters which, below a density-dependent temperature, spontaneously reorganize into long straight tubes. We evaluate the partition functions of clusters of all sizes to provide an accurate description of the chemical reaction constants governing this process. Our calculations show that, for intermediate sizes, the partition functions retain contributions from two different structures, differing in both energy and entropy. We illustrate the microscopic mechanism behind the complex polymerization process in this system and provide a detailed evaluation of its thermodynamics.

  5. Developmental pathways: Sonic hedgehog-Patched-GLI.

    PubMed Central

    Walterhouse, D O; Yoon, J W; Iannaccone, P M

    1999-01-01

    Developmental pathways are networks of genes that act coordinately to establish the body plan. Disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Environmental exposures can be associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including dysmorphic offspring or children with a variety of diseases. An important goal of environmental science should be reduction of these poor outcomes. This will require an understanding of the genes affected by specific exposures and the consequence of alterations in these genes or their products, which in turn will require an understanding of the pathways critical in development. The ligand Sonic hedgehog, the receptors Patched and Smoothened, and the GLI family of transcription factors represent one such pathway. This pathway illustrates several operating principles important in the consideration of developmental consequences of environmental exposures to toxins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064544

  6. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  7. Patch quality and context, but not patch number, drive multi-scale colonization dynamics in experimental aquatic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Resetarits, William J; Binckley, Christopher A

    2013-11-01

    Colonization and extinction are primary drivers of local population dynamics, community structure, and spatial patterns of biological diversity. Existing paradigms of island biogeography, metapopulation biology, and metacommunity ecology, as well as habitat management and conservation biology based on those paradigms, emphasize patch size, number, and isolation as primary characteristics influencing colonization and extinction. Habitat selection theory suggests that patch quality could rival size, number, and isolation in determining rates of colonization and resulting community structure. We used naturally colonized experimental landscapes to address four issues: (a) how do colonizing aquatic beetles respond to variation in patch number, (b) how do they respond to variation in patch quality, (c) does patch context affect colonization dynamics, and (d) at what spatial scales do beetles respond to habitat variation? Increasing patch number had no effect on per patch colonization rates, while patch quality and context were critical in determining colonization rates and resulting patterns of abundance and species richness at multiple spatial scales. We graphically illustrate how variation in immigration rates driven by perceived predation risk (habitat quality) can further modify dynamics of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography beyond predator-driven effects on extinction rates. Our data support the importance of patch quality and context as primary determinants of colonization rate, occupancy, abundance, and resulting patterns of species richness, and reinforce the idea that management of metapopulations for species preservation, and metacommunities for local and regional diversity, should incorporate habitat quality into the predictive equation. PMID:23609801

  8. Development of dog mammary tumor xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajmani, R S; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, G Ravi; Sahoo, Aditya P; Santra, Lakshman; Saxena, Shikha; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Saxena, Lovleen; Desai, G S; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Jadon, N S; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    Development and study of dog mammary tumour xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice adds a new dimension in cancer research as dog tumors have many similarities with human tumors regarding progression, histopathology, molecular mechanism, immune response and therapy. Failure of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells leads to cancer progression and the fight between immune cells and cancer cells has a great role in understanding the mechanism of cancer progression and elimination. Rejection and acceptance of tumour xenograft depends on efficiency of CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell populations. In the present investigation, dog mammary tumor xenograft in cyclosporine-A and gamma-irradiated, immunosuppressed Swiss Albino mice was developed and the immune cell status of graft accepted and rejected mice was assessed. It was observed that all the major immune cells (CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells) play an equal role in tumour rejection. PMID:25345242

  9. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  10. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  11. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained. PMID:16830507

  12. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  13. Smart patches: self-monitoring composite patches for the repair of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Samuel D.; Marioli-Riga, Zaira; Tsamasphyros, George; Kanderakis, George; Furnarakis, Nikos; Ikiades, Aris; Konstantaki, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Conventional aircraft repair techniques employ bolted or riveted metallic reinforcements, which frequently introduce additional stress concentrations leading to further cracking and creating areas difficult or impossible to inspect. Bonded composite repairs ("patches") result in the elimination of stress concentrations caused by additional fastener holes, improved strength to weight ratio and present a sealed interface. This reduces even further the danger of corrosion and fretting under the repair, gives greater flexibility in design and lessens application time while lengthening fatigue life. Embedding optical fibres and sensors into the patch, and combining this with advanced data collection and processing systems, creating a so-called "smart patch", will enable the real-time assessment of aircraft structural integrity resulting in reliable prediction of maintenance requirements for repaired structures. This paper describes the current state of the art in smart patch technology, and includes a detailed description of the measurement problem and of the work being undertaken to solve it, at both the component and system level. An analysis of typical crack behaviour, based on FE modelling is presented and this demonstrates the need for optical strain sensors having a very short gauge length. The paper discusses the advantages and limitations of very short Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) in this context and also provides early experimental data from 1mm and 2mm gratings which have been fabricated for this purpose. The paper also describes the impact of the measurement and environmental constraints on the design of the FBG interrogation system and presents the results of initial trials. The work is being undertaken in the framework of a collaborative project (ACIDS) which is co-funded by the European Commission.

  14. Geophysical investigation and assessment of the Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area, Rye Patch, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mark Richmond

    A gravity and ground-based magnetic survey was conducted at the Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area located at Rye Patch, Nevada. The purpose of the study was to attempt to further delineate the geothermal reservoir and/or to identify potential drilling targets. The survey consisted of collecting data at 264 new stations to augment data from 203 stations collected in 2008. Information from previous seismic, aeromagnetic and geochemical investigations was also examined and incorporated. Filtering methods including removal of a polynomial trend surface and wavelength filtering were utilized on the gravity data to remove the strong regional overprint caused by the large density contrast between the low density alluvium within the valley versus the near-surface higher density rock in the higher elevations. After filtering, the Rye Patch Fault, the Range Front Fault, an east-west trending feature at the location of "southeast" fault, and another possible fault at the southern end of the study area are observable in the Rye Patch geothermal anomaly area. In the Humboldt House anomaly area, the northeast trending features identified by MacNight et al. (2005) and Ellis (2011) are not discernable although there is a significant gravity low in this area. Based on estimates arrived at by using 2nd derivative methods, fault dip angles are on the order of 80° and are consistent with previous conceptual models of the site. Computer modeling indicates that the fault blocks may also be rotated back to the east. Due to errors in collecting diurnal information, the ground-based magnetic information was of limited use. Anomalies identified with the magnetic data do however correlate with the locations of anomalies identified using gravity and aeromagnetic surveys. Results indicate that gravity methods can be an effective method of defining approximate fault locations, lengths, and approximate trends and dip angles.

  15. Patch-clamp recording in brain slices with improved slicer technology.

    PubMed

    Geiger, J R P; Bischofberger, J; Vida, I; Fröbe, U; Pfitzinger, S; Weber, H J; Haverkampf, K; Jonas, P

    2002-01-01

    The use of advanced patch-clamp recording techniques in brain slices, such as simultaneous recording from multiple neurons and recording from dendrites or presynaptic terminals, demands slices of the highest quality. In this context the mechanics of the tissue slicer are an important factor. Ideally, a tissue slicer should generate large-amplitude and high-frequency movements of the cutting blade in a horizontal axis, with minimal vibrations in the vertical axis. We developed a vibroslicer that fulfils these in part conflicting requirements. The oscillator is a permanent-magnet-coil-leaf-spring system. Using an auto-resonant mechano-electrical feedback circuit, large horizontal oscillations (up to 3 mm peak-to-peak) with high frequency ( approximately 90 Hz) are generated. To minimize vertical vibrations, an adjustment mechanism was employed that allowed alignment of the cutting edge of the blade with the major axis of the oscillation. A vibroprobe device was used to monitor vertical vibrations during adjustment. The system is based on the shading of the light path between a light-emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode. Vibroprobe monitoring revealed that the vibroslicer, after appropriate adjustment, generated vertical vibrations of <1 microm, significantly less than many commercial tissue slicers. Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of surface layers of slices cut with the vibroslicer showed that cellular elements, dendritic processes and presynaptic terminals are well preserved under these conditions, as required for patch-clamp recording from these structures. PMID:11810221

  16. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  17. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  18. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  19. Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, FC; wuanyanwu, KC Patrick-I; Nnodu, CK; Erhabor, O

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D) of experimental male Wistar albino rats (n = 8) for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8) served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01) > B (0.18 ± 0.01) > C (0.14 ± 0.01) > D (0.10 ± 0.01). The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male Wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine) produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.

  20. Exserohilum Leaf Spot on Tigergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze ) is a popular ornamental grass grown throughout landscapes in South Florida. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was observed on tigergrass in the landscape and a commercial nursery in Homestead, FL. The causal agent of the leaf spot was isolated, cha...

  1. How to pattern a leaf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, an...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine delivered from a transmucosal patch in children.

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Andrea; Wilson, Stephen; Weaver, Joel S.; Moursi, Amr M.

    2002-01-01

    The DentiPatch lidocaine transoral delivery system (Noven Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for mild topical anesthesia of mucosal membranes in the mouth. The DentiPatch is a mucoadhesive patch containing 46.1 mg of lidocaine (20% concentration). Current studies in adults report that DentiPatch application produces very low plasma concentrations of lidocaine. However, it is not known what plasma levels are obtained when the same dosage is used in children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plasma lidocaine concentrations generated by the DentiPatch are within a safe range for children. The sample in this study was 11 children aged 2-7 years requiring general anesthesia for comprehensive dental care. A lidocaine DentiPatch was placed on the buccal mucosa above the maxillary incisors for 5 minutes. Blood samples were drawn before placing the DentiPatch and at various time intervals after removing it. Blood samples were analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay to determine the plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its major metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. The lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide absorbed from the DentiPatch did not reach toxic plasma levels in children. However, plasma concentrations were much higher than in adults and were high enough to require inclusion in the calculation of total lidocaine administered to a pediatric patient. Images Figure 1 PMID:15384296

  3. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  4. Clinical Outcomes of Silk Patch in Acute Tympanic Membrane Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Joong Seob; Kim, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The silk patch is a thin transparent patch that is produced from silk fibroin. In this study, we investigated the treatment effects of the silk patch in patients with traumatic tympanic membrane perforation (TTMP). Methods The closure rate, otorrhea rate, and closure time in all patients and the closure time in successful patients were compared between the paper patch and silk patch groups. Results Demographic data (gender, site, age, traumatic duration, preoperative air-bone gap, and perforation size and location) were not significantly different between the two groups. The closure rate and otorrhea rate were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the closure time was different between the two groups (closure time of all patients, P=0.031; closure time of successful patients, P=0.037). Conclusion The silk patch which has transparent, elastic, adhesive, and hyper-keratinizing properties results in a more efficient closure time than the paper patch in the treatment of TTMP patients. We therefore believe that the silk patch should be recommended for the treatment of acute tympanic membrane perforation. PMID:26045909

  5. FDTD Analysis of U-Slot Rectangular Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luk, K. M.; Tong, K. F.; Shum, S. M.; Lee, K. F.; Lee, R. Q.

    1997-01-01

    The U-slot rectangular patch antenna (Figure I) has been found experimentally to provide impedance and gain bandwidths of about 300 without the need of stacked or coplanar parasitic elements [1,2]. In this paper, simulation results of the U-slot patch using FDTD analysis are presented. Comparison with measured results are given.

  6. Reduction of Rhizoctonia bare patch win wheat with barley rotations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major fungal root disease in no-till cropping systems. In an 8-year experiment comparing various dryland no-till cropping systems near Ritzville, Washington, Rhizoctonia bare patch first appeared in year 3 and continued through year 8. ...

  7. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2 000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366

  8. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  9. RCS reduction of a microstrip patch using lumped loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.; Alexanian, Angelos

    1992-01-01

    In this report we consider the radar cross section (RCS) of a single rectangular patch antenna in a recessed cavity. Using a previously developed finite element-boundary integral method code, a study is performed on the patch's RCS as a function of frequency. To reduce the RCS of the patch at the resonant frequency, lumped (resistive) loads are placed at the edges of the patch. The effects of the lumped loads on the patch's RCS and gain are examined and it is observed that the RCS and gain are reduced as the as the load value decreases, whereas the antenna's bandwidth is increased. At resonance, the usual relations between the RCS and gain is observed, but it is shown that this relation no longer holds at frequencies away from resonance.

  10. Analytical theory of an unloaded rectangular microstrip patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the size of a resonant rectangular microstrip patch for a specified frequency is given. Using an expression obtained from the reflection coefficient of a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave in a semi-infinite microstrip patch, the resonance condition of a given mode for a patch of finite size is derived in a manner analogous to that of a rectangular, waveguide cavity. Radiation is shown to be in the form of both surface waves and space waves and is dependent on the angles of incidence for waves impinging onto the edges of the patch. By varying the aspect ratio, it is also possible to modify the Q factor of a resonant path. Analytical expressions for the resonant frequency and the Q factor are then derived under the assumption of a very thin substrate slab, encountered frequently in the application. Design curves in the form of the 'Argand diagram' are then presented for microstrip patches with fixed aspect ratios.

  11. Microstrip patch antenna receiving array operating in the Ku band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walcher, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas were first investigated from the idea that it would be highly advantageous to fabricate radiating elements (antennas) on the same dielectric substrate as RF circuitry and transmission lines. Other advantages were soon discovered to be its lightweight, low profile, conformability to shaped surfaces, and low manufacturing costs. Unfortunately, these same patches continually exhibit narrow bandwidths, wide beamwidths, and low antenna gain. This thesis will present the design and experimental results of a microstrip patch antenna receiving array operating in the Ku band. An antenna array will be designed in an attempt to improve its performance over a single patch. Most Ku band information signals are either wide band television images or narrow band data and voice channels. An attempt to improve the gain of the array by introducing parasitic patches on top of the array will also be presented in this thesis.

  12. Suspended Patch Antenna Array With Electromagnetically Coupled Inverted Microstrip Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a four-element suspended patch antenna array, with a parasitic patch layer and an electromagnetically coupled inverted microstrip feed, for linear polarization at K-Band frequencies. This antenna has the following advantages over conventional microstrip antennas: First, the inverted microstrip has lower attenuation than conventional microstrip; hence, conductor loss associated with the antenna corporate feed is lower resulting in higher gain and efficiency. Second, conventional proximity coupled patch antennas require a substrate for the feed and a superstrate for the patch. However, the inverted microstrip fed patch antenna makes use of a single substrate, and hence, is lightweight and low cost. Third, electromagnetic coupling results in wider bandwidth. Details regarding the design and fabrication will be presented as well as measured results including return loss, radiation patterns and cross-polarization levels.

  13. Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis after repeat epidural blood patch.

    PubMed

    Carlswärd, C; Darvish, B; Tunelli, J; Irestedt, L

    2015-08-01

    Epidural blood patching is an effective treatment for postdural puncture headache but has potential risks. Arachnoiditis is a very rare disabling condition and few cases have been described following an epidural blood patch. We present a case of chronic adhesive arachnoiditis in a parturient treated with a repeat epidural blood patch. A healthy 29-year-old woman had an accidental dural puncture following epidural insertion during labour. Initial treatment of postdural puncture headache with an epidural blood patch was ineffective and was therefore repeated. She gradually developed severe neurological symptoms consistent with arachnoiditis confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Despite intensive multimodal treatment with analgesics and physiotherapy, her neurological condition remains unresolved two years later. This serious but rare complication should encourage caution when treating parturients with postdural puncture headache with a repeat epidural blood patch. PMID:26119259

  14. Recent and relict topography of Boo Bee patch reef, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Hudson, J.H.; Lidz, B.

    1977-01-01

    Five core borings were taken on and around Boo Bee Patch Reef to better understand the origin of such shelf lagoon reefs. The cores reveal 4 stages of development: (1) subaerial exposure of a Pleistocene "high" having about 8 meters of relief, possibly a Pleistocene patch reef; (2) deposition of peat and impermeable terrigenous clay 3 meters thick around the high; (3) initiation of carbonate sediment production by corals and algae on the remaining 5 meters of hard Pleistocene topography and carbonate mud on the surrounding terrigenous clay; and (4) accelerated organic accumulation on the patch reef. Estimates of patch reef sedimentation rates (1.6 m/1000 years) are 3 to 4 times greater than off-reef sedimentation rates (0.4-0.5 m/1000 years). During periods of Pleistocene sedimentation on the Belize shelf, lagoon patch reefs may have grown above one another, stacking up to form reef accumulation of considerable thickness.

  15. Effects of coastal transport on larval patches: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Houser, Letise T.; Steppe, Cecily N.; Garvine, Richard W.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2006-03-01

    We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution and transport of patches of blue crab larvae in the mouth of Delaware Bay. The observations consisted of larval collections and surface salinity measurements taken along a moving spatial grid whose origin was determined by a satellite-tracked drifter. Examination of field observations revealed a slender larval patch that was aligned with salinity contours. Measurement of the salting rate of the larval patch indicated that the patch moved through the offshore edge of a buoyant plume due to wind-driven upwelling circulation. A numerical model that provided realistic simulations of the flow field at the mouth of Delaware Bay and the adjoining coastal ocean was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the movement and evolution of the patch. We conducted a series of simulations in which we separately examined the effects of tides, buoyancy-driven flow, and wind-driven transport. Results showed that both tides and buoyancy-driven flow tend to elongate an initially square fluid element. Although winds alone have little effect on the shape of a patch, wind-driven flow can effectively move a patch through a complex flow field in which the deformation by tides and buoyancy-driven circulation can have significant effects. This study represents the first observation and analysis of a larval patch that remains intact while moving through the edge of a buoyant plume. It provides new insight into the shape of larval patches in Delaware Bay and any region with strong buoyancy- and tidally-driven flow, suggesting that typical larval patches may not be characterized by equal across- and alongshelf dimensions but instead tend to be slender shapes that are aligned with the flow field.

  16. Analysis of the Albino-Locus Region of the Mouse. I. Origin and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Liane B.; Russell, W. L.; Kelly, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous specific-locus experiments designed to test the mutagenic effect of external radiation have yielded, in over 3,600,000 animals observed, altogether 119 presumed mutations involving the c locus. Of these, 55 were viable and albino (cav), 13 were viable and of various intermediate pigment types (cxv), four were subvital (cas and cxs), seven were neonatally lethal albinos (cal), 28 prenatally lethal albinos (cal); 12 died untested. All of the prenatally lethal and at least one of the neonatally lethal c-locus mutations (cal classes) are probably deficiencies that we have analyzed extensively in other experiments. Since absence of the locus mimics albino in phenotype, the intermediates (cxv and cxs groups) probably resulted from intragenic changes. The class of viable albino mutants (cav) might include, in addition to intragenic changes, some extremely small deficiencies.—The effects on viability of c-locus lethals (cal's) in heterozygous condition are not drastic enough to be perceived in stocks of mixed genetic background except in the case of the two longest known deficiencies and a few others.—Analysis of the relation between radiation treatment and type of c-locus mutants obtained shows that the relative frequency of viable mutations, for each germ-cell type, is greater for low-LET than for neutron irradiation; however, the difference for any individual cell type is not significant. The majority (66.7%) of mutations derived from X- or γ-ray irradiated spermatogonia are viable, and the proportion of "intermediates" among these viables is similar to that among presumed spontaneous c-locus mutations. No significant dose-rate effect on the proportion of lethals could be demonstrated within the set of mutants induced by low-LET irradiation of spermatogonia. Although sets from other germ-cell stages are too small for statistical tests, the results for oocytes are similar, as far as they go. Furthermore, most of the c-locus mutations induced in

  17. Catch and Patch: A Pipette-Based Approach for Automating Patch Clamp That Enables Cell Selection and Fast Compound Application.

    PubMed

    Danker, Timm; Braun, Franziska; Silbernagl, Nikole; Guenther, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Manual patch clamp, the gold standard of electrophysiology, represents a powerful and versatile toolbox to stimulate, modulate, and record ion channel activity from membrane fragments and whole cells. The electrophysiological readout can be combined with fluorescent or optogenetic methods and allows for ultrafast solution exchanges using specialized microfluidic tools. A hallmark of manual patch clamp is the intentional selection of individual cells for recording, often an essential prerequisite to generate meaningful data. So far, available automation solutions rely on random cell usage in the closed environment of a chip and thus sacrifice much of this versatility by design. To parallelize and automate the traditional patch clamp technique while perpetuating the full versatility of the method, we developed an approach to automation, which is based on active cell handling and targeted electrode placement rather than on random processes. This is achieved through an automated pipette positioning system, which guides the tips of recording pipettes with micrometer precision to a microfluidic cell handling device. Using a patch pipette array mounted on a conventional micromanipulator, our automated patch clamp process mimics the original manual patch clamp as closely as possible, yet achieving a configuration where recordings are obtained from many patch electrodes in parallel. In addition, our implementation is extensible by design to allow the easy integration of specialized equipment such as ultrafast compound application tools. The resulting system offers fully automated patch clamp on purposely selected cells and combines high-quality gigaseal recordings with solution switching in the millisecond timescale. PMID:26991363

  18. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  19. Patch-fitting on triangular surface holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savva, A.; Stylianou, V.

    2014-11-01

    The human body is probably the best example of a complex deformable figure. To generate a realistic object is a complex task and some mathematical methods are necessary in order to assist solving this problem. Spline methods have dominated the area of modeling complex articulated figures. The most popular of these methods is NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B-Splines) which is used by the majority of figure modelers due to its ability to control the shape of a surface by applying weights on the control points defining the object and not by altering their positions. However, spline methods, such as NURBS, have a drawback in defining surfaces containing multiple branches. The resulting surface has an "n-sided hole" at the joint of n branches. This paper proposes a solution to the triangular holes problem, which however, can be generalized to solve the n-sided-hole problem. The method fits a Sabin triangular patch in the hole and then applies subdivision spline methods to generate smooth and closed surfaces.

  20. Flexural waves focusing through shunted piezoelectric patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Ichchou, M.; Li, L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and analyzed a piezo-lens to focus flexural waves in thin plates. The piezo-lens is comprised of a host plate and piezoelectric arrays bonded on the surfaces of the plate. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance circuits. The effective refractive indexes inside the piezo-lens are designed to fit a hyperbolic secant distribution by tuning the negative capacitance values. A homogenized model of a piezo-mechanical system is adopted in the designing process of the piezo-lens. The wave focusing effect is studied by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the piezo-lens can focus flexural waves by bending their trajectories, and is effective in a large frequency band. The piezo-lens has the ability to focus flexural waves at different locations by tuning the shunting negative capacitance values. The piezo-lens is shown to be effective for flexural waves generated by different types of sources.

  1. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-01

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements. PMID:24012489

  2. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  3. An Algorithm for Projecting Points onto a Patched CAD Model

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W D

    2001-05-29

    We are interested in building structured overlapping grids for geometries defined by computer-aided-design (CAD) packages. Geometric information defining the boundary surfaces of a computation domain is often provided in the form of a collection of possibly hundreds of trimmed patches. The first step in building an overlapping volume grid on such a geometry is to build overlapping surface grids. A surface grid is typically built using hyperbolic grid generation; starting from a curve on the surface, a grid is grown by marching over the surface. A given hyperbolic grid will typically cover many of the underlying CAD surface patches. The fundamental operation needed for building surface grids is that of projecting a point in space onto the closest point on the CAD surface. We describe an fast algorithm for performing this projection, it will make use of a fairly coarse global triangulation of the CAD geometry. We describe how to build this global triangulation by first determining the connectivity of the CAD surface patches. This step is necessary since it often the case that the CAD description will contain no information specifying how a given patch connects to other neighboring patches. Determining the connectivity is difficult since the surface patches may contain mistakes such as gaps or overlaps between neighboring patches.

  4. Dynamics of equatorial irregularity patch formation, motion, and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, J.; Mullen, J.P.; Whitney, H.E.; MacKenzie, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Using scintillation observations from a series of equatorial propagation paths as well as backscatter and airglow data, the development, motion, and decay of equatorial irregularity patches have been studied. Assembling the results of earlier studies in the field with our observations, we find the following: the patch has limited east-west dimensions with a minimum of 100 km. Several patches may be melded together to reach an extent of 1500 km. Its magnetic north-south dimensions are often greater than 2000 km; the most intense irregularities (as evidenced by the Jicamarca radar at the dip equator) are from 225 to 450 km in altitude, although irregularities are found as high as 1000 km. The patch initially has a westward expansion following the solar terminator, then, maintaining its integrity, moves eastward. Evidence over a limited series of experiments suggests that premidnight patches are formed within 1 1/2 hours after ionospheric sunset in the absence of special magnetic conditions. From Ascension Island (approx.16 /sup 0/S dip latitude) the individual patches can be clearly distinguished. The decay of patches in the midnight time period was studied, pointing to a rapid decrease in scintillation intensity in this time period.

  5. Value of Gluten Patch Test in Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hosein; Zandieh, Fariborz; Akhavan, Paria; Taherian, Rouzbeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective Celiac disease is an intestinal disorder identified by mucus inflammation, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. This disorder can be controlled by elimination of gluten from daily diet. Patients with celiac disease are at greater risk of gastrointestinal malignancy and non-Hodgkin lymphoma than are the general population. This study tries to present the value of gluten patch test for diagnosis of celiac disease. Methods In this investigation, the study population was divided into case and control groups. The case group consisted of patients with celiac disease. The control group were patients involved in celiac disease but suffering from other gastrointestinal disorders. Both gluten patch and placebo patch were attached to the skin between the scapulas. The results were read twice: 48 hours and 96 hours after the patch was applied. Patients who showed irritation reactions were withdrawn from this study. The results were analysed by SPSS software, Spearman's test, chi square, and Mann–Whitney tests. Findings The value obtained from the gluten patch test after 96 hours are as follows: specification at 95%, sensitivity at 8%, positive prediction value at 67%, and negative prediction value at 43%. Conclusion It can be concluded that the gluten patch test is not an efficient test for screening of celiac disease, however, it can be useful for diagnosis of celiac disease if employed and studied with clinical symptoms and serologic and biopsy tests. Furthermore, we should doubt our judgment if the result of gluten patch test for the patient with celiac disease is positive. PMID:23056837

  6. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

  7. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  8. Multi-Scale Patch-Based Image Restoration.

    PubMed

    Papyan, Vardan; Elad, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many image restoration algorithms in recent years are based on patch processing. The core idea is to decompose the target image into fully overlapping patches, restore each of them separately, and then merge the results by a plain averaging. This concept has been demonstrated to be highly effective, leading often times to the state-of-the-art results in denoising, inpainting, deblurring, segmentation, and other applications. While the above is indeed effective, this approach has one major flaw: the prior is imposed on intermediate (patch) results, rather than on the final outcome, and this is typically manifested by visual artifacts. The expected patch log likelihood (EPLL) method by Zoran and Weiss was conceived for addressing this very problem. Their algorithm imposes the prior on the patches of the final image, which in turn leads to an iterative restoration of diminishing effect. In this paper, we propose to further extend and improve the EPLL by considering a multi-scale prior. Our algorithm imposes the very same prior on different scale patches extracted from the target image. While all the treated patches are of the same size, their footprint in the destination image varies due to subsampling. Our scheme comes to alleviate another shortcoming existing in patch-based restoration algorithms--the fact that a local (patch-based) prior is serving as a model for a global stochastic phenomenon. We motivate the use of the multi-scale EPLL by restricting ourselves to the simple Gaussian case, comparing the aforementioned algorithms and showing a clear advantage to the proposed method. We then demonstrate our algorithm in the context of image denoising, deblurring, and super-resolution, showing an improvement in performance both visually and quantitatively. PMID:26571527

  9. Patches in the polar ionosphere: UT and seasonal dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Bowline, M. D.; Schunk, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal and Universal Time (UT) dependencies of patches in the polar ionosphere are simulated using the Utah State University time dependent ionospheric model (TDIM). Patch formation is achieved by changing the plasma convection pattern in response to temporal changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub y) component during periods of southwrd IMF. This mechanism redirects the plasma flow from the dayside high-density region, which is the source of the tongue of ionization (TOI) density feature, through the throat and leads to patches, rather than a continuous TOI. The model predicts that the patches are absent at winter solstice (northern hemisphere) between 0800 and 1200 UT and that they have their largest seasonal intensity at winter solstice between 2000 and 2400 UT. Between winter solstice and equinox, patches are strong and present all day. Patches are present in summer as well, although their intensity is only tens of percent above the background density. These winter-to-equinox findings are also shown to be consistent with observations. The model was also used to predict times at which patch observations could be performed to determine the contributions from other patch mechanisms. This observational window is +/- 20 days about winter solstice between 0800 and 1200 UT in the northern hemisphere. In this observational window the TOI is either absent or reduced to a very low density. Hence the time dependent electric field mechanism considered in this study does not produce patches, and if they are observed, then they must be due to some other mechanism.

  10. Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce stereotypy following repeated cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ryan C; Logan, Mary C; Horner, Kristen A

    2015-08-27

    Stereotypy can be characterized as inflexible, repetitive behaviors that occur following repeated exposure to psychostimulants, such as cocaine (COC). Stereotypy may be related to preferential activation of the patch (striosome) compartment of striatum, as enhanced relative activation of the patch compartment has been shown to positively correlate with the emergence of stereotypy following repeated psychostimulant treatment. However, the specific contribution of the patch compartment to COC-induced stereotypy following repeated exposure is unknown. To elucidate the involvement of the patch compartment to the development of stereotypy following repeated COC exposure, we determined if destruction of this sub-region altered COC-induced behaviors. The neurons of the patch compartment were ablated by bilateral infusion of the neurotoxin dermorphin-saporin (DERM-SAP; 17 ng/μl) into the striatum. Animals were allowed to recover for eight days following the infusion, and then were given daily injections of COC (25mg/kg) or saline for one week, followed by a weeklong drug-free period. Animals were then given a challenge dose of saline or COC, observed for 2h in activity chambers and sacrificed. The number of mu-labeled patches in the striatum were reduced by DERM-SAP pretreatment. In COC-treated animals DERM-SAP pretreatment significantly reduced the immobilization and intensity of stereotypy but increased locomotor activity. DERM-SAP pretreatment attenuated COC-induced c-Fos expression in the patch compartment, while enhancing COC-induced c-Fos expression in the matrix compartment. These data indicate that the patch compartment contributes to repetitive behavior and suggests that alterations in activity in the patch vs matrix compartments may underlie to this phenomenon. PMID:26100338

  11. Direct Observations of the Evolution of Polar Cap Ionization Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, B.; Lockwood, M. M.; Hu, H.; Moen, J. I.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Thomas, E. G.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Liu, R.; McWilliams, K. A.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of ionization are common in the polar ionosphere where their motion and associated density gradients give variable disturbances to High Frequency (HF) radio communications, over-the-horizon radar location errors, and disruption and errors to satellite navigation and communication. Their formation and evolution are poorly understood, particularly under disturbed space weather conditions. We report direct observations of the full evolution of patches during a geomagnetic storm, including formation, polar cap entry, transpolar evolution, polar cap exit, and sunward return flow. Our observations show that modulation of nightside reconnection in the substorm cycle of the magnetosphere helps form the gaps between patches where steady convection would give a 'tongue' of ionization (TOI).

  12. Structural health monitoring of composite repair patches in bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Ghosh, Kumar; Qing, Xinlin; Karbhari, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, there are many issues involving safety on old bridges, aircrafts and other structures, which threaten the lives of the people using those structures, as well as the structures themselves. To prevent future failure, various measures are being taken. Structure rehabilitations with carbon fiber reinforced composite patches have been adopted and demonstrated to be an excellent way to enhance/repair the structures and prolong the service life. However, there are still many problems residing in this kind of technology that remain unsolved, for example, the failure of the interface between composite repair patches and their host structures. This is a critical issue that must be addressed in order to show the viability of composite patches. In order to study debond occurring between composite repair patches and their host structures, a structure health monitoring scheme was demonstrated on a concrete bridge model in the laboratory. The system is based on active sensing with diagnostic lamb waves, in which piezoelectric transducers are used as both sensors and actuators. In the test, six SMART Layers, each having eight piezoelectirc transducers, were integrated with two composite repair strips on the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. For the three diagnostic layers with each composite repair patch, two layers were bonded on the top surface of the patch, and the other is embedded at the interface between the composite repair patch and the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. The loading procedure of the test included three phases. First, the bridge model was preloaded to initiate cracks on the deck slabs and the repair patches were then implemented. Second, the load was raised to reach the shear capacity of the girders of the bridge model and then the repair patches were implemented on those girders. Lastly, the structure was loaded to damage the deck slabs. During the test, the initiation and development of debond between composite repair patches

  13. Robust patch-based tracking via superpixel learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianwen; Zhou, Yue

    2014-04-01

    Aimed at tracking non-rigid objects with geometric appearance changes over time, we propose a novel patch-based appearance model to adapt to the changes of topology. Meanwhile, as an effective online updating scheme, superpixel learning is adopted to select and update the patches when a new frame arrives. We build a foreground-background vote map via superpixels to determine the confidence of the patches in case of drifting. Experimental results show the proposed approach enables tracking non-rigid targets robustly and accurately.

  14. Cavity modes and their excitations in elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Ayan; Wang, Feng; Minkowski, Fred; Sun, Kai; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2012-05-21

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of two dimensional periodic arrays of elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the azimuthal symmetry breaking of the metal patches leads to the occurrence of even and odd resonant cavity modes and the excitation geometries dependent on their modal symmetries. We show that the cavity modes can be described by the product of radial and angular Mathieu functions with excellent agreements with both simulations and experiments. The effects of the patch periodicity on the excitation of the surface plasmon and its coupling with the cavity modes are also discussed. PMID:22714147

  15. Membrane Vibration Tests Using Surface-Bonded Piezoelectric Patch Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasper, James L.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the dynamics of thin membranes. The test article is a one-meter square pre-tensioned Kapton membrane that incorporates small surface-bonded piezoelectric patches strategically positioned to excite many modes. It is shown that PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macro fiber composite) piezoelectric patch actuators provide adequate excitation energy to obtain modal frequencies and mode shapes. Results from modal tests performed on the membrane using piezoelectric patches of different sizes and positions are discussed.

  16. White versus blue: Does the wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) differ in fruit quality compared to the blue one?

    PubMed

    Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-11-15

    Wild albino and blue bilberry fruit were analyzed to compare different fruit characteristics linked to the composition of primary and secondary metabolites. Compounds were identified using HPLC-MS and standard quality parameters were determined. Albino berries were significantly smaller, accumulated less water and were characterized by 23% higher dry weight. Soluble solids content and pH value were higher in albino bilberry and their surface was lighter and characterized by a yellow hue. Both bilberry forms accumulated identical individual sugars and organic acids; however, the albino form had 33% higher content of total sugars and 9% higher content of total organic acids compared to the blue type. Fifteen anthocyanins were identified in both forms, but in albino bilberries, individual anthocyanins were only detected in traces. Blue bilberry contained 1.6-fold higher levels of flavanols, 2.1-fold higher levels of flavonols, 2.5-fold higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and consequently, 4.6-fold higher total phenolic content. PMID:27283708

  17. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  2. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  3. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  4. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  5. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract

  6. The Effects of Nutrient Dynamics on Root Patch Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gersani, Mordechai; Ovadia, Ofer; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been recognized to be capable of allocating more roots to rich patches in the soil. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to their sensitivity to absolute differences in nutrient availability, plants are also responsive to temporal changes in nutrient availability. Different roots of the same Pisum sativum plants were subjected to variable homogeneous and heterogeneous temporally – dynamic and static nutrient regimes. When given a choice, plants not only developed greater root biomasses in richer patches; they discriminately allocated more resources to roots that developed in patches with increasing nutrient levels, even when their other roots developed in richer patches. These results suggest that plants are able to perceive and respond to dynamic environmental changes. This ability might enable plants to increase their performance by responding to both current and anticipated resource availabilities in their immediate proximity. PMID:20520811

  7. Broadband Plasmonic Microlenses based on Patches of Nanoholes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hanwei; Hyun, Jerome K.; Lee, Min Hyung; Yang, Jiun-Chan; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Odom, Teri W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a new type of diffractive microlens based on finite-areas of 2D arrays of circular nanoholes (patches). The plasmonic microlenses can focus single wavelengths of light across the entire visible spectrum as well as broadband white light with little divergence. The focal length is determined primarily by the overall size of the patch and is tolerant to significant changes in patch substructure, including lattice geometry and local order of the circular nanoholes. The optical throughput, however, depends sensitively on the patch substructure and is determined by the wavelengths of surface plasmon resonances. This simple diffractive lens design enables millions of broadband plasmonic microlenses to be fabricated in parallel using soft nanolithographic techniques. PMID:20839781

  8. Bonding a linearly piezoelectric patch on a linearly elastic body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, Christian; Orankitjaroen, Somsak; Viriyasrisuwattana, Patcharakorn; Weller, Thibaut

    2014-04-01

    A rigorous study of the asymptotic behavior of the system constituted by a very thin linearly piezoelectric plate bonded on a linearly elastic body supplies various models for an elastic body monitored by a piezoelectric patch. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles. PMID:23856160

  10. MULTISTAGE CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPARIAN PATCHES IN THE ARID SOUTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some ecologically critical riparian ecosystems in the and Southwest are spatially and temporally discontinuous making their location and/or condition difficult to distinguish when studying the desert landscape. When conditions permit, riparian patches in the desert are distinct b...

  11. Polarization Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a nearly square patch antenna integrated with a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for reconfiguring the polarization. Experimental results demonstrate that at a fixed frequency, the polarization can be reconfigured, from circular to linear.

  12. Aseptic polyurethane carotid patch rejection: complication, allergy or miraculous healing?

    PubMed

    Tshomba, Y; De Dominicis, D; Marone, E M; Mascia, D; Sanvito, F; Chiesa, R

    2011-12-01

    Carotid endarterectomy plays an important role in the prevention of ischemic stroke; patching could reduce the risk of intra- and postoperative complications and late restenosis among primary closure. Materials actually available for the patch tailoring are synthetic or biological: which is the best is still debated. We present the case of a polyurethane (PU) carotid patch rejection three years after its implant, with no evident arterial discontinuity and no sign of infection. Histopathological analysis on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections of the regenerated arterial wall tissue removed revealed plasma cell infiltration and clusters of foreign body giant cells. PU patch rejection has been seldom described in literature. This is an unusual late complication that should be considered at long-term follow-up evaluation of these patients. PMID:21750481

  13. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application. PMID:27410080

  14. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye. PMID:24678750

  15. Polar cap F layer patches: structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Buchau, J.; Carlson, H.C.; Livingston, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    Coordinated measurements of F-region plasma patches were conducted on February 3/4, 1984, from Thule and Sondrestrom, Greenland. Optical, ionsonde, amplitude scintillation, total electron content (TEC), and incoherent scatter radar measurements were combined to reveal several new aspects of the structure and transport of these localized regions of enhanced F region ionization. For the first time, these patches were directly tracked flowing in the antisunward direction over distances of 3000 km from the center of the polar cap to the poleward edge of the auroral oval. Quantative measurements of TEC show increases of 10-15 TEC units within the patches, above a background polar cap value of 5 TEC units. Amplitude scintillation measurements show the presence of ionospheric irregularities through the entire patch, with a weak indication of stronger scintillation on the trailing (or E x B unstable) edge.

  16. Polar cap F layer patches: structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Buchau, J.; Carlson H.C. Jr.; Livingston, R.C.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; McCready, M.; Moore, J.G.; Bishop, G.J.

    1986-11-01

    Coordinated measurements of F region plasma patches were conducted on February 3/4, 1984, from Thule and Sondrestrom, Greenland. Optical, ionosonde, amplitude scintillation, total electron content (TEC), and incoherent scatter radar measurements were combined to reveal several new aspects of the structure and transport of these localized regions of enhanced F region ionization. For the first time these patches were directly tracked flowing in the antisunward direction over distances of 3000 km from the center of the polar cap to the poleward edge of the auroral oval. Quantitative measurements of TEC show increases of 10--15 TEC units within the patches, above a background polar cap value of 5 TEC units. Amplitude scintillation measurements show the presence of ionospheric irregularities through the entire patch, with a weak indication of stronger scintillation on the trailing (or E x B unstable) edge.

  17. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  18. The Motion and Structure of Auroral Patches: A Neuroscientist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanswick, S.; Spanswick, E.; Donovan, E.

    2013-12-01

    The term 'patchy aurora' refers to irregularly shaped 'blobs' that form a characteristic patch pattern in auroral image data. Patches are most often observed at mid to low auroral latitudes, equatorward of the peak in the proton aurora. One of the remarkable features of patchy aurora is the coherent and almost constant shape of the patches, which can be present for minutes at a time in the field of view of a single all sky camera. The structure of an individual patch is often maintained as it drifts in longitude through a camera field of view. This behavior is thought to be a consequence of plasma dynamics (and structure) in the region Earthward of the central plasma sheet. Here we present a comprehensive survey of the motion and shape of auroral patches as a function of latitude and MLT. Statistics are derived from a cross-disciplinary collaboration between the fields of neuroscience and space physics. Specifically, we employ a modified stereological approach to quantify length and orientation of patchy aurora. Stereological quantification has been successfully employed in biological systems, typically to estimate the size, shape, or number of objects within a specific region of interest. One of the central tenets of stereology is the random, systematic sampling method, which has been demonstrated to produce accurate results. We adopt a modified stereological procedure, using random, systematic sampling to produce an unbiased estimate of patch length and orientation within the aurora. The output of this procedure is also used to follow individual patches and produce velocity fields in a given image. These techniques allow us to quantify the evolution of both individual patches and the patchy aurora region as a whole. We also discuss the future possibility of using this technique to produce a semi-automated convection map for specific events. We assert that these maps will provide a time-evolving picture of the 2D convection velocity in the ionosphere with

  19. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes. PMID:25858073

  20. Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinesis in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C M; Murthy, D R; Patil, S B

    1997-11-01

    The benzene chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the flowers of H.r.sinensis were administered (i.p.) at two different dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult male albino mice for 20 days. The results have shown decrease in the spermatogenic elements of testis and epididymal sperm count. High content of testicular cholesterol may be due to lowered androgen synthesis. The increase in the weight of accessory reproductive organs indicates the androgenicity of the plant extract itself, which is proved in the present study by testing the benzene extract in immature mice. PMID:9567744

  1. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  2. Application of monodirectional Janus patch to oromucosal delivery system.

    PubMed

    You, Jae Bem; Choi, Ah Young; Baek, Jieung; Oh, Myung Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, Kyung Eun; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2015-10-28

    Drug delivery through mucosae has received huge research attention owing to its advantageous characteristics such as accurate dose control and the avoidance of premature metabolism of vulnerable drugs by oral administration. However, body fluid in mucosae may dissolve the drug, releasing it to unwanted directions. Here, a Janus drug delivery patch with monodirectional diffusion property is devised to deliver drugs efficiently and to overcome the issue of unwanted drug release. A polyester fabric is coated with a hydrophobic polymer, poly(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate), via initiated chemical vapor deposition. Subsequently, hydrophilicity is rendered selectively on one surface by base-catalyzed hydrolysis to obtain a Janus substrate with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The hydrophilic surface of the Janus substrate is further coated with resveratrol-loaded hydrogel to produce a Janus drug delivery patch. The fabricated patch efficiently blocks fluid penetration from one side to the other in mucous environment. Delivery of resveratrol through hairless mouse skin and reconstructed human mucosae using Janus patch shows higher permeation flux compared to bare control patch. The Janus drug delivery patch shown in this study can be a useful tool for efficient transmucosal delivery of various kinds of drugs. PMID:26346613

  3. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch: A Review in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-07-01

    Rotigotine transdermal patch (Leganto(®), Neupro(®)) is indicated for the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS); this article reviews the pharmacological properties of rotigotine transdermal patch and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in patients with RLS. The transdermal patch allows for a continuous, stable release of rotigotine (avoiding first-pass metabolism), which in turn leads to continuous receptor stimulation, believed to closely mimic physiological striatal dopamine receptor function. In short-term and 6-month studies, especially at the higher dosages of 2 and 3 mg/24 h, rotigotine transdermal patch was generally associated with a significantly greater improvement in IRLS total score and CGI-S total score than placebo, and rotigotine recipients were generally more likely to respond to treatment and enter remission. In noncomparative extension studies, efficacy was sustained for ≤5 years. Rotigotine transdermal patch is generally well tolerated, and appears to have a tolerability profile that is similar to that of other non-ergolinic dopamine-receptor agonists. The most common adverse events in clinical trials included application-site reactions, nausea, headache and asthenic conditions. The drug has a relatively low risk of clinically significant augmentation of restless legs syndrome symptoms. In conclusion, rotigotine transdermal patch offers continuous administration of the drug in a daily treatment, and is a useful treatment option in patients with RLS. PMID:27324269

  4. [Continued Use of Rotigotine Transdermal Patches for Parkinson Disease].

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Imakyure, Osamu; Washiyama, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Futagami, Koujiro

    2016-06-01

    Transdermal patches containing rotigotine, a dopamine agonist (DA) for treatment of Parkinson disease, continuously exert stable effects when applied once daily. Therefore, they are expected to reduce the patient burdens due to complications such as wearing-off and dysphagia. However, dosing is occasionally reduced or discontinued after application because of several reasons such as skin reactions or unsatisfactory efficacy. To identify the risk factors involved in the reduced or discontinued use of rotigotine patches, a retrospective study was conducted with reference to the medical records of patients with Parkinson disease who received rotigotine patches in our hospital. 85 patients were involved in this study. Dosing of rotigotine was reduced or discontinued in 53 patients during the study period. The factors associated with charges in treatment included combination therapy with clonazepam and oral administration of another DA before the application of rotigotine. The reduction or discontinuation rate of rotigotine patches in patients who reduced the equivalent dose of DA on the introduction of rotigotine patches was 94.7%, showing a significantly higher rate compared with 61.3% in the increased dose group. To improve adherence to rotigotine patch therapy, physicians need to carefully consider concomitant drugs and total dose of DAs. (Received December 7, 2015; Accepted February 22, 2016; Published June 1, 2016). PMID:27279164

  5. Sound attenuation in ducts using locally resonant periodic aluminum patches.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maaz; Elnady, Tamer; Akl, Wael

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the control of low frequency noise has received a lot of attention for several applications. Traditional passive noise control techniques using Helmholtz resonators have size limitations in the low frequency range because of the long wavelength. Promising noise reductions, with flush mounted aluminum patches with no size problems can be obtained using local resonance phenomenon implemented in acoustic metamaterial techniques. The objective of this work is to introduce locally resonant thin aluminum patches flush mounted to a duct walls aiming at creating frequency stop bands in a specific frequency range. Green's function is used within the framework of interface response theory to predict the amount of attenuation of the local resonant patches. The two-port theory and finite elements are also used to predict the acoustic performance of these patches. No flow measurements were conducted and show good agreement with the models. The effect of varying the damping and the masses of the patches are used to expand the stop bandwidth and the effect of both Bragg scattering and the locally resonant mechanisms was demonstrated using mathematical models. The effect of the arrays of patches on the effective dynamic density and bulk modulus has also been investigated. PMID:27369152

  6. Monocular patching may induce ipsilateral "where" spatial bias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peii; Erdahl, Lillian; Barrett, Anna M

    2009-02-01

    Spatial bias is an asymmetry of perception and/or representation of spatial information - "where" bias -, or of spatially directed actions - "aiming" bias. A monocular patch may induce contralateral "where" spatial bias (the Sprague effect [Sprague, J. M. (1966). Interaction of cortex and superior colliculus in mediation of visually guided behavior in cat. Science, 153(3743), 1544-1547]). However, an ipsilateral patch-induced spatial bias may be observed if visual occlusion results in top-down, compensatory re-allocation of spatial perceptual or representational resources toward the region of visual deprivation. Tactile distraction from a monocular patch may also contribute to an ipsilateral bias. To examine these hypotheses, neurologically normal adults bisected horizontal lines at baseline without a patch, while wearing a monocular patch, and while wearing tactile-only and visual-only monocular occlusion. We fractionated "where" and "aiming" spatial bias components using a video apparatus to reverse visual feedback for half of the test trials. The results support monocular patch-induced ipsilateral "where" spatial errors, which are not consistent with the Sprague effect. Further, the present findings suggested that the induced ipsilateral bias may be primarily induced by visual deprivation, consistent with compensatory "where" resource re-allocation. PMID:19100274

  7. Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2012-07-01

    Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA β were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA β sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA βs. A few DNA β sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA β (CroYVMVβ). One DNA β sequence was novel and showed <65% similarity to its counterparts. Mixed infections and sequence diversity among 25 cloned av1 genes indicated that papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses. PMID:22437254

  8. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  9. Antiestrogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of n-Hexane Fraction of Vitex negundo Linn Leaf Extract: A Probable Mechanism for Blastocyst Implantation Failure in Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Jivrajani, Mehul; Ravat, Nirav; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The anti-implantation potential of different fractions of Vitex negundo Linn leaf extract was evaluated in female Swiss Albino mice. Animals from different groups were dosed orally either with 0.2% agar (vehicle) or with fractions of V. negundo leaf extract (n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and remnant fractions) at 10:00 a.m., from day 1 to day 6 of pregnancy. The pregnant females from each group were sacrificed on different days of pregnancy (n = 6), and uterus was excised and used for estimation of lipid peroxidation and assay of superoxide dismutase activity as a marker for blastocyst implantation. Animals treated with n-hexane fraction showed altered level of superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase activity as compared to control animals. The probable mechanism by which this extract exhibits inhibition of blastocyst implantation is through the anti-inflammatory and antiestrogenic potential. PMID:27351007

  10. Protective effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Kumaraguruparan, R; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. The frequency of micronuclei (MN), concentrations of lipid peroxides and the status of the antioxidants, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate biomarkers of chemoprotection. Animals were divided into four groups of five animals each. Animals in group 1 were given MNNG (40 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubation. Animals in group 2 received intragastric administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight for 5 days followed by MNNG 1.5 h after the final feeding. Group 3 animals received ethanolic neem leaf extract alone for five days. Group 4 received the same volume of normal saline and served as control. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 27 h after the carcinogen exposure. In MNNG-treated mice, enhanced lipid peroxidation with compromised antioxidant defences in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes was accompanied by increase in bone marrow micronuclei. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract significantly reduced MNNG-induced micronuclei and lipid peroxides and enhanced GSH-dependent antioxidant activities. The results of the present study demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract exerts protective effects against MNNG-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by augmenting host antioxidant defence mechanisms. PMID:15038245

  11. Improved Image Registration by Sparse Patch-Based Deformation Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Despite of intensive efforts for decades, deformable image registration is still a challenging problem due to the potential large anatomical differences across individual images, which limits the registration performance. Fortunately, this issue could be alleviated if a good initial deformation can be provided for the two images under registration, which are often termed as the moving subject and the fixed template, respectively. In this work, we present a novel patch-based initial deformation prediction framework for improving the performance of existing registration algorithms. Our main idea is to estimate the initial deformation between subject and template in a patch-wise fashion by using the sparse representation technique. We argue that two image patches should follow the same deformation towards the template image if their patch-wise appearance patterns are similar. To this end, our framework consists of two stages, i.e., the training stage and the application stage. In the training stage, we register all training images to the pre-selected template, such that the deformation of each training image with respect to the template is known. In the application stage, we apply the following four steps to efficiently calculate the initial deformation field for the new test subject: (1) We pick a small number of key points in the distinctive regions of the test subject; (2) For each key point, we extract a local patch and form a coupled appearance-deformation dictionary from training images where each dictionary atom consists of the image intensity patch as well as their respective local deformations; (3) A small set of training image patches in the coupled dictionary are selected to represent the image patch of each subject key point by sparse representation. Then, we can predict the initial deformation for each subject key point by propagating the pre-estimated deformations on the selected training patches with the same sparse representation coefficients. (4) We

  12. A search theory model of patch-to-patch forager movement with application to pollinator-mediated gene flow.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin; Cresswell, James E

    2007-09-01

    We present a spatially implicit analytical model of forager movement, designed to address a simple scenario common in nature. We assume minimal depression of patch resources, and discrete foraging bouts, during which foragers fill to capacity. The model is particularly suitable for foragers that search systematically, foragers that deplete resources in a patch only incrementally, and for sit-and-wait foragers, where harvesting does not affect the rate of arrival of forage. Drawing on the theory of job search from microeconomics, we estimate the expected number of patches visited as a function of just two variables: the coefficient of variation of the rate of energy gain among patches, and the ratio of the expected time exploiting a randomly chosen patch and the expected time travelling between patches. We then consider the forager as a pollinator and apply our model to estimate gene flow. Under model assumptions, an upper bound for animal-mediated gene flow between natural plant populations is approximately proportional to the probability that the animal rejects a plant population. In addition, an upper bound for animal-mediated gene flow in any animal-pollinated agricultural crop from a genetically modified (GM) to a non-GM field is approximately proportional to the proportion of fields that are GM and the probability that the animal rejects a field. PMID:17544452

  13. Patched 1 and patched 2 redundancy has a key role in regulating epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, Christelle; Nieuwenhuis, Erica; Villani, Rehan; Li, Zhu Juan; Kaur, Pritinder; Hui, Chi-Chung; Wainwright, Brandon J

    2014-07-01

    The Patched 1 (Ptch1) receptor has a pivotal role in inhibiting the activity of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway and is therefore critical in preventing the onset of many human developmental disorders and tumor formation. However, the functional role of the mammalian Ptch2 paralogue remains elusive, particularly the extent to which it contributes to regulating the spatial and temporal activity of Hh signaling. Here we demonstrate in three independent mouse models of epidermal development that in vivo ablation of both Ptch receptors results in a more severe phenotype than loss of Ptch1 alone. Our studies indicate that concomitant loss of Ptch1 and Ptch2 activity inhibits epidermal lineage specification and differentiation. These results reveal that repression of Hh signaling through a dynamic Ptch regulatory network is a crucial event in lineage fate determination in the skin. In general, our findings implicate Ptch receptor redundancy as a key issue in elucidating the cellular origin of Hh-induced tumors. PMID:24492243

  14. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  15. How to pattern a leaf.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  16. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales) to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae) and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Elizabeth A; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Fourqurean, James W

    2014-12-01

    Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content) as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed) in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhi- zome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD) behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior. PMID:25720186

  17. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  18. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; Bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-10-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  19. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ≥17.00 mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2 g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3 g, 42.6 g, and 85.2 g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  1. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Edu, F E; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol-kolanut interaction on sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group and used for the study. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 6 were treated for a period of 21 days, with (10% v/v) of alcohol (group 2), 50mg/kg body weight of kolanut (group 3), 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (group 4), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight kolanut (group 5), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. A day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain responsible for neuronal function, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, was inhibited by alcohol-kolanut co-administration relative to control, resulting in a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, ATP production, ion transport and action potential, leading to loss of neuronal activities. PMID:18379627

  2. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice. PMID:22609855

  3. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  4. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  5. Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar

    2010-01-01

    Aim Gentamycin, a widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is recognized as possessing significant nephrotoxic potential in human beings. Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity is suggested to be mediated via reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the possible antioxidant nephroprotective effect of lacidipine as a calcium-channel blocker in a gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. Methods Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2 received gentamycin 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 3 received lacidipine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally 3 days before and 14 days concurrently with gentamycin. This dose does not affect the blood pressure of rats, as evidenced in the pilot study. Results Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a marked reduction in creatinine clearance. Treatment with lacidipine improved creatinine clearance compared to the gentamycin-treated group. In addition, it reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, as an index of lipid peroxidation, with significant increases in superoxide dismutase enzyme in erythrocyte lysates and kidney catalase enzyme activities. Conclusion This study recommends the use of lacidipine in prophylaxis against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  6. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  7. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  8. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  9. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  10. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  11. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  12. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  13. Embedding of Cortical Representations by the Superficial Patch System

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Nuno M. A.; Girardin, Cyrille C.; Naaman, Shmuel; Omer, David B.; Ruesch, Elisha; Grinvald, Amiram; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal cells in layers 2 and 3 of the neocortex of many species collectively form a clustered system of lateral axonal projections (the superficial patch system—Lund JS, Angelucci A, Bressloff PC. 2003. Anatomical substrates for functional columns in macaque monkey primary visual cortex. Cereb Cortex. 13:15–24. or daisy architecture—Douglas RJ, Martin KAC. 2004. Neuronal circuits of the neocortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 27:419–451.), but the function performed by this general feature of the cortical architecture remains obscure. By comparing the spatial configuration of labeled patches with the configuration of responses to drifting grating stimuli, we found the spatial organizations both of the patch system and of the cortical response to be highly conserved between cat and monkey primary visual cortex. More importantly, the configuration of the superficial patch system is directly reflected in the arrangement of function across monkey primary visual cortex. Our results indicate a close relationship between the structure of the superficial patch system and cortical responses encoding a single value across the surface of visual cortex (self-consistent states). This relationship is consistent with the spontaneous emergence of orientation response–like activity patterns during ongoing cortical activity (Kenet T, Bibitchkov D, Tsodyks M, Grinvald A, Arieli A. 2003. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes. Nature. 425:954–956.). We conclude that the superficial patch system is the physical encoding of self-consistent cortical states, and that a set of concurrently labeled patches participate in a network of mutually consistent representations of cortical input. PMID:21383233

  14. Reproducible, high performance patch antenna array apparatus and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2007-01-23

    A reproducible, high-performance patch antenna array apparatus includes a patch antenna array provided on a unitary dielectric substrate, and a feed network provided on the same unitary substrate and proximity coupled to the patch antenna array. The reproducibility is enhanced by using photolithographic patterning and etching to produce both the patch antenna array and the feed network.

  15. Anticestodal activity of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract against Hymenolepis diminuta in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Temjenmongla

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) are considered to have anthelmintic properties in the traditional medicine of Naga tribes in Northeast India and, therefore, are used by the natives to treat the intestinal worm infections. In the present study, the anticestodal activity of H. cordata leaf extract was investigated against Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, in experimentally infected albino rats. For the assessment of anticestodal efficacy, the eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces counts and worm loads of animals were monitored following treatment with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg p.o. doses of leaf extract to different groups of rats harbouring larval, immature and mature H. diminuta infections. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Further, the extract showed its maximum efficacy against the mature Hymenolepis worms. In this case, the 800 mg/kg dose of extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the EPG counts of animals by 57.09% and worm load by 75.00%, at post-treatment. In comparison, the reference drug praziquantel at 5 mg/kg showed a reduction in the EPG counts and worm load of experimental animals by 80.37 and 87.50%, respectively. These findings indicate that leaves of H. cordata possess significant anticestodal property and provide a rationale for their use in traditional medicine as an anthelmintic. PMID:23024502

  16. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  17. Hepatoprotective Effect of Ficus carica Leaf Extract on Mice Intoxicated with Carbon Tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Aghel, Nasrin; Kalantari, Heibatollah; Rezazadeh, Shohreh

    2011-01-01

    Protective action of Ficus carica leaf ethanolic extract (obtained by maceration) was evaluated in an animal model of hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male albino mice were divided into six groups. group I was normal control group; group II received olive oil (CCl4 solvent), groups III-VI received CCl4. After inducing hepatic damage, group III served as control for CCl4; and groups IV- VI received different doses of Ficus carica ethanol extract (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) prior to intoxication with CCl4. Liver marker enzymes were assayed in serum. Sections of livers were observed under microscope for the histopathological changes. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were increased significantly in CCl4 treated mice (group III). In groups IV, V and VI, pre-treated with the plant extract and intoxicated with CCl4, decreased activities of these two enzymes were observed. Also, pre-treatment with the extract in these groups resulted in less pronounced destruction of the liver architecture with no fibrosis and moderate inflammation was observed compared with group III. The present observations suggested that the treatment with Ficus carica leaf extract in dose of 200 mg/kg enhanced protection against CCl4 induced hepatic damage. PMID:24363682

  18. Patches for Repairing Ceramics and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, Peter A.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Adam, Steven; Tompkins, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Patches consisting mostly of ceramic fabrics impregnated with partially cured polymers and ceramic particles are being developed as means of repairing ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) that must withstand temperatures above the melting points of refractory metal alloys. These patches were conceived for use by space-suited, space-walking astronauts in repairing damaged space-shuttle leading edges: as such, these patches could be applied in the field, in relatively simple procedures, and with minimal requirements for specialized tools. These design characteristics also make the patches useful for repairing ceramics and CMCs in terrestrial settings. In a typical patch as supplied to an astronaut or repair technician, the polymer would be in a tacky condition, denoted as an A stage, produced by partial polymerization of a monomeric liquid. The patch would be pressed against the ceramic or CMC object to be repaired, relying on the tackiness for temporary adhesion. The patch would then be bonded to the workpiece and cured by using a portable device to heat the polymer to a curing temperature above ambient temperature but well below the maximum operating temperature to which the workpiece is expected to be exposed. The patch would subsequently become pyrolized to a ceramic/glass condition upon initial exposure to the high operating temperature. In the original space-shuttle application, this exposure would be Earth-atmosphere-reentry heating to about 3,000 F (about 1,600 C). Patch formulations for space-shuttle applications include SiC and ZrO2 fabrics, a commercial SiC-based pre-ceramic polymer, and suitable proportions of both SiC and ZrO2 particles having sizes of the order of 1 m. These formulations have been tailored for the space-shuttle leading-edge material, atmospheric composition, and reentry temperature profile so as to enable repairs to survive re-entry heating with expected margin. Other formulations could be tailored for specific terrestrial

  19. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  20. Aggregation dynamics explain vegetation patch-size distributions.

    PubMed

    Irvine, M A; Bull, J C; Keeling, M J

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation patch-size distributions have been an intense area of study for theoreticians and applied ecologists alike in recent years. Of particular interest is the seemingly ubiquitous nature of power-law patch-size distributions emerging in a number of diverse ecosystems. The leading explanation of the emergence of these power-laws is due to local facilitative mechanisms. There is also a common transition from power law to exponential distribution when a system is under global pressure, such as grazing or lack of rainfall. These phenomena require a simple mechanistic explanation. Here, we study vegetation patches from a spatially implicit, patch dynamic viewpoint. We show that under minimal assumptions a power-law patch-size distribution appears as a natural consequence of aggregation. A linear death term also leads to an exponential term in the distribution for any non-zero death rate. This work shows the origin of the breakdown of the power-law under increasing pressure and shows that in general, we expect to observe a power law with an exponential cutoff (rather than pure power laws). The estimated parameters of this distribution also provide insight into the underlying ecological mechanisms of aggregation and death. PMID:26742959

  1. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2–12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in ‘designed’ nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  2. The Value of Patch-Choice Copying in Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shane; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Many animals copy the choices of others but the functional and mechanistic explanations for copying are still not fully resolved. We relied on novel behavioral protocols to quantify the value of patch-choice copying in fruit flies. In a titration experiment, we quantified how much nutritional value females were willing to trade for laying eggs on patches already occupied by larvae (social patches). Females were highly sensitive to nutritional quality, which was positively associated with their offspring success. Females, however, perceived social, low-nutrition patches (33% of the nutrients) as equally valuable as non-social, high-nutrition ones (100% of the nutrients). In follow-up experiments, we could not, however, either find informational benefits from copying others or detect what females' offspring may gain from developing with older larvae. Because patch-choice copying in fruit flies is a robust phenomenon in spite of potential costs due to competition, we suggest that it is beneficial in natural settings, where fruit flies encounter complex dynamics of microbial communities, which include, in addition to the preferred yeast species they feed on, numerous harmful fungi and bacteria. We suggest that microbial ecology underlies many cases of copying in nature. PMID:25375776

  3. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2-12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in 'designed' nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  4. Adaptive Identification and Characterization of Polar Ionization Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) spacecraft data are used to detect and characterize polar cap 'ionization patches' loosely defined as large-scale (greater than 100 km) regions where the F region plasma density is significantly enhanced (approx greater than 100%) above the background level. These patches are generally believed to develop in or equatorward of the dayside cusp region and then drift in an antisunward direction over the polar cap. We have developed a flexible algorithm for the identification and characterization of these structures, as a function of scale-size and density enhancement, using data from the retarding potential analyzer, the ion drift meter, and the langmuir probe on board the DE 2 satellite. This algorithm was used to study the structure and evolution of ionization patches as they cross the polar cap. The results indicate that in the altitude region from 240 to 950 km ion density enhancements greater than a factor of 3 above the background level are relatively rare. Further, the ionization patches show a preferred horizontal scale size of 300-400 km. There exists a clear seasonal and universal time dependence to the occurrence frequency of patches with a northern hemisphere maximum centered on the winter solstice and the 1200-2000 UT interval.

  5. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    PubMed

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models. PMID:16782142

  6. Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Richard; Hoppe, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    An improved design concept for a printed-circuit patch antenna and the transmission line that feeds the patch calls for (1) a microstrip transmission line on the front (radiative) side of a printed-circuit board based on a thin, high-permittivity dielectric substrate; (2) using the conductor covering the back side of the circuit board as a common ground plane for both the microstrip line and the antenna patch; (3) supporting the antenna patch in front of the circuit board on a much thicker, lower-permittivity dielectric spacer layer; and (4) connecting the microstrip transmission line to the patch by use of a thin wire or narrow ribbon that extends through the thickness of the spacer and is oriented perpendicularly to the circuit-board plane. The thickness of the substrate is typically chosen so that a microstrip transmission line of practical width has an impedance between 50 and 100 ohms. The advantages of this design concept are best understood in the context of the disadvantages of prior design concepts, as explained

  7. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  8. Modeling of endovascular patch welding using the computer program LATIS

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsky, M.E.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Jacques, S.L.

    1995-03-01

    A new computer program, LATIS, being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to study the effect of pulsed laser irradiation on endovascular patch welding. Various physical and biophysical effects are included in these simulations: laser light scattering and absorption, tissue heating and heat conduction, vascular cooling, and tissue thermal damage. The geometry of a patch being held against the inner vessel wall (500 {mu}m inner diameter) by a balloon is considered. The system is exposed to light pulsed from an optical fiber inside the balloon. A minimum in the depth of damage into the vessel wall is found. The minimum damage zone is about the thickness of the patch material that is heated by the laser. The more ordered the tissue the thinner the minimum zone of damage. The pulse length which minimizes the zone of damage is found to be the time for energy to diffuse across the layer. The delay time between the pulses is determined by the time for the heated layer to cool down. An optimal pulse length exists which minimizes the total time needed to weld the patch to the wall while keeping the thickness of the damaged tissue to less than 100 {mu}m. For the case that is considered, a patch dyed with light absorbing ICG on the side next to the vessel (thickness of the dyed layer is 60 {mu}m), the best protocol is found to be 65-200 ms pulses applied over 2 min.

  9. New pulsatile bioreactor for fabrication of tissue-engineered patches.

    PubMed

    Sodian, R; Lemke, T; Loebe, M; Hoerstrup, S P; Potapov, E V; Hausmann, H; Meyer, R; Hetzer, R

    2001-01-01

    To date, one approach to tissue engineering has been to develop in vitro conditions to ultimately fabricate functional cardiovascular structures prior to final implantation. In our current experiment, we developed a new pulsatile flow system that provides biochemical and biomechanical signals to regulate autologous patch-tissue development in vitro. The newly developed patch bioreactor is made of Plexiglas and is completely transparent (Mediport Kardiotechnik, Berlin). The bioreactor is connected to an air-driven respirator pump, and the cell culture medium continuously circulates through a closed-loop system. We thus developed a closed-loop, perfused bioreactor for long-term patch-tissue conditioning, which combines continuous, pulsatile perfusion and mechanical stimulation by periodically stretching the tissue-engineered patch constructs. By adjusting the stroke volume, the stroke rate, and the inspiration/expiration time of the ventilator, it allows various pulsatile flows and different levels of pressure. The whole system is a highly isolated cell culture setting, which provides a high level of sterility, gas supply, and fits into a standard humidified incubator. The bioreactor can be sterilized by ethylene oxide and assembled with a standard screwdriver. Our newly developed bioreactor provides optimal biomechanical and biodynamical stimuli for controlled tissue development and in vitro conditioning of an autologous tissue-engineered patch. PMID:11410898

  10. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: Targeted or blind blood patch.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy and optimal strategy for epidural blood patch placement in the treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. We present a 37-year-old man who developed a 4 week duration postural headache without sustaining significant trauma. The diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with associated subdural hygromas was confirmed with lumbar puncture and radiologic imaging. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is generally due to cerebrospinal fluid leak from the thecal sac or nerve root sleeves, although the cause of leakage is unknown. In our patient, the site of leakage was identified at cervical C1-C2 level in the spine on myelography. Conservative management with repeated epidural blood patches was successful in symptom relief and complete resolution of cerebrospinal fluid leak and subdural hygromas. We reviewed the literature for efficacy of blood patches delivered directly to the site of leakage (targeted) or to the lumbar or thoracic spine away from the site of leakage or where the site cannot be determined (blind). No clear evidence exists on comparative efficacy due to paucity of randomized trials. However, epidural blood patches in general result in positive outcomes with overall efficacy near 90%. Some trials have suggested greater efficacy for targeted rather than blind epidural blood patches, but randomized studies and long-term prognosis remain to be evaluated. PMID:26461907

  11. Patching the Exchange-Correlation Potential in Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen

    2016-05-10

    A method for directly patching exchange-correlation (XC) potentials in materials is derived. The electron density of a system is partitioned into subsystem densities by dividing its Kohn-Sham (KS) potential among the subsystems. Inside each subsystem, its projected KS potential is required to become the total system's KS potential. This requirement, together with the nearsightedness principle of electronic matters, ensures that the electronic structures inside subsystems can be good approximations to the total system's electronic structure. The nearsightedness principle also ensures that subsystem densities could be well localized in their regions, making it possible to use high-level methods to invert the XC potentials for subsystem densities. Two XC patching methods are developed. In the local XC patching method, the total system's XC potential is improved in the cluster region. We show that the coupling between a cluster and its environment is important for achieving a fast convergence of the electronic structure in the cluster region. In the global XC patching method, we discuss how to patch the subsystem XC potentials to construct the XC potential in the total system, aiming to scale up high-level quantum mechanics simulations of materials. Proof-of-principle examples are given. PMID:27049843

  12. DURABILILTY ANALYSIS OF POTHOLE PATCHING MIXTURE IN SNOWY REGIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Fujiwara, Eigo; Mori, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masaru

    On the pavement in snowy regions, water spray is carried out as a snow removal activity in winter. Therefore in most cases, pavement surface is in water-soaked condition, and it causes the occurrence of a lot of potholes. Usually, for the potholes, urgent repair is immediately conducted using patching mixtures. However under these circumstances, the patching mixture falls away soon due to the constraint in the construction works. Consequently, as for the maintenance in snowy regions, it is important to develop the optimal repair method or patching mixture material for such regions. In order to provide the basic investigation of this issue, this study statistically evaluates the durability of the patching mixtures of potholes. Concretely, the occurrence process of potholes are modeled by the Weibull hazard model, and the durability performance of the patching mixtures is veried by estimating the hazard model based on the inspection data of actual potholes on the national road in snowy regions and monitoring data after repairing them.

  13. Spatial patch occupancy patterns of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Nichols, James D.; Morkill, Anne; Anderson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of presence or absence of a species can provide substantial information on management questions related to distribution and habitat use but should incorporate the probability of detection to reduce bias. We surveyed for the endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) in habitat patches on 5 Florida Key islands, USA, to estimate occupancy and detection probabilities. We derived detection probabilities using spatial replication of plots and evaluated hypotheses that patch location (coastal or interior) and patch size influence occupancy and detection. Results demonstrate that detection probability, given rabbits were present, was <0.5 and suggest that naïve estimates (i.e., estimates without consideration of imperfect detection) of patch occupancy are negatively biased. We found that patch size and location influenced probability of occupancy but not detection. Our findings will be used by Refuge managers to evaluate population trends of Lower Keys marsh rabbits from historical data and to guide management decisions for species recovery. The sampling and analytical methods we used may be useful for researchers and managers of other endangered lagomorphs and cryptic or fossorial animals occupying diverse habitats.

  14. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  15. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  16. Density of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches near Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Density of adult Diadema antillarum was assessed on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches next to Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA in June 2009. Mean density on live coral patch reefs (0.49 individuals m-2) was not statistical...

  17. Behavior of Leaf Meristems and Their Modification

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A major source of diversity in flowering plant form is the extensive variability of leaf shape and size. Leaf formation is initiated by recruitment of a handful of cells flanking the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to develop into a complex three-dimensional structure. Leaf organogenesis depends on activities of several distinct meristems that are established and spatiotemporally differentiated after the initiation of leaf primordia. Here, we review recent findings in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate leaf meristem activities in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discuss recent key studies investigating the natural variation in leaf morphology to understand how the gene regulatory networks modulate leaf meristems to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms during the course of evolution. PMID:26648955

  18. 3D reconstruction of rotational video microscope based on patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shijie; Qu, Yufu

    2015-11-01

    Due to the small field of view and shallow depth of field, the microscope could only capture 2D images of the object. In order to observe the three-dimensional structure of the micro object, a microscopy images reconstruction algorithm based on an improved patch-based multi-view stereo (PMVS) algorithm is proposed. The new algorithm improves PMVS from two aspects: first, increasing the propagation directions, second, on the basis of the expansion, different expansion radius and times are set by the angle between the normal vector of the seed patch and the direction vector of the line passing through the seed patch center and the camera center. Compared with PMVS, the number of 3D points made by the new algorithm is three times as much as PMVS. And the holes in the vertical side are also eliminated.

  19. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  20. A compact microwave patch applicator for hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chakaravarthi, Geetha; Arunachalam, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of a compact microstrip C-type patch applicator for hyperthermia treatment of cancer is presented. The patch antenna is optimized for resonance at 434 MHz, return loss (S11) better than -15dB and co-polarized electric field in tissue. Effect of water bolus thickness on power delivery is studied for improved power coupling. Numerical simulations for antenna design optimization carried out using EM simulation software, Ansys HFSS(®), USA were experimentally verified. The effective field coverage for the optimized patch antenna and experimental results indicate that the compact antenna resonates at ISM frequency 434 MHz with better than -15 dB power coupling. PMID:25571195

  1. Direct observations of the evolution of polar cap ionization patches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Lockwood, Michael; Hu, Hong-Qiao; Moen, Jøran; Ruohoniemi, J Michael; Thomas, Evan G; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Yang, Hui-Gen; Liu, Rui-Yuan; McWilliams, Kathryn A; Baker, Joseph B H

    2013-03-29

    Patches of ionization are common in the polar ionosphere, where their motion and associated density gradients give variable disturbances to high-frequency (HF) radio communications, over-the-horizon radar location errors, and disruption and errors to satellite navigation and communication. Their formation and evolution are poorly understood, particularly under disturbed space weather conditions. We report direct observations of the full evolution of patches during a geomagnetic storm, including formation, polar cap entry, transpolar evolution, polar cap exit, and sunward return flow. Our observations show that modulation of nightside reconnection in the substorm cycle of the magnetosphere helps form the gaps between patches where steady convection would give a "tongue" of ionization (TOI). PMID:23539601

  2. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  3. The Origin and Shape of Diffuse Auroral Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rae, Kyle; Donovan, Eric; Liang, Jun; Spanswick, Emma L.; Lessard, Marc; Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    Patchy pulsating aurora occurs commonly in the post-midnight sector. Recent studies have moved us significantly closer to understanding the mechanisms responsible for pitch angle scattering of the Central Plasma Sheet (CPS) electrons that produce these aurora. However, there is not yet an adequate explanation of what physical process gives rise to the patchy nature of the aurora. These patches last for minutes up to tens of minutes, with sizes that do not change significantly over their life time, and remain more or less stationary relative to the ground. In this paper, we use THEMIS and NORSTAR ASI observations of these auroral features to explore the shape of these patches. Based on our results, we conclude that the patches are the ionospheric counterpart of structures in cold plasma near the magnetospheric equator.

  4. DNA-based patterning of tethered membrane patches

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laura D.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are useful model systems for mimicking cellular membranes; however, the interaction of the bilayer with the surface can disrupt the function of integral membrane proteins and impede topological transformations such as membrane fusion. As a result, a variety of tethered or cushioned lipid bilayer architectures have been described, which retain the proximity to the surface, enabling surface-sensitive techniques, but physically distance the bilayer from the surface. We have recently developed a method for spatially separating a lipid bilayer from a solid support using DNA lipids. In this system, a DNA strand is covalently attached to a glass slide or SiO2 wafer, and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) displaying the complement rupture to form a planar lipid bilayer tethered above the surface. However, the location of the patch is random, determined by where the DNA-GUV initially binds to its complement. To allow greater versatility and control, we sought a way to pattern tethered membrane patches. We present a method for creating spatially distinct tethered membrane patches on a glass slide using microarray printing. Surface-reactive DNA sequences are spotted onto the slide, incubated to covalently link the DNA to the surface, and DNA-GUVs patches are formed selectively on the printed DNA. By interfacing the bilayers with microfluidic flow cells, materials can be added on top of or fused into the membrane to change the composition of the bilayers. With further development, this approach would enable rapid screening of different patches in protein binding assays and would enable interfacing patches with electrical detectors. PMID:23992147

  5. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  6. Relationships between sugarcane leaf hyperspectral reflectance, leaf nitrogen content, and yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf spectral reflectance has been used to estimate crop leaf chemical composition and other physiological characters. Leaf reflectance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) may be of use in evaluating genotypes. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify sugarcane genotypic variation in leaf hypers...

  7. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  8. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past five or so years blueberry growers in south Mississippi have discovered the disease Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot on some of their blueberry plants. In the past this disease was considered to be of minor importance occurring infrequently on isolated farms. But in recent years it ...

  9. A supervised patch-based approach for human brain labeling

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, François; Habas, Piotr A.; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We propose in this work a patch-based image labeling method relying on a label propagation framework. Based on image intensity similarities between the input image and an anatomy textbook, an original strategy which does not require any non-rigid registration is presented. Following recent developments in non-local image denoising, the similarity between images is represented by a weighted graph computed from an intensity-based distance between patches. Experiments on simulated and in-vivo MR images show that the proposed method is very successful in providing automated human brain labeling. PMID:21606021

  10. Picosecond time of spontaneous emission in plasmonic patch nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S. P.; Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Chubich, D. A.; Kurochkin, N. S.; Sychev, V. V.; Marchenko, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant (to 12 ps) decrease in the lifetime of excited states of quantum emitters in the form of three-layer colloidal quantum dots (CdSe/CdS/ZnS) placed in an aluminum-triangular silver nanoprism cavity (patch nanoantenna) has been experimentally demonstrated. The decrease in the time of spontaneous emission of quantum dots has been explained by the Purcell effect. The Purcell coefficient for an emitter in the resonator has been found to be 625. Such a significant increase in the rate of spontaneous emission in the patch nanoantenna is due to an increase in the local density of photon states in the plasmonic cavity.

  11. Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

  12. The patch microstructure in concrete: effect of mixing time

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Sidney . E-Mail: diamond@ecn.purdue.edu

    2005-05-01

    It has been previously shown by backscatter-mode scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that various laboratory- and field-mixed concretes exhibit dense areas or patches of hardened cement paste (hcp) alternating with highly porous areas or patches. The present work represents an effort to establish whether this distinctive microstructure was a result of inadequate mixing. A conventional laboratory concrete was prepared and subjected to prolonged mixing in an efficient pan mixer, with small samples being removed periodically, compacted, and cured for 28 days. Examination indicated that evidences of the patchy microstructure persisted despite prolonged mixing for up to 30 min, far beyond normal concrete mixing times.

  13. Apollo 13 Astronaut Fred Haise and Apollo 13 Mission Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Fred Haise Jr. of Biloxi, Miss., views his Apollo 13 mission patch, the flight on which he served in 1970, in a StenniSphere display donated to NASA by the American Needlepoint Guild. The exhibit is on permanent display at StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center. In its first year of operation, more than 251,000 visitors representing over 40 countries have viewed the 123 hand-stitched patches in the exhibit. Forty-two guild members from 20 states made the trip to StenniSphere for the opening of the exhibit, one of the most popular at StenniSphere.

  14. Formulation development and investigation of domperidone transdermal patches

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prabhakar; Shah, Samip; Gundad, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Aim and Background: Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with antiemetic properties having a plasma half life of 7-9 h with 15% oral bioavailability. In the present work transdermal patches of domperidone were prepared with the objective to improve its therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and to reduce the frequency of dosing and side effects, as well as to avoid its extensive first pass metabolism of the drug. Materials and Methods: The patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose (EC): Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA): Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC): Sodium (carboxy methyl cellulose) CMC as polymers in combination. The physicochemical parameters like thickness, drug content, weight variation, moisture absorption and drug permeation studies were evaluated for the prepared patches. No significant difference in thickness, average weight and in the drug content among the patches. Results: It was observed that from hydrophilic polymers the drug release was found to be faster compared to (F5 and F6 & F3 and F4) combination of hydrophilic and lipophilic polymers used in the study. Patches containing HPMC and Sodium CMC (F5 and F6) showed faster release as the patches showed maximum percentage amount moisture absorption. The in vitro release data was treated with kinetic equations and it followed Higuchi's diffusion mechanism. The in vivo bioavailability study was performed in rats and observed that, drug reached to the peak in approximately 60 min (16%) after oral route of administration. However, approximately same amount of drug was found in the serum from transdermal formulation in 6 h and further increase in the amount of drug in the serum, indicated that the drug 5 bioavailability could be better and hence the hepatic metabolism can be avoided, as it is evident from the data. Further, the decrease in the amount of drug present in the serum 45 min after oral administration also indicated that major

  15. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  10. Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Fisher, J B

    1978-02-24

    In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

  11. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277...

  16. Patched1 and Patched2 inhibit Smoothened non-cell autonomously

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brock; Casillas, Catalina; Alfaro, Astrid C; Jägers, Carina; Roelink, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo) inhibition by Patched (Ptch) is central to Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a proton driven antiporter, is required for Smo inhibition via an unknown mechanism. Hh ligand binding to Ptch reverses this inhibition and activated Smo initiates the Hh response. To determine whether Ptch inhibits Smo strictly in the same cell or also mediates non-cell-autonomous Smo inhibition, we generated genetically mosaic neuralized embryoid bodies (nEBs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These experiments utilized novel mESC lines in which Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Shh and 7dhcr were inactivated via gene editing in multiple combinations, allowing us to measure non-cell autonomous interactions between cells with differing Ptch1/2 status. In several independent assays, the Hh response was repressed by Ptch1/2 in nearby cells. When 7dhcr was targeted, cells displayed elevated non-cell autonomous inhibition. These findings support a model in which Ptch1/2 mediate secretion of a Smo-inhibitory cholesterol precursor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17634.001 PMID:27552050

  17. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  18. Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in

  19. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    In this thesis, developments of rectangular microstrip patch antenna to have circular polarization agility with wideband performance, for wireless applications are presented. First, a new technique to achieve circularly polarized (CP) probe feed single-layer microstrip patch antenna with wideband characteristics is proposed. The antenna is a modified form of the popular E-shaped patch, used to broaden the impedance bandwidth of a basic rectangular patch antenna. This is established by letting the two parallel slots of the E-patch unequal. Thus, by introducing asymmetry two orthogonal currents on the patch are excited and circularly polarized fields are realized. The proposed technique exhibits the advantage of the simplicity inherent in the E-shaped patch design. It requires only slot lengths, widths, and position parameters to be determined. Also, it is suitable for later adding the reconfigurable capability. With the aid of full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS, investigations on the effect of various dimensions of the antenna have been carried out via parametric analysis. Based on these investigations, a design procedure for a CP E-shaped patch is summarized. Various design examples with different substrate thicknesses and material types are presented and compared, with CP U-slot patch antennas, recently proposed in the literature. A prototype has been constructed following the suggested design procedure to cover the IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN band. The performance of the fabricated antenna was measured and compared with the simulation results for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measured results demonstrating a high gain and wideband performance. Second, a polarization reconfigurable single feed E-shaped patch antenna with wideband performance is proposed. The antenna is capable of switching from right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) to left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and

  20. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth... injury tolerance. C2L Fine Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth, oily... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tolerance. C4L Fair Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C5L Low Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf Underripe, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in oil... tolerance. C4F Fair Quality Medium-brown Thin Leaf. Mature, thin, close leaf structure, rough, lean in...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  10. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health. PMID:23000350

  11. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  12. Identification of the gregarization-associated dark-pigmentotropin in locusts through an albino mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Amer I.; Tanaka, Seiji; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Waelkens, Etienne; Derua, Rita; Milner, Yoram; Yerushalmi, Yoram; Pener, M. Paul

    1999-01-01

    In response to crowding, locusts develop characteristic black patterns that are well discernible in the gregarious phase at outbreaks. We report here a dark-color-inducing neuropeptide (dark-pigmentotropin) from the corpora cardiaca of two plague locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. The chromatographic isolation of this neuropeptide was monitored by using a bioassay with an albino mutant of L. migratoria. The neurohormone, consisting of 11 amino acids, is identical to [His7] corazonin, previously isolated from corpora cardiaca of another acridid without known function. The present results show that even in isolated (solitary) nymphs, [His7] corazonin induces gregarious black patterns. Its primary structure shows some similarity with the vertebrate melanophore stimulating hormone. PMID:10359842

  13. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  14. Capsaicin provokes apoptosis and restricts benzo(a)pyrene induced lung tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Anandakumar, P; Kamaraj, S; Jagan, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Devaki, T

    2013-10-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), a constituent of red chilli and red pepper is exposed to exert compelling anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumorigenic potential of CAP on benzo(a)pyrene-induced mice lung tumorigenesis by analyzing the markers of apoptosis. Intraperitoneal administration of CAP (10mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice suppressed the development of lung carcinoma by amending the protein expressions of apoptotic regulators p53, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The apoptotic-inducing nature of CAP was further confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopic study and ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. The results obtained from the present study show that CAP inhibits the development of mice lung carcinogenesis through its ability to induce apoptosis. Our present findings provide the basis for further clinical exploration of CAP as an anti-carcinogenic compound against lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23747734

  15. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Anita; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-06-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. PMID:15988142

  16. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive. PMID:25675391

  17. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  18. Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

  19. Impact of acute and chronic stress hormone on male albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Li; Chen, Ling; Dong, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of stress (stress hormone) in male albino rat brain. Nor-epinephrine was used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Nor-epinephrine was dissolved in the saline and administered orally to the rats. Following nor-epinephrine administration, the brain was removed surgically at 6 h, 12 h and 45 days. Alanine tansaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly altered in the rats. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), showed altered lipid peroxidation. Hematological markers such as packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly altered compared to controls. Altered serum biochemical and hematological markers, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities leads to adverse effect in the cellular metabolism and physiological activities of rats. PMID:26261571

  20. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  1. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  2. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  3. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported. PMID:7991311

  4. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  5. Runoff and erosion in a pinon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation patches

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, K.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.; MacDonald, L.

    1999-12-01

    In many semiarid regions, runoff and erosion differ according to vegetation patch type. These differences, although hypothesized to fundamentally affect ecological processes, have been poorly quantified. In a semiarid pinion-juniper woodland [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] in northern New Mexico, the authors measured runoff and erosion from the three patch types that compose these woodlands: Canopy patches (those beneath woody plants), vegetated patched in intercanopy areas, and bare patches in intercanopy areas. The bare intercanopy patches exhibited the highest rates, followed by vegetated intercanopy patches and then by canopy patches. Large convective summer storms, though relatively infrequent, generated much of the runoff and most of the sediment; prolonged frontal storms were capable of generating considerable runoff but little sediment. A portion of the runoff and most of the sediment generated from bare intercanopy patches was redistributed down-slope, probably to adjacent vegetated intercanopy patches, demonstrating connectivity between these two patch types. Their results indicate that there are significant and important differences in runoff and sediment production from the three patch types; that bare intercanopy patches act as sources of both water and sediment for the vegetated intercanopy patches; and that the transfer of water and sediment at small scales is both frequent enough and substantial enough to be considered ecologically significant.

  6. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Ahmad, Nagwa Abdel Wahab; Maadawi, Zeinab Mohamad El; Mohamady, Yasmin Kamal; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disorder. Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 DM. Topical insulin application did not affect apoptosis and necrosis levels in corneal epithelium. Autologous cell transplantation is not a viable option for diabetic patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed at assessing the possible effect of hemopoeitic stem cell (HSC) therapy on induced diabetic keratopathy in albino rat. Methods and Results: Fifteen male albino rats were divided into control group of 2 rats, diabetic group of 8 rats receiving single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 3 animals were sacrificed 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes to confirm keratopathy and 5 rats were sacrificed 4 weeks following confirmation of keratopathy. SC therapy group included 5 rats injected with HSCs 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes and sacrificed 4 weeks following SC therapy. Cord blood collection, stem cells isolation and labeling were performed. Eye specimens were subjected to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical studies. In diabetic group, the central cornea showed multiple cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei, focal epithelial discontinuity, reduced corneal thickness and less number of layers of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. In stem cell therapy group, few cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei were found in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia with more number of epithelial layers. Conclusions: A definite ameliorating effect of HSC therapy was detected on diabetic keratopathy. The therapeutic cells were effective in limiting corneal epithelial changes. PMID:24298355

  7. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1(st), 2(nd), 4(th), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  8. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  9. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed. PMID:26529681

  10. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  11. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino Zebrafish Line to Characterize In Vivo Expression of neurod

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Ochocinska, Margaret J.; Hitchcock, Peter F.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults. PMID:22235264

  12. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  13. Birds and bats reduce insect biomass and leaf damage in tropical forest restoration sites.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Emily B; Lindell, Catherine A

    2012-07-01

    Both birds and bats are important insect predators in tropical systems. However, the relative influence of birds and bats on insect populations and their indirect effects on leaf damage have not previously been investigated in tropical forest restoration sites. Leaf damage by herbivorous insects can negatively affect the growth and survival of tropical plants and thus can influence the success of tropical forest restoration efforts. We used an exclosure experiment to examine the top-down effects of birds and bats on insects and leaf damage in a large-scale forest restoration experiment. Given the potential influence of tree planting design on bird and bat abundances, we also investigated planting design effects on bird and bat insectivory and leaf damage. The experiment included two planting treatment plots: islands, where trees were planted in patches, and plantations, where trees were planted in rows to create continuous cover. In both types of plots, insect biomass was highest on tree branches where both birds and bats were excluded from foraging and lowest on branches without exclosures where both birds and bats were present. In the island plots, birds and bats had approximately equal impacts on insect populations, while in plantations bats appeared to have a slightly stronger effect on insects than did birds. In plantations, the levels of leaf damage were higher on branches where birds and bats were excluded than on branches where both had access. In island plots, no significant differences in leaf damage were found between exclosure treatments although potential patterns were in the same direction as in the plantations. Our results suggest that both birds and bats play important roles as top predators in restoration systems by reducing herbivorous insects and their damage to planted trees. Tropical restoration projects should include efforts to attract and provide suitable habitat for birds and bats, given their demonstrated ecological importance. PMID

  14. SPAD-based leaf nitrogen estimation is impacted by environmental factors and crop leaf characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dongliang; Chen, Jia; Yu, Tingting; Gao, Wanlin; Ling, Xiaoxia; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll meters are widely used to guide nitrogen (N) management by monitoring leaf N status in agricultural systems, but the effects of environmental factors and leaf characteristics on leaf N estimations are still unclear. In the present study, we estimated the relationships among SPAD readings, chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area for seven species grown in multiple environments. There were similar relationships between SPAD readings and chlorophyll content per leaf area for the species groups, but the relationship between chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area, and the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area varied widely among the species groups. A significant impact of light-dependent chloroplast movement on SPAD readings was observed under low leaf N supplementation in both rice and soybean but not under high N supplementation. Furthermore, the allocation of leaf N to chlorophyll was strongly influenced by short-term changes in growth light. We demonstrate that the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area is profoundly affected by environmental factors and leaf features of crop species, which should be accounted for when using a chlorophyll meter to guide N management in agricultural systems. PMID:26303807

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijender; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Kumar, Dinesh; Khan, NA; Chashoo, IA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extract of Skimmia anquetilia by in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory models. Methods Acute toxicity study was carried out to determine the toxicity level of different extract using acute toxic class method as described in Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines No.423. Carrageenan (1% w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in rat paw. The leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by in-vitro human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method and in-vivo carrangeenan-induced rat paw edema method. Results The in-vitro membrane stabilizing test showed petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE), ethyl acetate (EE), methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AE) showed 49.44%, 59.39%, 60.15%, 68.40% and 52.18 % protection, respectively as compared to control groups. The in-vivo results of CE, EE and ME showed 58.20%, 60.17% and 67.53% inhibition of inflammation after 6h administration of test drugs in albino rats. The potency of the leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia were compared with standard diclofenac (10 mg/kg) which showed 74.18% protection in in-vitro HRBC membrane stabilization test and 71.64% inhibition in in-vivo carrangeenan-induced rat paw edema model. The ME showed a dose dependent significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory activity in human red blood cell membrane stabilization test and reduction of edema in carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Conclusions The present investigation has confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of Skimmia anquetilia due to presence of bioactive phytoconstitutes for the first time and provide the pharmacological evidence in favor of traditional claim of Skimmia anquetilia as an anti- inflammatory agent. PMID:23569983

  16. Leaf physiognomy and climate: A multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. M.; Taylor, S. E.

    1980-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that leaf physiognomy is representative of the local or microclimate conditions under which plants grow. The physiognomy of leaf samples from Oregon, Michigan, Missouri, Tennessee, and the Panama Canal Zone has been related to the microclimate using Walter diagrams and Thornthwaite water-budget data. A technique to aid paleoclimatologists in identifying the nature of the microclimate from leaf physiognomy utilizes statistical procedures to classify leaf samples into one of six microclimate regimes based on leaf physiognomy information available from fossilized samples.

  17. Species Traits Predict Assemblage Dynamics at Ephemeral Resource Patches Created by Carrion

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Philip S.; Cunningham, Saul A.; Macdonald, Ben C. T.; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B.; Manning, Adrian D.

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species’ dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes. PMID:23326549

  18. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    PubMed

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes. PMID:23326549

  19. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  20. Close Human Interaction Recognition Using Patch-Aware Models.

    PubMed

    Yu Kong; Yun Fu

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of recognizing human interactions with close physical contact from videos. Due to ambiguities in feature-to-person assignments and frequent occlusions in close interactions, it is difficult to accurately extract the interacting people. This degrades the recognition performance. We, therefore, propose a hierarchical model, which recognizes close interactions and infers supporting regions for each interacting individual simultaneously. Our model associates a set of hidden variables with spatiotemporal patches and discriminatively infers their states, which indicate the person that the patches belong to. This patch-aware representation explicitly models and accounts for discriminative supporting regions for individuals, and thus overcomes the problem of ambiguities in feature assignments. Moreover, we incorporate the prior for the patches to deal with frequent occlusions during interactions. Using the discriminative supporting regions, our model builds cleaner features for individual action recognition and interaction recognition. Extensive experiments are performed on the BIT-Interaction data set and the UT-Interaction data set set #1 and set #2, and validate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26561435

  1. The pathways of Marine Plastic into the Ocean Garbage Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, E.; England, M. H.; Froyland, G.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the plastic debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial time scales. We find that garbage patches emerge in each of the five subtropical basins. The evolution of each of the five patches is markedly different, however. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial time scales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. In order to increase public awareness on this issue of sustainability in the ocean, we have used the methods and data of this study to create a public website at www.adrift.org.au where all interested can investigate the spread of tracer from any and all points on the ocean surface.

  2. Dispersal, patch Leaving, and distribution of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified the impact of plant diversity, and quality which were found to influence leafhopper tendencies to either disperse, or to remain, within a patch of plants. Understanding the underlying influences for leafhopper movement provides the information needed to create better management strateg...

  3. Diclofenac epolamine topical patch relieves pain associated with ankle sprain

    PubMed Central

    Lionberger, David R; Joussellin, Eric; Lanzarotti, Arturo; Yanchick, Jillmarie; Magelli, Merrell

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sports-related injuries, such as sprains and strains, commonly occur during exercise and athletic events. Current therapy includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have a high incidence of upper gastrointestinal side effects. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch (DETP, 1.3%), a topical NSAID for the treatment of acute minor sprains and strains. Methods: This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study enrolled adult patients (n = 134) with acute ankle pain (due to a minor sprain) occurring less than 48 hours prior to entering the study. Patients were treated with either the DETP or a placebo topical patch daily for seven days. Pain intensity was evaluated during the first six hours after application of the patch, and on treatment days 1, 2, 3, and 7. Results: Patients treated with the DETP experienced a significantly greater reduction in pain associated with their ankle injury compared with placebo, beginning four hours after the first patch application (P = 0.02). The DETP was well tolerated and was comparable with placebo in terms of safety. Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the DETP is an effective analgesic for local treatment of pain in mild acute ankle sprain. PMID:21559350

  4. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring. PMID:27004608

  5. Optimum Three Impulse Trajectory Generator with Patched Conic Trajectory Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, M. H.; Pines, S.; Horsewood, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Optimal multi-impulse trajectories were investigated as a nominal about which asymptotic expansion was used to obtain approximations of optimal low thrust trajectories. The work consisted of the analysis and description of an optimal 3-impulse trajectory program. A patched-conic trajectory model was specifically designed for compatibility with the subsequent addition of the low thrust expansion approximation.

  6. Fluoroscopically-guided epidural blood patch for spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish; Giampetro, David M; Kalapos, Paul; Caldwell, Julia C

    2015-01-01

    We present three patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension who failed conservative treatment and were treated with image-guided epidural blood patch close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak site. Each patient achieved significant long-term improvement of clinical symptoms and CSF leak related image findings. PMID:26702220

  7. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  8. Benzyl salicylate: a survey of consumer patch-test sensitization.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, K A; Booman, K A; Dorsky, J; Rothenstein, A S; Sedlak, R I; Steltenkamp, R J; Thompson, G R

    1983-12-01

    The potential of benzyl salicylate, an important fragrance and flavour ingredient, to induce hypersensitivity or to elicit reactions to pre-existing hypersensitivity in the general population was evaluated by analysing patch-test data. Results obtained from fragrance and formulator companies for a total of 10,538 patch tests on benzyl salicylate alone, on a variety of household and personal care consumer products and on fragrance blends containing benzyl salicylate were analysed as part of this survey. No induced or elicited responses directly attributable to benzyl salicylate were observed in the 35 patch tests on benzyl salicylate alone, or in the 10,503 patch tests on consumer products or fragrance blends containing benzyl salicylate. The highest concentration of benzyl salicylate tested in the consumer-product tests was 2 X 10(-1)%, and benzyl salicylate alone was tested at 10% in ethanol. This study indicates that benzyl salicylate has a very low potential to induce hypersensitivity ('induced' reactions) or to elicit reactions presumably attributable to pre-existing sensitization ('elicited' reactions) and thus supports the safe use of benzyl salicylate in consumer products and fragrance blends. PMID:6686578

  9. CAD-oriented cavity model for rectangular patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouroude, D.; Himdi, M.; Daniel, J. P.

    1990-06-01

    A cavity model well suited for computer-aided design is presented. The patch antenna is described by geometrical and electrical parameters. Using a cavity model, input impedance as a function of frequency is then calculated with a fast computer program implemented on a PC. Resonant resistance and resonant frequency are deduced.

  10. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring. PMID:27004608

  11. ECG patch monitors for assessment of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lobodzinski, S Suave

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of long-term monitoring is the improvement of diagnostic yield. Despite the clear utility of Holter monitoring in clinical cardiology, issues of relatively low diagnostic yield, cost and inconvenience have motivated the development of ultra-portable devices referred to as ECG patch monitors. Although the "gold standard" for assessing cardiac rhythm abnormalities remains a 12-lead Holter, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for evaluating cardiac rhythm in real-world environments such as the workplace or home. To facilitate patient acceptance these monitors underwent a radical miniaturization and redesign to include wireless communication, water proofing and a patch carrier for attaching devices directly to the skin. We review recent developments in the field of "patch" devices primarily designed for very long-term monitoring of cardiac arrhythmic events. As the body of supporting clinical validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of cardiac monitoring applications. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal cardiac activity data by patch devices may have significant implications for device selection, monitoring duration, and care pathways for arrhythmia evaluation and atrial fibrillation surveillance. From a research standpoint, the new devices may allow for the development of novel diagnostic algorithms with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with exercise and drug regimens. PMID:24215754

  12. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  13. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-03-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring.

  14. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  15. Development of a thermostable microneedle patch for influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mistilis, Matthew J; Bommarius, Andreas S; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study is to develop thermostable microneedle patch formulations for influenza vaccine that can be partially or completely removed from the cold chain. During vaccine drying associated with microneedle patch manufacturing, ammonium acetate and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer salts stabilized influenza vaccine, surfactants had little effect during drying, drying temperature had weak effects on vaccine stability, and drying on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) led to increased stability compared with drying on stainless steel. A number of excipients, mostly polysaccharides and some amino acids, further stabilized the influenza vaccine during drying. Over longer time scales of storage, combinations of stabilizers preserved the most vaccine activity. Finally, dissolving microneedle patches formulated with arginine and calcium heptagluconate had no significant activity loss for all three strains of seasonal influenza vaccine during storage at room temperature for 6 months. We conclude that appropriately formulated microneedle patches can exhibit remarkable thermostability that could enable storage and distribution of influenza vaccine outside the cold chain. PMID:25448542

  16. Use of microstrip patch antennas in grain permittivity measurement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El Sabbagh, M.A.; Ramahi, O.M.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.; Khan, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a compact size free-space setup is proposed for the measurement of complex permittivity of granular materials. The horn antennas in the conventional setup are replaced by microstrip patch antennas which is a step toward system miniaturization. The experimental results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained with horn antennas.

  17. Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Schutz, K.

    2005-12-01

    To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the Sahuaro Council's annual Science, Math, and Related Technologies (SMART) program, was very successful, reaching about 150-200 girls and their leaders. Individual troops rotated every half hour among our six activity booths: Earth-Moon, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Universe, and Ask an Astronomer, which were staffed by trained Girl Scout Leaders as well as faculty, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students from Steward Observatory. To earn a patch, younger girls (ages 5-12) had to complete activities at three booths and older girls had to complete all six activities. Positive feedback for this event was received from both the girls and leaders. We plan to hold Astronomy Patch Day annually, possibly with different and/or additional activities in future years. K. Knierman is supported by an Arizona/NASA Space Grant Fellowship. This outreach program is supported by NIRCam/JWST E/PO.

  18. Resolving Magnetic Flux Patches at the Surface of the Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    The geomagnetic field at a given epoch can be used to partition the surface of the liquid outer core into a finite number of contiguous regions in which the radial component of the magnetic flux density, B (sub r), is of one sign. These flux patches are instrumental in providing detail to surface fluid flows inferred from the changing geomagnetic field and in evaluating the validity of the frozen-flux approximation on which such inferences rely. Most of the flux patches in models of the modem field are small and enclose little flux compared to the total unsigned flux emanating from the core. To demonstrate that such patches are not required to explain the most spatially complete and accurate data presently available, those from the Magsat mission, I have constructed a smooth core field model that fits the Magsat data but does not possess small flux patches. I conclude that our present knowledge of the geomagnetic field does not allow us to resolve these features reliably at the core-mantle boundary; thus we possess less information about core flow than previously believed.

  19. Multilayer Patch Antenna Surrounded by a Metallic Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawadzki, Mark; Huang, John

    2003-01-01

    A multilayer patch antenna, similar to a Yagi antenna, surrounded by a metallic wall has been devised to satisfy requirements to fit within a specified size and shape and to generate a beam with a half-power angular width of <=40 deg. This antenna provides a gain of about 14 dB; in contrast, the gain of a typical single-patch antenna lies between 5 and 6 dB. This antenna can be considered an alternative to a two-dimensional array of patch antenna elements, or to a horn or helical antenna. Unlike a two-dimensional array of patches, this antenna can function without need for a power-division network (unless circular polarization is needed). The profile of this antenna is lower than that of a horn or a helical antenna designed for the same frequency. The primary disadvantage of this antenna, relative to a horn or a helical antenna, is that its footprint is slightly larger.

  20. Bioengineered FSTL1 Patches Restore Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Alteköester, Ann-Kristin; Harvey, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    Improving the limited ability of the heart to regenerate after infarction is crucial. Researchers now demonstrate that delivery of follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) into injured hearts via collagen patches stimulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac functional recovery. These findings highlight the epicardium as a source of novel regenerative factors and biomimetic nanomaterials in cardiac translational medicine. PMID:26596868

  1. Arbitrarily shaped dual-stacked patch antennas: A hybrid FEM simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jian; Volakis, John L.

    1995-01-01

    A dual-stacked patch antenna is analyzed using a hybrid finite element - boundary integral (FE-BI) method. The metallic patches of the antenna are modeled as perfectly electric conducting (PEC) plates stacked on top of two different dielectric layers. The antenna patches may be of any shape and the lower patch is fed by a coaxial cable from underneath the ground plane or by an aperture coupled microstrip line. The ability of the hybrid FEM technique for the stacked patch antenna characterization will be stressed, and the EM coupling mechanism is also discussed with the aid of the computed near field patterns around the patches.

  2. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers. PMID:22854182

  3. A smart composite patch for the repair of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakha, Kelah; Samuel, Paul; Pines, Darryll J.

    2005-05-01

    Recent interest in bonded composite patch repair technology for aerospace systems is because this method can be carried out at a reduced cost and time and can easily be applied to complex geometric structures. This paper details the development of a dual stiffness/energy sensor for monitoring the integrity of a composite patch used to repair an aluminum structural component. The smart sensor has the ability to predict the elastic field of a given host structure based on the strain state of two sub-sensors integrated into the structure. The present study shows the possibility of using the sensor to deduce the local instantaneous host stiffness. Damaged structures are characterized by a reduction in their elastic stiffness that evolve from microstructural defects. A local smart sensor can be developed to sense the local average properties on a host. In this paper, sensors are attached to a structure and a modified Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method is used to derive the elastic properties of the host. An analytical derivation and a sensitivity analysis for the quasistatic application is given in a papers by Majed, Dasgupta, Kelah and Pines. A summary of the derivation of the dynamic Eshelby tensor is presented. This is of importance because damage detection in structures undergoing vibratory and other motions present a greater challenge than those in quasistatic motion. An in-situ health monitoring active sensor system for a real structure (an aluminum plate with an attached repair patch) under close-to real lifecycle loading conditions is developed. The detection of the onset of any damage to the structure as well as the repair patch and the subsequent monitoring of the growth of this damage constitute important goals of the system. Both experimental and finite element methods were applied. Experimental results are presented for tests of the aluminum plate with the repair patch under monotonic quasi-static and dynamic loading vibratory conditions. In summary, the

  4. Leaf herbivory and nutrients increase nectar alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lynn S; Wink, Michael; Distl, Melanie; Lentz, Amanda J

    2006-08-01

    Correlations between traits may constrain ecological and evolutionary responses to multispecies interactions. Many plants produce defensive compounds in nectar and leaves that could influence interactions with pollinators and herbivores, but the relationship between nectar and leaf defences is entirely unexplored. Correlations between leaf and nectar traits may be mediated by resources and prior damage. We determined the effect of nutrients and leaf herbivory by Manduca sexta on Nicotiana tabacum nectar and leaf alkaloids, floral traits and moth oviposition. We found a positive phenotypic correlation between nectar and leaf alkaloids. Herbivory induced alkaloids in nectar but not in leaves, while nutrients increased alkaloids in both tissues. Moths laid the most eggs on damaged, fertilized plants, suggesting a preference for high alkaloids. Induced nectar alkaloids via leaf herbivory indicate that species interactions involving leaf and floral tissues are linked and should not be treated as independent phenomena in plant ecology or evolution. PMID:16913940

  5. Computer modeling of endovascular patch welding using temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsky, M.E.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Jacques, S.L.; Ols, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    A new computer program, LATIS, being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to study the effect of pulsed laser irradiation with temperature feedback on endovascular patch welding. Various physical and biophysical effects are included in these simulations: laser light scattering and absorption, tissue heating and heat conduction, vascular cooling, and tissue thermal damage. The geometry of a patch being held against the inner vessel wall (500 {mu}m inner diameter) by a balloon is considered. The system is exposed to light pulsed from an optical fiber inside the balloon. The laser power is adjusted during the course of a pulse. This is done automatically in the simulation by temperature feedback. A minimum in the depth of damage into the vessel wall is found. The minimum damage zone is about the thickness of the patch material that is heated by the laser. The more ordered the tissue the thinner the minimum zone of damage. The pulse length which minimizes the zone of damage is found to be the time for energy to diffuse across the layer. The delay time between the pulses is determined by the time for the heated layer to cool down. An optimal pulse length exists which minimizes the total time needed to weld the patch to the wall while keeping the thickness of the damaged tissue to less than 100 {mu}m. For the case that is considered, a patch dyed with light absorbing ICG on the side next to the vessel (thickness of the dyed layer is 60 {mu}m), the best protocol is found to be 33-600 ms pulses applied over 1.6 min.

  6. Development of patches for the controlled release of dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, P; Cilurzo, F; Casiraghi, A; Montanari, L; Santoro, A

    2001-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate conjugate (DHEAS) are the major secretory steroidal products of the adrenal gland. Some epidemiologic studies have found an association between low DHEA serum levels in patients and many important diseases. To prevent all such pathological conditions and, in any case, in aging, a DHEA supplementation has been proposed. DHEA shows a low oral bioavailability; taking the bioavailability obtained by the subcutaneous route as 100%, it was estimated that the potencies of DHEA by the percutaneous and oral routes were approximately 33% and 3%, respectively. Thus, transdermal patches could be considered a promising formulation as a continuous and controlled delivery of DHEA in replacement therapy is desired. With the aim of evaluating the effect of the matrix composition in terms of polymers and enhancers on the DHEA skin permeation flux, 10 types of monolayer self-adhesive patches containing 0.25mg/cm2 of active ingredient were designed. The matrices were based on three different acrylic copolymers: an acrylate-vinylacetate copolymer, a polyaminomethylmethacrylate (PAMA), and a polymethylmethacrylate. Transcutol (TR), mint essential oil, Lauroglycol, Brij 58, and propylene glycol (PG) were evaluated as DHEA skin permeation enhancers. All prepared patches were characterized by drug content, light microscopy, and in vitro skin permeation, performed using a modified Franz-type diffusion cell and human stratum corneum and epidermis as a membrane. The in vitro skin permeation studies are particularly significant in the development studies of DHEA patches as the in vivo determination of DHEA is affected b the fact that the endogen substance in the plasma is not constant over time. Among the testedpatches, highest DHEA fluxes were obtained using the formulation based on PAMA. Moreover, the introduction in the matrix of binary mixtures of TR and PG, used also for their plasticizer properties, permitted enhancing DHEA skin permeation

  7. Speeding up 3D speckle tracking using PatchMatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zontak, Maria; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Echocardiography provides valuable information to diagnose heart dysfunction. A typical exam records several minutes of real-time cardiac images. To enable complete analysis of 3D cardiac strains, 4-D (3-D+t) echocardiography is used. This results in a huge dataset and requires effective automated analysis. Ultrasound speckle tracking is an effective method for tissue motion analysis. It involves correlation of a 3D kernel (block) around a voxel with kernels in later frames. The search region is usually confined to a local neighborhood, due to biomechanical and computational constraints. For high strains and moderate frame-rates, however, this search region will remain large, leading to a considerable computational burden. Moreover, speckle decorrelation (due to high strains) leads to errors in tracking. To solve this, spatial motion coherency between adjacent voxels should be imposed, e.g., by averaging their correlation functions.1 This requires storing correlation functions for neighboring voxels, thus increasing memory demands. In this work, we propose an efficient search using PatchMatch, 2 a powerful method to find correspondences between images. Here we adopt PatchMatch for 3D volumes and radio-frequency signals. As opposed to an exact search, PatchMatch performs random sampling of the search region and propagates successive matches among neighboring voxels. We show that: 1) Inherently smooth offset propagation in PatchMatch contributes to spatial motion coherence without any additional processing or memory demand. 2) For typical scenarios, PatchMatch is at least 20 times faster than the exact search, while maintaining comparable tracking accuracy.

  8. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  9. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits – Vcmax and Jmax – to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between Vcmax and Jmax and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between Vcmax and Jmax and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of Vcmax and Jmax with leaf N, P, and SLA. Vcmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of Vcmax to leaf N. Jmax was strongly related to Vcmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm−2), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm−2 nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of Jmax to Vcmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  10. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  11. Power Input to non-deterministic Subsystems via Piezoelectric Patch Actuators: Effect of the patch size and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Azni N.; Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nor, Khairul A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Many engineering systems such as aircraft and automotive are considered built-up structures, fabricated from components that are classified as deterministic subsystems (DS) and non-deterministic subsystems (Non-DS). The response of Non-DS is sensitive to uncertainties therefore presents problems in vibration control. Therefore, analytical solution to estimate average power delivered by a piezoelectric (PZT) patch actuator when attached to a Non-DS needs to be established. The response of Non-DS is estimated using statistical modelling technique such as statistical energy analysis (SEA), in which any external input to the subsystem must be represented in terms of power input. In this paper, ensemble average of power given by a PZT patch actuator to a simply-supported plate when subjected to structural uncertainties is studied using Lagrangian method. The effects of size and location of the PZT actuators on the power delivered to the plate are investigated. It is found that changing the patch location on the structure will not affect the average power supplied while changing the patch size will change the power magnitude proportionally but with some variations at higher frequency.

  12. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  13. LeafJ: an ImageJ plugin for semi-automated leaf shape measurement.

    PubMed

    Maloof, Julin N; Nozue, Kazunari; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Palmer, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    High throughput phenotyping (phenomics) is a powerful tool for linking genes to their functions (see review and recent examples). Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. For these reasons studies on leaf morphology require measurement of multiple parameters from numerous leaves, which is best done by semi-automated phenomics tools. Canopy shade is an important environmental cue that affects plant architecture and life history; the suite of responses is collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Among SAS responses, shade induced leaf petiole elongation and changes in blade area are particularly useful as indices. To date, leaf shape programs (e.g. SHAPE, LAMINA, LeafAnalyzer, LEAFPROCESSOR) can measure leaf outlines and categorize leaf shapes, but can not output petiole length. Lack of large-scale measurement systems of leaf petioles has inhibited phenomics approaches to SAS research. In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the occasional leaf that required manual correction of the petiole/leaf blade boundary we used a touch-screen tablet. Further, leaf cell shape and leaf cell numbers are important determinants of leaf size. Separate from LeafJ we also present a protocol for using a touch-screen tablet for measuring cell shape, area, and size. Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping. PMID:23380664

  14. Rapid Establishment of a Regular Distribution of Adult Tropical Drosophila Parasitoids in a Multi-Patch Environment by Patch Defence Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Peter W.; Hemerik, Lia; Gort, Gerrit; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Females of the larval parasitoid of Drosophila, Asobara citri, from sub-Saharan Africa, defend patches with hosts by fighting and chasing conspecific females upon encounter. Females of the closely related, palearctic species Asobara tabida do not defend patches and often search simultaneously in the same patch. The effect of patch defence by A. citri females on their distribution in a multi-patch environment was investigated, and their distributions were compared with those of A. tabida. For both species 20 females were released from two release-points in replicate experiments. Females of A. citri quickly reached a regular distribution across 16 patches, with a small variance/mean ratio per patch. Conversely, A. tabida females initially showed a clumped distribution, and after gradual dispersion, a more Poisson-like distribution across patches resulted (variance/mean ratio was closer to 1 and higher than for A. citri). The dispersion of A. tabida was most probably an effect of exploitation: these parasitoids increasingly made shorter visits to already exploited patches. We briefly discuss hypotheses on the adaptive significance of patch defence behaviour or its absence in the light of differences in the natural history of both parasitoid species, notably the spatial distribution of their hosts. PMID:21765889

  15. Intelligent Patching of Conceptual Geometry for CFD Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2010-01-01

    The iPatch computer code for intelligently patching surface grids was developed to convert conceptual geometry to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) geometry (see figure). It automatically uses bicubic B-splines to extrapolate (if necessary) each surface in a conceptual geometry so that all the independently defined geometric components (such as wing and fuselage) can be intersected to form a watertight CFD geometry. The software also computes the intersection curves of surface patches at any resolution (up to 10.4 accuracy) specified by the user, and it writes the B-spline surface patches, and the corresponding boundary points, for the watertight CFD geometry in the format that can be directly used by the grid generation tool VGRID. iPatch requires that input geometry be in PLOT3D format where each component surface is defined by a rectangular grid {(x(i,j), y(i,j), z(i,j)):1less than or equal to i less than or equal to m, 1 less than or equal to j less than or equal to n} that represents a smooth B-spline surface. All surfaces in the PLOT3D file conceptually represent a watertight geometry of components of an aircraft on the half-space y greater than or equal to 0. Overlapping surfaces are not allowed, but could be fixed by a utility code "fixp3d". The fixp3d utility code first finds the two grid lines on the two surface grids that are closest to each other in Hausdorff distance (a metric to measure the discrepancies of two sets); then uses one of the grid lines as the transition line, extending grid lines on one grid to the other grid to form a merged grid. Any two connecting surfaces shall have a "visually" common boundary curve, or can be described by an intersection relationship defined in a geometry specification file. The intersection of two surfaces can be at a conceptual level. However, the intersection is directional (along either i or j index direction), and each intersecting grid line (or its spine extrapolation) on the first surface should intersect

  16. A Patch to MCNP5 for Multiplication Inference: Description and User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Jr., Clell J.

    2014-05-05

    A patch to MCNP5 has been written to allow generation of multiple neutrons from a spontaneous-fission event and generate list-mode output. This report documents the implementation and usage of this patch.

  17. Bending insensitive optical curl cord patch cords based on Holey-fibers for FTTH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chang-Hyun; Ouh, Chi-Hwan; Ryu, Ki-Sun; Kang, Hee-Jeon; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Young-Geon

    2008-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate real practical optical curl patch cords based on holey fibers with bending insensitivity. After making 6-hole holey fibers with the VAD method, the optical curl patch cord with the fabricated holey fiber is developed.

  18. Isoplanatic patch size for aberration correction in ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkington, Wayne C.

    Methods and experimental results are described for determination of the region size in an aberrating medium over which a single set of aberration estimates can achieve satisfactory b-scan resolution ( i.e., the isoplanatic patch) using time-shift compensation for aberration correction of ultrasonic transmit and receive beams. Based on twenty percent allowable increases in the -12 dB width of the receive or transmit beam focus using cross-correction compared to self-correction, the isoplanatic patch sizes were found to between 3 and 5 millimeters laterally for a linearly-scanned transducer, and at least 12 millimeters axially for a target distance of 55 millimeters and aberration comparable to human abdominal wall. These sizes depend on the aberration severity, reference site axial position, and allowable resolution degradation with cross-correction. The lateral isoplanatic patch size of a linearly scanned image can be more than doubled to match that of a beam-steered acquisition using aberration estimate position matching relative to the tissue surface. Further expansion of the lateral isoplanatic patch size by an additional 50 to 100 percent for both scanning methods is also shown through propagation path matched cross-correction mapping of aberration estimates. The specific mapping required to achieve the best propagation path match depends on the axial distribution of the aberrating structures, the focal depth being imaged, and the cross-correction distance. The effectiveness of alternate methods to derive propagation path matching maps with and without a priori knowledge of aberrator spatial distribution are contrasted; and a means to dynamically adjust correction maps to maximize isoplanatic patch sizes is proposed and verified. Lateral cross-correction mapping and the map changes required for each cross-correction distance can all be implemented with simple shifting of aberration estimates within the transducer aperture. Therefore, use of optimally mapped

  19. In vitro anti-inflammatory and wound-healing potential of a Phyllostachys edulis leaf extract--identification of isoorientin as an active compound.

    PubMed

    Wedler, Jonas; Daubitz, Tony; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-12-01

    Extracts prepared from the leaves of Phyllostachys edulis (bamboo) have received attention in pharmacological research due to their potent antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of a bamboo leaf extract on tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced overproduction of interleukin 8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin 6 in immortalized human keratinocytes were investigated for the first time. In addition, wound-healing effects were evaluated in 3T3-swiss albino mouse fibroblasts. Bamboo leaf extract and isoorientin inhibited the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced release of interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, isoorientin dose-dependently reduced levels of interleukin 6 in tumor necrosis factor alpha-α-treated immortalized human keratinocytes cells. Wound healing was evaluated using a modification of the classical scratch assay. For evaluation of the wound gap, a new computerized method based on time-lapse microscopy was developed. It was shown that bamboo leaf extract (10 µg/mL) improved wound closure by 28 % (12 h) and 54 % (24 h), respectively. In concentrations of 50 µg/mL and above, bamboo leaf extract inhibited cell migration without affecting cell viability. Isoorientin (10 µM) improved wound closure by 29 % (12 h) and 56 % (24 h), respectively. Comparable to bamboo leaf extract, higher concentrations of isoorientin prevented cell migration. It is suggested that bamboo leaf extract as well as isoorientin have a dual activity - in higher doses, they show anti-inflammatory effects, and in lower concentrations, they exert anti-angiogenic activities. PMID:25317773

  20. Adhesion testing of polyurethane matrix patches for transdermal delivery of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Dittgen, M; Gansen, P

    2012-06-01

    The 180 degrees peel test was applied to measure adhesion of three experimental polyurethane (PU) matrix patches and one commercial patch, Testopatch, on human volunteers skin. Comparing the results with those measurements on stainless steel or leather, a significant correlation between the leather data and the skin measurements was found. In contrary to results from stainless steel tests, all of the PU patches achieved better adhesion on skin than the commercial patch. PMID:22822549

  1. UW MCNP source patch for the EPFL Haefely source. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, G; Woodruff, G L

    1986-06-01

    The development of a source patch which describes the Haefely neutron source for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code has been described in progress reports of the EPFL (Swiss) Fusion Blanket Project at the University of Washington. The most recent of these reports dealing with the source patch was Progress Report No. 14. This report reviews some of the physical description included in the report, and also includes additional details of the patch as well as a listing of the patch itself.

  2. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. PMID:7883302

  3. Leaf P increase outpaces leaf N in an Inner Mongolia grassland over 27 years.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zhaorong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Gan, Huijie; Zhou, Wenjia; Flynn, Dan F B; He, Jin-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been intensively explored in short-term experiments, but rarely at longer timescales. Here, we investigated leaf N : P stoichiometry over a 27-year interval in an Inner Mongolia grassland by comparing leaf N : P concentration of 2006 with that of 1979. Across 80 species, both leaf N and P increased, but the increase in leaf N lagged behind that of leaf P, leading to a significant decrease in the N : P ratio. These changes in leaf N : P stoichiometry varied among functional groups. For leaf N, grasses increased, woody species tended to increase, whereas forbs showed no change. Unlike leaf N, leaf P of grasses and forbs increased, whereas woody species showed no change. Such changes may reflect N deposition and P release induced by soil acidification over the past decades. The interannual effect of precipitation may somewhat have reduced the soil available N, leading to the more modest increase of leaf N than of leaf P. Thus, leaf N : P stoichiometry significantly responded to long-term environmental changes in this temperate steppe, but different functional groups responded differently. Our results indicate that conclusions of plant stoichiometry under short-term N fertilization should be treated with caution when extrapolating to longer timescales. PMID:25589490

  4. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne...

  5. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne...

  6. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne...

  7. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne...

  8. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne...

  9. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E.; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory. PMID:27608823

  10. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory. PMID:27608823

  11. Comparison of bacterial communities from inside and outside of Rhizoctonia bare patches in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 causes distinct patches of stunted wheat in the field. Bacterial communities from bulk soil and rhizospheres of wheat were analyzed with pyrosequencing. Replicated samples were taken from inside and outside of patches; and from patches that had recovered the previous 1–2 year...

  12. Patch occupancy and dispersal of spruce grouse on the edge of its range in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, S.A.; Servello, F.A.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We surveyed 18 habitat patches (black spruce (Picea marinana) - tamarack (Larix larcina) wetlands) for spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis canadensis) on Mount Desert Island, Maine, during April-May in 1992 and 1993 to determine patch occupancy relative to patch area. We also equipped nine juvenile grouse with radio transmitters to determine movement and habitat use outside of patches during autumn dispersal. The 2 large patches (77 and 269 ha), 5 of 6 medium-sized (11-26 ha) patches, and 1 of 10 small (4-8 ha) patches were occupied. Spruce grouse occupied smaller habitat patches than previously reported, and occupied patches were closer (P < 0.05) to the nearest occupied patch (x = 1.2 km) than were unoccupied patches (x = 2.5 km). Eight of nine juvenile grouse left their natal habitat patch during autumn dispersal, and net dispersal distance (x = 2.3 km) was greater than that reported for grouse in areas with more contiguous habitat. Dispersing juveniles used all major forest types and 33 % of relocations were in deciduous forest. Thus, deciduous forest was not an absolute dispersal barrier.

  13. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  14. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  15. Microstrip patch antennas - Basic properties and some recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Fong

    1989-10-01

    For high-speed moving vehicles, it is desirable for the antenna to be 'low profile'. One of the early low profile antennas is the slot antenna, the theory of which was developed by Professor Henry G. Booker in a classic paper published in 1946. During the last decade and a half, a relatively new class of radiators known as microstrip patch antennas has received much attention. In addition to being low profile and conformable to a shaped surface, these antennas offer the potential advantages of light weight, low cost, ruggedness, and compatibility with integrated circuit technology. The main disadvantages are narrow bandwidth and the problems associated with copper loss and spurious radiation when the elements form an array. This paper begins with a description of the basic features of microstrip patch antennas, followed by a presentation of some of the research aimed at improving the frequency response and gain, particularly those to which the author and his collaborators have made contributions.

  16. Microstrip patch antennas—basic properties and some recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai-Fong, Lee

    1989-10-01

    For high-speed moving vehicles, it is desirable for the antenna to be "low profile". One of the early low profile antennas is the slot antenna, the theory of which was developed by Professor Henry G. Booker in a classic paper published in 1946. During the last decade and a half, a relatively new class of radiators known as microstrip patch antennas has received much attention. In addition to being low profile and conformable to a shaped surface, these antennas offer the potential advantages of light weight, low cost, ruggedness, and compatibility with integrated circuit technology. The main disadvantages are narrow bandwidth and the problems associated with copper loss and spurious radiation when the elements form an array. This paper begins with a description of the basic features of microstrip patch antennas, followed by a presentation of some of the research aimed at improving the frequency response and gain, particularly those to which the author and his collaborators have made contributions.

  17. Epidural Blood Patch Using Manometry for Sinking Skin Flap Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, James D; Farmer, Justin L; Dobson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    We describe here a 55-year-old male patient with a medical history significant for chronic back pain and substance abuse with cocaine who sustained a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage after a fall from a roof while acutely intoxicated on cocaine requiring decompressive hemicraniectomy and cranioplasty that was complicated by an epidural abscess requiring a repeat craniectomy. He was diagnosed with sinking skin flap syndrome consistent with altered mental status and a sunken skin flap with increased midline shift. Despite treatment with Trendelenburg positioning and appropriate fluid management, the patient continued to decline, and an epidural blood patch was requested for treatment. After placement of the epidural blood patch using manometry in the epidural space, the patient's neurologic status improved allowing him to ultimately receive a cranioplasty. The patient is now able to perform several of his activities of daily living and communicate effectively. PMID:27075425

  18. Individual and patch behaviour in structured metapopulation models.

    PubMed

    Barbour, A D; Luczak, M J

    2015-09-01

    Density dependent Markov population processes with countably many types can often be well approximated over finite time intervals by the solution of the differential equations that describe their average drift, provided that the total population size is large. They also exhibit diffusive stochastic fluctuations on a smaller scale about this deterministic path. Here, it is shown that the individuals in such processes experience an almost deterministic environment. Small groups of individuals behave almost independently of one another, evolving as Markov jump processes, whose transition rates are prescribed functions of time. In the context of metapopulation models, we show that 'individuals' can represent either patches or the individuals that migrate among the patches; in host-parasite systems, they can represent both hosts and parasites. PMID:25266056

  19. Comparative study of icy patches on comet nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, Nilda; Pommerol, Antoine; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Sunshine, Jessica; Sierks, Holger; Pajola, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    Cometary missions Deep Impact, EPOXI and Rosetta investigated the nuclei of comets 9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko respectively. Bright patches were observed on the surfaces of each of these three comets [1-5]. Of these, the surface of 67P is mapped at the highest spatial resolution via narrow angle camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS, [6]) on board the Rosetta spacecraft. OSIRIS NAC is equipped with twelve filters covering the wavelength range of 250 nm to 1000 nm. Various filters combinations are used during surface mapping. With high spatial resolution data of comet 67P, three types of bright features were detected on the comet surface: Clustered, isolated and bright boulders [2]. In the visible spectral range, clustered bright features on comet 67P display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface [2, 4] while isolated bright features on comet 67P have flat spectra [4]. Icy patches observed on the surface of comets 9P and 103P display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface [1, 5]. Clustered and isolated bright features are blue in the RGB composites generated by using the images taken in NIR, visible and NUV wavelengths [2, 4]. This is valid for the icy patches observed on comets 9P and 103P [1, 5]. Spectroscopic observations of bright patches on comets 9P and 103P confirmed the existence of water [1, 5]. There were more than a hundred of bright features detected on the northern hemisphere of comet 67P [2]. Analysis of those features from both multispectral data and spectroscopic data is an ongoing work. Water ice is detected in eight of the bright features so far [7]. Additionally, spectroscopic observations of two clustered bright features on the surface of comet 67P revealed the existence of water ice [3]. The spectral properties of one of the icy patches were studied by [4] using OSIRIS NAC images and compared with the spectral properties of the active regions observed

  20. Patch Clamp Experiments under Conditions of Variable Graviy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, F. P. M.; Meissner, K.

    2013-02-01

    The cellular membrane is an intrinsic part of any cell. It has a complex composition of lipid molecules and proteins. The membrane is, among others, involved in excitation and signal transduction. Ion channels, as integral membrane proteins, play an important role. For the question of gravity sensitivity of biological systems, especially neuronal cells, ion channels are of high interest. Gravity might directly interact with the ion channel protein or it might change the thermodynamic membrane parameters, influencing the incorporated proteins indirectly. Detailed information about the effects of gravity on the function of single ion-channels can up to now only be acquired by electrophysiological approaches like the patch clamp technique. Today this technique is the preferentially used technique for single ion-channel studies. Consequently, experiments have been developed in recent years to investigate the interaction of gravity with single ion channel molecules utilizing the patch-clamp technology on different macro- and micro-gravity platforms.