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Sample records for albino leaf patches

  1. Guard cells in albino leaf patches do not respond to photosynthetically active radiation, but are sensitive to blue light, CO2 and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Konrad, Kai R; Marten, Holger; Psaras, George K; Hartung, Wolfram; Hedrich, Rainer

    2006-08-01

    Stomatal openings can be stimulated by light through two signalling pathways. The first pathway is blue light specific and involves phototropins, while the second pathway mediates a response to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). This second pathway was studied with the use of albino Vicia faba plants and variegated leaves of Chlorophytum comosum. Treatment of V. faba with norflurazon (Nf) inhibits the synthesis of carotenoids and leads to albino leaves with guard cells that lack functional green chloroplasts. Guard cells in albino leaf patches of C. comosum, however, do contain photosynthetically active chloroplasts. Stomata in albino leaf patches of both plants did not respond to red light, although blue light could still induce stomatal opening. This shows that the response to PAR is not functioning in albino leaf patches, even though guard cells of C. comosum harbour chloroplasts. Stomata of Nf-treated plants still responded to CO2 and abscisic acid (ABA). The size of Nf-treated guard cells was increased, but impalement studies with double-barrelled microelectrodes revealed no changes in ion-transport properties at the plasma membrane of guard cells. Blue light could hyperpolarize albino guard cells by triggering outward currents with peak values of 37 pA in albino plants and 51 pA in green control cells. Because of the inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis, Nf-treated V. faba plants contained only 4% of the ABA content found in green control plants. The ABA dose dependence of anion channel activation in guard cells was shifted in these plants, causing a reduced response to 10 microM ABA. These data show that despite the dramatic changes in physiology caused by Nf, the gross responsiveness of guard cells to blue light, CO2 and ABA remains unaltered. Stomata in albino leaf patches, however, do not respond to PAR, but require photosynthetically active mesophyll cells for this response.

  2. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zemin; Tan, Jianjie; Shi, Zhenying; Xie, Qingjun; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3' untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  4. Matrix habitat and plant damage influence colonization of purple loosestrife patches by specialist leaf-beetles.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, A; Blossey, B

    2011-10-01

    The characteristics of the matrix, that is, the unsuitable habitat connecting host-plant patches may facilitate or limit herbivore movement thus affecting their population dynamics. We evaluated the effect of matrix habitat, distance between patches, and plant damage on movement of two leaf-beetles (Galerucella calmariensis Linnaeus and G. pusilla Duft) introduced to North America as biocontrol agents of the invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria Linnaeus). Mark-recapture/resight experiments indicated (1) that leaf-beetles are more likely to colonize purple loosestrife patches surrounded by meadow than forest; (2) that previously attacked purple loosestrife plants are more likely to be colonized by Galerucella spp. than unattacked plants, especially in the forest habitat; and (3) that leaf beetle colonization of purple loosestrife decreased with distance from release point. Low colonization rates of purple loosestrife patches embedded in forests suggest either insufficient detection or active avoidance of such habitats. Biological control programs intend to manage dispersal of specialized insect herbivores for the purpose of sufficient and sustained control of their host plants. Such management needs to be informed by knowledge of interactions of habitat structure, plant damage, and dispersal capabilities of herbivores to facilitate release programs and control at the local and regional level.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  6. A mutable albino allele in rice reveals that formation of thylakoid membranes requires the SNOW-WHITE LEAF1 gene.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Tsugane, Mika; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Ahmed, Nisar; Himi, Eiko; Takagi, Kyoko; Iida, Shigeru; Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Active DNA transposons are important tools for gene functional analysis. The endogenous non-autonomous transposon, nDart1-0, in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is expected to generate various transposon-insertion mutants because nDart1-0 elements tend to insert into genic regions under natural growth conditions. We have developed a specific method (nDart1-0-iPCR) for efficient detection of nDart1-0 insertions and successfully identified the SNOW-WHITE LEAF1 (SWL1) gene in a variegated albino (swl1-v) mutant obtained from the nDart1-promoted rice tagging line. The variegated albino phenotype was caused by insertion and excision of nDart1-0 in the 5'-untranslated region of the SWL1 gene predicted to encode an unknown protein with the N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide. SWL1 expression was detected in various rice tissues at different developmental stages. However, immunoblot analysis indicated that SWL1 protein accumulation was strictly regulated in a tissue-specific manner. In the swl1 mutant, formations of grana and stroma thylakoids and prolamellar bodies were inhibited. This study revealed that SWL1 is essential for the beginning of thylakoid membrane organization during chloroplast development. Furthermore, we provide a developmental perspective on the nDart1-promoted tagging line to characterize unidentified gene functions in rice.

  7. Albino Leaf 2 is involved in the splicing of chloroplast group I and II introns in rice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changhong; Zhu, Haitao; Xing, Yi; Tan, Jianjie; Chen, Xionghui; Zhang, Jianjun; Peng, Haifeng; Xie, Qingjun; Zhang, Zemin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an essential role in plant growth and development through manipulating photosynthesis and the production of hormones and metabolites. Although many genes or regulators involved in chloroplast biogenesis and development have been isolated and characterized, identification of novel components is still lacking. We isolated a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, termed albino leaf 2 (al2), using genetic screening. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the al2 mutation caused obvious albino leaves at the early developmental stage, eventually leading to al2 seedling death. Electron microscopy investigations indicated that the chloroplast structure was disrupted in the al2 mutants at an early developmental stage and subsequently resulted in the breakdown of the entire chloroplast. Molecular cloning illustrated that AL2 encodes a chloroplast group IIA intron splicing facilitator (CRS1) in rice, which was confirmed by a genetic complementation experiment. Moreover, our results demonstrated that AL2 was constitutively expressed in various tissues, including green and non-green tissues. Interestingly, we found that the expression levels of a subset of chloroplast genes that contain group IIA and IIB introns were significantly reduced in the al2 mutant compared to that in the wild type, suggesting that AL2 is a functional CRS1 in rice. Differing from the orthologous CRS1 in maize and Arabidopsis that only regulates splicing of the chloroplast group II intron, our results demonstrated that the AL2 gene is also likely to be involved in the splicing of the chloroplast group I intron. They also showed that disruption of AL2 results in the altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes, including chlorophyll biosynthetic genes, plastid-encoded polymerases and nuclear-encoded chloroplast genes. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the function of nuclear-encoded chloroplast group I and II intron splicing factors in rice. PMID:27543605

  8. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jianjie; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3′ untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, N. Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Dhamodharan, R.; Murugesan, S.; Kumar, S. Damodar

    2013-01-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Linn.) leaf against paracetamol intoxicated Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Thamizh; Venkatakrishnan, V; Dhamodharan, R; Murugesan, S; Kumar, S Damodar

    2013-07-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract. PMID:24501529

  11. Leaf patch clamp pressure probe measurements on olive leaves in a nearly turgorless state.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberger, W; Rüger, S; Rodríguez-Domínguez, C M; Díaz-Espejo, A; Fernández, J E; Moreno, J; Zimmermann, D; Sukhorukov, V L; Zimmermann, U

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive leaf patch clamp pressure (LPCP) probe measures the attenuated pressure of a leaf patch, P(p) , in response to an externally applied magnetic force. P(p) is inversely coupled with leaf turgor pressure, P(c) , i.e. at high P(c) values the P(p) values are small and at low P(c) values the P(p) values are high. This relationship between P(c) and P(p) could also be verified for 2-m tall olive trees under laboratory conditions using the cell turgor pressure probe. When the laboratory plants were subjected to severe water stress (P(c) dropped below ca. 50 kPa), P(p) curves show reverse diurnal changes, i.e. during the light regime (high transpiration) a minimum P(p) value, and during darkness a peak P(p) value is recorded. This reversal of the P(p) curves was completely reversible. Upon watering, the original diurnal P(p) changes were re-established within 2-3 days. Olive trees in the field showed a similar turnover of the shape of the P(p) curves upon drought, despite pronounced fluctuations in microclimate. The reversal of the P(p) curves is most likely due to accumulation of air in the leaves. This assumption was supported with cross-sections through leaves subjected to prolonged drought. In contrast to well-watered leaves, microscopic inspection of leaves exhibiting inverse diurnal P(p) curves revealed large air-filled areas in parenchyma tissue. Significantly larger amounts of air could also be extracted from water-stressed leaves than from well-watered leaves using the cell turgor pressure probe. Furthermore, theoretical analysis of the experimental P(p) curves shows that the propagation of pressure through the nearly turgorless leaf must be exclusively dictated by air. Equations are derived that provide valuable information about the water status of olive leaves close to zero P(c) .

  12. Biochemical and histopathological effects on liver due to acute oral toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of Ecliptaalba on female Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tanuja; Sinha, Nivedita; Singh, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Limited data is available about the toxicity of herbal remedies used for self-medication. Since a popular medicinal plant Ecliptaalba contains various bioactive molecules, the present study aimed to observe the biochemical and histological changes in liver associated with acute oral toxicity (LD50) of aqueous extract of E. alba (L.) Hassk. in female Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: For the acute oral toxicity study, the animals were divided into six groups of 6 mice each. Group– I was normal control and the treatment groups were administered aqueous leaf extract of E. alba orally at different doses of 500 mg (group – I),1750 mg (group–III), 2000 mg (group- IV), 2500 mg (group- V) and 3000 mg/ kg/b.wt.(group- VI) for seven consecutive days. The mice were sacrificed on the eighth day and blood was collected for the analysis of ALP (alkaline phosphatase), SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transferase), total protein and albumin. The liver was dissected, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Results: The LD50 was found to be 2316.626 mg/kg /body weight in female mice. Serum SGPT, total protein and albumin increased in treated group- IV (P < 0.05), V (P < 0.01), and VI (P < 0.01) as compared to the control (group- I). ALP level significantly decreased in the treated group- IV (P < 0.05), V (P < 0.01) and VI (P < 0.01). Histopathological changes were observed at dose of 2000 mg (group- IV), 2500 mg (group- V) and 3000 mg (group- VI). Conclusion: It was concluded that oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of E. alba had detrimental effects on biochemical parameters and induced histopathological alterations in liver of female Swiss albino mice at doses higher than 2000 mg/kg/day indicating that its indiscriminate use should be avoided. PMID:23543876

  13. Teratogenic Effect of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on Nissl Substances of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Ekanem, Theresa B; Udoh, Paul B; Ekong, Moses B; Asuquo, Olaitan R; Akpantah, Amabe O; Nwakanma, Agnes O

    2013-01-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used for the treatment of insanity. The possible adverse effects of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of the plant on Nissl substances of albino Wistar rat fetuses were studied using 25 mature female Wistar rats. The animals were divided equally into 5 groups, labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A was the control, while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with the males overnight, and the sperm positive day was designated as day zero of pregnancy. Oral doses of 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the root bark extract were administered to groups B and C animals, respectively, while groups D and E animals received 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract, respectively, from day 7 to 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses brains extracted, and the cerebral cortices excised and routinely processed for Nissl substances using Cresyl fast violet staining method. Results showed reduced staining intensity of Nissl substances in the treated groups, especially those that received the root extract. Thus, the herbs may have adverse effects on protein synthesis within the cerebral cortex.

  14. Leaf-level gas exchange and scaling-up of forest understory carbon fixation rates with a ``patch-scale'' canopy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedler, M.; Geyer, R.; Heindl, B.; Hahn, S.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    1996-03-01

    During the Hartheim experiment (HartX) 1992, conducted in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany, we estimated water vapor flux from the understory by several methods as reported in Wedler et al. (this issue). We also examined the photosynthetic gas exchange of the dominant understory species Brachypodium pinnatum, Carex alba, and Carex flacca at the leaf level with an CO2/H2O porometer. A mechanisticallybased leaf gas exchange model was parameterized for these understory species and validated via the measured diurnal courses of carbon dioxide exchange. Leaf CO2 gas exchange was scaled-up to patch- and then to stand-level utilizing the leaf gas exchange model as a component of the canopy light interception/energy balance model GAS-FLUX, and by further considering variation in vegetation “patch-type” distribution, patch-specific spatial structure, patch-type leaf area index, and microclimate beneath the tree canopy. At patch-level, C. alba exhibited the lowest net CO2 uptake of ca. 75 mmol m-2 d-1 due to a low leaf-level photosynthetic capacity, whereas net CO2 fixation of B. pinnatum- and C. flacca-patches was approx. 178 and 184 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. Highest CO2 uptake was estimated for mixed patches where B. pinnatum grew together with the sedge species C. alba or C. flacca. Scaling-up of leaf gas exchange to stand level resulted in an estimated average rate of total CO2 fixation by the graminoid understory patches of approximately 93 mmol m-2 d-1 during the HartX period. The conservative gas exchange behavior of C. alba at Hartheim and its apparent success in space capture seems to affect overall functioning of this pine forest ecosystem by limiting understory CO2 uptake. The CO2 uptake by the understory is approximately 20% of stand total CO2 uptake. CO2 uptake fluxes mirror the relative differences in water loss from the understory and crown layer during the HartX period. Comparative measurements indicate that understory vegetation in spruce and pine

  15. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  16. Effects of environmental parameters and irrigation on the turgor pressure of banana plants measured using the non-invasive, online monitoring leaf patch clamp pressure probe.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, U; Rüger, S; Shapira, O; Westhoff, M; Wegner, L H; Reuss, R; Gessner, P; Zimmermann, G; Israeli, Y; Zhou, A; Schwartz, A; Bamberg, E; Zimmermann, D

    2010-05-01

    Turgor pressure provides a sensitive indicator for irrigation scheduling. Leaf turgor pressure of Musa acuminate was measured by using the so-called leaf patch clamp pressure probe, i.e. by application of an external, magnetically generated and constantly retained clamp pressure to a leaf patch and determination of the attenuated output pressure P(p) that is highly correlated with the turgor pressure. Real-time recording of P(p) values was made using wireless telemetric transmitters, which send the data to a receiver base station where data are logged and transferred to a GPRS modem linked to an Internet server. Probes functioned over several months under field and laboratory conditions without damage to the leaf patch. Measurements showed that the magnetic-based probe could monitor very sensitively changes in turgor pressure induced by changes in microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, irradiation and wind) and irrigation. Irrigation effects could clearly be distinguished from environmental effects. Interestingly, oscillations in stomatal aperture, which occurred frequently below turgor pressures of 100 kPa towards noon at high transpiration or at high wind speed, were reflected in the P(p) values. The period of pressure oscillations was comparable with the period of oscillations in transpiration and photosynthesis. Multiple probe readings on individual leaves and/or on several leaves over the entire height of the plants further emphasised the great impact of this non-invasive turgor pressure sensor system for elucidating the dynamics of short- and long-distance water transport in higher plants.

  17. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang M; Driever, Steven M; Heuvelink, Ep; Rüger, Simon; Zimmermann, Ulrich; de Gelder, Arie; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2012-12-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. LPCP changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different heights of transpiring and non-transpiring leaves of tomato plants on sunny and cloudy days simultaneously with whole plant water uptake. Clear diel patterns were observed for relative changes of cell turgor of both transpiring and non-transpiring leaves, which were stronger on sunny days than on cloudy days. A clear effect of canopy height was also observed. Non-transpiring leaves showed relative changes in cell turgor that closely followed plant water uptake throughout the day. However, in the afternoon the relative changes of cell turgor of the transpiring leaves displayed a delayed response in comparison to plant water uptake. Subsequent recovery of cell turgor loss of transpiring leaves during the following night appeared insufficient, as the pre-dawn turgescent state similar to the previous night was not attained.

  18. Heterogeneity of competition at decameter scale: patches of high canopy leaf area in a shade-intolerant larch stand transpire less yet are more sensitive to drought.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Oren, Ram; Wang, Yanhui; Yu, Pengtao; Liu, Hailong; Cao, Gongxiang; Xu, Lihong; Wang, Yunni; Zuo, Haijun

    2015-05-01

    Small differences in the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to light intensity on leaf surfaces may lead to large differences in total canopy transpiration (EC) with increasing canopy leaf area (L). Typically, the increase of L would more than compensate for the decrease of transpiration per unit of leaf area (EL), resulting in concurrent increase of EC. However, highly shade-intolerant species, such as Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., may be so sensitive to increased shading that such compensation is not complete. We hypothesized that in such a stand, windfall-induced spatial variation at a decameter scale would result in greatly reduced EL in patches of high L leading to lower EC than low competition patches of sparse canopy. We further hypothesized that quicker extraction of soil moisture in patches of lower competition will result in earlier onset of drought symptoms in these patches. Thus, patches of low L will transition from light to soil moisture as the factor dominating EL. This process should progressively homogenize EC in the stand even as the variation of soil moisture is increasing. We tested the hypotheses utilizing sap flux of nine trees, and associated environmental and stand variables. The results were consistent with only some of the expectations. Under non-limiting soil moisture, EL was very sensitive to the spatial variation of L, decreasing sharply with increasing L and associated decrease of mean light intensity on leaf surfaces. Thus, under the conditions of ample soil moisture maximum EC decreased with increasing patch-scale L. Annual EC and biomass production also decreased with L, albeit more weakly. Furthermore, variation of EC among patches decreased as average stand soil moisture declined between rain events. However, contrary to expectation, high L plots which transpired less showed a greater EL sensitivity to decreasing stand-scale soil moisture, suggesting a different mechanism than simple control by decreasing soil moisture. We

  19. Expression of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene in tall fescue confers resistance to gray leaf spot and brown patch diseases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shujie; Shew, H David; Tredway, Lane P; Lu, Jianli; Sivamani, Elumalai; Miller, Eric S; Qu, Rongda

    2008-02-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important turf and forage grass species worldwide. Fungal diseases present a major limitation in the maintenance of tall fescue lawns, landscapes, and forage fields. Two severe fungal diseases of tall fescue are brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and gray leaf spot, caused by Magnaporthe grisea. These diseases are often major problems of other turfgrass species as well. In efforts to obtain tall fescue plants resistant to these diseases, we introduced the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene into tall fescue through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. In replicated experiments under controlled environments conducive to disease development, 6 of 13 transgenic events showed high resistance to inoculation of a mixture of two M. grisea isolates from tall fescue. Three of these six resistant plants also displayed significant resistance to an R. solani isolate from tall fescue. Thus, we have demonstrated that the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene confers resistance to both gray leaf spot and brown patch diseases in transgenic tall fescue plants. The gene may have wide applications in engineered fungal disease resistance in various crops.

  20. Salmon Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

  1. Patch tests*

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida; Ferreira, Alessandra Lindmayer

    2013-01-01

    Patch tests were introduced as a diagnostic tool in the late nineteenth century. Since then, they have improved considerably becoming what they are today. Patch tests are used in the diagnostic investigation of contact dermatitis worldwide. Batteries or series previously studied and standardized should be used in patch testing. The methodology is simple, but it requires adequate training for the results to be correctly interpreted and used. Despite having been used for over a century, it needs improvement like all other diagnostic techniques in the medical field. PMID:24474094

  2. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  3. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch. Each patch is stuck onto a thin plastic liner and a separate rigid plastic film. Do not open the pouch in advance, ... cut the patch into pieces. Peel the thin plastic liner off of the printed side of the ...

  4. Cabbage Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Sojourner rover image of the Cabbage Patch shows small rounded objects on the surface that are about 3-4 cm across. Some of these are within excavations, which are about 0.5 cm wide. Several questions arise about the pebbles: Why are they rounded? Where did they come from? What do they mean?

    Geologists use MULTIPLE WORKING HYPOTHESES when attempting to explain observations. Some hypotheses that could account for the pebbles are: They were rounded during transport by waters of catastrophic floods and deposited on the Ares Vallis floodplain They were rounded by wave action on an ancient Martian beach They were rounded during glacial transport They are glasses that were produced by melting during impact cratering. The glass was first ejected from the crater, then molded into spherical shapes or drops as it traveled through the atmosphere, and finally was deposited at the sites They are spatter from lava flows They are nodules brought up from the deep Martian interior by lava flows or pyroclastic eruptions. They are concretions formed in sedimentary rocks They came from ancient conglomerate rocks. The pebbles were rounded by water action and subsequently lithified into conglomerate rocks. Later, the waters of catastrophic floods transported the conglomerates and deposited them on the Ares floodplain. The pebbles were then freed from the rocks by weathering. A combination of the above

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. The "Inscrutable Albino" in Contemporary Ethnic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TuSmith, Bonnie

    1993-01-01

    In both canonical European American literature and contemporary ethnic American literature, there exists a counterpart to the "inscrutable Oriental" stereotype, the "inscrutable Albino." The albino motif is explored in some ethnic works to demonstrate how the trope functions in each and what this says about the author's world view. (SLD)

  6. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  7. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  8. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  9. Metal Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  10. Scopolamine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... patch from its protective pouch. To expose the adhesive surface of the patch, the clear plastic protective ... peeled off and discarded. Contact with the exposed adhesive layer should be avoided to prevent contamination of ...

  11. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... that area. Use scissors to remove the outer seal from the package. Then pull apart the zipper seal. Remove up to three patches from the package and press the zipper seal tightly together. The remaining patches may dry out ...

  12. PEYER'S PATCHES: IMMUNOLOGIC STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Claudia; Faulk, W. Page; Kuhn, Lotte; Yoffey, J. M.; Fudenberg, H. Hugh

    1970-01-01

    The immune capabilities of the Peyer's patches have been investigated by the use of an in vitro system. Despite our failure to stimulate Peyer's patch lymphocytes in vivo it appears that Peyer's patches behave immunologically as peripheral lymphoid tissues. Cultures prepared from the dissociated Peyer's patches of normal rabbits respond to sheep erythrocytes. The response is comparable to that obtained with spleen cultures from the same animals and is not dependent on the presence of the epithelial cells which line the lumen. Similar thymic cultures do not respond. Our experiments with cultures prepared from rabbits which have received one or two injections of SRC show that the Peyer's patches contain both IgM and IgG "memory" cells which have migrated from the spleen. The concentration of these cells in the spleen remains several hundredfold higher. PMID:5463217

  13. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  14. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  15. Fentanyl Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... follow these steps: Clean the area where you plan to apply the patch with clear water and ... vitamins, and nutritional supplements you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  16. Rotigotine Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance) including shaking of parts of ... stop using rotigotine patches, you may experience fever, muscle stiffness, change in consciousness, or other symptoms. Your ...

  17. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... that was covered by the patch seizures motion tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  18. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  19. DyninstAPI Patches

    2012-04-01

    We are seeking a code review of patches against DyninstAPI 8.0. DyninstAPI is an open source binary instrumentation library from the University of Wisconsin and University of Maryland. Our patches port DyninstAPI to the BlueGene/P and BlueGene/Q systems, as well as fix DyninstAPI bugs and implement minor new features in DyninstAPI.

  20. Antidepressant Activity of Brahmi in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty; M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Sri G, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Context: In traditional system of medicine brahmi has been used to enhance memory. Recently it has been reported to have action in psychiatric disorders. With these backgrounds the work has been undertaken to study antidepressant activity of brahmi in albino mice. Aim: To evaluate antidepressant activity of brahmi in experimental models. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant activity was studied in albino mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and shock induced depression (SID). Imipramine (10mg/kg), fluoxetine (30mg/kg) were used as standard drugs and brahmi (10, 20, 30mg/kg) was used as test drug. Results: Brahmi exhibited significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and reduced the shock induced decrease in activity in SID models. It didn’t show any activity in the TST model. Conclusion: Brahmi has shown antidepressant activity in FST and SID. PMID:24783074

  1. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    PubMed

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  2. Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M

    2007-11-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Mice were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg b.wt./day) once a day for three consecutive days, and after 30 min of treatments on the third day were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 12, 24, 48 hrs and 5, 10 and 20 days post-irradiation to evaluate the percentage of bone marrow cells, frequency of micronuclei and erythropoietin level in serum. An exposure to gamma radiation resulted in a significant decline in the number of bone marrow cells such as leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure resulted in significant increases in the numbers of leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes in bone marrow as compared to the control group. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure also resulted in significant decreases in micronucleus frequencies in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. A significant increase in erythropoietin level was observed at all the studied intervals in leaf extract of M. piperita pretreated irradiated animals as compared to control animals (radiation alone). The results of the present investigation suggest the protective effects of leaf extract of M. piperita against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow may be attributed to the maintenance of EPO level in Swiss albino mice.

  3. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  4. Stochastic patch exploitation model

    PubMed Central

    Rita, H.; Ranta, E.

    1998-01-01

    A solitary animal is foraging in a patch consisting of discrete prey items. We develop a stochastic model for the accumulation of gain as a function of elapsed time in the patch. The model is based on the waiting times between subsequent encounters with the prey items. The novelty of the model is in that it renders possible–via parameterization of the waiting time distributions: the incorporation of different foraging situations and patch structures into the gain process. The flexibility of the model is demonstrated with different foraging scenarios. Dependence of gain expectation and variance of the parameters of the waiting times is studied under these conditions. The model allows us to comment upon some of the basic concepts in contemporary foraging theory.

  5. Diclofenac Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... area where you will apply the patch with soap and water. Do not use any moisturizing soaps, lotions, astringents, or other skin care products on ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  6. Auroral fragmentation into patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Ayumi; Hori, Tomoaki; Sakaguchi, Kaori; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Donovan, Eric; Spanswick, Emma; Connors, Martin; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Nozawa, Satonori; McWilliams, Kathryn

    2014-10-01

    Auroral patches in diffuse auroras are very common features in the postmidnight local time. However, the processes that produce auroral patches are not yet well understood. In this paper we present two examples of auroral fragmentation which is the process by which uniform aurora is broken into several fragments to form auroral patches. These examples were observed at Athabasca, Canada (geomagnetic latitude: 61.7°N), and Tromsø, Norway (67.1°N). Captured in sequences of images, the auroral fragmentation occurs as finger-like structures developing latitudinally with horizontal-scale sizes of 40-100 km at ionospheric altitudes. The structures tend to develop in a north-south direction with speeds of 150-420 m/s without any shearing motion, suggesting that pressure-driven instability in the balance between the earthward magnetic-tension force and the tailward pressure gradient force in the magnetosphere is the main driving force of the auroral fragmentation. Therefore, these observations indicate that auroral fragmentation associated with pressure-driven instability is a process that creates auroral patches. The observed slow eastward drift of aurora during the auroral fragmentation suggests that fragmentation occurs in low-energy ambient plasma.

  7. Pulmonary toxicity of beryllium in albino rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Agrawal, V.P.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Arsenic compounds, if chronically exposed to human beings, significantly increase incidences of epidermoid carcinomas of the skin and lung. Nickel has been considered to be an important metallic carcinogen. Regarding beryllium, different opinions are held so far as its carcinogenic nature is concerned. While it is reported that there is an equivocal increase in the incidences of respiratory cancers in patients with chronic pulmonary berylliosis, investigation shows no increase in the incidence of respiratory cancer. Among experimental animals, intravenous injections of suspensions of beryllium salts to rabbits have been shown to induce osteogenic sarcomas. This abstract deals with the histopathological and enzymological study of lungs of albino rats after prolonged beryllium treatment.

  8. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  9. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medaka Oryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  10. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  11. Identification of genes involved in spontaneous leaf color variation in Pseudosasa japonica.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Xia, X W; Fang, W; Fu, Y; An, M M; Zhou, M B

    2015-10-02

    Spontaneous leaf color variation in bamboo provides the opportunity to study the mechanisms of leaf color formation and the breeding of ornamental bamboos. Despite the fact that many genes are known to be involved in leaf color variation in model plants, molecular mechanisms governing natural leaf color variation in bamboo have remained obscure. This study aimed to identify the genes responsible for the occurrence of such phenomena in bamboo using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method between green and albino leaves in Pseudosasa japonica f. A total of 1062 and 1004 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. Subsequently, 59 differentially expressed unigenes with potential roles in leaf color formation, predicted via computational analysis of their functional relevance, were selected for further analysis using qPCR. Ten genes, involved in photosynthesis, plastid development, and cation signal transduction, showed 2-fold changes in expression levels between green and albino leaves. Further expression pattern analyses of these genes at three developmental stages revealed much lower expression abundance of Lhca1-encoded chlorophyll a/b binding protein in the albino leaves than in the green leaves. Our results suggest that, together with the concatenated negative pressure for subsequent photosynthetic processes, the albino phenotype is at least partly attributable to chloroplast inner membrane damage or to the impairment of photosynthetic pigment accumulation, which results from low Lhca1 expression.

  12. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  13. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  14. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  15. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y. Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  16. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:23669532

  17. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions. PMID:24029911

  18. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  19. Statistics for Patch Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingee, K. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the application of remote sensing it is common to investigate processes that generate patches of material. This is especially true when using categorical land cover or land use maps. Here we view some existing tools, landscape pattern indices (LPI), as non-parametric estimators of random closed sets (RACS). This RACS framework enables LPIs to be studied rigorously. A RACS is any random process that generates a closed set, which encompasses any processes that result in binary (two-class) land cover maps. RACS theory, and methods in the underlying field of stochastic geometry, are particularly well suited to high-resolution remote sensing where objects extend across tens of pixels, and the shapes and orientations of patches are symptomatic of underlying processes. For some LPI this field already contains variance information and border correction techniques. After introducing RACS theory we discuss the core area LPI in detail. It is closely related to the spherical contact distribution leading to conditional variants, a new version of contagion, variance information and multiple border-corrected estimators. We demonstrate some of these findings on high resolution tree canopy data.

  20. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  1. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  2. Ecophysiological responses to different forest patch type of two codominant tree seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Renyan; Huang, Minyi; Kong, Xiaoquan; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    According to gap-phase dynamics theory, forests can be divided into four distinct patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M), and degeneration patch (D). Varying light conditions across patch types are one of the most important factors affecting the coexistence of vegetation. Mechanisms of coexistence can be understood through detailed knowledge of ecophysiological responses of codominant tree seedlings to patch types. The following study was conducted to determine ecophysiological responses of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (an evergreen broad-leaved species) and Bothrocaryum controversum (a deciduous broad-leaved species) to four different patch types. During the gap-phase dynamics, light intensity and the magnitude of change in the four different patches followed the order of: G > B > D > M. Both species had the greatest photosynthetic capacity in the G patch. Dry leaf mass per area (LMA), Chlorophyll a + b concentration (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrogen content per area (Na) all responded to changes in light across patch type, but B. controversum showed greater sensitivity and changes than C. glauca. From G to M patch, the maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) had a larger variation magnitude for B. controversum than for C. glauca. From G to M patch, B. controversum showed significant changes in gas exchange, while C. glauca showed only small changes. Ecophysiological trait partitioning of response to light in different patches provides a possible explanation of a coexistence mechanism. PMID:25691956

  3. Ecophysiological responses to different forest patch type of two codominant tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Renyan; Huang, Minyi; Kong, Xiaoquan; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    According to gap-phase dynamics theory, forests can be divided into four distinct patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M), and degeneration patch (D). Varying light conditions across patch types are one of the most important factors affecting the coexistence of vegetation. Mechanisms of coexistence can be understood through detailed knowledge of ecophysiological responses of codominant tree seedlings to patch types. The following study was conducted to determine ecophysiological responses of Cyclobalanopsis glauca (an evergreen broad-leaved species) and Bothrocaryum controversum (a deciduous broad-leaved species) to four different patch types. During the gap-phase dynamics, light intensity and the magnitude of change in the four different patches followed the order of: G > B > D > M. Both species had the greatest photosynthetic capacity in the G patch. Dry leaf mass per area (LMA), Chlorophyll a + b concentration (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrogen content per area (N a ) all responded to changes in light across patch type, but B. controversum showed greater sensitivity and changes than C. glauca. From G to M patch, the maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (F v /F m ) had a larger variation magnitude for B. controversum than for C. glauca. From G to M patch, B. controversum showed significant changes in gas exchange, while C. glauca showed only small changes. Ecophysiological trait partitioning of response to light in different patches provides a possible explanation of a coexistence mechanism.

  4. Bright patches on Ariel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Distinct bright patches are visible on Ariel, the brightest of Uranus' five largest satellites. Voyager 2 obtained this image Jan. 22, 1986, from a distance of 2.52 million kilometers (1.56 million miles). The clear-filter image, obtained with the narrow-angle camera, shows a resolution of 47 km (29 miles). Ariel is about 1,300 km (800 mi) in diameter. This image shows several distinct bright areas that reflect nearly 45 percent of the incident sunlight; on average, the satellite displays a reflectivity of about 25-30 percent. The bright areas are probably fresh water ice, perhaps excavated by impacts. The south pole of Ariel is slightly off center of the disk in this view. Voyager 2 will obtain its best views of the satellite on Jan. 24, at a closest-approach distance of 127,000 km (79,000 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. Restoring lens capsule integrity enhances lens regeneration in New Zealand albino rabbits and cats.

    PubMed

    Gwon, A; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1993-11-01

    In studies conducted by numerous investigators for 150 years, lenses regenerated following endocapsular lens extraction in New Zealand albino rabbits have been irregular in shape, appearing primarily doughnut-shaped as a result of lack of lens growth at the site of the anterior capsulotomy and its adhesion to the posterior capsule. In the present study, we restored the lens capsule integrity by inserting a collagen patch at the time of surgery to seal the anterior capsulotomy and to improve the shape and structure of the regenerated lenses. We then filled the capsule bag with air to prevent adhesions between the anterior and posterior capsule and maintain capsule tautness and shape. Lens regeneration was first noted as early as one to two weeks. Regenerated lens filled approximately 50% of the capsule bag at two weeks and 100% by five weeks. Subsequent growth was in the anterior-posterior direction and measured by A-scan biometry. Lens thickness increased by 0.3 mm per month. The regenerated lenses were spherical with normal cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. In conclusion, restoration of lens capsular integrity with a collagen patch following endocapsular lens extraction enhanced the shape, structure, and growth rate of the regenerated lenses. In addition, lens regeneration was shown to occur in two cats.

  6. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible.

  7. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible. PMID:24030367

  8. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin. One patch is applied once a week for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ... new patch on the same day of the week (the Patch Change Day). Apply a new patch ...

  9. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  10. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches. PMID:27166538

  11. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  12. Patch testing with perfume mixture.

    PubMed

    Veien, N K; Hattel, T; Justesen, O; Nørholm, A

    1982-01-01

    145 of 1116 patients patch tested with the standard series of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group, including the recently introduced perfume mixture, had positive patch test reactions to at least one of the traditional screening agents for fragrance allergy or to the perfume mixture. In 96 of 145 patients the positive patch tests could be explained as being related to fragrance allergy. The perfume mixture was considered a useful screening agent for fragrance allergy. However, the results indicate that it is still necessary to employ several screening agents to detect this type of hypersensitivity.

  13. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  14. Patch tests with some spices.

    PubMed

    Bruynzeel, D P; Prevoo, R L

    1990-01-01

    Experience is necessary to use commercially available spices and seasonings for patch testing. This experience is easily obtained by composing your own series of locally important flavorings and by using this series to assess the irritant potency. In our patients, not many strong irritation reactions were elicited. Only 100 per cent garlic powder was obviously too irritant, whereas 25 per cent in petrolatum might be too low to detect allergy. Positive reactions to unknown spices need to be checked in controls; this is important when patch tests are done with spices brought in by the patient. A positive patch-test reaction to a fragrance or perfume indicator in housewives, cooks, and confectioners with hand eczema is an indication to perform patch tests with spices because of the relation between spices and fragrances.

  15. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline. PMID:24707220

  16. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  17. The albino mutation of tyrosinase alters ocular angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Adini, Irit; McBride, Aaron F; Birsner, Amy E; D'Amato, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    We have observed substantial differences in angiogenic responsiveness in mice and have mapped the genetic loci responsible for these differences. We have found that the albino mutation is one of the loci responsible for such differences. Using B6.A consomic strains, we determined that chromosome 7 bears a locus that inhibits VEGF-induced corneal neovascularization. F2 crosses between B6.A consomic mice and C57BL/6J parents along with AXB and BXA recombinant inbred strains demonstrated highest linkage near the tyrosinase gene. This region was named AngVq4. Congenic animals confirmed this locus, but could not demonstrate that the classical tyrosinase albino (c) mutation was causative because of the existence of additional linked loci in the congenic region. However, in 1970, a second tyrosinase albino mutation (c-2J) arose in the C57BL/6J background at Jackson Labs. Testing this strain (C57BL/6J) demonstrated that the albino mutation is sufficient to completely explain the alteration in angiogenic response that we observed in congenic animals. Thus, we conclude that the classical tyrosinase mutation is responsible for AngVq4. In contrast to the cornea, where pigmented animals exhibit increased angiogenic responsiveness, iris neovascularization was inhibited in pigmented animals. These results may partially explain increased aggressiveness in amelanotic melanoma, as well as ethnic differences in diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. PMID:23423728

  18. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  19. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  20. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2011-12-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast.

  1. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  2. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  3. Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat

    2012-12-04

    A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

  4. Disruption of a rice pentatricopeptide repeat protein causes a seedling-specific albino phenotype and its utilization to enhance seed purity in hybrid rice production.

    PubMed

    Su, Ning; Hu, Mao-Long; Wu, Dian-Xing; Wu, Fu-Qing; Fei, Gui-Lin; Lan, Ying; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Shu, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Cheng, Zhi-Jun; Lei, Cai-Lin; Qi, Cun-Kou; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jian-Min

    2012-05-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family represents one of the largest gene families in higher plants. Accumulating data suggest that PPR proteins play a central and broad role in modulating the expression of organellar genes in plants. Here we report a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant named young seedling albino (ysa) derived from the rice thermo/photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile line Pei'ai64S, which is a leading male-sterile line for commercial two-line hybrid rice production. The ysa mutant develops albino leaves before the three-leaf stage, but the mutant gradually turns green and recovers to normal green at the six-leaf stage. Further investigation showed that the change in leaf color in ysa mutant is associated with changes in chlorophyll content and chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that YSA encodes a PPR protein with 16 tandem PPR motifs. YSA is highly expressed in young leaves and stems, and its expression level is regulated by light. We showed that the ysa mutation has no apparent negative effects on several important agronomic traits, such as fertility, stigma extrusion rate, selfed seed-setting rate, hybrid seed-setting rate, and yield heterosis under normal growth conditions. We further demonstrated that ysa can be used as an early marker for efficient identification and elimination of false hybrids in commercial hybrid rice production, resulting in yield increases by up to approximately 537 kg ha(-1).

  5. Automated planar patch-clamp.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon

  6. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  7. Patch testing with perfume ingredients.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1975-06-01

    From the large number of substances used in perfumes it is difficult and tedious to identify the allergen in a specific case of dermatitis. Many substances are both irritants and sensitizers. Based on personal experience, a list has been prepared of potential sensitizers, their concentrations and diluents suitable for patch testing.

  8. Metapopulation dynamics on ephemeral patches.

    PubMed

    Reigada, Carolina; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Altermatt, Florian; Holyoak, Marcel

    2015-02-01

    A challenge for conservation management is to understand how population and habitat dynamics interact to affect species persistence. In real landscapes, timing and duration of disturbances can vary, and species' responses to habitat changes will depend on how timing of dispersal and reproduction events relate to the landscape temporal structure. For instance, increasing disturbance frequency may promote extinction of species that are unable to appropriately time their reproduction in an ever-changing habitat and favor species that are able to track habitat changes. We developed a mathematical model to compare the effects of pulsed dispersal, initiated by shifts in habitat quality, with temporally continuous dispersal. We tested the effects of habitat (and population) turnover rates on metapopulation establishment, persistence, and long-term patch occupancy. Pulsed dispersal reduced patch occupancy and metapopulation longevity when habitat patches are relatively permanent. In such cases, demographic extinction was the primary form of local extinction. Conversely, when habitat patches are short-lived and new ones are frequently formed, pulsed dispersal promoted rapid colonization, increased occupancy, and prolonged metapopulation persistence. Our results show that species responsiveness to habitat disturbance is critical to metapopulation persistence, having profound implications for the species likely to persist in landscapes with altered disturbance regimes. PMID:25616138

  9. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  10. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  11. BLEPHARISMA INTERMEDIUM: ULTRAVIOLET RESISTANCE OF PIGMENTED AND ALBINO CLONES.

    PubMed

    GIESE, A C

    1965-07-30

    An albino mutant of Blepharisma intermedium is much more sensitive (on the basis of time to regeneration of transected cells) to short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation than the wild type (containing a reddish pigment) from which the mutant derived. In the wild type, absorption of ultraviolet light by the pigment present in the outer surface of the cell presumably reduces the intensity of the radiation impinging on the vulnerable interior.

  12. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  13. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste.

  14. OpenSSO Project Patches

    2009-06-08

    These are patches to Sun Microsystems open source OpenSSO project to fix various bugs and incorporate changes for Sandia and NNSA to use the product including fixes to improve OpenSSO's authentication and authorization abilities. These fixes will then by incorporated by Sun into their Sun Access Manager product, which is used by various DOE/NNSA plants and labs. Having Sun maintain these changes will relieve SNL and DOE from the cost of maintaining the changes themselves.

  15. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  16. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks. PMID:10387579

  17. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks.

  18. Analysis of Stub Loaded Microstrip Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna fed by a coaxial probe and reactively loaded by a open circuited microstrip line has been used previously to produce circular polarization[ l] and also as a building block for a series fed microstrip patch array [2]. Rectangular and circular patch antennas loaded with a microstrip stub were previously analyzed using the generalized Thevenin theorem [2,3]. In the Thevenin theorem approach, the mutual coupling between the patch current and the surface current on the stub was not taken into account. Also, the Thevenin theorem approach neglects continuity of current at the patch-stub junction. The approach in this present paper includes the coupling between the patch and stub currents as well as continuity at the patch-stub junction.

  19. Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

  20. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  1. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  2. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  3. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis.

  4. Patch test sensitivity to Kathon CG.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, N; Roed-Petersen, J

    1986-03-01

    Among 1511 consecutive patients patch tested with Kathon CG at 100 ppm active ingredient, 13 (0.8%) gave a positive reaction. Use test with a lotion containing Kathon CG (8.6 ppm) revealed no reaction in 11 patients with a positive patch test. It is concluded that a positive patch test reaction to 100 ppm does not initiate eczema after use of products preserved with Kathon CG in the low concentrations (3-15 ppm) used in final products.

  5. Foil Patches Seal Small Vacuum Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.; Reed, David W.

    1995-01-01

    Report discloses technique to patch holes in nickel-alloy rocket-engine nozzle parts prior to vacuum brazing. Technique involves lightly spot-welding nickel foil 0.002 in. thick over hole patched, then spot-welding corrosion-resistant steel foil of same thickness over nickel foil. Once patches subject to pressure and temperature of vacuum brazing, nickel foil diffuses to bond with nickel-alloy nozzle, making vacuum-tight seal.

  6. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  7. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  8. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  9. Hierarchical patch dynamics and animal movement pattern.

    PubMed

    Fauchald, Per; Tveraa, Torkild

    2006-09-01

    In hierarchical patch systems, small-scale patches of high density are nested within large-scale patches of low density. The organization of multiple-scale hierarchical systems makes non-random strategies for dispersal and movement particularly important. Here, we apply a new method based on first-passage time on the pathway of a foraging seabird, the Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica), to quantify its foraging pattern and the spatial dynamics of its foraging areas. Our results suggest that Antarctic petrels used a nested search strategy to track a highly dynamic hierarchical patch system where small-scale patches were congregated within patches at larger scales. The birds searched for large-scale patches by traveling fast and over long distances. Once within a large-scale patch, the birds concentrated their search to find smaller scale patches. By comparing the pathway of different birds we were able to quantify the spatial scale and turnover of their foraging areas. On the largest scale we found foraging areas with a characteristic scale of about 400 km. Nested within these areas we found foraging areas with a characteristic scale of about 100 km. The large-scale areas disappeared or moved within a time frame of weeks while the nested small-scale areas disappeared or moved within days. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is the dominant food item of Antarctic petrels and we suggest that our findings reflect the spatial dynamics of krill in the area. PMID:16794832

  10. Transdermal fentanyl patches in small animals.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Egger, Christine M

    2004-01-01

    Fentanyl citrate is a potent opioid that can be delivered by the transdermal route in cats and dogs. Publications regarding transdermal fentanyl patches were obtained and systematically reviewed. Seven studies in cats and seven studies in dogs met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Dogs achieved effective plasma concentrations approximately 24 hours after patch application. Cats achieved effective plasma concentrations 7 hours after patch application. In dogs, transdermal fentanyl produced analgesia for up to 72 hours, except for the immediate 0- to 6-hour postoperative period. In cats, transdermal fentanyl produced analgesia equivalent to intermittent butorphanol administration for up to 72 hours following patch application. PMID:15533967

  11. Recovery, growth and development of Macroorchis spinulosus in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ho-Chun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2003-01-01

    The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Macroorchis spinulosus were observed in albino rats. Globular and thick walled metacercariae, possessed a stylet, Y-shaped excretory bladder and extracecal testes. In albino rats, M. spinulosus showed habitat shifting. The majority of M. spinulosus reside in the jejunum for the first four days post infection (p.i.) and migrate to the duodenum at the later stage of infection. M. spinulosus grew rapidly during the first four days and reached full maturity at 14 days p.i. and later reduced in size. The ovary was separated from the genital primodium at one day p.i. The seminal vesicle appeared on the third day and divided into two sacs on the fourth day p.i. and intrauterine eggs and sperm mass were produced on the fourth day. Organogenesis and enlargement of reproductive organs governed the growth of M. spinulosus. The similarity of related species of the genus Macroorchis to M. spinulosus was discussed in consideration to developmental features. PMID:12666727

  12. Histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on Swiss albino mice spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Viveka, S; Udyavar, Ajay; Shetty, Balakrishna; Kuriakose, Santhosh; Sudha, M. J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spermatogenesis is a highly conserved and regulated process and it is sensitive to fluctuations in the physical and chemical environment. Gemcitabine is a novel antimetabolic anticancer drug used frequently in the treatment of many cancers. This study aimed to investigate the histomorphometric effects of gemcitabine on spermatogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Gemcitabine in high and low doses (80 and 40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally to inbred Swiss albino mice. Gross testicular features and seminiferous tubular histomorphometry was studies at the end of 7th, 14th day and at 2 months sperm shape abnormalities were studied. Results: Seminiferous tubular morphology was altered significantly, showing a reduction in height, perimeter and area in a dose dependent manner. Sertoli cell number decreased. Basement membrane thickness was reduced and it appeared to be permanent, with statistically insignificant changes even after 2 months. There was a reduction of intertubular spaces. Sperms have shown banana heading, decapitation and loss of normal hook of head. The effects were partially reversible at the end of 2 months. Conclusion: It was concluded that gemcitabine affects the process of spermatogenesis adversely in a dose and time dependent manner and the effects are partially reversible. PMID:25709994

  13. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  14. Effect of meclofenoxate on pentylenetetrazol kindling in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, M; Georgiev, V; Markovska, V; Genkova, M; Petkov, V D

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a single and 5-day treatment of male albino rats with meclofenoxate in a dose of 100 mg/kg on the clonic-tonic convulsions during the kindling phenomenon, induced by multiple injection of a subconvulsive dose (40 mg/kg) pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were tested. Its effects on convulsions, induced by a single convulsive dose of 100 mg/kg, were investigated for the sake of comparison. Meclofenoxate, introduced in a single dose of 100 mg/kg, lowered the intensity of the convulsions in PTZ-kindled rats. Meclofenoxate treatment for 5 days had an even more pronounced inhibitory effect on PTZ kindling. As regards the convulsions induced by a single injection of a convulsive PTZ dose, meclofenoxate only tends to decrease the percentage of rats with tonic convulsion and the lethality. On the basis of the results of earlier studies, the role of the serotoninergic neurotransmitter system for the observed inhibitory effect of meclofenoxate on PTZ kindling in albino rats is discussed.

  15. Patch voltage clamp of squid axon membrane.

    PubMed

    Fishman, H M

    1975-12-01

    A small area (patch) of the external surface of a squid axon can be "isolated" electrically from the surrounding bath by means of a pair of concentric glass pipettes. The seawater-filled inner pipette makes contact with the axon and constitutes the external access to the patch. The outer pipette is used to direct flowing sucrose solution over the area surrounding the patch of membrane underlying the inner pipette. Typically, sucrose isolated patches remain in good condition (spike amplitude greater than 90 mV) for periods of approximately one half hour. Patches of axon membrane which had previously been exposed to sucrose solution were often excitable. Membrane survival of sucrose treatment apparently arises from an outflow of ions from the axon and perhaps satellite cells into the interstitial cell space surrounding the exolemma. Estimate of the total access resistance (electrode plus series resistance) to the patch is about 100 komega (7 omega cm2). Patch capacitance ranges from 10-100 pF, which suggests areas of 10(-4) to 10(-5) cm2 and resting patch resistances of 10-100 Momega. Shunt resistance through the interstitial space exposed to sucrose solution, which isolates the patch, is typically 1-2 Momega. These parameters indicate that good potential control and response times can be achieved on a patch. Furthermore, spatial uniformity is demonstrated by measurement of an exoplasmic isopotential during voltage clamp of an axon patch. The method may be useful for other preparations in which limited membrane area is available or in special instances such as in the measurement of membrane conduction noise. PMID:1214276

  16. HotPatch Web Gateway: Statistical Analysis of Unusual Patches on Protein Surfaces

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pettit, Frank K.; Bowie, James U. [DOE-Molecular Biology Institute

    HotPatch finds unusual patches on the surface of proteins, and computes just how unusual they are (patch rareness), and how likely each patch is to be of functional importance (functional confidence (FC).) The statistical analysis is done by comparing your protein's surface against the surfaces of a large set of proteins whose functional sites are known. Optionally, HotPatch can also write a script that will display the patches on the structure, when the script is loaded into some common molecular visualization programs. HotPatch generates complete statistics (functional confidence and patch rareness) on the most significant patches on your protein. For each property you choose to analyze, you'll receive an email to which will be attached a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors (temp. factors) are replaced by patch indices; and the PDB file's Header Remarks will give statistical scores and a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors are replaced by the raw values of the property used for patch analysis (for example, hydrophobicity instead of hydrophobic patches). [Copied with edits from http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu/

  17. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  18. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-04-01

    The protective role of leaves of Mentha piperita Linn (Mint) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic-induced hepatopathy. The animals were divided into four groups. Group I: only vehicle (0.9% NaCl) was administered. Group II: the animals received Mentha leaf extract (1 g/kg body weight per day) orally for 30 days. Group III: animals were treated with sodium arsenite (4 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in 0.9% NaCl. Group IV: animals were given Mentha extract for 10 consecutive days prior to sodium arsenite treatment and continuously for 30 days after sodium arsenite treatment. The animals from the above groups were killed at various time-points, and body weight and liver weight were measured. The biochemical estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in liver and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in serum were done. In the arsenic-treated group there was a significant increase in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content, whereas a significant decrease was recorded in body weight, liver weight, GSH and LDH activity in liver. Pre- and post-treatment of Mentha with arsenic significantly alters the biochemical parameters in liver. A significant decline in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content was observed. However, a significant increase in body weight, liver weight, GSH content and LDH activity in liver was estimated. The results indicate that the Mentha extract may be useful in reducing the side effects of arsenic-induced hepatopathy. PMID:17371529

  19. Protective effect of Mentha piperita against arsenic-induced toxicity in liver of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-04-01

    The protective role of leaves of Mentha piperita Linn (Mint) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic-induced hepatopathy. The animals were divided into four groups. Group I: only vehicle (0.9% NaCl) was administered. Group II: the animals received Mentha leaf extract (1 g/kg body weight per day) orally for 30 days. Group III: animals were treated with sodium arsenite (4 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in 0.9% NaCl. Group IV: animals were given Mentha extract for 10 consecutive days prior to sodium arsenite treatment and continuously for 30 days after sodium arsenite treatment. The animals from the above groups were killed at various time-points, and body weight and liver weight were measured. The biochemical estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in liver and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in serum were done. In the arsenic-treated group there was a significant increase in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content, whereas a significant decrease was recorded in body weight, liver weight, GSH and LDH activity in liver. Pre- and post-treatment of Mentha with arsenic significantly alters the biochemical parameters in liver. A significant decline in ACP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT and LPO content was observed. However, a significant increase in body weight, liver weight, GSH content and LDH activity in liver was estimated. The results indicate that the Mentha extract may be useful in reducing the side effects of arsenic-induced hepatopathy.

  20. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems.

  1. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. PMID:25560046

  2. Immunoisolation Patch System for Cellular Transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An immunoisolation patch system, and particularly a patch system comprising multiple immunoisolation microcapsules, each encapsulating biological material such as cells for transplantation, which can be used in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of disease in large animals and humans without the need for immunosuppression.

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  4. Safe patch version 0.9 user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M

    1999-03-01

    The SafePatch version 0.9 provides automated analysis of network-based computer systems to determine the status of security patches and distributes needed patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed and what patches are installed on a system. SafePatch will distribute needed patches to the remote system for later installation. For those patches that are installed, SafePatch checks the permissions and ownership of the files referenced in the patch and reports on the attributes that differ from those recommended by the patch. SafePatch also ensures that the system software is authentic (that is, belonging to either a release of an operating system or a patch). The process SafePatch uses to authenticate the software on a system is more reliable and secure than other vendor-specific tools. SafePatch compares the remote system's files with the files from the patches to determine what is actually installed and what needs to be installed. This approach ensures accurate reporting of a system's patch status. It also allows SafePatch to identify files that do not belong to either the original system distribution (for example, Solaris 2.5) or to any patch. These unidentified files may be customized or trojan. Either way these files should be investigated further to determine their exact origin.

  5. Analysis of Stub Loaded Microstrip Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip patch antenna fed by a coaxial probe and reactively loaded by a open circuited microstrip line has been used previously to produce circular polarization and also as a building block for a series fed microstrip patch array. Rectangular and circular patch antennas loaded with a microstrip stub were previously analyzed using the generalized Thevenin theorem. In the Thevenin theorem approach, the mutual coupling between the patch current and the surface current on the stub was not taken into account. Also, the Thevenin theorem approach neglects continuity of current at the patch-stub junction. The approach in this present paper includes the coupling between the patch and stub currents as well as continuity at the patch-stub junction. The input impedance for a stub loaded microstrip patch is calculated by the general planar dielectric dyadic Green's function approach in the spectral domain, as was initiated much earlier and has been extensively expanded upon and utilized successfully throughout the literature for microstrip antenna configurations. Using the spectral domain dyadic Green s function derived earlier with the electric field integral equation (EFIE), the problem is formulated by using entire domain basis functions to represent the surface current densities on the patch, the loading stub and the attachment mode at the junction. Galerkin's procedure is used to reduce the EFIE to a matrix equation, which is then solved to obtain the amplitudes of the surface currents. These surface currents are then used for calculating the input impedance of stub loaded rectangular and circular microstrip patches. Numerical results are compared with measured results and with previous results calculated by the Thevenin's theorem approach.

  6. Disruption of a Rice Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Causes a Seedling-Specific Albino Phenotype and Its Utilization to Enhance Seed Purity in Hybrid Rice Production1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ning; Hu, Mao-Long; Wu, Dian-Xing; Wu, Fu-Qing; Fei, Gui-Lin; Lan, Ying; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Shu, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Cheng, Zhi-Jun; Lei, Cai-Lin; Qi, Cun-Kou; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family represents one of the largest gene families in higher plants. Accumulating data suggest that PPR proteins play a central and broad role in modulating the expression of organellar genes in plants. Here we report a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant named young seedling albino (ysa) derived from the rice thermo/photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile line Pei'ai64S, which is a leading male-sterile line for commercial two-line hybrid rice production. The ysa mutant develops albino leaves before the three-leaf stage, but the mutant gradually turns green and recovers to normal green at the six-leaf stage. Further investigation showed that the change in leaf color in ysa mutant is associated with changes in chlorophyll content and chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that YSA encodes a PPR protein with 16 tandem PPR motifs. YSA is highly expressed in young leaves and stems, and its expression level is regulated by light. We showed that the ysa mutation has no apparent negative effects on several important agronomic traits, such as fertility, stigma extrusion rate, selfed seed-setting rate, hybrid seed-setting rate, and yield heterosis under normal growth conditions. We further demonstrated that ysa can be used as an early marker for efficient identification and elimination of false hybrids in commercial hybrid rice production, resulting in yield increases by up to approximately 537 kg ha−1. PMID:22430843

  7. Combined effects of leaf litter and soil microsite on decomposition process in arid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Analía Lorena; Bertiller, Mónica Beatriz

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the combined effects of leaf litter quality and soil properties on litter decomposition and soil nitrogen (N) mineralization at conserved (C) and disturbed by sheep grazing (D) vegetation states in arid rangelands of the Patagonian Monte. It was hypothesized that spatial differences in soil inorganic-N levels have larger impact on decomposition processes of non-recalcitrant than recalcitrant leaf litter (low and high concentration of secondary compounds, respectively). Leaf litter and upper soil were extracted from modal size plant patches (patch microsite) and the associated inter-patch area (inter-patch microsite) in C and D. Leaf litter was pooled per vegetation state and soil was pooled combining vegetation state and microsite. Concentrations of N and secondary compounds in leaf litter and total and inorganic-N in soil were assessed at each pooled sample. Leaf litter decay and soil N mineralization at microsites of C and D were estimated in 160 microcosms incubated at field capacity (16 month). C soils had higher total N than D soils (0.58 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively). Patch soil of C and inter-patch soil of D exhibited the highest values of inorganic-N (8.8 and 8.4 μg/g, respectively). Leaf litter of C was less recalcitrant and decomposed faster than that of D. Non-recalcitrant leaf litter decay and induced soil N mineralization had larger variation among microsites (coefficients of variation = 25 and 41%, respectively) than recalcitrant leaf litter (coefficients of variation = 12 and 32%, respectively). Changes in the canopy structure induced by grazing disturbance increased leaf litter recalcitrance, and reduced litter decay and soil N mineralization, independently of soil N levels. This highlights the importance of the combined effects of soil and leaf litter properties on N cycling probably with consequences for vegetation reestablishment and dynamics, rangeland resistance and resilience with implications

  8. Combined effects of leaf litter and soil microsite on decomposition process in arid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Analía Lorena; Bertiller, Mónica Beatriz

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the combined effects of leaf litter quality and soil properties on litter decomposition and soil nitrogen (N) mineralization at conserved (C) and disturbed by sheep grazing (D) vegetation states in arid rangelands of the Patagonian Monte. It was hypothesized that spatial differences in soil inorganic-N levels have larger impact on decomposition processes of non-recalcitrant than recalcitrant leaf litter (low and high concentration of secondary compounds, respectively). Leaf litter and upper soil were extracted from modal size plant patches (patch microsite) and the associated inter-patch area (inter-patch microsite) in C and D. Leaf litter was pooled per vegetation state and soil was pooled combining vegetation state and microsite. Concentrations of N and secondary compounds in leaf litter and total and inorganic-N in soil were assessed at each pooled sample. Leaf litter decay and soil N mineralization at microsites of C and D were estimated in 160 microcosms incubated at field capacity (16 month). C soils had higher total N than D soils (0.58 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively). Patch soil of C and inter-patch soil of D exhibited the highest values of inorganic-N (8.8 and 8.4 μg/g, respectively). Leaf litter of C was less recalcitrant and decomposed faster than that of D. Non-recalcitrant leaf litter decay and induced soil N mineralization had larger variation among microsites (coefficients of variation = 25 and 41%, respectively) than recalcitrant leaf litter (coefficients of variation = 12 and 32%, respectively). Changes in the canopy structure induced by grazing disturbance increased leaf litter recalcitrance, and reduced litter decay and soil N mineralization, independently of soil N levels. This highlights the importance of the combined effects of soil and leaf litter properties on N cycling probably with consequences for vegetation reestablishment and dynamics, rangeland resistance and resilience with implications

  9. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Bhat, Savitha D

    2010-07-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  10. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  11. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  12. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  13. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and loadmore » the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports« less

  14. Patch shape, connectivity, and foraging by oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent J

    2005-06-01

    We examined how corridors and patch shape affect foraging by the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) by deploying foraging trays and live traps in experimental landscapes with 3 different patch types: patches connected with a corridor, unconnected patches with projecting corridorlike portions (winged patches), and unconnected rectangular patches. Corridors did not lead to different levels of activity of P. polionotus among the 3 patch types. Rather, corridors influenced activity by changing patch shape: foraging in seed trays and total number of captures of P. polionotus tended to be greater at the patch center than at the patch edge, but only in connected and winged patches where corridors or wings increased the amount of patch edge relative to the amount of core habitat in the patch. P. polionotus avoided open microhabitats near the patch edge in winged and connected patches, but not open microhabitats near the patch interior, suggesting that predation risk caused shifts in foraging near edges in connected and winged patches. Foraging in corridors and wings was generally low, suggesting that both are high-risk habitats where predation risk is not ameliorated by proximity to vegetative cover. By changing patch shape, corridors caused changes in within-patch activity of P. polionotus, changing foraging patterns and potentially altering the dynamics of P. polionotus and the seeds they consume.

  15. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and load the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports

  16. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain tissue revealed patch-like areas of disorganized neurons. Arrows show a patch of decreased or absent ... autistic brain is speckled with patches of abnormal neurons, according to research partially funded by the National ...

  17. Macro-video documentation patch tests.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christian; Kränke, Birger; Szolar-Platzer, Christiane; Aberer, Werner

    2005-04-01

    An unequivocal distinction between allergic and irritant patch test reactions is often difficult with patch tests. This study was designed to evaluate the worth of video-macro camera documentation for differentiation between allergic and irritant test reactions and to investigate whether there are characteristic clinical differences in patch test responses between metal salts and fragrances. Patch testing was performed with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix and an irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate 1% aq., on the upper back of 82 patients, with evaluation and computer-aided video documentation after 48 and 72 hr. No reliable clinicomorphological criterion was found for assessing a weak patch test reaction as being definitely allergic. Even characteristic papules and vesicles were not regularly found in allergic reactions. However, unlike fragrance mix, patch test reactions to nickel sulfate were characteristic in that they showed a heterogeneous spread and an association with hair follicle openings, independent of reaction intensity. Evaluation based on additional computer-aided video-macro camera documentation did not add further advantage for the differentiation of allergic and irritant reactions. But well-defined clinicomorphological features and reaction patterns to single test substances or even whole substance categories could be helpful additional criteria for evaluating patch test responses in clinical practice.

  18. Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, W M; Distler, C; Dekomien, G; Arning, L; Hoffmann, K-P; Epplen, J T

    2007-08-01

    Albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. Mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. In this study, we demonstrate that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The coding sequence of the five exons of TYR was determined in genomic DNA from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. It was not possible to amplify TYR exon 4 in albino ferrets originating from different breeds. The deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from albino and pigmented ferrets. This is the first report of a deletion of a TYR exon in a non-human mammal. PMID:17655555

  19. Scattering from arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, Capers R.

    1992-01-01

    The scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas are examined. The electric field integral equation for a current element on a grounded dielectric slab is developed for a rectangular geometry based on Galerkin's technique with subdomain rooftop basis functions. A shape function is introduced that allows a rectangular grid approximation to the arbitrarily shaped patch. The incident field on the patch is expressed as a function of incidence angle theta(i), phi(i). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the unknown current modes on the patch, and the electromagnetic scattering is calculated for a given angle. Comparisons are made with other calculated results as well as with measurements.

  20. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  1. Design, development and permeation studies of nebivolol hydrochloride from novel matrix type transdermal patches

    PubMed Central

    Jatav, Vijay Singh; Saggu, Jitender Singh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Sharma, Anil; Jat, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nebivolol hydrochloride is a third generation β-blocker with highly selective β1-receptor antagonist with antihypertensive properties having plasma half life of 10 h and 12% oral bioavailability. The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride to avoid its extensive hepatic first pass metabolism, lesser side effect and increase bioavailability of drug. Materials and Methods: Matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride were prepared using EudragitRS100, HPMC K100M (2:8) polymers by solvent evaporation technique. Aluminum foil was used as a backing membrane. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was used as plasticizer and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a penetration enhancer. Drug polymer interactions determined by FTIR and standard calibration curve of Nebivolol hydrochloride were determined by using UV estimation. Result: The systems were evaluated physicochemical parameters and drug present in the patches was determined by scanning electron microscopy. All prepared formulations indicated good physical stability. In vitro drug permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells using abdomen skin of Wistar albino rat. Result showed best in vitro skin permeation through rat skin as compared to all other formulations prepared with hydrophilic polymer containing permeation enhancer. Conclusions: It was observed that the formulation containing HPMC: EudragitRS100 (8:2) showed ideal higuchi release kinetics. On the basis of in vitro drug release through skin permeation performance, Formulation F1 was found to be better than other formulations and it was selected as the optimized formulation. PMID:24223377

  2. An evaluation of patch connectivity measures.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R

    2009-07-01

    Measuring connectivity is critical to the study of fragmented populations. The three most commonly used types of patch connectivity measures differ substantially in how they are calculated, but the performance of these measures has not been broadly assessed. Here I compare the ability of nearest neighbor (NN), buffer, and incidence function model (IFM) measures to predict the patch occupancy and colonization patterns of 24 invertebrate, reptile, and amphibian metapopulations. I predicted that NN measures, which have been criticized as being overly simplistic, would be the worst predictors of species occupancy and colonization. I also predicted that buffer measures, which sum the amount of habitat in a radius surrounding the focal patch, would have intermediate performance, and IFM measures, which take into account the areas and distances to all potential source patches, would perform best. As expected, the simplest NN measure (distance to the nearest habitat patch, NHi) was the poorest predictor of patch occupancy and colonization. Contrary to expectations, however, the next-simplest NN measure (distance to the nearest occupied [source] patch, NSi) was as good a predictor of occupancy and colonization as the best-performing buffer measure and the general IFM measure Si. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that area-based connectivity measures perform better than distance-based ones, my results indicate that the exclusion of vacant habitat patches from calculations is the key to improved measure performance. I highlight several problems with the parameterization and use of IFM measures and suggest that models based on NSi are equally powerful and more practical for many conservation applications. PMID:19688936

  3. Aspects and applications of patched grid calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Robert W.; Switzer, George F.; Thomas, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Patched grid calculations within the framework of an implicit, flux vector split upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler equations are presented. Aspects of computing on patched grids are discussed including the effect of a metric-discontinuous interface on the convergence rate of the algorithm, and the effect of curvature along an interface. Applications to a converging-diverging nozzle including effects of choking and bypass slots in two dimensions are presented.

  4. Curvature continuity in arbitrary bicubic Bezier patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Two methods are outlined for imposing interpatch curvature continuity in existing Bezier bicubic patch surfaces. Each method assumes that coordinates of the corners of the patches can not be altered but the interior Bezier control point can. Each method also preserves outer edge slope and outer corner twist derivatives. Neither method requires intersection or C0 continuity nor slope or C1 continuity at the start. A computer program for each method is given in the appendices.

  5. Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, Pujitha; Culurciello, Eugenio; Yang, Youshan; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Kindlmann, Peter J; Sigworth, Fred J

    2010-10-15

    We present the first, fully integrated, two-channel implementation of a patch-clamp measurement system. With this "PatchChip" two simultaneous whole-cell recordings can be obtained with rms noise of 8pA in a 10kHz bandwidth. The capacitance and series-resistance of the electrode can be compensated up to 10pF and 100MΩ respectively under computer control. Recordings of hERG and Na(v) 1.7 currents demonstrate the system's capabilities, which are on par with large, commercial patch-clamp instrumentation. By reducing patch-clamp amplifiers to a millimeter size micro-chip, this work paves the way to the realization of massively parallel, high-throughput patch-clamp systems for drug screening and ion-channel research. The PatchChip is implemented in a 0.5μm silicon-on-sapphire process; its size is 3×3mm(2) and the power consumption is 5mW per channel with a 3.3V power supply.

  6. Patch-clamp amplifiers on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Weerakoon, Pujitha; Culurciello, Eugenio; Yang, Youshan; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Kindlmann, Peter J.; Sigworth, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first, fully-integrated, two-channel implementation of a patch-clamp measurement system. With this “PatchChip” two simultaneous whole-cell recordings can be obtained with rms noise of 8 pA in a 10 kHz bandwidth. The capacitance and series-resistance of the electrode can be compensated up to 10 pF and 100 MΩ respectively under computer control. Recordings of hERG and Nav 1.7 currents demonstrate the system's capabilities, which are on par with large, commercial patch-clamp instrumentation. By reducing patch-clamp amplifiers to a millimeter size micro-chip, this work paves the way to the realization of massively-parallel, high-throughput patch-clamp systems for drug screening and ion-channel research. The PatchChip is implemented in a 0.5 μm silicon-on-sapphire process; its size is 3 × 3 mm2 and the power consumption is 5 mW per channel with a 3.3 V power supply. PMID:20637803

  7. Management of prosthetic patch infection after CEA.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ross

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that 0.5-1% of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy with prosthetic patch closure of the arteriotomy will develop patch infection. One third occur within the first 2 months after surgery, while two-thirds occur after >6 months have elapsed. Wound infection and abscess formation is the commonest mode of presentation in early cases, while chronic sinus discharge and false aneurysm formation are the commonest presentations in late cases. The commonest infecting organisms are Staphylococci/Streptococci (90%) and this should be borne in mind when planning antibiotic therapy before cultures are available. Most patch infections present (semi)-electively and patch rupture is relatively rare (10%), thereby enabling the surgeon to undertake careful evaluation of the patients overall clinical and anatomical status, whilst planning the optimal treatment strategy. If necessary, the patient should be transferred to a tertiary center for treatment. This is not an operation to be undertaken by an inexperienced surgeon. Operative planning should involve checking the original operation note (did the patient tolerate carotid clamping under locoregional anesthesia and therefore might tolerate carotid ligation), is there evidence of contralateral cranial nerve lesions (a contraindication to major open surgery) and has the surgeon planned for adequate distal exposure of the internal carotid artery. Patch excision and autologous reconstruction (usually vein) is the current 'gold standard' treatment, but highly selected patients can be successfully treated by less invasive surgery (including insertion of a covered stent). Patch excision and prosthetic reconstruction should be avoided.

  8. Pulse Dynamics in Endocytic Protein Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-03-01

    During the process of endocytosis in yeast, submicron-sized protein patches assemble, exert forces on the membrane to bend it, and finally disassemble. The patches contain an initial coat that establishes the endocytic site and binds cargo, polymers of the protein actin, ``nucleation-promoting factors'' (NPFs) that catalyze actin polymerization, and curvature-generating proteins. We model the dynamics of protein patches in yeast using a variant of the activator-inhibitor ``Fitzhugh-Nagumo'' model. We treat NPFs as the activator, and polymerized actin as the inhibitor, on the basis of findings that the lifetime of NPF patches is extended when actin polymerization is inhibited. Using this model, we find that as the polymerization rate is reduced, there is a discontinuous transition from protein pulses to persistent patches. We also find, surprisingly, that in some parameter regimes reducing the polymerization rate can increase the polymerized-actin content of the patch. We present data for NPF dynamics budding yeast, which confirm some of the predictions of the model. Supported by NIH under Grant R01-GM107667.

  9. Montage of Apollo Crew Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This montage depicts the flight crew patches for the manned Apollo 7 thru Apollo 17 missions. The Apollo 7 through 10 missions were basically manned test flights that paved the way for lunar landing missions. Primary objectives met included the demonstration of the Command Service Module (CSM) crew performance; crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities performance and testing during a manned CSM mission; CSM rendezvous capability; translunar injection demonstration; the first manned Apollo docking, the first Apollo Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), performance of the first manned flight of the lunar module (LM); the CSM-LM docking in translunar trajectory, LM undocking in lunar orbit, LM staging in lunar orbit, and manned LM-CSM docking in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 through 17 were lunar landing missions with the exception of Apollo 13 which was forced to circle the moon without landing due to an onboard explosion. The craft was,however, able to return to Earth safely. Apollo 11 was the first manned lunar landing mission and performed the first lunar surface EVA. Landing site was the Sea of Tranquility. A message for mankind was delivered, the U.S. flag was planted, experiments were set up and 47 pounds of lunar surface material was collected for analysis back on Earth. Apollo 12, the 2nd manned lunar landing mission landed in the Ocean of Storms and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) was deployed, and 75 pounds of lunar material was gathered. Apollo 14, the 3rd lunar landing mission landed in Fra Mauro. ALSEP and other instruments were deployed, and 94 pounds of lunar materials were gathered, using a hand cart for first time to transport rocks. Apollo 15, the 4th lunar landing mission landed in the Hadley-Apennine region. With the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), the crew was bale to gather 169 pounds of lunar material. Apollo 16, the 5th lunar

  10. Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Baker, Daniel H.; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Several recent studies have demonstrated that following short-term monocular deprivation in normal adults, the patched eye, rather than the unpatched eye, becomes stronger in subsequent binocular viewing. However, little is known about the site and nature of the underlying processes. In this study, we examine the underlying mechanisms by measuring steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as an index of the neural contrast response in early visual areas. Methods: The experiment consisted of three consecutive stages: a pre-patching EEG recording (14 minutes), a monocular patching stage (2.5 hours) and a post-patching EEG recording (14 minutes; started immediately after the removal of the patch). During the patching stage, a diffuser (transmits light but not pattern) was placed in front of one randomly selected eye. During the EEG recording stage, contrast response functions for each eye were measured. Results: The neural responses from the patched eye increased after the removal of the patch, whilst the responses from the unpatched eye remained the same. Such phenomena occurred under both monocular and dichoptic viewing conditions. Conclusions: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID:26410580

  11. Methods of Making and Using Shape Memory Polymer Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A method of repairing a composite component having a damaged area including: laying a composite patch over the damaged area: activating the shape memory polymer resin to easily and quickly mold said patch to said damaged area; deactivating said shape memory polymer so that said composite patch retains the molded shape; and bonding said composite patch to said damaged part.

  12. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F; Kolluru, Gita R; Nersissian, Karen

    2004-08-01

    Colour patches are complex traits, the components of which may evolve independently through a variety of mechanisms. Although usually treated as simple, two-dimensional characters and classified as either structural or pigmentary, in reality colour patches are complicated, three-dimensional structures that often contain multiple pigment types and structural features. The basic dermal chromatophore unit of fishes, reptiles and amphibians consists of three contiguous cell layers. Xanthophores and erythrophores in the outermost layer contain carotenoid and pteridine pigments that absorb short-wave light; iridophores in the middle layer contain crystalline platelets that reflect light back through the xanthophores; and melanophores in the basal layer contain melanins that absorb light across the spectrum. Changes in any one component of a chromatophore unit can drastically alter the reflectance spectrum produced, and for any given adaptive outcome (e.g. an increase in visibility), there may be multiple biochemical or cellular routes that evolution could take, allowing for divergent responses by different populations or species to similar selection regimes. All of the mechanisms of signal evolution that previously have been applied to single ornaments (including whole colour patches) could potentially be applied to the individual components of colour patches. To reach a complete understanding of colour patch evolution, however, it may be necessary to take an explicitly multi-trait approach. Here, we review multiple trait evolution theory and the basic mechanisms of colour production in fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and use a combination of computer simulations and empirical examples to show how multiple trait evolution theory can be applied to the components of single colour patches. This integrative perspective on animal colouration opens up a host of new questions and hypotheses. We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary

  13. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  14. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  15. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Klinkova, Anna; Larin, Egor M.; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Han, Lili; Xin, Huolin L.; Gang, Oleg; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-10-01

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules, serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient, but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles, and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. Here we demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. These patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.

  16. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  17. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch.

    PubMed

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-07-25

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection.

  18. A Novel Virus-Patch Dynamic Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-01-01

    The distributed patch dissemination strategies are a promising alternative to the conventional centralized patch dissemination strategies. This paper aims to establish a theoretical framework for evaluating the effectiveness of distributed patch dissemination mechanism. Assuming that the Internet offers P2P service for every pair of nodes on the network, a dynamic model capturing both the virus propagation mechanism and the distributed patch dissemination mechanism is proposed. This model takes into account the infected removable storage media and hence captures the interaction of patches with viruses better than the original SIPS model. Surprisingly, the proposed model exhibits much simpler dynamic properties than the original SIPS model. Specifically, our model admits only two potential (viral) equilibria and undergoes a fold bifurcation. The global stabilities of the two equilibria are determined. Consequently, the dynamical properties of the proposed model are fully understood. Furthermore, it is found that reducing the probability per unit time of disconnecting a node from the Internet benefits the containment of electronic viruses. PMID:26368556

  19. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.

  20. Comparative acceptance of three transdermal nitroglycerin placebo patches.

    PubMed

    Rayment, C M; Kaul, A F; Garfield, J M

    1985-06-01

    Factors that might affect patient acceptance of transdermal drug-delivery system patches were evaluated in healthy volunteers using placebo patches. Placebo transdermal nitroglycerin patches (Transderm-Nitro 5 placebo, Ciba Pharmaceutical Company; Nitro-Dur 10 cm2 placebo, Key Pharmaceuticals; and Nitrodisc 5 placebo, Searle Laboratories) were supplied by the manufacturers. Eighty-two healthy subjects were randomly assigned to begin using one of the three brands of patches. Using a Latin-square crossover design, subjects applied each brand of patch daily for five days and crossed over to the other brands on study days 6 and 11. At the end of each study phase, subjects completed a written questionnaire designed to evaluate their overall acceptance of each brand of patch. A total of 80 subjects completed all three phases of the study. According to forced rank preference, 84% of subjects preferred the Ciba patch to one of the other two brands. Subjects judged the Ciba patch to be the easiest of the three brands to use and reported significantly fewer side effects and skin irritation while using the Ciba patch; they also preferred the size of the Ciba patch and experienced significantly fewer problems with adherence of the Ciba patch. A significant percentage of subjects indicated that they would prefer a transdermal patch over tablets or ointment. Most subjects preferred the Ciba patch over the Key patch or Searle patch. PMID:3925770

  1. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  2. Patch tests with fragrance materials and preservatives.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Liem, D H; Nater, J P; van Ketel, W G

    1985-02-01

    179 patients suspected of cosmetic allergy were patch tested with a series of 16 fragrance materials and 9 preservatives. In 67 patients (37.4%), 1 or more of these substances gave positive reactions. In the group of fragrance materials, the largest numbers of positive patch test reactions were seen to isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, alpha-amylcinnamic alcohol, and a mixture of alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The fragrance mix in the ICDRG standard series detected nearly 80% of cases of contact allergy to fragrance materials other than its constituents. In the group of preservatives, Kathon CG and quaternium-15 scored the highest number of positive reactions. It is argued that the commonly used patch test concentrations of 2% for oak moss and geraniol may be too low to detect all cases of sensitization.

  3. Design of a Composite Membrane with Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Cuccu, Fabrizio; Emamizadeh, Behrouz; Porru, Giovanni

    2010-10-15

    This paper is concerned with minimization and maximization problems of eigenvalues. The principal eigenvalue of a differential operator is minimized or maximized over a set which is formed by intersecting a rearrangement class with an affine subspace of finite co-dimension. A solution represents an optimal design of a 2-dimensional composite membrane {Omega}, fixed at the boundary, built out of two different materials, where certain prescribed regions (patches) in {Omega} are occupied by both materials. We prove existence results, and present some features of optimal solutions. The special case of one patch is treated in detail.

  4. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  5. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  6. Leaf growth is conformal.

    PubMed

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour. PMID:27597439

  7. Critical patch sizes for food-web modules.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Fagan, William F; Denno, Robert F

    2012-08-01

    Because patch size and connectivity may strongly impact the assemblage of species that occur on a patch, the types of food-web interactions that occur among those species may also depend on spatial structure. Here, we identify whether food-web interactions among salt-marsh-inhabiting arthropods vary with patch size and connectivity, and how such changes in trophic structure might feed back to influence the spatial distribution of prey. In a multiyear survey, patch-restricted predators exhibited steeper occupancy-patch-size relationships than herbivores, and species' critical patch sizes were correlated with overall rarity. As a result, the presence of food-web modules depended strongly on patch size: large and well-connected patches supported complex food-web modules, but only the simplest modules involving the most abundant species were found on small patches. Habitat-generalist spiders dominated on small patches, and predation pressure from such species may contribute to the observed lower densities of mesopredators on small patches. Overall, patch size and connectivity influenced the types of modules present on a patch through differential loss of rare, patch-restricted predators, but predation by generalist predators may be a key mechanism influencing the spatial structure of certain prey species.

  8. Both host plant and ecosystem engineer identity influence leaf-tie impacts on the arthropod community of Quercus.

    PubMed

    Wang, H George; Marquis, Robert J; Baer, Christina S

    2012-10-01

    Many insect herbivores build shelters on plants, which are then colonized by other arthropod species. To understand the impacts of such ecosystem engineering on associated species, the contributions of ecosystem engineer and host-plant identities must be understood. We investigated these contingencies at the patch scale using two species of leaf-tying caterpillars, which vary in size and tie construction mode, on eight species of oak (Quercus) trees, which vary in leaf size and leaf chemistry. We created three types of artificial leaf ties by clipping together pairs of adjacent leaves using metal hair clips. We left the first type of leaf tie empty while adding individuals of the leaf-tying caterpillars of either Pseudotelphusa quercinigracella or Psilocorsis cryptolechiella to the other two. We also created a control treatment of untied leaves by affixing clips to single leaves. Leaf ties increased occupancy in the early season and arthropod alpha diversity throughout the experiment, on average fourfold. Furthermore, the presence of leaf ties increased arthropod species density on average three times and abundance 10-35 times, depending on the plant species. The mean phenolic content of the leaves of each oak species was positively correlated with the leaf-tie effect on abundance and negatively correlated with the leaf-tie effect on species diversity. Species diversity, but not abundance, was affected by the identity of the tie-maker. Arthropod species composition differed between untied leaves and artificial leaf ties, and between ties made by the two leaf-tier species. Our results demonstrate that the presence of leaf ties adds to habitat diversity within the oak-herbivore system, not only by creating a new kind of microhabitat (the leaf tie) within trees, but also by exacerbating differences among the eight oak species in apparent habitat quality. The identity of the leaf-tying caterpillar adds to this heterogeneity by creating leaf ties of different size, thus

  9. Intrinsic innervation of the urinary bladder of kangaroo and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, F A; Nassar, A M; MPAHRAN, Z Y; El-Mahallawi, M N

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study of the intrinsic innervation in desert rodents (kangaroo rats) and others (albino rats) was carried out in an attempt to understand the functional anatomy of the bladder in these animals which are known to sustain severe water restraint. The bladder of the albino rat was innervated by predominantly thin nerves, more numerous beaded endings and few ganglia. That of the kangaroo rat had more numerous thick nerves (pre-ganglionic), large verve trunks, and ganglia which were extensively distributed in the wall. These findings indicate that the bladder of the albino rat depends mainly on the intrinsic innervation and facilatory micturition reflexes, while that of the kangaroo rat is intrinsically regulated, depending on a short neuron system. It was concluded that all the structural differences found might be essential for constant urine retention.

  10. Genetic and Physical Interaction Studies Reveal Functional Similarities between ALBINO3 and ALBINO4 in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trösch, Raphael; Töpel, Mats; Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ALBINO3 (ALB3) is a well-known component of a thylakoid protein-targeting complex that interacts with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and the cpSRP receptor, chloroplast filamentous temperature-sensitive Y (cpFtsY). Its protein-inserting function has been established mainly for light-harvesting complex proteins, which first interact with the unique chloroplast cpSRP43 component and then are delivered to the ALB3 integrase by a GTP-dependent cpSRP-cpFtsY interaction. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a subsequently discovered ALB3 homolog, ALB4, has been proposed to be involved not in light-harvesting complex protein targeting, but instead in the stabilization of the ATP synthase complex. Here, however, we show that ALB3 and ALB4 share significant functional overlap, and that both proteins are required for the efficient insertion of cytochrome f and potentially other subunits of pigment-bearing protein complexes. Genetic and physical interactions between ALB4 and ALB3, and physical interactions between ALB4 and cpSRP, suggest that the two ALB proteins may engage similar sets of interactors for their specific functions. We propose that ALB4 optimizes the insertion of thylakoid proteins by participating in the ALB3-cpSRP pathway for certain substrates (e.g. cytochrome f and the Rieske protein). Although ALB4 has clearly diverged from ALB3 in relation to the partner-recruiting C-terminal domain, our analysis suggests that one putative cpSRP-binding motif has not been entirely lost. PMID:26265777

  11. Juno Microwave Radiometer Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, N.; Chen, J.; Focardi, P.; Hodges, R.; Hughes, R.; Jakoboski, J.; Venkatesan, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2009-01-01

    Juno is a mission in the NASA New Frontiers Program with the goal of significantly improving our understanding of the formation and structure of Jupiter. This paper discusses the modeling and measurement of the two patch array antennas. An overview of the antenna architecture, design and development at JPL is provided, along with estimates of performance and the results of measurements.

  12. Mutual coupling between rectangular microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Tan; Lee, Kai-Fong; Chebolu, Siva R.; Lee, R. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive study of the mutual coupling between two rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The cavity model is employed to give numerical results for both mutual impedance and mutual coupling parameters for the E-plane, H-plane, diagonal, and perpendicular orientations. The effects of substrate thickness, substrate permittivity, and feed positions are discussed.

  13. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  14. Planar patch clamp: advances in electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Andrea; Farre, Cecilia; Haarmann, Claudia; Haythornthwaite, Ali; Kreir, Mohamed; Stoelzle, Sonja; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels have gained increased interest as therapeutic targets over recent years, since a growing number of human and animal diseases have been attributed to defects in ion channel function. Potassium channels are the largest and most diverse family of ion channels. Pharmaceutical agents such as Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channel activity which promotes insulin release, have been successfully sold on the market for many years. So far, only a small group of the known ion channels have been addressed as potential drug targets. The functional testing of drugs on these ion channels has always been the bottleneck in the development of these types of pharmaceutical compounds.New generations of automated patch clamp screening platforms allow a higher throughput for drug testing and widen this bottleneck. Due to their planar chip design not only is a higher throughput achieved, but new applications have also become possible. One of the advantages of planar patch clamp is the possibility of perfusing the intracellular side of the membrane during a patch clamp experiment in the whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, the extracellular membrane remains accessible for compound application during the experiment.Internal perfusion can be used not only for patch clamp experiments with cell membranes, but also for those with artificial lipid bilayers. In this chapter we describe how internal perfusion can be applied to potassium channels expressed in Jurkat cells, and to Gramicidin channels reconstituted in a lipid bilayer. PMID:18998092

  15. Skin Patch May Help with Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... results were published online Oct. 26 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology . The patch is based on the same concept as other anti-allergy treatments, aiming to engage the immune system to train the body to tolerate small amounts of the protein. Other researchers have tested ...

  16. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Ferraz, Goncalo; Hines, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species.

  17. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D; McIntyre, Carol L; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hines, James E

    2009-01-01

    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species. PMID:19294907

  18. Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas of a proposed type would be tunable over broad wavelength ranges. These antennas would be attractive for use in a variety of microwave communication systems in which there are requirements for transmission and/or reception at multiple, widely separated frequencies. Prior efforts to construct tunable microstrip patch antennas have involved integration of microstrip circuitry with, variously, ferrite films with magneticfield tuning, solid-state electronic tuning devices, or piezoelectric tuning actuators. Those efforts have been somewhat successful, but have yielded tuning ranges of 20 percent and smaller much smaller than needed in typical practical cases. Like prior microstrip patch antennas (both tunable and non-tunable), the proposed antennas would have instantaneous bandwidths of about 1 percent of their nominal or resonance frequencies. However, these would be tunable over much broader frequency ranges as much as several octaves, depending on specific designs. They could be fabricated relatively simply and inexpensively by use of conventional photolithography, and without need for integration with solid-state electronic or piezoelectric control devices. An antenna as proposed (see figure) would include a microstrip patch radiating element on a thin ferroelectric film on a semiconductor substrate with a ground-plane conductor on the underside of the substrate. The ferroelectric film could be, for example, SrTiO3 with a thickness of the order of 1 or 2 micrometers.

  19. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  20. Patch burning: implications on water erosion and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ozaslan Parlak, Altingul; Parlak, Mehmet; Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Schacht, Walter H; Guretzky, John A; Mamo, Martha

    2015-05-01

    Patch burning can be a potential management tool to create grassland heterogeneity and enhance forage productivity and plant biodiversity, but its impacts on soil and environment have not been widely documented. In summer 2013, we studied the effect of time after patch burning (4 mo after burning [recently burned patches], 16 mo after burning [older burned patches], and unburned patches [control]) on vegetative cover, water erosion, and soil properties on a patch-burn experiment established in 2011 on a Yutan silty clay loam near Mead, NE. The recently burned patches had 29 ± 8.0% (mean ± SD) more bare ground, 21 ± 1.4% less canopy cover, and 40 ± 11% less litter cover than older burned and unburned patches. Bare ground and canopy cover did not differ between the older burned and unburned patches, indicating that vegetation recovered. Runoff depth from the older burned and recently burned patches was 2.8 times (19.6 ± 4.1 vs. 7.1 ± 3.0 mm [mean ± SD]) greater than the unburned patches. The recently burned patches had 4.5 times greater sediment loss (293 ± 89 vs. 65 ± 56 g m) and 3.8 times greater sediment-associated organic C loss (9.2 ± 2.0 vs. 2.4 ± 1.9 g m) than the older burned and unburned patches. The recently burned patches had increased daytime soil temperature but no differences in soil compaction and structural properties, dissolved nutrients, soil C, and total N concentration relative to older burned and unburned patches. Overall, recently burned patches can have reduced canopy and litter cover and increased water erosion, but soil properties may not differ from older burn or unburned patches under the conditions of this study.

  1. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  2. Understanding patch departure rules for large carnivores: lion movements support a patch-disturbance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Valeix, Marion; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Loveridge, Andrew J; Davidson, Zeke; Hunt, Jane E; Madzikanda, Hillary; Macdonald, David W

    2011-08-01

    We test two hypotheses that could account for patch departure by large mammalian carnivores. One hypothesis is the unsuccessful-hunt hypothesis, where carnivores leave an area after an unsuccessful hunt but continue hunting in the same area after a successful hunt. The second hypothesis is the patch-disturbance hypothesis, where carnivores depart the area after a successful hunt because of behavioral responses of prey to predator presence. We used global positioning system collars to monitor the movements of African lions (Panthera leo) and identified their kill sites to distinguish between these two hypotheses. Lions moved to a different area (≥ 5 km away) after 87% of the kills, which supports the patch-disturbance hypothesis for patch-departure behavior of large mammalian carnivores.

  3. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  4. A therapeutic TDS patch of Metformin from a HPMC-PVA blend studied with a biological membrane of fish-swim bladder: An approach for dermal application in NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sharif Mohammad; Jahan, Lubna; Ferdaus, Rahat

    2015-09-01

    In order to introduce an easily applicable, removable, painless and long-term drug delivery system for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose with polyvinyl alcohol (HPMC-PVA) blend patches of metormin HCl were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A suitable patch of metformin 800 mg with HPMC-PVA blend were used, following a three cycle freeze-thaw technique. Drug release kinetic profiles were performed in both patch and swim bladder. Albino mice were artificially generated as NIDDM mice by alloxan insertion i.p and after then treated with the therapeutic patch. Blood glucose was estimated by commercially available glucose kit based on glucose oxidase method. Drug release parameters from the patch and swim bladder were typical non-Fickian diffusion and both have the same kinetic constant, revealing its possible diffusion through stratum corneum. Hypoglycemia was observed in treatment of normal mice with TDDS of metformin HCl within 4 hours i.e. 25 ± 2.13 mg/dl and within 16 hours in diabetic rats blood glucose level returned to normal level i.e. from 360 ± 3.3 mg/dl (NIDDM level) to 105 ± 2.5 mg/dl (Normal level). The TDS-patch has got the same kinetic simulation with that of swim-bladder, which might be a prediction for in vivo application. Here metformin was delivered to diabetic mice and has got significant anti-diabetic effect can be considered as a kind of patch for NIDDM just like wearing and taking off a hand watch because hypoglycaemia can be removed by just taking off the patch.

  5. A therapeutic TDS patch of Metformin from a HPMC-PVA blend studied with a biological membrane of fish-swim bladder: An approach for dermal application in NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sharif Mohammad; Jahan, Lubna; Ferdaus, Rahat

    2015-09-01

    In order to introduce an easily applicable, removable, painless and long-term drug delivery system for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose with polyvinyl alcohol (HPMC-PVA) blend patches of metormin HCl were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A suitable patch of metformin 800 mg with HPMC-PVA blend were used, following a three cycle freeze-thaw technique. Drug release kinetic profiles were performed in both patch and swim bladder. Albino mice were artificially generated as NIDDM mice by alloxan insertion i.p and after then treated with the therapeutic patch. Blood glucose was estimated by commercially available glucose kit based on glucose oxidase method. Drug release parameters from the patch and swim bladder were typical non-Fickian diffusion and both have the same kinetic constant, revealing its possible diffusion through stratum corneum. Hypoglycemia was observed in treatment of normal mice with TDDS of metformin HCl within 4 hours i.e. 25 ± 2.13 mg/dl and within 16 hours in diabetic rats blood glucose level returned to normal level i.e. from 360 ± 3.3 mg/dl (NIDDM level) to 105 ± 2.5 mg/dl (Normal level). The TDS-patch has got the same kinetic simulation with that of swim-bladder, which might be a prediction for in vivo application. Here metformin was delivered to diabetic mice and has got significant anti-diabetic effect can be considered as a kind of patch for NIDDM just like wearing and taking off a hand watch because hypoglycaemia can be removed by just taking off the patch. PMID:26408881

  6. Industrializing electrophysiology: HT automated patch clamp on SyncroPatch® 96 using instant frozen cells.

    PubMed

    Polonchuk, Liudmila

    2014-01-01

    Patch-clamping is a powerful technique for investigating the ion channel function and regulation. However, its low throughput hampered profiling of large compound series in early drug development. Fortunately, automation has revolutionized the area of experimental electrophysiology over the past decade. Whereas the first automated patch-clamp instruments using the planar patch-clamp technology demonstrated rather a moderate throughput, few second-generation automated platforms recently launched by various companies have significantly increased ability to form a high number of high-resistance seals. Among them is SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich, Germany), a fully automated giga-seal patch-clamp system with the highest throughput on the market. By recording from up to 96 cells simultaneously, the SyncroPatch(®) 96 allows to substantially increase throughput without compromising data quality. This chapter describes features of the innovative automated electrophysiology system and protocols used for a successful transfer of the established hERG assay to this high-throughput automated platform. PMID:25023303

  7. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  8. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  9. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly, Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, N.

    1999-01-22

    Study hypothesized that corridors increase patch colonization by Junonia coenia regardless of insects initial distance from patch, as the butterfly is known to move between patches preferentially through corridors. Neither corridor nor distance had significant effect on patch colonization, but significant interaction between presence or absence of corridors and distance. One critical factor is interpatch distance which may determine the relative effectiveness of corridors and other landscape configurations.

  10. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  11. On the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration.

    PubMed

    Gyllenberg, Mats; Kisdi, Éva; Weigang, Helene C

    2016-04-21

    Empirical studies of dispersal indicate that decisions to immigrate are patch-type dependent; yet theoretical models usually ignore this fact. Here, we investigate the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration of a population inhabiting and dispersing in a heterogeneous landscape, which is structured by patches of low and high reward. We model the decision to immigrate in detail from a mechanistic underpinning. With the methods of adaptive dynamics, we derive both analytical and numerical results for the evolution of immigration when life-history traits are patch-type dependent. The model exhibits evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range and the subsequent coevolution can lead to a stable coexistence of a generalist, settling in patches of any type, and a specialist that only immigrates into patches of high reward. We find that individuals always settle in the patches of high reward, in which survival until maturation, relative fecundity and emigration probability are high. We investigate how the probability to immigrate into patches of low reward changes with model parameters. For example, we show that immigration into patches of low reward increases when the emigration probability in these patches increases. Further, immigration into patches of low reward decreases when the patches of high reward become less safe during the dispersal season.

  12. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  13. Damped leaf flexure hinge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage. PMID:26026549

  14. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  15. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  16. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual’s exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  17. Habitat patch shape, not corridors, determines herbivory and fruit production of an annual plant.

    PubMed

    Evans, Daniel M; Turley, Nash E; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2012-05-01

    Habitat corridors confer many conservation benefits by increasing movement of organisms between habitat patches, but the benefits for some species may exact costs for others. For example, corridors may increase the abundance of consumers in a habitat to the detriment of the species they consume. In this study we assessed the impact of corridors on insect herbivory of a native plant, Solanum americanum, in large-scale, experimentally fragmented landscapes. We quantified leaf herbivory and assessed fruit production as a proxy for plant fitness. We also conducted field surveys of grasshoppers (Orthoptera), a group of abundant, generalist herbivores that feed on S. americanum, and we used exclosure cages to explicitly link grasshopper herbivory to fruit production of individual S. americanum. The presence of corridors did not increase herbivory or decrease plant fruit production. Likewise, corridors did not increase grasshopper abundance. Instead, patches in our landscapes with the least amount of edge habitat and the greatest amount of warmer "core" area had the highest levels of herbivory, the largest cost to plant fruit production as a result of herbivory, and the most grasshoppers. Thus habitat quality, governed by patch shape, can be more important than connectivity for determining levels of herbivory and the impact of herbivory on plant fitness in fragmented landscapes.

  18. Patch testing of ceramic barrier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontius, D. H.; Vannbush, P.

    The objectives of this work are to construct, install and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. Long-term 'patch tests' will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible clogging of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation. Progress is discussed.

  19. Design of an innovative magnetostrictive patch actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquemani, S.; Giberti, H.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive actuators can be profitably used to reduce vibration in structures. However, this technology has been exploited only to develop inertial actuators, while patches actuators have not been ever used in practice. Patches actuators consist on a layer of magnetostrictive material, which has to be stuck to the surface of the vibrating structure, and on a coil surrounding the layer itself. However, the presence of the winding severely limits the use of such devices. As a matter of fact, the scientific literature reports only theoretical uses of such actuators, but, in practice it does not seem they were ever used. This paper presents an innovative solution to improve the structure of the actuator patches, allowing their use in several practical applications. The principle of operation of these devices is rather simple. The actuator patch is able to generate a local deformation of the surface of the vibrating structure so as to introduce an equivalent damping that dissipates the kinetic energy associated to the vibration. This deformation is related to the behavior of the magnetostrictive material immersed in a variable magnetic field generated by the a variable current flowing in the winding. Contrary to what suggested in the theoretical literature, the designed device has the advantage of generating the variable magnetic field no longer in close proximity of the material, but in a different area, thus allowing a better coupling. The magnetic field is then conveyed through a suitable ferromagnetic structure to the magnetostrictive material. The device has been designed and simulated through FEA. Results confirm that the new configuration can easily overcome all the limits of traditional devices.

  20. Everted cervical vein for carotid patch angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Yu, A; Dardik, H; Wolodiger, F; Raccuia, J; Kapadia, I; Sussman, B; Kahn, M; Pecoraro, J P; Ibrahim, I M

    1990-11-01

    Because of the theoretic benefits of autologous vein we undertook an investigation to evaluate cervical veins (facial, external jugular) as patch material after carotid endarterectomy. A device that stimulated both circumferential fixation by sutures and radial tension exerted on in vivo patches was constructed to measure burst strength of tissue. Mean bursting pressure for groin saphenous vein (n = 10) was 94.5 +/- 15.1 pounds per square inch (psi), 75.5 +/- 8.9 psi for ankle saphenous vein (n = 10), 83.3 +/- 14.5 psi for everted (double layer) cervical vein (n = 5) and 10 +/- 3.3 psi for single layer cervical vein (n = 5). No significant differences between saphenous vein at any level and everted (double layer) cervical vein, but all were significantly different from single layer cervical vein (p less than 0.05). From June 1987 through November 1989, 19 patients underwent 21 carotid endarterectomies complemented with adjunctive everted cervical vein patch angioplasty. Indications for surgery were asymptomatic stenosis (53%), transient ischemic attack (29%), and cerebrovascular accident with recovery (18%). All patients were studied after surgery with duplex scanning. Asymptomatic recurrent stenosis was observed in one patient. Transient hypoglossal nerve dysfunction occurred in one other patient. One postoperative death occurred as a result of massive aspiration. These results indicate that everted cervical vein is comparable to the saphenous vein in resistance to bursting and can yield similar results as patch material after carotid endarterectomy. Accordingly, saphenous vein can be spared and lower extremity incisions avoided.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Aortic aneurysm after patch aortoplasty for coarctation: analysis of patch size and wall growth.

    PubMed

    Al-Hroob, A; Husayni, T S; Freter, A; Chiemmongkoltip, P; Ilbawi, M N; Arcilla, R A

    2003-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm may develop after surgery for coarctation of aorta especially patch aortoplasty. The size of patch and of adjacent native aortic wall was analyzed to determine whether aortic dilatation represents a true aneurysm. Electron beam tomography (EBT) was done on 19 patients, three months to 17.5 years after patch aortoplasty. Tomograms of aorta were obtained in 6-mm slices, and maximal cross-sectional area was digitized to obtain: total circumference (Ct), patch component (Cp), and aortic wall component (Cw). Ct, Cp, and Cw were normalized to the circumference of distal aorta (Cda) as: isthmus/distal aorta (Ct/Cda), patch segment/distal aorta (Cp/Cda), wall segment/distal aorta (Cw/Cda). Ct/Cda ranged from 109% to 260%. In 12 patients (group A), it varied from 168% to 260%; and in seven (group B), 109% to 133%. There was strong correlation (r = 0.92) between Ct/Cda and Cp/Cda. Ct/Cda, Cp/Cda, and Cp/Cw were higher in group A than B (p <0.001) but Cw/Cda did not differ. Cw/Cda was greater than the coarctation/distal aorta diameter ratios of preoperative angiograms, consistent with accelerated aortic wall growth postsurgery. No definite aneurysm was seen. Localized dilatation of aorta following patch aortoplasty in children is primarily due to a large synthetic patch and, partly, to increased aortic wall growth. Serial EBT or magnetic resonance imaging is indicated to monitor aortic wall growth and occurrence of aneurysm.

  2. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.

  3. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species.

  4. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  5. Analysis of the albino-locus region of the mouse. IV. Characterization of 34 deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Raymer, G.D.

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-four independent nonviable c-locus mutations (types c/sup al/, albino lethal and c/sup as/, albino subvital), derived from radiation experiments, were tested for invovlvement of nearby markers tp, Mod-2, sh-1, and Hbb: 10, 22, and 2 involved, respectively, none of these markers, Mod-2 alone, and Mod-2 plus sh-1. When classified on this basis, as well as according to developmental stage at which homozygotes die, and by limited complementation results, the 34 independent mutations fell into 12 groups. From results of a full-scale complementation grid of all 435 possible crosses among 30 of the mutations, we were able to postulate an alignment of eight functional units by which the 12 groups fit a linear pattern. Abnormal phenotypes utilized in the complementation study were deaths at various stages of prenatal or postnatla development, body weight, and reduction or absence of various enzymes. Some of these phenotypes can be separated (e.g., glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency and neonatal death). - We conclude that all of the nonviable albino mutations are deficiencies overalpping at c, and ranging in size from < 2cM to 6 to 11 cM. The characterization of this array of deficiencies should provide useful tools for gene-dosage studies, recombinant-DNA fine-structure analyses, etc. Since many of the combinations of lethals produce viable albino animals that resemble the standard c/c type, we conclude (1) that the c locus contains no sites essential for survival, and (b) that viable nonalbino c-locus mutations (c/sup xv/) are the result of mutations within the c cistron. Viable albinos (c/sup av/, the majority of radiation-induced c-locus mutations) may be intracistronic mutations or very small deficiencies.

  6. Development and evaluation of a tampering resistant transdermal fentanyl patch.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bing; Engqvist, Håkan; Bredenberg, Susanne

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing number of misuse and abuse of opioids, the resistance to tampering becomes an important attribute for transdermal opioid patches. In this study, drug-containing geopolymer granules were integrated into an adhesive matrix to improve the resistance of fast drug release against some common abuse techniques. Bench testing showed that fentanyl loaded geopolymer granules had better resistance to tampering compared to a commercial fentanyl patch. Moreover, in a pilot in vivo study on a few rats, the granules showed potential to give similar drug plasma concentrations as the commercial fentanyl patch. After integrating geopolymer granules into an adhesive matrix, the new patch showed a better resistance against the investigated tampering tests compared with the commercially available patch. In this study, we showed that incorporating drug loaded geopolymer granules into a patch adhesive has potential to improve the resistance of the fentanyl patch against tampering without compromising the drug release.

  7. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  8. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  9. Comparative leaf development in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    Recent accumulation of our knowledge on basic leaf development mechanisms in model angiosperm species has allowed us to pursue evolutionary development (evo/devo) studies of various kinds of leaf development. As a result, unexpected findings and clues have been unearthed aiding our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the diversity of leaf morphology, although the covered remain limited. In this review, we highlight recent findings of diversified leaf development in angiosperms.

  10. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  11. Wideband Patch Antenna for Land based Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, R. P. S.; Dutt, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an irregular pentagon shaped patch antenna has been presented. The proposed antenna operates over a wide band in frequency range from 12 to 26 GHz with VSWR < 2. It has a partial ground plane with two-inverted L and one I shaped slots in the radiation patch to attain wide bandwidth. The antenna consists of FR4 epoxy as a dielectric substrate with dielectric constant 4.4 and loss tangent 0.002. The size of the antenna is 30 × 30 × 1.57 mm3 and is fed by the microstrip line. The size of the fabricated proposed antenna is smaller than that of the antenna under reference (elliptical radiating patch with defected ground plane). The simulation has been done using high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) which is a finite element method (FEM) based tool. The proposed antenna exhibits the return loss of 21.85, 28.03 and 29.14 dB and gain of 6.6, 5.67 and 7.0 dB at resonant frequencies 16.7, 19.00 and 21.4 GHz, respectively. The bandwidth of the antenna is 10 GHz with normalized radiation efficiencies of 65, 69 and 70 % at corresponding resonant frequencies. The measured results of the fabricated proposed antenna have been compared with the simulated results and there has been a close agreement between both the results. Also the simulated results of the proposed antenna have been compared with the antenna under reference and it is found that the performance of the proposed antenna is far better. The proposed antenna can be used for land based vehicles in both Ku-band (12-18 GHz) and K-band (18-26 GHz).

  12. Aspects and applications of patched grid calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. W.; Switzer, G. F.; Thomas, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Patched grid calculations within the framework of an implicit, flux-vector split upwind/relaxation algorithm for the Euler equations are presented. The effect of a metric-discontinuous interface on the convergence rate of the algorithm is discussed along with the spatial accuracy of the solution and the effect of curvature along an interface. Results are presented and discussed for the free-stream problem, shock reflection problem, supersonic inlet with a 5 degree ramp, aerodynamically choked inlet, and three-dimensional analytic forebody.

  13. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  14. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  15. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  16. [Acid polysaccharides of the internal zone of the kidney medulla of albino rats under different conditions of maintainance].

    PubMed

    Dubynin, T L

    1976-10-01

    Water-deprived albino rats displayed a greater stability of reaction to acid mucopolysaccharides in the interstitium of the distal portion of the internal zone of the medulla of the kidneys in case of greater air humidity.

  17. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of O. basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  18. Patch forest: a hybrid framework of random forest and patch-based segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongliu; Gillies, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    The development of an accurate, robust and fast segmentation algorithm has long been a research focus in medical computer vision. State-of-the-art practices often involve non-rigidly registering a target image with a set of training atlases for label propagation over the target space to perform segmentation, a.k.a. multi-atlas label propagation (MALP). In recent years, the patch-based segmentation (PBS) framework has gained wide attention due to its advantage of relaxing the strict voxel-to-voxel correspondence to a series of pair-wise patch comparisons for contextual pattern matching. Despite a high accuracy reported in many scenarios, computational efficiency has consistently been a major obstacle for both approaches. Inspired by recent work on random forest, in this paper we propose a patch forest approach, which by equipping the conventional PBS with a fast patch search engine, is able to boost segmentation speed significantly while retaining an equal level of accuracy. In addition, a fast forest training mechanism is also proposed, with the use of a dynamic grid framework to efficiently approximate data compactness computation and a 3D integral image technique for fast box feature retrieval.

  19. Geometry of the infalling causal patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freivogel, Ben; Jefferson, Robert A.; Kabir, Laurens; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    The firewall paradox states that an observer falling into an old black hole must see a violation of unitarity, locality, or the equivalence principle. Motivated by this remarkable conflict, we analyze the causal structure of black hole spacetimes in order to determine whether all the necessary ingredients for the paradox fit within a single observer's causal patch. We particularly focus on the question of whether the interior partner modes of the outgoing Hawking quanta can, in principle, be measured by an infalling observer. Since the relevant modes are spread over the entire sphere, we answer a simple geometrical question: can any observer see an entire sphere behind the horizon? We find that for all static black holes in 3 +1 and higher dimensions, with any value of the cosmological constant, no single observer can see both the early Hawking radiation and the interior modes with low angular momentum. We present a detailed description of the causal patch geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole in 3 +1 dimensions, where an infalling observer comes closest to being able to measure the relevant modes.

  20. Laser-assisted patch clamping: a methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, G. H.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Laser microsurgery can be used to perform both cell biological manipulations, such as targeted cell ablation, and molecular genetic manipulations, such as genetic transformation and chromosome dissection. In this report, we describe a laser microsurgical method that can be used either to ablate single cells or to ablate a small area (1-3 microns diameter) of the extracellular matrix. In plants and microorganisms, the extracellular matrix consists of the cell wall. While conventional patch clamping of these cells, as well as of many animal cells, requires enzymatic digestion of the extracellular matrix, we illustrate that laser microsurgery of a portion of the wall enables patch clamp access to the plasma membrane of higher plant cells remaining situated in their tissue environment. What follows is a detailed description of the construction and use of an economical laser microsurgery system, including procedures for single cell and targeted cell wall ablation. This methodology will be of interest to scientists wishing to perform cellular or subcellular ablation with a high degree of accuracy, or wishing to study how the extracellular matrix affects ion channel function.

  1. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  2. Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in adult albino rats.

    PubMed

    Audi, Sumedha S; Abraham, Marjorie E; Borker, Abhaya S

    2006-07-01

    One hour daily exposure to cigarette smoke for two months significantly decreased the body weight and food intake in male and female albino rats. The latency for conception increased significantly and the litter size decreased. Mortality rate per litter increased and grayish discoloration of the skin in the experimental group was the only congenital anomaly seen. Testes and ovaries showed a significant decrease in weight. The stroma of the ovaries were occupied by very few Graafian follicles. Testes showed disruption of the normal orderly progression of the spermatogonia. The tubules showed only one layer of spermatogonia and very few germinal cells. The number of sperms was less in the testes. The results show that exposure to cigarette smoke is detrimental to the reproductivity in both, male and female albino rats.

  3. Naringenin Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Toxicity through the Abrogation of Oxidative Stress in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Avratanu; Roy, Amrita; Das, Ruma; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the protective potential of the flavonoid naringenin (NRG) against experimentally induced cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Swiss albino mice. NRG (4 and 8 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice 30 min before oral administration of CdCl2 (12 mg/kg) for 11 consecutive days. On the 12th day, we evaluated body and organ weights, hematological profiles, serum biochemical profiles, and hepatic and renal tissue antioxidative parameters including lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Cotreatment with NRG markedly and significantly normalized body and organ weights, hematological profiles, and serum biochemical profiles and significantly modulated all of the hepatic and renal tissue biochemical parameters in Cd-intoxicated mice. The present findings show that NRG possesses a remarkable alleviative effect against Cd-induced toxicity in albino mice, mediated by abrogation of Cd-induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms. PMID:27481493

  4. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  5. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species. PMID:22268847

  6. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species.

  7. Single Image Super-resolution using Deformable Patches.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Yanning; Yuille, Alan L

    2014-06-01

    We proposed a deformable patches based method for single image super-resolution. By the concept of deformation, a patch is not regarded as a fixed vector but a flexible deformation flow. Via deformable patches, the dictionary can cover more patterns that do not appear, thus becoming more expressive. We present the energy function with slow, smooth and flexible prior for deformation model. During example-based super-resolution, we develop the deformation similarity based on the minimized energy function for basic patch matching. For robustness, we utilize multiple deformed patches combination for the final reconstruction. Experiments evaluate the deformation effectiveness and super-resolution performance, showing that the deformable patches help improve the representation accuracy and perform better than the state-of-art methods.

  8. SafePatch for Windows Version 1.0 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, D; Meier, T

    2003-05-01

    SafePatch for Windows provides automated analysis of network-based Microsoft Windows{trademark} computer systems to determine the status of security patches. SafePatch determines what patches need to be installed on a system or group of systems. SafePatch collects and packages the necessary patches and the script to install those patches for the selected remote systems. SafePatch for Windows also supports browsing the Microsoft{trademark} patch database and the viewing of the bulletins associated with the patches.

  9. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  10. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  11. Impact of distillery soil leachate on haematology of Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, Arti; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Soni, Pratima; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Pradeep; Sharma, K P

    2007-09-01

    This study reports significant alterations in various haematological parameters such as red and white blood corpuscles counts, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume in adult Swiss albino mice orally administered with diluted distillery soil leachate (5%-20%) for 30 days. Soil leachate also affected red blood cell morphology (poikilocytosis). The haematology of exposed mice improved in the reversal groups. Present study infers contamination potential of distillery soil leachate in the groundwater.

  12. Destructive and regenerative changes in the albino rat kidney during mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a morphological analysis of destructive and regenerative changes observed during a study of serial semithin sections of the kidneys of albino rats with mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis. The results of this investigation indicate that injury to the epithelium of the urinary tubules by mercuric chloride is heterogenous in depth, and this has a substantial influence on the viability of the animals and on the subsequent process of repair of the damage.

  13. Patch-Clamp Technologies for Ion Channel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigworth, Fred J.; Klemic, Kathryn G.

    The electrical activity of living cells can be monitored in various ways, but for the study of ion channels and the drugs that affect them, the patch-clamp techniques are the most sensitive. In this chapter the principles of patch-clamp recording are reviewed, and recent developments in microfabricated patch-clamp electrodes are described.Technical challenges and prospects for the future are discussed.

  14. Effect of Eye Patching in Rehabilitation of Hemispatial Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Smania, Nicola; Fonte, Cristina; Picelli, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Varalta, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Eye patching (EP; monocular or right hemifield) has been proposed to improve visuospatial attention to the ignored field in patients with hemispatial neglect. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of EP in hemispatial neglect after stroke in order to convey evidence-based recommendations to clinicians in stroke rehabilitation. Thirteen intervention studies were selected from the Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EBRSR, and Health Star databases. Methodological quality was defined according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Overall, seven studies used monocular EP, five used right hemifield patching, and one compared right monocular with right hemifield patching. Seven studies compared normal viewing to monocular or hemifield patching conditions. Six studies included a period of treatment. As to the monocular EP, four studies reported positive effects of right monocular patching. One study showed an improvement in hemispatial neglect with left monocular patching. Two studies found no superiority of right vs. left monocular patching. One study found no effects of right monocular patching. As to the right hemifield EP, one study showed improvements in neglect after right hemifield patching. Three studies found that right hemifield patching combined with another rehabilitation technique was more effective than that treatment alone. One study found no differences between right hemifield patching combined with another treatment and that treatment alone. One study found the same effect between right hemifield patching alone and another rehabilitation technique. Our results globally tend to support the usefulness of right hemifield EP in clinical practice. In order to define a level of evidence with the standard rehabilitation evidence rating tools, further properly powered randomized controlled trials or meta-analysis are needed. PMID:24032011

  15. Bioprotection of Spruce Logs Against Sapstain Using an Albino Strain of Ceratocystis resinifera.

    PubMed

    Morin, Chantal; Tanguay, Philippe; Breuil, Colette; Yang, Dian-Qing; Bernier, Louis

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT We recovered a spontaneous albino strain from ascospores of Ceratocystis resinifera, a sapstain fungus that grows deeply and rapidly in freshly felled conifer trees. This albino strain, named Kasper, was tested for its ability to prevent discoloration of spruce sapwood caused by wild-type sapstain fungi and compared with Cartapip 97, a commercially available biological control agent of sapstain in lodgepole pine and red pine logs. In a laboratory trial, Kasper reduced sapstain of white spruce logs as much as 94.4% and was more efficient than Cartapip 97. In field trials conducted in an area north of Québec City, Kasper reduced sapstain of black spruce as much as 80%. In three of four field trials, Kasper was significantly more efficient than Cartapip 97 in reducing sapstain development. The exception was encountered in a 2003 trial conducted in a sawmill yard where Kasper did not reduce sapstain. In a field trial conducted in western Canada, at Aleza Lake forest near Prince George, Kasper almost totally prevented the development of sapstain, even after 24 weeks. These results suggest albino strains derived from C. resinifera might be an additional source of potential biocontrol agents against sapstain.

  16. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  17. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  18. Patch test responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Bond, R; Habibah, A; Patterson-Kane, J C; Lloyd, D H

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the patch test application of Malassezia pachydermatis extracts to normal canine skin were evaluated in eight healthy beagle dogs. Antigens (4 and 0.4 mg/ml) and saline controls were applied for 48 h using filter paper discs in Finn chambers. At the first test, two dogs showed patch test reactivity 20 min and 24 h after patch removal. Four out of six dogs that did not react to the first patch test showed reactivity when re-tested on day 8. Two remaining dogs were patch tested for a third time on day 15, after 7 days of cutaneous challenge with suspensions of M. pachydermatis cells, but failed to display reactivity. Positive patch test reactions were characterized histologically by mild epidermal hyperplasia, superficial dermal oedema and mild to moderate perivascular, periadnexal and interstitial infiltrates of neutrophils and CD3+ lymphocytes. Four dogs showed delayed intradermal test reactivity to M. pachydermatis antigens but intradermal and patch test reactivity did not correlate. This study indicates that patch test reactivity to M. pachydermatis antigen occurs in some healthy dogs exposed to the yeast, or may develop after a short period of antigen exposure. Further studies of patch test reactivity are warranted in dogs with disease associated with this cutaneous yeast. PMID:16519021

  19. An Optimal Cell Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    While there are several hardware techniques for the automated patch clamping of cells that describe the equipment apparatus used for patch clamping, very few explain the science behind the actual technique of locating the ideal cell for a patch clamping procedure. We present a machine vision approach to patch clamping cell selection by developing an intelligent algorithm technique that gives the user the ability to determine the good cell to patch clamp in an image within one second. This technique will aid the user in determining the best candidates for patch clamping and will ultimately save time, increase efficiency and reduce cost. The ultimate goal is to combine intelligent processing with instrumentation and controls in order to produce a complete turnkey automated patch clamping system capable of accurately and reliably patch clamping cells with a minimum amount of human intervention. We present a unique technique that identifies good patch clamping cell candidates based on feature metrics of a cell's (x, y) position, major axis length, minor axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, thinness and whether or not the cell is only particularly in the field of view. A patent is pending for this research.

  20. Learning Multiscale Active Facial Patches for Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lin; Liu, Qingshan; Yang, Peng; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new idea to analyze facial expression by exploring some common and specific information among different expressions. Inspired by the observation that only a few facial parts are active in expression disclosure (e.g., around mouth, eye), we try to discover the common and specific patches which are important to discriminate all the expressions and only a particular expression, respectively. A two-stage multitask sparse learning (MTSL) framework is proposed to efficiently locate those discriminative patches. In the first stage MTSL, expression recognition tasks are combined to located common patches. Each of the tasks aims to find dominant patches for each expression. Secondly, two related tasks, facial expression recognition and face verification tasks, are coupled to learn specific facial patches for individual expression. The two-stage patch learning is performed on patches sampled by multiscale strategy. Extensive experiments validate the existence and significance of common and specific patches. Utilizing these learned patches, we achieve superior performances on expression recognition compared to the state-of-the-arts. PMID:25291808

  1. Morphology and development of ice patches in NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulendyk, Thomas

    Permanent ice patches in the western Canadian Subarctic have been recently identified as sources of cryogenically preserved artifacts and biological specimens. The formation, composition and constancy of these ice patches have yet to be studied. As part of the NWT Ice Patch Study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ice coring were used to examine the stratigraphy and internal structure of two ice patches. Results show the patches are composed of a core of staggered, distinct units, up to several meters thick, covered by a blanket of firn and snow. The interfaces between the layers of ice are often demarcated by thin sections of frozen caribou dung and fine sediment. A developmental model created using GPR data and radiocarbon dates (from dung extracted from ice cores) has revealed a long history for these perennial patches (up to 4400 years BP). Ice patch growth is discontinuous and occurs intermittently. Extensive time gaps exist between the units of ice indicating that summers of catastrophic melt can interrupt extended periods of net accumulation. The results of this work not only display the character of ice patch development, but also indicate the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic significance of the ice patches.

  2. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of leaf extracts of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. arg. var acuminatus: a folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, D; Arunachalam, G; Mandal, A B; Mandal, S C

    2002-12-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic potential of the methanol extract of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus leaf, a folk medicine of Onge tribes of Bay Islands, on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Wister albino rats. The leaf extract at oral doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1), p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner and the anti-pyretic effect was comparable to that of standard anti-pyretic agent paracetamol (150 mg kg(-1), p.o.). The effect also extended up to 5 hours after the drug administration.

  3. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of leaf extracts of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. arg. var acuminatus: a folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, D; Arunachalam, G; Mandal, A B; Mandal, S C

    2002-12-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic potential of the methanol extract of Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus leaf, a folk medicine of Onge tribes of Bay Islands, on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Wister albino rats. The leaf extract at oral doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1), p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner and the anti-pyretic effect was comparable to that of standard anti-pyretic agent paracetamol (150 mg kg(-1), p.o.). The effect also extended up to 5 hours after the drug administration. PMID:12587693

  4. Cooperative polymerization of one-patch colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, Teun; Smallenburg, Frank; Munaò, Gianmarco; Preisler, Zdeněk; Sciortino, Francesco

    2014-04-14

    We numerically investigate cooperative polymerization in an off-lattice model based on a pairwise additive potential using particles with a single attractive patch that covers 30% of the colloid surface. Upon cooling, these particles self-assemble into small clusters which, below a density-dependent temperature, spontaneously reorganize into long straight tubes. We evaluate the partition functions of clusters of all sizes to provide an accurate description of the chemical reaction constants governing this process. Our calculations show that, for intermediate sizes, the partition functions retain contributions from two different structures, differing in both energy and entropy. We illustrate the microscopic mechanism behind the complex polymerization process in this system and provide a detailed evaluation of its thermodynamics.

  5. Developmental pathways: Sonic hedgehog-Patched-GLI.

    PubMed Central

    Walterhouse, D O; Yoon, J W; Iannaccone, P M

    1999-01-01

    Developmental pathways are networks of genes that act coordinately to establish the body plan. Disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Environmental exposures can be associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including dysmorphic offspring or children with a variety of diseases. An important goal of environmental science should be reduction of these poor outcomes. This will require an understanding of the genes affected by specific exposures and the consequence of alterations in these genes or their products, which in turn will require an understanding of the pathways critical in development. The ligand Sonic hedgehog, the receptors Patched and Smoothened, and the GLI family of transcription factors represent one such pathway. This pathway illustrates several operating principles important in the consideration of developmental consequences of environmental exposures to toxins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064544

  6. Patch quality and context, but not patch number, drive multi-scale colonization dynamics in experimental aquatic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Resetarits, William J; Binckley, Christopher A

    2013-11-01

    Colonization and extinction are primary drivers of local population dynamics, community structure, and spatial patterns of biological diversity. Existing paradigms of island biogeography, metapopulation biology, and metacommunity ecology, as well as habitat management and conservation biology based on those paradigms, emphasize patch size, number, and isolation as primary characteristics influencing colonization and extinction. Habitat selection theory suggests that patch quality could rival size, number, and isolation in determining rates of colonization and resulting community structure. We used naturally colonized experimental landscapes to address four issues: (a) how do colonizing aquatic beetles respond to variation in patch number, (b) how do they respond to variation in patch quality, (c) does patch context affect colonization dynamics, and (d) at what spatial scales do beetles respond to habitat variation? Increasing patch number had no effect on per patch colonization rates, while patch quality and context were critical in determining colonization rates and resulting patterns of abundance and species richness at multiple spatial scales. We graphically illustrate how variation in immigration rates driven by perceived predation risk (habitat quality) can further modify dynamics of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography beyond predator-driven effects on extinction rates. Our data support the importance of patch quality and context as primary determinants of colonization rate, occupancy, abundance, and resulting patterns of species richness, and reinforce the idea that management of metapopulations for species preservation, and metacommunities for local and regional diversity, should incorporate habitat quality into the predictive equation. PMID:23609801

  7. Patch quality and context, but not patch number, drive multi-scale colonization dynamics in experimental aquatic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Resetarits, William J; Binckley, Christopher A

    2013-11-01

    Colonization and extinction are primary drivers of local population dynamics, community structure, and spatial patterns of biological diversity. Existing paradigms of island biogeography, metapopulation biology, and metacommunity ecology, as well as habitat management and conservation biology based on those paradigms, emphasize patch size, number, and isolation as primary characteristics influencing colonization and extinction. Habitat selection theory suggests that patch quality could rival size, number, and isolation in determining rates of colonization and resulting community structure. We used naturally colonized experimental landscapes to address four issues: (a) how do colonizing aquatic beetles respond to variation in patch number, (b) how do they respond to variation in patch quality, (c) does patch context affect colonization dynamics, and (d) at what spatial scales do beetles respond to habitat variation? Increasing patch number had no effect on per patch colonization rates, while patch quality and context were critical in determining colonization rates and resulting patterns of abundance and species richness at multiple spatial scales. We graphically illustrate how variation in immigration rates driven by perceived predation risk (habitat quality) can further modify dynamics of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography beyond predator-driven effects on extinction rates. Our data support the importance of patch quality and context as primary determinants of colonization rate, occupancy, abundance, and resulting patterns of species richness, and reinforce the idea that management of metapopulations for species preservation, and metacommunities for local and regional diversity, should incorporate habitat quality into the predictive equation.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Patching Efficiency in Cracked Rectangular Structural Panels Repaired with a Bonded FRP Composite Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Hideki; Fujimoto, Shin-Etsu; Shibuya, Yotsugi

    Repair with bonded fiber-reinforced polymer composite patches has been recognized as an efficient and cost-effective method to extend the service life of aging aircraft. In this paper, a two-dimensional three-layered finite element model consisting of layers of composite patch, adhesive and cracked structural panel is made to analyze the stresses in cracked rectangular structural panels repaired with a bonded circular composite patch. The composite patch and structural panel are modeled as separate layers which are covered with Mindlin plate elements, whereas the adhesive is modeled as a thin elastic layer. The modified crack closure method is used to obtain stress intensity factors at the crack tip. First, by calculating the stress intensity factors, the effects of the diameter and thickness of the circular composite patch on the patching efficiency are examined. The stress intensity factors are also calculated at various hygrothermal conditions and the effect of the environment on the patching efficiency is clarified. Finally, the diagram of patching efficiency is presented to evaluate easily the patching efficiency at hygrothermal conditions.

  9. Phenotype and transcriptome analysis reveals chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis together influenced the leaf color formation in mutants of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Sonate’

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuxia; Chen, Xingxu; Xu, Bin; Li, Yuxia; Ma, Yuehua; Wang, Guangdong

    2015-01-01

    Leaf color is one of the well-sought traits in breeding program for Anthurium andraeanum Lind. Knowledge of mechanisms in anthuriums to produce leaves with different shades of green would help to effectively select desirable traits. In this study, the micro- and ultra-structural and physiological features of leaves on wild type and leaf color mutants (dark green, rubescent, etiolated, albino) in A. andraeanum ‘Sonate’ were analyzed. Results show that chloroplasts of leaf color mutants exhibited abnormal morphology and distribution. Using next generation sequencing technology followed by de novo assembly, leaf transcriptomes comprising of 41,017 unigenes with an average sequence length of 768 bp were produced from wild type and rubescent mutant. From the 27,539 (67.1%) unigenes with annotated functions, 858 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, consisting of 446 up-regulated genes and 412 down-regulated genes. Genes that affect chloroplasts development and division, and chlorophyll biosynthesis were included in the down-regulated DEGs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated that the expression level of those genes was significantly lower in the rubescent, etiolated, and albino mutant compared to wild type plants, which concurs with the differences in micro- and ultra-structures and physiological features between these two types of plants. Conclusively, the leaf color formation is greatly affected by the activity of chloroplast development and pigment biosynthesis. And the possible formation pathway of leaf color mutant of A. andraeanum ‘Sonate’ is deduced based on our results. PMID:25814997

  10. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  11. Smart patches: self-monitoring composite patches for the repair of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Samuel D.; Marioli-Riga, Zaira; Tsamasphyros, George; Kanderakis, George; Furnarakis, Nikos; Ikiades, Aris; Konstantaki, Mary

    2004-03-01

    Conventional aircraft repair techniques employ bolted or riveted metallic reinforcements, which frequently introduce additional stress concentrations leading to further cracking and creating areas difficult or impossible to inspect. Bonded composite repairs ("patches") result in the elimination of stress concentrations caused by additional fastener holes, improved strength to weight ratio and present a sealed interface. This reduces even further the danger of corrosion and fretting under the repair, gives greater flexibility in design and lessens application time while lengthening fatigue life. Embedding optical fibres and sensors into the patch, and combining this with advanced data collection and processing systems, creating a so-called "smart patch", will enable the real-time assessment of aircraft structural integrity resulting in reliable prediction of maintenance requirements for repaired structures. This paper describes the current state of the art in smart patch technology, and includes a detailed description of the measurement problem and of the work being undertaken to solve it, at both the component and system level. An analysis of typical crack behaviour, based on FE modelling is presented and this demonstrates the need for optical strain sensors having a very short gauge length. The paper discusses the advantages and limitations of very short Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) in this context and also provides early experimental data from 1mm and 2mm gratings which have been fabricated for this purpose. The paper also describes the impact of the measurement and environmental constraints on the design of the FBG interrogation system and presents the results of initial trials. The work is being undertaken in the framework of a collaborative project (ACIDS) which is co-funded by the European Commission.

  12. Geophysical investigation and assessment of the Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area, Rye Patch, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mark Richmond

    A gravity and ground-based magnetic survey was conducted at the Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area located at Rye Patch, Nevada. The purpose of the study was to attempt to further delineate the geothermal reservoir and/or to identify potential drilling targets. The survey consisted of collecting data at 264 new stations to augment data from 203 stations collected in 2008. Information from previous seismic, aeromagnetic and geochemical investigations was also examined and incorporated. Filtering methods including removal of a polynomial trend surface and wavelength filtering were utilized on the gravity data to remove the strong regional overprint caused by the large density contrast between the low density alluvium within the valley versus the near-surface higher density rock in the higher elevations. After filtering, the Rye Patch Fault, the Range Front Fault, an east-west trending feature at the location of "southeast" fault, and another possible fault at the southern end of the study area are observable in the Rye Patch geothermal anomaly area. In the Humboldt House anomaly area, the northeast trending features identified by MacNight et al. (2005) and Ellis (2011) are not discernable although there is a significant gravity low in this area. Based on estimates arrived at by using 2nd derivative methods, fault dip angles are on the order of 80° and are consistent with previous conceptual models of the site. Computer modeling indicates that the fault blocks may also be rotated back to the east. Due to errors in collecting diurnal information, the ground-based magnetic information was of limited use. Anomalies identified with the magnetic data do however correlate with the locations of anomalies identified using gravity and aeromagnetic surveys. Results indicate that gravity methods can be an effective method of defining approximate fault locations, lengths, and approximate trends and dip angles.

  13. Dermatitis following systemic prednisolone: patch testing with prednisolone eye drops.

    PubMed

    Harris, A; McFadden, J P

    2000-05-01

    Although positive reactions to topical corticosteroids can occur in over 1% of a patch-test population, systemic reactions to oral corticosteroids are uncommon. A 45-year-old woman who gave a clear history of the generalization of a cutaneous eruption following oral prednisolone was positive on patch testing using prednisolone eye drops.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine delivered from a transmucosal patch in children.

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Andrea; Wilson, Stephen; Weaver, Joel S.; Moursi, Amr M.

    2002-01-01

    The DentiPatch lidocaine transoral delivery system (Noven Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for mild topical anesthesia of mucosal membranes in the mouth. The DentiPatch is a mucoadhesive patch containing 46.1 mg of lidocaine (20% concentration). Current studies in adults report that DentiPatch application produces very low plasma concentrations of lidocaine. However, it is not known what plasma levels are obtained when the same dosage is used in children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plasma lidocaine concentrations generated by the DentiPatch are within a safe range for children. The sample in this study was 11 children aged 2-7 years requiring general anesthesia for comprehensive dental care. A lidocaine DentiPatch was placed on the buccal mucosa above the maxillary incisors for 5 minutes. Blood samples were drawn before placing the DentiPatch and at various time intervals after removing it. Blood samples were analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay to determine the plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its major metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. The lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide absorbed from the DentiPatch did not reach toxic plasma levels in children. However, plasma concentrations were much higher than in adults and were high enough to require inclusion in the calculation of total lidocaine administered to a pediatric patient. Images Figure 1 PMID:15384296

  15. Organic transdermal iontophoresis patch with built-in biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yudai; Kato, Koichiro; Miyake, Takeo; Nagamine, Kuniaki; Ofuji, Takuya; Yoshino, Syuhei; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko

    2015-03-11

    A completely organic iontophoresis patch is reported. A built-in biofuel cell is mounted on the patch that generates transdermal iontophoretic administration of compounds into the skin. The amplitude of transdermal current is tuned by integrating a conducting polymer-based stretchable resistor of predetermined resistance.

  16. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  17. Rabies vaccination in dogs using a dissolving microneedle patch.

    PubMed

    Arya, Jaya M; Dewitt, Kristopher; Scott-Garrard, Maya; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-10

    Because humans get rabies primarily through dog bites, stray dog population control and mass or mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs and other animals has virtually eliminated human rabies in industrialized countries. However, thousands of people in developing countries die of rabies each year due to the inability to control dog populations and implement mass vaccination because of financial, logistical and other challenges. The availability of an easier-to-administer and more cost-effective vaccine may help to address some of these issues. Here, we propose the use of dissolving microneedle patches for simple and potentially cost-effective rabies vaccination, and assess the safety and immunogenicity of microneedle patch vaccination using a rabies DNA vaccine in dogs. The vaccine was stable upon formulation and storage for at least 3weeks at 4°C in a microneedle patch. For vaccination, the patches were applied to the inner ear by hand without an applicator. Microneedle patches were well tolerated in the skin, with mild erythema, minimal wheal formation and complete resolution of skin reactions within 7days, and generated no systemic adverse events. Microneedle patches were at least as immunogenic as intramuscular injection at the same dose, as demonstrated by similar serum neutralizing antibody titers. A ten-fold lower vaccine dose administered by microneedle patch generated a weaker immune response compared to full-dose intramuscular vaccination. We conclude that dissolving microneedle patches may provide an innovative approach to mass vaccination of dogs. PMID:27524283

  18. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  19. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  2. Patch-clamp recording in brain slices with improved slicer technology.

    PubMed

    Geiger, J R P; Bischofberger, J; Vida, I; Fröbe, U; Pfitzinger, S; Weber, H J; Haverkampf, K; Jonas, P

    2002-01-01

    The use of advanced patch-clamp recording techniques in brain slices, such as simultaneous recording from multiple neurons and recording from dendrites or presynaptic terminals, demands slices of the highest quality. In this context the mechanics of the tissue slicer are an important factor. Ideally, a tissue slicer should generate large-amplitude and high-frequency movements of the cutting blade in a horizontal axis, with minimal vibrations in the vertical axis. We developed a vibroslicer that fulfils these in part conflicting requirements. The oscillator is a permanent-magnet-coil-leaf-spring system. Using an auto-resonant mechano-electrical feedback circuit, large horizontal oscillations (up to 3 mm peak-to-peak) with high frequency ( approximately 90 Hz) are generated. To minimize vertical vibrations, an adjustment mechanism was employed that allowed alignment of the cutting edge of the blade with the major axis of the oscillation. A vibroprobe device was used to monitor vertical vibrations during adjustment. The system is based on the shading of the light path between a light-emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode. Vibroprobe monitoring revealed that the vibroslicer, after appropriate adjustment, generated vertical vibrations of <1 microm, significantly less than many commercial tissue slicers. Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of surface layers of slices cut with the vibroslicer showed that cellular elements, dendritic processes and presynaptic terminals are well preserved under these conditions, as required for patch-clamp recording from these structures. PMID:11810221

  3. Cell-Detection Technique for Automated Patch Clamping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    A unique and customizable machinevision and image-data-processing technique has been developed for use in automated identification of cells that are optimal for patch clamping. [Patch clamping (in which patch electrodes are pressed against cell membranes) is an electrophysiological technique widely applied for the study of ion channels, and of membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the membranes. Patch clamping is used in many biological research fields such as neurobiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology.] While there exist several hardware techniques for automated patch clamping of cells, very few of those techniques incorporate machine vision for locating cells that are ideal subjects for patch clamping. In contrast, the present technique is embodied in a machine-vision algorithm that, in practical application, enables the user to identify good and bad cells for patch clamping in an image captured by a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera attached to a microscope, within a processing time of one second. Hence, the present technique can save time, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing cost. The present technique involves the utilization of cell-feature metrics to accurately make decisions on the degree to which individual cells are "good" or "bad" candidates for patch clamping. These metrics include position coordinates (x,y) in the image plane, major-axis length, minor-axis length, area, elongation, roundness, smoothness, angle of orientation, and degree of inclusion in the field of view. The present technique does not require any special hardware beyond commercially available, off-the-shelf patch-clamping hardware: A standard patchclamping microscope system with an attached CCD camera, a personal computer with an imagedata- processing board, and some experience in utilizing imagedata- processing software are all that are needed. A cell image is first captured by the microscope CCD camera and image-data-processing board, then the image

  4. Microstrip patch antenna receiving array operating in the Ku band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walcher, Douglas A.

    1996-01-01

    Microstrip patch antennas were first investigated from the idea that it would be highly advantageous to fabricate radiating elements (antennas) on the same dielectric substrate as RF circuitry and transmission lines. Other advantages were soon discovered to be its lightweight, low profile, conformability to shaped surfaces, and low manufacturing costs. Unfortunately, these same patches continually exhibit narrow bandwidths, wide beamwidths, and low antenna gain. This thesis will present the design and experimental results of a microstrip patch antenna receiving array operating in the Ku band. An antenna array will be designed in an attempt to improve its performance over a single patch. Most Ku band information signals are either wide band television images or narrow band data and voice channels. An attempt to improve the gain of the array by introducing parasitic patches on top of the array will also be presented in this thesis.

  5. Recent and relict topography of Boo Bee patch reef, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.; Hudson, J.H.; Lidz, B.; Taylor, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Five core borings were taken on and around Boo Bee Patch Reef to better understand the origin of such shelf lagoon reefs. The cores reveal 4 stages of development: (1) subaerial exposure of a Pleistocene "high" having about 8 meters of relief, possibly a Pleistocene patch reef; (2) deposition of peat and impermeable terrigenous clay 3 meters thick around the high; (3) initiation of carbonate sediment production by corals and algae on the remaining 5 meters of hard Pleistocene topography and carbonate mud on the surrounding terrigenous clay; and (4) accelerated organic accumulation on the patch reef. Estimates of patch reef sedimentation rates (1.6 m/1000 years) are 3 to 4 times greater than off-reef sedimentation rates (0.4-0.5 m/1000 years). During periods of Pleistocene sedimentation on the Belize shelf, lagoon patch reefs may have grown above one another, stacking up to form reef accumulation of considerable thickness.

  6. Suspended Patch Antenna Array With Electromagnetically Coupled Inverted Microstrip Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a four-element suspended patch antenna array, with a parasitic patch layer and an electromagnetically coupled inverted microstrip feed, for linear polarization at K-Band frequencies. This antenna has the following advantages over conventional microstrip antennas: First, the inverted microstrip has lower attenuation than conventional microstrip; hence, conductor loss associated with the antenna corporate feed is lower resulting in higher gain and efficiency. Second, conventional proximity coupled patch antennas require a substrate for the feed and a superstrate for the patch. However, the inverted microstrip fed patch antenna makes use of a single substrate, and hence, is lightweight and low cost. Third, electromagnetic coupling results in wider bandwidth. Details regarding the design and fabrication will be presented as well as measured results including return loss, radiation patterns and cross-polarization levels.

  7. Effects of coastal transport on larval patches: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Houser, Letise T.; Steppe, Cecily N.; Garvine, Richard W.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2006-03-01

    We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution and transport of patches of blue crab larvae in the mouth of Delaware Bay. The observations consisted of larval collections and surface salinity measurements taken along a moving spatial grid whose origin was determined by a satellite-tracked drifter. Examination of field observations revealed a slender larval patch that was aligned with salinity contours. Measurement of the salting rate of the larval patch indicated that the patch moved through the offshore edge of a buoyant plume due to wind-driven upwelling circulation. A numerical model that provided realistic simulations of the flow field at the mouth of Delaware Bay and the adjoining coastal ocean was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the movement and evolution of the patch. We conducted a series of simulations in which we separately examined the effects of tides, buoyancy-driven flow, and wind-driven transport. Results showed that both tides and buoyancy-driven flow tend to elongate an initially square fluid element. Although winds alone have little effect on the shape of a patch, wind-driven flow can effectively move a patch through a complex flow field in which the deformation by tides and buoyancy-driven circulation can have significant effects. This study represents the first observation and analysis of a larval patch that remains intact while moving through the edge of a buoyant plume. It provides new insight into the shape of larval patches in Delaware Bay and any region with strong buoyancy- and tidally-driven flow, suggesting that typical larval patches may not be characterized by equal across- and alongshelf dimensions but instead tend to be slender shapes that are aligned with the flow field.

  8. Catch and Patch: A Pipette-Based Approach for Automating Patch Clamp That Enables Cell Selection and Fast Compound Application.

    PubMed

    Danker, Timm; Braun, Franziska; Silbernagl, Nikole; Guenther, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Manual patch clamp, the gold standard of electrophysiology, represents a powerful and versatile toolbox to stimulate, modulate, and record ion channel activity from membrane fragments and whole cells. The electrophysiological readout can be combined with fluorescent or optogenetic methods and allows for ultrafast solution exchanges using specialized microfluidic tools. A hallmark of manual patch clamp is the intentional selection of individual cells for recording, often an essential prerequisite to generate meaningful data. So far, available automation solutions rely on random cell usage in the closed environment of a chip and thus sacrifice much of this versatility by design. To parallelize and automate the traditional patch clamp technique while perpetuating the full versatility of the method, we developed an approach to automation, which is based on active cell handling and targeted electrode placement rather than on random processes. This is achieved through an automated pipette positioning system, which guides the tips of recording pipettes with micrometer precision to a microfluidic cell handling device. Using a patch pipette array mounted on a conventional micromanipulator, our automated patch clamp process mimics the original manual patch clamp as closely as possible, yet achieving a configuration where recordings are obtained from many patch electrodes in parallel. In addition, our implementation is extensible by design to allow the easy integration of specialized equipment such as ultrafast compound application tools. The resulting system offers fully automated patch clamp on purposely selected cells and combines high-quality gigaseal recordings with solution switching in the millisecond timescale. PMID:26991363

  9. Statistical study of auroral fragmentation into patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Nozawa, S.; Hori, T.; Lester, M.

    2014-12-01

    Auroral complex shapes are formed through the connection of the ionosphere and magnetosphere by the geomagnetic field lines, projecting disturbances in the magnetosphere onto the ionosphere through auroral particles. Thus, the study of auroral dynamics is important for the understanding of magnetospheric disturbances. Shiokawa et al. [JGR, 2010] reported observations of small-scale finger-like auroral structures which appeared on the west side of auroral patches, at Gillam (GLAT=65.5°N), Canada, suggesting a pressure-driven plasma instability in the magnetosphere. However, statistical characteristics of this phenomenon have not been investigated yet. Using an all-sky imager at Tromsoe (MLAT=67.1°N), Norway, from January 2009 to November 2012, we made a statistical analysis of the occurrence conditions of 19 events of auroral structures that seemed to be caused by pressure-driven instability. We found 14 large-scale finger-like structures, developed from auroral arcs, and 6 small-scale finger-like structures which appeared in auroral patches. The large-scale structures were seen from midnight to dawn MLT and small-scale structures were seen mainly at dawn. Large and small-scale structures tend to appear at the beginning and late recovery phase of substorms, respectively. Their scale sizes are larger than the gyro-radius of the ions in the magnetospheric equatorial plane, indicating that the finger-like structures are caused by MHD instabilities. However, the size of the small-scale structures is roughly two times that of the gyro-radius of the ions, suggesting that the ion finite Larmor radius effects may play a role in the shape of small-scale structures [Hiraki and Sakaguchi, 2010]. Additionally, the eastward propagation speeds of the finger-like structures are slower than the typical midnight auroral drift speed, indicating that the low-energy plasma may be the source of these structures. These results could contradict the idea that the high-energy particles

  10. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2 000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366

  11. SubPatch: random kd-tree on a sub-sampled patch set for nearest neighbor field estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersoli, Fabrizio; Benini, Sergio; Adami, Nicola; Okuda, Masahiro; Leonardi, Riccardo

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new method to compute the approximate nearest-neighbors field (ANNF) between image pairs using random kd-tree and patch set sub-sampling. By exploiting image coherence we demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the number of patches on which we compute the ANNF, while maintaining high overall accuracy on the final result. Information on missing patches is then recovered by interpolation and propagation of good matches. The introduction of the sub-sampling factor on patch sets also allows for setting the desired trade off between accuracy and speed, providing a flexibility that lacks in state-of-the-art methods. Tests conducted on a public database prove that our algorithm achieves superior performance with respect to PatchMatch (PM) and Coherence Sensitivity Hashing (CSH) algorithms in a comparable computational time.

  12. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-03-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals. PMID:22439436

  13. Flexural waves focusing through shunted piezoelectric patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Ichchou, M.; Li, L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and analyzed a piezo-lens to focus flexural waves in thin plates. The piezo-lens is comprised of a host plate and piezoelectric arrays bonded on the surfaces of the plate. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance circuits. The effective refractive indexes inside the piezo-lens are designed to fit a hyperbolic secant distribution by tuning the negative capacitance values. A homogenized model of a piezo-mechanical system is adopted in the designing process of the piezo-lens. The wave focusing effect is studied by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the piezo-lens can focus flexural waves by bending their trajectories, and is effective in a large frequency band. The piezo-lens has the ability to focus flexural waves at different locations by tuning the shunting negative capacitance values. The piezo-lens is shown to be effective for flexural waves generated by different types of sources.

  14. Bacopa monniera Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum in Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Mahitha, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B; Mallikarjuna, K; Durga Mahalakshmi, Ch N; Sushmal, N John

    2015-02-01

    In the recent years usage of nanomedicine plays a promising strategy in the improvement of medical treatment. The ecofriendly synthesized silver nanoparticles has introduced a new opportunity to increase the efficacy of drug by reducing its side effects. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant property of Bacopa monniera stabilized silver nanoparticles against aluminum induced toxicity in albino mice. Forty male albino mice were randomly divided into five groups. First group was treated as control, second group received aluminum acetate (5 mg/kg b . w), third group received Bacopa monniera extract (5 mg/kg b . w), fourth group received BmSNPs (5 mg/kg b . w), fifth group received aluminum acetate plus BmSNPs. Exposure to aluminum acetate significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels with a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the brain, liver and kidney of mice. Degenerative changes were also observed in brain, liver and kidney of aluminum treated mice. No significant changes in the oxidative stress were observed in the Bacopa monniera and BmSNPs alone treated mice. Whereas, co-administration of BmSNPs to Al treated mice showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase of SOD, CAT and GPx indicating the antioxidant potential of nanoparticles and in counteracting Al induced oxidative stress and histological response in male albino mice. These findings clearly implicate that BmSNPs are able to eradicate the oxidative stress and prevent the tissue damage in aluminum exposed mice. PMID:26353618

  15. Bacopa monniera Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum in Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Mahitha, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B; Mallikarjuna, K; Durga Mahalakshmi, Ch N; Sushmal, N John

    2015-02-01

    In the recent years usage of nanomedicine plays a promising strategy in the improvement of medical treatment. The ecofriendly synthesized silver nanoparticles has introduced a new opportunity to increase the efficacy of drug by reducing its side effects. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant property of Bacopa monniera stabilized silver nanoparticles against aluminum induced toxicity in albino mice. Forty male albino mice were randomly divided into five groups. First group was treated as control, second group received aluminum acetate (5 mg/kg b . w), third group received Bacopa monniera extract (5 mg/kg b . w), fourth group received BmSNPs (5 mg/kg b . w), fifth group received aluminum acetate plus BmSNPs. Exposure to aluminum acetate significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels with a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the brain, liver and kidney of mice. Degenerative changes were also observed in brain, liver and kidney of aluminum treated mice. No significant changes in the oxidative stress were observed in the Bacopa monniera and BmSNPs alone treated mice. Whereas, co-administration of BmSNPs to Al treated mice showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase of SOD, CAT and GPx indicating the antioxidant potential of nanoparticles and in counteracting Al induced oxidative stress and histological response in male albino mice. These findings clearly implicate that BmSNPs are able to eradicate the oxidative stress and prevent the tissue damage in aluminum exposed mice.

  16. Haematological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, B V; Alabi, O T; Adebayo, J O; Soladoye, A O; Abioye, A I R; Jimoh, S A

    2004-06-01

    The haematological effect of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum was evaluated in male albino rats during a 21 day administration at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w, orally. Parameters evaluated include the serum lipids, red and white cell indices. The results showed that the extract administered decreased most of the parameters relating to red cell and increased most of those parameters relating to white cells. It also decreased the total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with no significant effect on the triglyceride levels.

  17. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1969-05-01

    The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

  18. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1969-05-01

    The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month.

  19. Temporal characteristics and energy deposition of pulsating auroral patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Mann, I. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a careful statistical analysis of pulsating aurora (PA) using all-sky green line (557.7 nm) images obtained at 3.3 Hz. Six well-defined individual PA patches are identified and extracted using a contouring technique. Quantitative parameters such as the patch duration (on-time and off-time), peak intensity, and integrated intensity are determined for each patch and each pulsation. The resulting characteristics serve as strict observational constraints that any of the many competing theories attempting to explain PA must predict. The purpose of this paper is to determine the characteristics of PA patches in order to provide better observational constraints on the suggested mechanisms. All aspects of the temporal behavior of the individual patches appear to be erratic. Historically, PA has been defined very loosely and we argue that the use of the term "pulsating" is inappropriate since our findings and other published results are not regularly periodic and thus a more appropriate term may be fluctuating aurora. Further, we find that the observational constraints do not fit well with the flow cyclotron maser theory, which in particular is suggested to create PA patches. There is no clear candidate of the suggested mechanisms and drivers to explain the observational constraints set by the PA patches in a satisfactory manner.

  20. Dynamics of equatorial irregularity patch formation, motion, and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, J.; Mullen, J.P.; Whitney, H.E.; MacKenzie, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Using scintillation observations from a series of equatorial propagation paths as well as backscatter and airglow data, the development, motion, and decay of equatorial irregularity patches have been studied. Assembling the results of earlier studies in the field with our observations, we find the following: the patch has limited east-west dimensions with a minimum of 100 km. Several patches may be melded together to reach an extent of 1500 km. Its magnetic north-south dimensions are often greater than 2000 km; the most intense irregularities (as evidenced by the Jicamarca radar at the dip equator) are from 225 to 450 km in altitude, although irregularities are found as high as 1000 km. The patch initially has a westward expansion following the solar terminator, then, maintaining its integrity, moves eastward. Evidence over a limited series of experiments suggests that premidnight patches are formed within 1 1/2 hours after ionospheric sunset in the absence of special magnetic conditions. From Ascension Island (approx.16 /sup 0/S dip latitude) the individual patches can be clearly distinguished. The decay of patches in the midnight time period was studied, pointing to a rapid decrease in scintillation intensity in this time period.

  1. An Algorithm for Projecting Points onto a Patched CAD Model

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W D

    2001-05-29

    We are interested in building structured overlapping grids for geometries defined by computer-aided-design (CAD) packages. Geometric information defining the boundary surfaces of a computation domain is often provided in the form of a collection of possibly hundreds of trimmed patches. The first step in building an overlapping volume grid on such a geometry is to build overlapping surface grids. A surface grid is typically built using hyperbolic grid generation; starting from a curve on the surface, a grid is grown by marching over the surface. A given hyperbolic grid will typically cover many of the underlying CAD surface patches. The fundamental operation needed for building surface grids is that of projecting a point in space onto the closest point on the CAD surface. We describe an fast algorithm for performing this projection, it will make use of a fairly coarse global triangulation of the CAD geometry. We describe how to build this global triangulation by first determining the connectivity of the CAD surface patches. This step is necessary since it often the case that the CAD description will contain no information specifying how a given patch connects to other neighboring patches. Determining the connectivity is difficult since the surface patches may contain mistakes such as gaps or overlaps between neighboring patches.

  2. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes. PMID:25858073

  3. Patches in the polar ionosphere: UT and seasonal dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, J.J.; Bowline, M.D.; Schunk, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    The seasonal and UT dependencies of patches in the polar ionosphere are simulated using the Utah State University time dependent ionospheric model (TDIM). Patch formation is achieved by changing the plasma convection pattern in response to temporal changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B{sub y} component during periods of southward IMF. This mechanism redirects the plasma flow from the dayside high-density region, which is the source of the tongue of ionization (TOI) density feature, through the throat and leads to patches, rather than a continuous TOI. The model predicts that the patches are absent at winter solstice (northern hemisphere) between 0800 and 1200 UT and that they have their largest seasonal intensity at winter solstice between 2000 and 2400 UT. Between winter solstice and equinox, patches are strong and present all day. Patches are present in summer as well, although their intensity is only tens of percent above the background density. These winter-to-equinox findings are also shown to be consistent with observations. The model was also used to predict times at which patch observations could be performed to determine the contributions from other patch mechanisms. This observational window is {+-} 20 days about winter solstice between 0800 and 1200 UT in the northern hemisphere. In this observational window the TOI is either absent or reduced to a very low density. Hence the time dependent electric field mechanism considered in this study does not produce patches, and if they are observed, then they must be due to some other mechanism. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Multi-Scale Patch-Based Image Restoration.

    PubMed

    Papyan, Vardan; Elad, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many image restoration algorithms in recent years are based on patch processing. The core idea is to decompose the target image into fully overlapping patches, restore each of them separately, and then merge the results by a plain averaging. This concept has been demonstrated to be highly effective, leading often times to the state-of-the-art results in denoising, inpainting, deblurring, segmentation, and other applications. While the above is indeed effective, this approach has one major flaw: the prior is imposed on intermediate (patch) results, rather than on the final outcome, and this is typically manifested by visual artifacts. The expected patch log likelihood (EPLL) method by Zoran and Weiss was conceived for addressing this very problem. Their algorithm imposes the prior on the patches of the final image, which in turn leads to an iterative restoration of diminishing effect. In this paper, we propose to further extend and improve the EPLL by considering a multi-scale prior. Our algorithm imposes the very same prior on different scale patches extracted from the target image. While all the treated patches are of the same size, their footprint in the destination image varies due to subsampling. Our scheme comes to alleviate another shortcoming existing in patch-based restoration algorithms--the fact that a local (patch-based) prior is serving as a model for a global stochastic phenomenon. We motivate the use of the multi-scale EPLL by restricting ourselves to the simple Gaussian case, comparing the aforementioned algorithms and showing a clear advantage to the proposed method. We then demonstrate our algorithm in the context of image denoising, deblurring, and super-resolution, showing an improvement in performance both visually and quantitatively. PMID:26571527

  5. Effect of continuous irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves of the NO frequency range on behavioral reactions of male albino rats under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Antipova, O N; Krylova, Ya A

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effect of terahertz waves (NO frequency range, 150.176-150.664 GHz) on stress-induced variations in behavioral reactions of male albino rats during hypokinetic stress. THz irradiation was followed by partial or complete normalization of behavioral reactions of male albino rats after hypokinetic stress. The most significant effect was observed after continuous irradiation for 30 min.

  6. Esophageal Rings and Stricture Related to a Circumferential Inlet Patch

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Inlet patches are sometimes seen during upper endoscopy, usually in the proximal esophagus. Complications of inlet patches can cause a wide array of symptoms and complications. A man presented with dysphagia and was found to have 2 rings in the upper esophagus, just above and below a circumferential inlet patch. The more distal ring caused a stenosis, which produced the symptoms. Savary dilation and treatment with a proton pump inhibitor led to symptom resolution. Pathology was missed on the patient's first endoscopy, highlighting the importance of looking for pathology throughout the entire esophagus, not just in the distal esophagus.

  7. Membrane Vibration Tests Using Surface-Bonded Piezoelectric Patch Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasper, James L.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the dynamics of thin membranes. The test article is a one-meter square pre-tensioned Kapton membrane that incorporates small surface-bonded piezoelectric patches strategically positioned to excite many modes. It is shown that PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macro fiber composite) piezoelectric patch actuators provide adequate excitation energy to obtain modal frequencies and mode shapes. Results from modal tests performed on the membrane using piezoelectric patches of different sizes and positions are discussed.

  8. Cavity modes and their excitations in elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Ayan; Wang, Feng; Minkowski, Fred; Sun, Kai; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2012-05-21

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of two dimensional periodic arrays of elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the azimuthal symmetry breaking of the metal patches leads to the occurrence of even and odd resonant cavity modes and the excitation geometries dependent on their modal symmetries. We show that the cavity modes can be described by the product of radial and angular Mathieu functions with excellent agreements with both simulations and experiments. The effects of the patch periodicity on the excitation of the surface plasmon and its coupling with the cavity modes are also discussed. PMID:22714147

  9. Structural Durability of Damaged Metallic Panel Repaired with Composite Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C.

    1997-01-01

    Structural durability/damage tolerance characteristics of an aluminum tension specimen possessing a short crack and repaired by applying a fiber composite surface patch is investigated via computational simulation. The composite patch is made of graphite/epoxy plies with various layups. An integrated computer code that accounts for all possible failure modes is utilized for the simulation of combined fiber-composite/aluminum structural degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to structural fracture are included in the simulation. Results show the structural degradation stages due to tensile loading and illustrate the use of computational simulation for the investigation of a composite patch repaired cracked metallic panel.

  10. Direct Observations of the Evolution of Polar Cap Ionization Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, B.; Lockwood, M. M.; Hu, H.; Moen, J. I.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Thomas, E. G.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Liu, R.; McWilliams, K. A.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of ionization are common in the polar ionosphere where their motion and associated density gradients give variable disturbances to High Frequency (HF) radio communications, over-the-horizon radar location errors, and disruption and errors to satellite navigation and communication. Their formation and evolution are poorly understood, particularly under disturbed space weather conditions. We report direct observations of the full evolution of patches during a geomagnetic storm, including formation, polar cap entry, transpolar evolution, polar cap exit, and sunward return flow. Our observations show that modulation of nightside reconnection in the substorm cycle of the magnetosphere helps form the gaps between patches where steady convection would give a 'tongue' of ionization (TOI).

  11. Fever following an Epidural Blood Patch in a Child.

    PubMed

    Hunyady, Agnes I; Anderson, Corrie T M; Kuratani, John D; Kundu, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that children suffer from the consequences of spontaneous or iatrogenic intracranial hypotension. Pediatric epidural blood patch is gaining popularity because of its ability to alter cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and to alleviate headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. There is, however, still not enough data to document the safety profile of an epidural blood patch. Here we describe a case of a fever in a child temporally related to the administration of an epidural blood patch. This case depicts the dilemmas in making the diagnosis and instituting treatment for complications of this procedure in the pediatric population.

  12. Fever following an Epidural Blood Patch in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Hunyady, Agnes I.; Anderson, Corrie T. M.; Kuratani, John D.; Kundu, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that children suffer from the consequences of spontaneous or iatrogenic intracranial hypotension. Pediatric epidural blood patch is gaining popularity because of its ability to alter cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and to alleviate headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. There is, however, still not enough data to document the safety profile of an epidural blood patch. Here we describe a case of a fever in a child temporally related to the administration of an epidural blood patch. This case depicts the dilemmas in making the diagnosis and instituting treatment for complications of this procedure in the pediatric population. PMID:23029626

  13. Allelopathy in saline agricultural land: Vegetation successional changes and patch dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, K; Malik, K A; Sheikh, K H; Lodhi, M A

    1989-02-01

    In reclamation fields of salt-affected wasteland, five plant communities colonized the undisturbed land, represented byCynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sporobolus arabicus, andSuaeda fruticosa. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca), a highly salt tolerant plant when cultivated, shared dominance withCynodon, Desmostachya, andSporobolus in 15-month-old fields, whereasPolypogon was the only dominant species in 30-month-old kallar grass fields. Through successional stages, soil pH, salinity, sodicity, and Na, K, Ca + Mg significantly decreased due to leaching. Electrical conductivity successively changed from 13.0 to 3.0 to 1.0, while soil total nitrogen, NH4 nitrogen, NO3 nitrogen and available P significantly increased. In high-density kallar grass fields, six weed species appeared only in well-defined patches and radially eliminated or reduced kallar grass growth. Many soil factors, such as pH, EC, NH4 nitrogen, NO3 nitrogen and available P analyzed in patch vegetation soils, were mostly either comparable or significantly better than those of surrounding kallar grass fields. On the other hand, aqueous extracts of all six invading species and kallar grass significantly reduced kallar grass seed germination to varying degrees. Further, decaying leaf powder of allelopathically suspected species significantly reduced kallar grass biomass, which varied from species to species and in most cases corresponded with field data of kallar grass in patch vegetation. It should be strongly pointed out that allelopathic behavior discussed in patch dynamics was in areas where soil saline-sodic conditions had improved greatly (e.g., EC = from 13.0 to only 1.0) due to kallar grass plantation. Further,Suaeda appeared to be a poor competitor when soil conditions improved for other species as well, and it could not capitalize on its evolutionary strategic trait of performing well in saline-sodic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that

  14. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  15. Statistical study of auroral fragmentation into patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Ayumi; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Nozawa, Satonori; Hori, Tomoaki; Lester, Mark; Johnsen, Magnar Gullikstad

    2015-08-01

    The study of auroral dynamics is important when considering disturbances of the magnetosphere. Shiokawa et al. (2010, 2014) reported observations of finger-like auroral structures that cause auroral fragmentation. Those structures are probably produced by macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere, mainly of the Rayleigh-Taylor type. However, the statistical characteristics of these structures have not yet been investigated. Here based on observations by an all-sky imager at Tromsø (magnetic latitude = 67.1°N), Norway, over three winter seasons, we statistically analyzed the occurrence conditions of 14 large-scale finger-like structures that developed from large-scale auroral regions including arcs and 6 small-scale finger-like structures that developed in auroral patches. The large-scale structures were seen from midnight to dawn local time and usually appeared at the beginning of the substorm recovery phase, near the low-latitude boundary of the auroral region. The small-scale structures were primarily seen at dawn and mainly occurred in the late recovery phase of substorms. The sizes of these large- and small-scale structures mapped in the magnetospheric equatorial plane are usually larger than the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, indicating that the finger-like structures could be caused by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. However, the scale of small structures is only twice the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, suggesting that finite Larmor radius effects may contribute to the formation of small-scale structures. The eastward propagation velocities of the structures are -40 to +200 m/s and are comparable with those of plasma drift velocities measured by the colocating Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar.

  16. Leaf hydraulics II: vascularized tissues.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Fulton E; Holbrook, N Michele; Stroock, Abraham D

    2014-01-01

    Current models of leaf hydration employ an Ohm's law analogy of the leaf as an ideal capacitor, neglecting the resistance to flow between cells, or treat the leaf as a plane sheet with a source of water at fixed potential filling the mid-plane, neglecting the discrete placement of veins as well as their resistance. We develop a model of leaf hydration that considers the average conductance of the vascular network to a representative areole (region bounded by the vascular network), and represent the volume of tissue within the areole as a poroelastic composite of cells and air spaces. Solutions to the 3D flow problem are found by numerical simulation, and these results are then compared to 1D models with exact solutions for a range of leaf geometries, based on a survey of temperate woody plants. We then show that the hydration times given by these solutions are well approximated by a sum of the ideal capacitor and plane sheet times, representing the time for transport through the vasculature and tissue respectively. We then develop scaling factors relating this approximate solution to the 3D model, and examine the dependence of these scaling factors on leaf geometry. Finally, we apply a similar strategy to reduce the dimensions of the steady state problem, in the context of peristomatal transpiration, and consider the relation of transpirational gradients to equilibrium leaf water potential measurements.

  17. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species. PMID:24291157

  18. Follow your nose: leaf odour as an important foraging cue for mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Rebecca S; Banks, Peter B; Proschogo, Nicholas; McArthur, Clare

    2016-11-01

    Studies of odour-driven foraging by mammals focus on attractant cues emitted by flowers, fruits, and fungi. Yet, the leaves of many plant species worldwide produce odour, which could act as a cue for foraging mammalian herbivores. Leaf odour may thus improve foraging efficiency for such herbivores in many ecosystems by reducing search time, particularly but not only, for plants that are visually obscured. We tested the use of leaf odour by a free-ranging mammalian browser, the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) to find and browse palatable tree seedlings (Eucalyptus pilularis). Wallabies visited patches non-randomly with respect to the presence of seedlings. In the absence of visual plant cues, they used leaf odour (cut seedlings in vials) to find patches earlier, and visited and investigated them more often than control patches (empty vials), supporting the hypothesis that wallabies used seedling odour to enhance search efficiency. In contrast, the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), a grazer, showed no response to seedling odour. When the availability of seedling visual and olfactory cues was manipulated, wallabies browsed seedlings equally quickly in all treatments: upright (normal cues), pinned to the ground (reduced visual cues), and upright plus pinned seedlings (double olfactory cues). Odour cues play a critical role in food-finding by swamp wallabies, and these animals are finely tuned to detecting these cues with their threshold for detection reached by odours from only a single plant. The global significance of leaf odour in foraging by mammalian herbivores consuming conifers, eucalypts, and other odour-rich species requires greater attention. PMID:27368609

  19. Follow your nose: leaf odour as an important foraging cue for mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Rebecca S; Banks, Peter B; Proschogo, Nicholas; McArthur, Clare

    2016-11-01

    Studies of odour-driven foraging by mammals focus on attractant cues emitted by flowers, fruits, and fungi. Yet, the leaves of many plant species worldwide produce odour, which could act as a cue for foraging mammalian herbivores. Leaf odour may thus improve foraging efficiency for such herbivores in many ecosystems by reducing search time, particularly but not only, for plants that are visually obscured. We tested the use of leaf odour by a free-ranging mammalian browser, the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) to find and browse palatable tree seedlings (Eucalyptus pilularis). Wallabies visited patches non-randomly with respect to the presence of seedlings. In the absence of visual plant cues, they used leaf odour (cut seedlings in vials) to find patches earlier, and visited and investigated them more often than control patches (empty vials), supporting the hypothesis that wallabies used seedling odour to enhance search efficiency. In contrast, the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), a grazer, showed no response to seedling odour. When the availability of seedling visual and olfactory cues was manipulated, wallabies browsed seedlings equally quickly in all treatments: upright (normal cues), pinned to the ground (reduced visual cues), and upright plus pinned seedlings (double olfactory cues). Odour cues play a critical role in food-finding by swamp wallabies, and these animals are finely tuned to detecting these cues with their threshold for detection reached by odours from only a single plant. The global significance of leaf odour in foraging by mammalian herbivores consuming conifers, eucalypts, and other odour-rich species requires greater attention.

  20. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  1. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  2. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  3. Effect of GABAB receptor antagonist (CGP35348) on learning and memory in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Quratulane; Iqbal, Shahid; Arfa, Fatima; Khakwani, Saba; Akbar, Atif; Ullah, Asmat; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist) on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P=0.528) and female (P=0.125) albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P=0.04), time immobile (P=0.04), rotations (P=0.04), and anticlockwise rotations (P=0.038)). The results for Morris water maze (MWM) retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P=0.04) than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.

  4. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  5. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  6. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  7. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

  8. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  9. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  10. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  11. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  12. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  13. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  14. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  15. Repeated dose oral toxicity of Trivanga Bhasma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jamadagni, Pallavi S.; Jamadagni, Shrirang B.; Singh, Rajendrakumar; Gaidhani, Sudesh N.; Upadhyay, Sachchidanand; Hazra, Jayram

    2013-01-01

    Trivanga Bhasma, a metallic preparation containing Bhasmas of Naga (lead), Vanga (tin) and Yashada (zinc), was studied for repeated dose toxicity in Swiss albino mice to estimate No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). A total of 80 Swiss albino mice of either sex with an average body weight of 28-30 g were equally divided into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV). Group I served as control and was given vehicle (honey: water in 2:3 ratio) Group II, III, and IV received Trivanga Bhasma @ 7.8, 39.5,and 78 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. The effect of drug was assessed on body weight, feed and water consumption changes, hematological, and histopathological parameters. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and examined for gross pathological changes. Histopathological evaluation was performed for control and high dose group. Trivanga Bhasma was found to be safe. No significant clinical signs were noted in all groups studied. No major alterations were observed during histopathological evaluation. Hence, dose rate of 78 mg/kg body weight was established as NOAEL. It is suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses and in a different species so as to establish target organ of toxicity. PMID:24049417

  16. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  17. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application. PMID:27410080

  18. Polar cap F layer patches: structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Buchau, J.; Carlson, H.C.; Livingston, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    Coordinated measurements of F-region plasma patches were conducted on February 3/4, 1984, from Thule and Sondrestrom, Greenland. Optical, ionsonde, amplitude scintillation, total electron content (TEC), and incoherent scatter radar measurements were combined to reveal several new aspects of the structure and transport of these localized regions of enhanced F region ionization. For the first time, these patches were directly tracked flowing in the antisunward direction over distances of 3000 km from the center of the polar cap to the poleward edge of the auroral oval. Quantative measurements of TEC show increases of 10-15 TEC units within the patches, above a background polar cap value of 5 TEC units. Amplitude scintillation measurements show the presence of ionospheric irregularities through the entire patch, with a weak indication of stronger scintillation on the trailing (or E x B unstable) edge.

  19. Polar cap F layer patches: structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Buchau, J.; Carlson H.C. Jr.; Livingston, R.C.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; McCready, M.; Moore, J.G.; Bishop, G.J.

    1986-11-01

    Coordinated measurements of F region plasma patches were conducted on February 3/4, 1984, from Thule and Sondrestrom, Greenland. Optical, ionosonde, amplitude scintillation, total electron content (TEC), and incoherent scatter radar measurements were combined to reveal several new aspects of the structure and transport of these localized regions of enhanced F region ionization. For the first time these patches were directly tracked flowing in the antisunward direction over distances of 3000 km from the center of the polar cap to the poleward edge of the auroral oval. Quantitative measurements of TEC show increases of 10--15 TEC units within the patches, above a background polar cap value of 5 TEC units. Amplitude scintillation measurements show the presence of ionospheric irregularities through the entire patch, with a weak indication of stronger scintillation on the trailing (or E x B unstable) edge.

  20. Self-focusing dynamics of patches of ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, P. A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of focussing of extended patches of nonlinear capillary-gravity waves within the primitive fluid dynamic equations is presented. It is found that, when the envelope has certain properties, the patch focusses initially in accordance to predictions from nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and focussing can concentrate energy to the vicinity of a point or a curve on the fluid surface. After initial focussing, other effects dominate and the patch breaks up into a complex set of localised structures-lumps and breathers-plus dispersive radiation. We perform simulations both in the inviscid regime and for small viscosities. Lastly we discuss throughout the similarities and differences between the dynamics of ripple patches and self-focussing light beams.

  1. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles.

  2. Polarization Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a nearly square patch antenna integrated with a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for reconfiguring the polarization. Experimental results demonstrate that at a fixed frequency, the polarization can be reconfigured, from circular to linear.

  3. Analysis of microstrip patch antennas with nonzero surface resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.; Bailey, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    The scattering properties of a microstrip patch antenna with nonzero surface impedance are examined. The electric field integral equation for a current element on a grounded dielectric slab is developed for a rectangular geometry by using Galerkin's technique with subdomain piecewise linear basis functions. The integral equation includes a resistive boundary condition on the surface of the patch. The incident field on the patch is expressed as a function of incidence angle. The resulting system of equations is then solved for the unknown current modes on the patch, and the radar cross section is calculated for a given scattering angle. Theoretical results in the form of radar cross section as a function of frequency are compared with results measured at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  5. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis as a reaction to fentanyl patch smoke.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Satkunam, Niranjala; Churg, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    We report a patient who developed shortness of breath and systemic symptoms after starting to smoke fentanyl patches. CT scan showed ground glass centrilobular nodules, and biopsy demonstrated alveolar proteinosis. Her symptoms disappeared and her chest imaging changes largely resolved when she stopped smoking the patches. Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon drug reaction and in this case presented in a very unusual fashion as an inhalation injury.

  6. Misuse of fentanyl transdermal patch mixed with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, H O; Kucuk, U; Kolcu, Z; Balta, S; Demirkol, S

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl transdermal patches have long been used in the palliative care of patients with chronic pain with a favorable safety profile. However, intoxications secondary to intentional and unintentional misuse have been widely reported. In this study, we report an otherwise healthy woman presented to emergency department who used three patches of fentanyl to alleviate her knee pain and with a picture mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

  7. Capsaicin 8 % Patch: A Review in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Burness, Celeste B; McCormack, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The capsaicin 8 % patch (QUTENZA®) is an adhesive patch containing a high concentration (8 % w/w) of synthetic capsaicin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel. It is approved for treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain in adults either alone or in combination with other medicinal products for pain in the EU; it is only approved to treat postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in the USA. In patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN), a single 30-min application of the capsaicin 8 % patch significantly improved pain relief and sleep quality compared with placebo in a 12-week double-blind trial. In a 52-week, randomized trial, up to seven consecutive 30-min treatments with the capsaicin 8 % patch (≤7 treatments each at least 8 weeks apart) plus standard of care therapy was associated with sustained pain relief and no negative neurological safety consequences compared with standard of care. In two randomized trials, a single 60-min application of the capsaicin 8 % patch reduced pain scores significantly more than a low-concentration (0.04 %) capsaicin control patch in patients with PHN. Capsaicin 8 % patch treatment was noninferior to pregabalin (optimized dosage) in a randomized trial in patients with nondiabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Results in two trials in patients with HIV-AN were equivocal, with a significant improvement in pain intensity observed in one trial, but not in the other. The capsaicin 8 % patch was associated with expected, transient, capsaicin-related application-site adverse events such as erythema and pain.

  8. [Continued Use of Rotigotine Transdermal Patches for Parkinson Disease].

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Imakyure, Osamu; Washiyama, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Futagami, Koujiro

    2016-06-01

    Transdermal patches containing rotigotine, a dopamine agonist (DA) for treatment of Parkinson disease, continuously exert stable effects when applied once daily. Therefore, they are expected to reduce the patient burdens due to complications such as wearing-off and dysphagia. However, dosing is occasionally reduced or discontinued after application because of several reasons such as skin reactions or unsatisfactory efficacy. To identify the risk factors involved in the reduced or discontinued use of rotigotine patches, a retrospective study was conducted with reference to the medical records of patients with Parkinson disease who received rotigotine patches in our hospital. 85 patients were involved in this study. Dosing of rotigotine was reduced or discontinued in 53 patients during the study period. The factors associated with charges in treatment included combination therapy with clonazepam and oral administration of another DA before the application of rotigotine. The reduction or discontinuation rate of rotigotine patches in patients who reduced the equivalent dose of DA on the introduction of rotigotine patches was 94.7%, showing a significantly higher rate compared with 61.3% in the increased dose group. To improve adherence to rotigotine patch therapy, physicians need to carefully consider concomitant drugs and total dose of DAs. (Received December 7, 2015; Accepted February 22, 2016; Published June 1, 2016). PMID:27279164

  9. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  10. Image Restoration using Prioritized Exemplar Inpainting with Automatic Patch Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borole, Rajesh Pandurang; Bonde, Sanjiv Vedu

    2016-08-01

    Image analysis and restoration has been carried out by texture synthesis for large regions and inpainting algorithms for small cracks in images. A new approach that allow simultaneous fill-in of different structures and textures is being proposed in present study. A combination of structure inpainting and patch-based texture synthesis with patch size optimization is carried out (termed as `optimized patch based inpainting') for filling and updating the target region that shows additional advantages over earlier approaches. The algorithm here uses the patch based inpainting having isophote driven patch-based texture synthesis at core. In present algorithm, ones the user selects the target regions, the algorithm automatically search and fills-in these regions with best matching information surrounding it. Patch-based filling is found to improve execution speed and robustness significantly over pixel-based fill. The fill-in is done in such a way that structure information arriving at the region boundaries is propagated inside. A number of examples on real and complex images are considered to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  11. A novel method for patch-clamp automation.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, D; Merrill, T; Iwanow, A; Dunlop, J; Bowlby, M

    2006-05-01

    An increasing demand of the pharmaceutical industry for automated electrophysiological stations for ion channel drug discovery has recently resulted in the development of several commercial platforms for secondary and safety screening of ion channel modulators. These commercial systems have demonstrated an enhanced throughput, however, often at the expense of some quality-sensitive aspects of traditional patch-clamp recordings. To improve data quality and content, we have developed a patch-clamp robot that fully automates manual patch-clamp recordings, including patch pipette handling, gigaseal formation, obtaining whole-cell or perforated-cell configuration, drug application, and data acquisition. Utilization of glass micropipettes results in high-quality electrophysiological recordings with an overall success rate of about 30% in perforated-cell mode. A fast drug application system with low volume requirements (1-1.5 ml) allows the study of ligand-gated ion channels on a millisecond scale. As proof-of-concept, we present two assays developed for voltage-gated human ether-a-go-go-related and ligand-gated alpha(7) nicotinic receptor ion channels. The system throughput was a single concentration-response curve every 30-40 min or 12-17 6-point concentration-response curves daily, representing a significant improvement of typical manual patch-clamp throughput. This system represents an efficient method for patch-clamp automation without the need for a complex and expensive electrophysiological set-up for cell visualization.

  12. Automated ion channel screening: patch clamping made easy.

    PubMed

    Farre, Cecilia; Stoelzle, Sonja; Haarmann, Claudia; George, Michael; Brüggemann, Andrea; Fertig, Niels

    2007-04-01

    Efficient high resolution techniques are required for screening efforts and research targeting ion channels. The conventional patch clamp technique, a high resolution but low efficiency technique, has been established for 25 years. Recent advances have opened up new possibilities for automated patch clamping. This new technology meets the need of drug developers for higher throughput and facilitates new experimental approaches in ion channel research. Specifically, Nanion's electrophysiology workstations, the Port-a-Patch and the Patchliner, have been successfully introduced as high-quality automated patch clamp platforms for industry as well as academic users. Both platforms give high quality patch clamp recordings, capable of true giga-seals and stable recordings, accessible to the user without the need for years of practical training. They also offer sophisticated experimental possibilities, such as accurate and fast ligand application, temperature control and internal solution exchange. This article describes the chip-based patch clamp technology and its usefulness in ion channel drug screening and academic research.

  13. Force-controlled patch clamp of beating cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Ossola, Dario; Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Behr, Pascal; Vörös, János; Abriel, Hugues; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2015-03-11

    From its invention in the 1970s, the patch clamp technique is the gold standard in electrophysiology research and drug screening because it is the only tool enabling accurate investigation of voltage-gated ion channels, which are responsible for action potentials. Because of its key role in drug screening, innovation efforts are being made to reduce its complexity toward more automated systems. While some of these new approaches are being adopted in pharmaceutical companies, conventional patch-clamp remains unmatched in fundamental research due to its versatility. Here, we merged the patch clamp and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques, thus equipping the patch-clamp with the sensitive AFM force control. This was possible using the FluidFM, a force-controlled nanopipette based on microchanneled AFM cantilevers. First, the compatibility of the system with patch-clamp electronics and its ability to record the activity of voltage-gated ion channels in whole-cell configuration was demonstrated with sodium (NaV1.5) channels. Second, we showed the feasibility of simultaneous recording of membrane current and force development during contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes. Force feedback allowed for a gentle and stable contact between AFM tip and cell membrane enabling serial patch clamping and injection without apparent cell damage. PMID:25639960

  14. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  15. Experiments in Whole Leaf Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, J. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Described is a simple experimental system, which uses radioactive carbon dioxide to study whole leaf photosynthesis under a variety of conditions. Other experiments and simple apparatus for the experiments are also described. (Author/RH)

  16. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  1. Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract

  2. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  3. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  4. What determines a leaf's shape?

    PubMed

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia.

  5. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand.

  6. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  7. Behaviour of albino and melanic variants of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Mollusca: Planorbidae) following infection by Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.

    PubMed

    Allegretti, S M; Carvalho, J F; Magalhães, L A; Zanotti-Magalhães, E M

    2009-02-01

    The behaviour of the albino and melanic variants of Biomphalaria glabrata of Belo Horizonte (MG. Brazil) was studied comparatively, in terms of their respective susceptibilities to infection by Schistosoma mansoni of the same origin, through observation of the elimination of cercariae for a three-month period and the calculation of mortality and infection rates, in control and in infected snails. The number of amoebocytes, granulocytes and hyalinocytes in the circulating hemolymph during different periods of infection was analyzed. The evolution of the infection in the tissues was observed by means of histological cross-sections. The melanic variant showed greater susceptibility to infection and a higher mortality rate. The albino variant showed a higher number of circulating amoebocytes, both granulocytes and hyalinocytes. A higher number of degenerated sporocysts were seen in the histological cross-sections of the albino variant. The results suggest that the melanic variant of B. glabrata was more susceptible to infection by S. mansoni than was the albino variant.

  8. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  9. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber.

  10. Effects of X radiation on the retina of the albino rabbit as viewed with the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J.C.; Barsa-Newton, M.C.; Wardly, J.

    1980-02-01

    The eyes of albino rabbits were exposed in vivo to 7000 rad of X radiation, and the retinas were examined with a scanning electron microscope 24 and 72 h after irradiation. The rods and cones of the retina were observed to show the most severe damage.

  11. Improved image registration by sparse patch-based deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-15

    Despite intensive efforts for decades, deformable image registration is still a challenging problem due to the potential large anatomical differences across individual images, which limits the registration performance. Fortunately, this issue could be alleviated if a good initial deformation can be provided for the two images under registration, which are often termed as the moving subject and the fixed template, respectively. In this work, we present a novel patch-based initial deformation prediction framework for improving the performance of existing registration algorithms. Our main idea is to estimate the initial deformation between subject and template in a patch-wise fashion by using the sparse representation technique. We argue that two image patches should follow the same deformation toward the template image if their patch-wise appearance patterns are similar. To this end, our framework consists of two stages, i.e., the training stage and the application stage. In the training stage, we register all training images to the pre-selected template, such that the deformation of each training image with respect to the template is known. In the application stage, we apply the following four steps to efficiently calculate the initial deformation field for the new test subject: (1) We pick a small number of key points in the distinctive regions of the test subject; (2) for each key point, we extract a local patch and form a coupled appearance-deformation dictionary from training images where each dictionary atom consists of the image intensity patch as well as their respective local deformations; (3) a small set of training image patches in the coupled dictionary are selected to represent the image patch of each subject key point by sparse representation. Then, we can predict the initial deformation for each subject key point by propagating the pre-estimated deformations on the selected training patches with the same sparse representation coefficients; and (4) we

  12. A search theory model of patch-to-patch forager movement with application to pollinator-mediated gene flow.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin; Cresswell, James E

    2007-09-01

    We present a spatially implicit analytical model of forager movement, designed to address a simple scenario common in nature. We assume minimal depression of patch resources, and discrete foraging bouts, during which foragers fill to capacity. The model is particularly suitable for foragers that search systematically, foragers that deplete resources in a patch only incrementally, and for sit-and-wait foragers, where harvesting does not affect the rate of arrival of forage. Drawing on the theory of job search from microeconomics, we estimate the expected number of patches visited as a function of just two variables: the coefficient of variation of the rate of energy gain among patches, and the ratio of the expected time exploiting a randomly chosen patch and the expected time travelling between patches. We then consider the forager as a pollinator and apply our model to estimate gene flow. Under model assumptions, an upper bound for animal-mediated gene flow between natural plant populations is approximately proportional to the probability that the animal rejects a plant population. In addition, an upper bound for animal-mediated gene flow in any animal-pollinated agricultural crop from a genetically modified (GM) to a non-GM field is approximately proportional to the proportion of fields that are GM and the probability that the animal rejects a field. PMID:17544452

  13. Leaf exsertion, leaf elongation, and leaf senescence in Eriophorum vaginatum and Carex Bigelowii

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, G.R.; Yandow, T.; Laundre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the common sedges of arctic vegetation show a pattern of leaf production in which the exsertion and elongation of new leaves is more or less simultaneous with the senescence of old leaves. The present study was designed to increase our understanding of the variability sequential leaf production by arctic sedges, and to determine some of the controls on that variability. We did this in two ways: first, we compared the sequential patterns of leaf growth and senescence in E. vaginatum with those of Carex Bigelowii Torr. at two tussock tundra sites near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. Second, we compared the responses of leaf growth in these species in control and fertilized plots and in two microenvironments thought to differ sharply in nutrient availability and total productivity. 29 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  15. Reproducible, high performance patch antenna array apparatus and method of fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2007-01-23

    A reproducible, high-performance patch antenna array apparatus includes a patch antenna array provided on a unitary dielectric substrate, and a feed network provided on the same unitary substrate and proximity coupled to the patch antenna array. The reproducibility is enhanced by using photolithographic patterning and etching to produce both the patch antenna array and the feed network.

  16. Embedding of Cortical Representations by the Superficial Patch System

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Nuno M. A.; Girardin, Cyrille C.; Naaman, Shmuel; Omer, David B.; Ruesch, Elisha; Grinvald, Amiram; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal cells in layers 2 and 3 of the neocortex of many species collectively form a clustered system of lateral axonal projections (the superficial patch system—Lund JS, Angelucci A, Bressloff PC. 2003. Anatomical substrates for functional columns in macaque monkey primary visual cortex. Cereb Cortex. 13:15–24. or daisy architecture—Douglas RJ, Martin KAC. 2004. Neuronal circuits of the neocortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 27:419–451.), but the function performed by this general feature of the cortical architecture remains obscure. By comparing the spatial configuration of labeled patches with the configuration of responses to drifting grating stimuli, we found the spatial organizations both of the patch system and of the cortical response to be highly conserved between cat and monkey primary visual cortex. More importantly, the configuration of the superficial patch system is directly reflected in the arrangement of function across monkey primary visual cortex. Our results indicate a close relationship between the structure of the superficial patch system and cortical responses encoding a single value across the surface of visual cortex (self-consistent states). This relationship is consistent with the spontaneous emergence of orientation response–like activity patterns during ongoing cortical activity (Kenet T, Bibitchkov D, Tsodyks M, Grinvald A, Arieli A. 2003. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes. Nature. 425:954–956.). We conclude that the superficial patch system is the physical encoding of self-consistent cortical states, and that a set of concurrently labeled patches participate in a network of mutually consistent representations of cortical input. PMID:21383233

  17. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses (Alismatales) to grazers (Testudines: Cheloniidae) and the role of these responses as grazing patch abandonment cues.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Elizabeth A; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Fourqurean, James W

    2014-12-01

    Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are grazers influencing the distribution of seagrass within shallow coastal ecosystems, yet the drivers behind C. mydas patch use within seagrass beds are largely unknown. Current theories center on food quality (nutrient content) as the plant responds to grazing disturbances; however, no study has monitored these parameters in a natural setting without grazer manipulation. To determine the morphological and physiological responses potentially influencing seagrass recovery from grazing disturbances, seagrasses were monitored for one year under three different grazing scenarios (turtle grazed, fish grazed and ungrazed) in a tropical ecosystem in Akumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Significantly less soluble carbohydrates and increased nitrogen and phosphorus content in Thalassia testudinum were indicative of the stresses placed on seagrasses during herbivory. To determine if these physiological responses were the drivers of the heterogeneous grazing behavior by C. mydas recorded in Akumal Bay, patches were mapped and monitored over a six-month interval. The abandoned patches had the lowest standing crop rather than leaf nutrient or rhi- zome soluble carbohydrate content. This suggests a modified Giving Up Density (GUD) behavior: the critical threshold where cost of continued grazing does not provide minimum nutrients, therefore, new patches must be utilized, explains resource abandonment and mechanism behind C. mydas grazing. This study is the first to apply GUD theory, often applied in terrestrial literature, to explain marine herbivore grazing behavior. PMID:25720186

  18. Patches for Repairing Ceramics and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, Peter A.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Adam, Steven; Tompkins, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Patches consisting mostly of ceramic fabrics impregnated with partially cured polymers and ceramic particles are being developed as means of repairing ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) that must withstand temperatures above the melting points of refractory metal alloys. These patches were conceived for use by space-suited, space-walking astronauts in repairing damaged space-shuttle leading edges: as such, these patches could be applied in the field, in relatively simple procedures, and with minimal requirements for specialized tools. These design characteristics also make the patches useful for repairing ceramics and CMCs in terrestrial settings. In a typical patch as supplied to an astronaut or repair technician, the polymer would be in a tacky condition, denoted as an A stage, produced by partial polymerization of a monomeric liquid. The patch would be pressed against the ceramic or CMC object to be repaired, relying on the tackiness for temporary adhesion. The patch would then be bonded to the workpiece and cured by using a portable device to heat the polymer to a curing temperature above ambient temperature but well below the maximum operating temperature to which the workpiece is expected to be exposed. The patch would subsequently become pyrolized to a ceramic/glass condition upon initial exposure to the high operating temperature. In the original space-shuttle application, this exposure would be Earth-atmosphere-reentry heating to about 3,000 F (about 1,600 C). Patch formulations for space-shuttle applications include SiC and ZrO2 fabrics, a commercial SiC-based pre-ceramic polymer, and suitable proportions of both SiC and ZrO2 particles having sizes of the order of 1 m. These formulations have been tailored for the space-shuttle leading-edge material, atmospheric composition, and reentry temperature profile so as to enable repairs to survive re-entry heating with expected margin. Other formulations could be tailored for specific terrestrial

  19. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage.

  20. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  1. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  2. Melanopsin changes in neonatal albino rat independent of rods and cones.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells employ the photopigment melanopsin and provide light information to brain areas responsible for the regulation of circadian rhythms. The expression of melanopsin is regulated by environmental illumination, but it remains to be clarified whether the rods and cones are involved. Here, we examined the influence of 5 days of constant light and dark conditions on melanopsin mRNA and protein expression in newborn albino rats, in which functional rods and cones have not yet been developed. We found that the melanopsin mRNA level was unaffected, whereas the melanopsin protein level was more than two-fold higher in the darkness-adapted group than in pups raised in constant light. In pups raised during 12 : 12 h light/dark cycles, the melanopsin protein level was significantly higher during the day than at night. Our findings indicate that melanopsin protein changes are independent of input from the rods and cones.

  3. Antifertility screening of plants. VI. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Saksena, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1970-09-01

    The petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens Linn., Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntz., and Gossypium herbaceum Linn., the aqueous extract of Aloe Barbadensis Mill.Syn., and the juice of unripe fruits of Ananas comosus were tested on albino rats by a method which detects any antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The extracts were administered for 1-7 days. The dosages for A. graveolens, B. monosperma, and G. herbaceum were 100 mg/kg. 50 ml of A. comosus juice was administered daily. Dosages of 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of A. barbadensis were given. With the exception of A. comosus, none of the plants showed any antiimplantation activity. The juice of the unripe fruits of A. comosus demonstrated encouraging antiimplantation activity showing 40% of implants only.

  4. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive.

  5. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  6. Development of spermatic granuloma in albino rats following administration of water extract of Heliotropium bacciferum Forssk

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Khalid; Alahmadi, Bassam A.; Alhimaidi, Ahmed; Abou-Tarboush, Faisal M.; Farah, Mohammad Abul; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Alfaifi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    A spermatic granuloma is a chronic inflammatory reaction produced in response to extravasated sperm within the intertubular connective tissue. The present study investigates the possible toxic effects of water extract of Heliotropium bacciferum on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the associated potential for the development of spermatic granulomas. H. bacciferum is a herbal plant used in traditional medicine and reported to have cytotoxic effects due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Histological examinations revealed no changes in the tissues of the testes, although, some changes were detected in the cauda epididymis, the most important of which was the development of small lesions of spermatic granulomas. Clear gaps were observed between the epithelial linings of the epididymal tubules. PMID:26858543

  7. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  8. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  9. Analyzing LED-induced haemal fluorescent spectra on laboratory small albino rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shumei; Luo, Xiaosen; Lan, Xiufeng; Jiao, Fangxiang; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Xu, Jiaying; Lu, Shiyue; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jiangang

    2002-04-01

    Native fluorescence spectral characteristics of red blood cells were studied in the visible region in this paper. Blood samples were collected from normal small albino rats. Native fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte were induced using Light Emitting Diode (LED) at yellow wavelength about 570+/- 16 nm ((Delta) (lambda) 0.5approximately equals 32nm). As the rat's erythrocyte content of in physiological water is increasing, the fluorescent primary emission peak is red shifted from 588 nm to above 615 nm. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity at about 600 nm was found to be maximal while the rat's erythrocyte consistence is 1%. Moreover, it is shown in large numbers of experiments that LED-induced fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte are similar with the whole blood. It may make sense for low- intensity light therapy.

  10. Anti-pyretic activity of some plants in female albino rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Suresh, B; Dhanasekaran, S; Elango, K; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S

    1995-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes. PMID:22556707

  11. Sensory innervation of the suprarenal gland in the albino rat: a fluorescent tract tracer study.

    PubMed

    Sangari, S K; Khatri, K; Sengupta, P

    1998-01-01

    The afferent innervation of the suprarenal gland was studied by using a fluorescent tract tracer in the adult albino rat. The left suprarenal gland was injected slowly with 5 microl of 2% aqueous suspension of Fast blue. After a survival period of 4-5 days, the dorsal root ganglia were dissected out and 15-microm-thick plastic (JB 4) sections were examined under the fluorescent microscope. The labelled neurons were seen from the third thoracic to second lumbar dorsal root ganglia, ipsilateral to the site of injection with maximum concentration from T6 to T11. These primary sensory neurons were round to oval in shape, varied from 7 microm to 40 microm in size, and were distributed randomly in the dorsal root ganglia. The labelling of the primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia confirms the presence of sensory nerve endings in the suprarenal gland that may be responsible for the vascular distension and hormonal release.

  12. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2-12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in 'designed' nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  13. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    PubMed

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  14. Simultaneous shear and pressure sensing based on patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Huang, Haiying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we presented a microstrip patch antenna sensor that is capable to measure the shear and normal deformations simultaneously. The sensor was designed based on the electromagnetic interference between a microstrip patch antenna and a metallic reflector separated by a distance. By placing the reflector on top of the patch antenna, the electromagnetic wave radiated by the patch antenna is reflected by the reflector and interferes with the electromagnetic field of the radiation patch, which in turn changes the antenna resonant frequencies. Since the antenna resonant frequencies are related to the lateral and vertical positions of the metallic reflector, the shear force and normal pressure that shift the reflector laterally and vertically can be detected by monitoring the antenna resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and experimental measurements were carried out to evaluate the relationship between the antenna resonant frequencies and the shear and normal displacements. A data processing scheme was developed to inversely determine the shear and normal displacements from the antenna resonant frequencies.

  15. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: Targeted or blind blood patch.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy and optimal strategy for epidural blood patch placement in the treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. We present a 37-year-old man who developed a 4 week duration postural headache without sustaining significant trauma. The diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with associated subdural hygromas was confirmed with lumbar puncture and radiologic imaging. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is generally due to cerebrospinal fluid leak from the thecal sac or nerve root sleeves, although the cause of leakage is unknown. In our patient, the site of leakage was identified at cervical C1-C2 level in the spine on myelography. Conservative management with repeated epidural blood patches was successful in symptom relief and complete resolution of cerebrospinal fluid leak and subdural hygromas. We reviewed the literature for efficacy of blood patches delivered directly to the site of leakage (targeted) or to the lumbar or thoracic spine away from the site of leakage or where the site cannot be determined (blind). No clear evidence exists on comparative efficacy due to paucity of randomized trials. However, epidural blood patches in general result in positive outcomes with overall efficacy near 90%. Some trials have suggested greater efficacy for targeted rather than blind epidural blood patches, but randomized studies and long-term prognosis remain to be evaluated. PMID:26461907

  16. Patching the Exchange-Correlation Potential in Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen

    2016-05-10

    A method for directly patching exchange-correlation (XC) potentials in materials is derived. The electron density of a system is partitioned into subsystem densities by dividing its Kohn-Sham (KS) potential among the subsystems. Inside each subsystem, its projected KS potential is required to become the total system's KS potential. This requirement, together with the nearsightedness principle of electronic matters, ensures that the electronic structures inside subsystems can be good approximations to the total system's electronic structure. The nearsightedness principle also ensures that subsystem densities could be well localized in their regions, making it possible to use high-level methods to invert the XC potentials for subsystem densities. Two XC patching methods are developed. In the local XC patching method, the total system's XC potential is improved in the cluster region. We show that the coupling between a cluster and its environment is important for achieving a fast convergence of the electronic structure in the cluster region. In the global XC patching method, we discuss how to patch the subsystem XC potentials to construct the XC potential in the total system, aiming to scale up high-level quantum mechanics simulations of materials. Proof-of-principle examples are given.

  17. Results of patch testing with lavender oil in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, M; Hayakawa, R; Kato, Y; Sugiura, K; Hashimoto, R

    2000-09-01

    We report the annual results of patch testing with lavender oil for a 9-year period from 1990 to 1998 in Japan. Using Finn Chambers and Scanpor tape, we performed 2-day closed patch testing with lavender oil 20% pet. on the upper back of each patient suspected of having cosmetic contact dermatitis. We compared the frequency of positive patch tests to lavender oil each year with those to other fragrances. We diagnosed contact allergy when patch test reactions were + or <+ at 1 day after removal. The positivity rate of lavender oil was 3.7% (0-13.9%) during the 9-year period from 1990 to 1998. The positivity rate of lavender oil increased suddenly in 1997. Recently, in Japan, there has been a trend for aromatherapy using lavender oil. With this trend, placing dried lavender flowers in pillows, drawers, cabinets, or rooms has become a new fashion. We asked patients who showed a positive reaction to lavender oil about their use of dried lavender flowers. We confirmed the use of dried lavender flowers in 5 cases out of 11 positive cases in 1997 and 8 out of 15 positive cases in 1998. We concluded that the increase in patch test positivity rates to lavender oil in 1997 and 1998 was due to the above fashion, rather than due to fragrances in cosmetic products.

  18. Adaptive Identification and Characterization of Polar Ionization Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) spacecraft data are used to detect and characterize polar cap 'ionization patches' loosely defined as large-scale (greater than 100 km) regions where the F region plasma density is significantly enhanced (approx greater than 100%) above the background level. These patches are generally believed to develop in or equatorward of the dayside cusp region and then drift in an antisunward direction over the polar cap. We have developed a flexible algorithm for the identification and characterization of these structures, as a function of scale-size and density enhancement, using data from the retarding potential analyzer, the ion drift meter, and the langmuir probe on board the DE 2 satellite. This algorithm was used to study the structure and evolution of ionization patches as they cross the polar cap. The results indicate that in the altitude region from 240 to 950 km ion density enhancements greater than a factor of 3 above the background level are relatively rare. Further, the ionization patches show a preferred horizontal scale size of 300-400 km. There exists a clear seasonal and universal time dependence to the occurrence frequency of patches with a northern hemisphere maximum centered on the winter solstice and the 1200-2000 UT interval.

  19. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  20. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  1. Patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture SAR image formation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-12-31

    Synthetic Aperture Radar image formation algorithms typically use transform techniques that often requires trading between image resolution, algorithm efficiency, and focussed image scene size limits. This is due to assumptions for the data such as simplified (often straight-line) flight paths, simplified imaging geometry, and simplified models for phase functions. Many errors in such assumptions are typically untreatable due to their dependence on both data domain positions and image domain positions. The result is that large scenes often require inefficient multiple image formation iterations, followed by a mosaicking operation of the focussed image patches. One class of image formation algorithms that performs favorably divides the spatial and frequency apertures into subapertures, and perhaps those subapertures into sub-subapertures, and so on, in a tiered subaperture fashion. This allows a gradual shift from data domain into image domain that allows correcting many types of errors that limit other image formation algorithms, even in a dynamic motion environment, thereby allowing larger focussed image patches without mosaicking. This paper presents and compares focussed patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture (TSA) image formation algorithms, for various numbers of tiers of subapertures. Examples are given that show orders-of-magnitude improvement in non-mosaicked focussed image patch size over traditional polar format processing, and that patch size limits increase with the number of tiers of subapertures, although with diminishing returns.

  2. Spatial patch occupancy patterns of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Nichols, James D.; Morkill, Anne; Anderson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of presence or absence of a species can provide substantial information on management questions related to distribution and habitat use but should incorporate the probability of detection to reduce bias. We surveyed for the endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) in habitat patches on 5 Florida Key islands, USA, to estimate occupancy and detection probabilities. We derived detection probabilities using spatial replication of plots and evaluated hypotheses that patch location (coastal or interior) and patch size influence occupancy and detection. Results demonstrate that detection probability, given rabbits were present, was <0.5 and suggest that naïve estimates (i.e., estimates without consideration of imperfect detection) of patch occupancy are negatively biased. We found that patch size and location influenced probability of occupancy but not detection. Our findings will be used by Refuge managers to evaluate population trends of Lower Keys marsh rabbits from historical data and to guide management decisions for species recovery. The sampling and analytical methods we used may be useful for researchers and managers of other endangered lagomorphs and cryptic or fossorial animals occupying diverse habitats.

  3. Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Richard; Hoppe, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    An improved design concept for a printed-circuit patch antenna and the transmission line that feeds the patch calls for (1) a microstrip transmission line on the front (radiative) side of a printed-circuit board based on a thin, high-permittivity dielectric substrate; (2) using the conductor covering the back side of the circuit board as a common ground plane for both the microstrip line and the antenna patch; (3) supporting the antenna patch in front of the circuit board on a much thicker, lower-permittivity dielectric spacer layer; and (4) connecting the microstrip transmission line to the patch by use of a thin wire or narrow ribbon that extends through the thickness of the spacer and is oriented perpendicularly to the circuit-board plane. The thickness of the substrate is typically chosen so that a microstrip transmission line of practical width has an impedance between 50 and 100 ohms. The advantages of this design concept are best understood in the context of the disadvantages of prior design concepts, as explained

  4. A charge patching method for fullerenes and semiconductor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2002-03-01

    A charge patching method is developed to generate the local density approximation (LDA) charge density of a large system without doing a direct LDA calculation for such a system. Charge density motifs are developed from small system LDA calculations. These motifs belong to individual atoms embedded in given atomic environments. For a large system (thousands of atoms), these motifs are assembled to generate the LDA charge density. This charge patching method is tested for fullerenes (carbon nanotubes, buckyballs, nanotube-join, etc) and GaAsN (impurity, pair, superlattice, alloy, etc). The patched charge densities differ from the direct LDA charge densities by about 1single electron eigen values differ from LDA results by less than 50 meV. If Harris functional is used to calculate the total energy using the patched charge density, the total energies differ from the LDA results by about 1 meV per atom. This charge patching method can be used in conjunction with the folded spectrum method to calculate the electronic structures of large systems (>thousand atoms) with ab initio accuracy and reliability.

  5. Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seong-O; Felner, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical impact of biotechnology has been constrained by the limitations of traditional hypodermic injection of biopharmaceuticals. Microneedle patches have been proposed as a minimally invasive alternative. In this study, we assess the translation of a dissolving microneedle patch designed for simple, painless self-administration of biopharmacetucials that generates no sharp biohazardous waste. To study pharmacokinetics and safety of this approach, human growth hormone (hGH) was encapsulated in 600 μm long dissolving microneedles composed of carboxymethylcellulose and trehalose using an aqueous, moderate-temperature process that maintained complete hGH activity after encapsulation and retained most activity after storage for up to 15 months at room temperature and humidity. After manual insertion into the skin of hairless rats, hGH pharmacokinetics were similar to conventional subcutaneous injection. After patch removal, the microneedles had almost completely dissolved, leaving behind only blunt stubs. The dissolving microneedle patch was well tolerated, causing only slight, transient erythema. This study suggests that a dissolving microneedle patch can deliver hGH and other biopharmaceuticals in a manner suitable for self-administration without sharp biohazardous waste. PMID:21360810

  6. Aggregation dynamics explain vegetation patch-size distributions.

    PubMed

    Irvine, M A; Bull, J C; Keeling, M J

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation patch-size distributions have been an intense area of study for theoreticians and applied ecologists alike in recent years. Of particular interest is the seemingly ubiquitous nature of power-law patch-size distributions emerging in a number of diverse ecosystems. The leading explanation of the emergence of these power-laws is due to local facilitative mechanisms. There is also a common transition from power law to exponential distribution when a system is under global pressure, such as grazing or lack of rainfall. These phenomena require a simple mechanistic explanation. Here, we study vegetation patches from a spatially implicit, patch dynamic viewpoint. We show that under minimal assumptions a power-law patch-size distribution appears as a natural consequence of aggregation. A linear death term also leads to an exponential term in the distribution for any non-zero death rate. This work shows the origin of the breakdown of the power-law under increasing pressure and shows that in general, we expect to observe a power law with an exponential cutoff (rather than pure power laws). The estimated parameters of this distribution also provide insight into the underlying ecological mechanisms of aggregation and death.

  7. The Value of Patch-Choice Copying in Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shane; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Many animals copy the choices of others but the functional and mechanistic explanations for copying are still not fully resolved. We relied on novel behavioral protocols to quantify the value of patch-choice copying in fruit flies. In a titration experiment, we quantified how much nutritional value females were willing to trade for laying eggs on patches already occupied by larvae (social patches). Females were highly sensitive to nutritional quality, which was positively associated with their offspring success. Females, however, perceived social, low-nutrition patches (33% of the nutrients) as equally valuable as non-social, high-nutrition ones (100% of the nutrients). In follow-up experiments, we could not, however, either find informational benefits from copying others or detect what females' offspring may gain from developing with older larvae. Because patch-choice copying in fruit flies is a robust phenomenon in spite of potential costs due to competition, we suggest that it is beneficial in natural settings, where fruit flies encounter complex dynamics of microbial communities, which include, in addition to the preferred yeast species they feed on, numerous harmful fungi and bacteria. We suggest that microbial ecology underlies many cases of copying in nature. PMID:25375776

  8. Nucleosomes determine their own patch size in base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Meas, Rithy; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) processes non-helix distorting lesions (e.g., uracils and gaps) and is composed of two subpathways that differ in the number of nucleotides (nts) incorporated during the DNA synthesis step: short patch (SP) repair incorporates 1 nt and long patch (LP) repair incorporates 2–12 nts. This choice for either LP or SP repair has not been analyzed in the context of nucleosomes. Initial studies with uracil located in nucleosome core DNA showed a distinct DNA polymerase extension profile in cell-free extracts that specifically limits extension to 1 nt, suggesting a preference for SP BER. Therefore, we developed an assay to differentiate long and short repair patches in ‘designed’ nucleosomes containing a single-nucleotide gap at specific locations relative to the dyad center. Using cell-free extracts or purified enzymes, we found that DNA lesions in the nucleosome core are preferentially repaired by DNA polymerase β and there is a significant reduction in BER polymerase extension beyond 1 nt, creating a striking bias for incorporation of short patches into nucleosomal DNA. These results show that nucleosomes control the patch size used by BER. PMID:27265863

  9. Seasonal variations in leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll, and water content; scaling-up to estimate fAPAR and carbon balance in a multilayer, multispecies temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Gond, Valéry; De Pury, David G. G.; Veroustraete, Frank; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    1999-08-01

    Seasonal differences in phenology between coniferous and deciduous tree species need to be considered when developing models to estimate CO(2) exchange in temperate forest ecosystems. Because seasonal variations in CO(2) flux in temperate forests are closely correlated with plant phenology, we quantified the phenology of forest species in a multilayered forest with patches of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) in Brasschaat, Belgium. A scaling-up modeling approach was developed to simulate reflectance at the leaf and canopy scales over a one-year cycle. Chlorophyll concentration, water content, specific leaf area and leaf area index of the forest species were measured throughout an entire year (1997). Scaling-up from the leaf to canopy was achieved by linking the PROSPECT and SAIL models. The result is the annual progression of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) in a 1 km(2) forest area, which can be directly related to high-resolution, remotely sensed data.

  10. Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rashedy, Ahmed H; Solimany, Adnan A; Ismail, Ayman K; Wahdan, Mohamed H; Saban, Khalid A

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with antimony compounds may affect human health through the persistent exposure to small doses over a long period. Sixty growing male albino rats, weighing 43-57 grams, utilized in this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received 6 mg/kg body weight antimony trisulfide daily for 8 weeks with drinking water, and those of group III received the same dose by the same route for 12 weeks. The Malpighian renal corpuscles showed distortion, destruction and congestion of glomerular tuft, vacuoles in the glomeruli, peritubular haemorrhage, obliteration of Bowman's space, and thickening with irregularity of Bowman's membrane. The proximal convoluted tubules demonstrated patchy loss of their brush border, thickening of the basement membrane with loss of its basal infoldings, disarrangement of the mitochondria, pleomorphic vacuoles in the cytoplasm, apical destruction of the cells, apical migration of the nuclei, and absence of microvilli. On the other hand, peri-tubular hemorrhage, apical vacuolation, small atrophic nuclei, swelling of mitochondria, obliteration of the lumina, destruction of cells, and presence of tissue debris in the lumina, were observed in the distal convoluted tubules. The present work demonstrated the hazardous effect of antimony on the renal function as evidenced by the significant increase of the level of blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum sodium and potassium. In conclusion, this study proposed that continuous oral administration of antimony for 8 and 12 weeks has hazardous toxic effect on the structure and function of the kidney in growing albino rat. Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended to avoid the use of any drinking water contaminated with antimony compounds and forbidden its use in infants and children foods.

  11. Evalution of Antiurolithic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Chavan, Vasant R; BH, Ramesh; S, Naveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: In ayurvedic system of medicine a vast number of medicinal plants are reported to possess with antiurolithic activity. Aim: To study the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira (AERCP) in chemicals induced urolithiasis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Nine Groups of albino rats (n=6) were used to evaluate the antiurolithic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of C.Pareira. Group I received with rat chow diet, Group II with 2% Ammonium chloride (AC) and 0.75% Ethylene glycol (EG) Group III with EG plus AC and cystone (5 ml/kg), Groups IV, V, VI with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract, Groups VII, VIII, IX with EG plus AC and low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of root extract respectively for 10 days. Urolithiasis was induced by supplying drinking water mixed with 2% Ammonium chloride and 0.75% Ethylene glycol for 10 days. On 11th day three rats from each Group were kept in one metabolic cage and urine (pooled) collected for 24h was subjected for estimation of biochemical parameters like urinary calcium, uric acid and magnesium. Blood was collected on the same day and analysed for various parameters. Kidneys were observed for the histopathological changes. Results: The rats treated with alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira at 03 different doses significantly (p≤ 0.05) reduced urinary calcium, uric acid and increased urinary magnesium levels, reduced serum calcium, creatinine and increased serum magnesium. Rats treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses revealed less tissue damage and the cytology of the nephrotic tissue was almost similar to normal control Group I rats. Conclusion: Results showed that alcoholic extract of roots of C. pareira has exhibited a significant antiurolithic effect against urolithiasis in experimental rats. PMID:25177580

  12. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed. PMID:26529681

  13. Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora indica (W.) Leaves on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Priyadarshini, D.; Soundarya, G.; Kumar, Ch. Kishore; Rani, K. Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background Ulcer can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also cumulatively referred as peptic ulcers. It affects nearly 10% of world population. Aim To investigate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora indica W. leaves (ESIL) on albino rats. Materials and Methods The present study was carried by pylorus ligation, ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of ESIL (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. for 7 days) was compared with standard drugs (Ranitidine). In pyloric ligation induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were gastric volume, pH, total acidity, free acidity, and ulcer index whereas in ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer model, the ulcer index was determined for severity of ulcers. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Results In pyloric ligation model; the volume of gastric content, total/free acidity and pepsin activity was significantly decreased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 and pH of the gastric juice was significantly increased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 in ESIL treated groups as compared to control group. All the doses of ESIL showed dose dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) reduction in the ulcer index as compared to control group in all the experimental models. Conclusion The results of the study indicate that the ESIL have better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. PMID:27790462

  14. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  15. Effects of a sunscreen formulation on albino hairless mice: a morphological approach.

    PubMed

    Hossy, Bryan Hudson; da Costa Leitão, Alvaro Augusto; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Allodi, Silvana; de Pádula, Marcelo; de Oliveira Miguel, Nádia Campos

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a sunscreen formulation on the skin of albino hairless mice subjected to simulated solar light (SSL) in terms of morphological changes. Young adult albino hairless mice HRS/J (n = 36) were used as an experimental model for determining skin photoaging changes. Mice were irradiated with SSL, and the sunscreen (estimated SPF 30, PF-UVA) was obtained from the Pharmacy College/UFRJ, Brazil. The animals were divided into four groups: non-treated (G1), radiation only (G2), sunscreen-treated (G3) and vehicle + radiation (G4). Animals from groups G2, G3 and G4 were irradiated weekly (5 weeks), with no immobilization. One week after the final exposure, the dorsal skin was observed using a dermatoscopic camera. Biopsies were analyzed in order to quantify neovascularization and to evaluate histological aspects of the skin. Neovascularization was also evaluated with immunohistochemical reactions for the Von Willebrand factor. Animals from G2 displayed classical morphological changes denoting skin photoaging: thickening of the epidermis, increased dermal cellularity, follicular keratosis, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. Animals from groups G3 and G1 displayed similar morphological profiles, without these changes. Animals from group G4 showed more morphological changes than group G2, emphasizing the relative importance of the putative photosensitizing components present in the vehicle formulation. The extent of the morphological skin changes suggested that the sunscreen formulation was effective against SSL, and showed the importance of assessing the phototoxicity of vehicle formulations.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7492092

  18. How to pattern a leaf.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  19. Density of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches near Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Density of adult Diadema antillarum was assessed on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches next to Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA in June 2009. Mean density on live coral patch reefs (0.49 individuals m-2) was not statistical...

  20. Anticestodal activity of Houttuynia cordata leaf extract against Hymenolepis diminuta in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Temjenmongla

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) are considered to have anthelmintic properties in the traditional medicine of Naga tribes in Northeast India and, therefore, are used by the natives to treat the intestinal worm infections. In the present study, the anticestodal activity of H. cordata leaf extract was investigated against Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, in experimentally infected albino rats. For the assessment of anticestodal efficacy, the eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces counts and worm loads of animals were monitored following treatment with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg p.o. doses of leaf extract to different groups of rats harbouring larval, immature and mature H. diminuta infections. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Further, the extract showed its maximum efficacy against the mature Hymenolepis worms. In this case, the 800 mg/kg dose of extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the EPG counts of animals by 57.09% and worm load by 75.00%, at post-treatment. In comparison, the reference drug praziquantel at 5 mg/kg showed a reduction in the EPG counts and worm load of experimental animals by 80.37 and 87.50%, respectively. These findings indicate that leaves of H. cordata possess significant anticestodal property and provide a rationale for their use in traditional medicine as an anthelmintic. PMID:23024502

  1. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  2. Patch microstructure in cement-based materials: Fact or artefact?

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.S. . E-mail: hong.wong@imperial.ac.uk; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2006-05-15

    The appearance of patch microstructure, i.e. broad dense and porous regions separated by sharp and distinct boundaries and occurring randomly in bulk and interfacial transition zones, has been reported previously in various site- and laboratory-mixed concretes and mortars. In this paper, evidence is presented to show that patch microstructure is an artefact of sample preparation and does not reflect the true nature of the hydrated cement paste. The appearance of dense patches comes from paste areas that have been ground and polished beyond the epoxy resin intrusion depth. In a backscattered electron image, pores not filled with epoxy are not visible because the signal is generated from the base or side walls of the pores. A modified method for epoxy impregnation, which can achieve a much deeper epoxy penetration than conventional vacuum impregnation, is presented.

  3. Direct observations of the evolution of polar cap ionization patches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Lockwood, Michael; Hu, Hong-Qiao; Moen, Jøran; Ruohoniemi, J Michael; Thomas, Evan G; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Yang, Hui-Gen; Liu, Rui-Yuan; McWilliams, Kathryn A; Baker, Joseph B H

    2013-03-29

    Patches of ionization are common in the polar ionosphere, where their motion and associated density gradients give variable disturbances to high-frequency (HF) radio communications, over-the-horizon radar location errors, and disruption and errors to satellite navigation and communication. Their formation and evolution are poorly understood, particularly under disturbed space weather conditions. We report direct observations of the full evolution of patches during a geomagnetic storm, including formation, polar cap entry, transpolar evolution, polar cap exit, and sunward return flow. Our observations show that modulation of nightside reconnection in the substorm cycle of the magnetosphere helps form the gaps between patches where steady convection would give a "tongue" of ionization (TOI). PMID:23539601

  4. Patch models and their applications to multivehicle command and control.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venkatesh G; D'Andrea, Raffaello

    2007-06-01

    We introduce patch models, a computational modeling formalism for multivehicle combat domains, based on spatiotemporal abstraction methods developed in the computer science community. The framework yields models that are expressive enough to accommodate nontrivial controlled vehicle dynamics while being within the representational capabilities of common artificial intelligence techniques used in the construction of autonomous systems. The framework allows several key design requirements of next-generation network-centric command and control systems, such as maintenance of shared situation awareness, to be achieved. Major features include support for multiple situation models at each decision node and rapid mission plan adaptation. We describe the formal specification of patch models and our prototype implementation, i.e., Patchworks. The capabilities of patch models are validated through a combat mission simulation in Patchworks, which involves two defending teams protecting a camp from an enemy attacking team.

  5. Patch-clamp experiments under micro-gravity.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Klaus; Hanke, Wolfgang

    2002-07-01

    For human based space research it is of high importance to understand the influence of gravity on the properties of single ion channels in biological membranes, as these are involved in about all biological processes. The patch clamp technique is the best established method to investigate electrophysiological properties of single ion channels in detail. Consequently, a patch clamp set-up was designed for the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using this set-up among others, successfully leech neurons have been patched under micro-gravity, delivering data about ion channel behaviour, which were compared to results from bilayer experiments in the drop tower and to results from lab controls under 1 g and under higher gravity.

  6. Planar patch-clamp force microscopy on living cells.

    PubMed

    Pamir, Evren; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels; Benoit, Martin

    2008-05-01

    Here we report a new combination of the patch-clamp technique with the atomic force microscope (AFM). A planar patch-clamp chip microstructured from borosilicate glass was used as a support for mechanical probing of living cells. The setup not only allows for immobilizing even a non-adherent cell for measurements of its mechanical properties, but also for simultaneously measuring the electrophysiological properties of a single cell. As a proof of principle experiment we measured the voltage-induced membrane movement of HEK293 and Jurkat cells in the whole-cell voltage clamp configuration. The results of these measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. By using the planar patch-clamp chip for immobilization, the AFM not only can image non-adhering cells, but also gets easily access to an electrophysiologically controlled cellular probe at low vibrational noise. PMID:17933465

  7. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test*

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Soares; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction.

  8. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  9. A compact microwave patch applicator for hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chakaravarthi, Geetha; Arunachalam, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of a compact microstrip C-type patch applicator for hyperthermia treatment of cancer is presented. The patch antenna is optimized for resonance at 434 MHz, return loss (S11) better than -15dB and co-polarized electric field in tissue. Effect of water bolus thickness on power delivery is studied for improved power coupling. Numerical simulations for antenna design optimization carried out using EM simulation software, Ansys HFSS(®), USA were experimentally verified. The effective field coverage for the optimized patch antenna and experimental results indicate that the compact antenna resonates at ISM frequency 434 MHz with better than -15 dB power coupling. PMID:25571195

  10. Silicone Rubber Superstrate Loaded Patch Antenna Design Using Slotting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Saini, Garima; Saini, Ashish

    2016-09-01

    For the protection of antenna from external environmental conditions, there is a need that antenna should be covered with a stable, non-reactive, highly durable and weather resistive material which is insensitive to changing external environment. Hence, in this paper silicone rubber is proposed as a superstrate layer for patch antenna for its protection. The electrical properties of silicon rubber sealant are experimentally found out and its effect of using as superstrate on coaxial fed microstrip patch antenna using transmission line model is observed. The overall performance is degraded by slightly after the use of superstrate. Further to improve the performance of superstrate loaded antenna, patch slots and ground defects have been proposed. The proposed design achieves the wideband of 790 MHz (13.59 %), gain of 7.12 dB, VSWR of 1.12 and efficiency of 83.02 %.

  11. Comparing 14-day adhesive patch with 24-h Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Kerr, Charles R; Krahn, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    Barrett PM, Komatireddy R, Haaser S et al. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring. Am. J. Med. 127(1), 95.e11–95.e17 (2014). The investigation of cardiac arrhythmias in the outpatient ambulatory setting has traditionally been initiated with the Holter monitor. Using the continuous recording over 24 or 48 h, the Holter monitor permits the detection of baseline rhythm, dysrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, including heart block and changes in the ST segment that may indicate myocardial ischemia. However, apart from the bulkiness and inconvenience of the device itself, the lack of extended monitoring results in a diagnostic yield of typically less than 20%. In this study by Barrett et al., 146 patients referred for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia were prospectively enrolled to wear both the 24-h Holter monitor and 14-day adhesive patch monitor (Zio Patch) simultaneously. The primary outcome was the detection of any one of six arrhythmias: supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause >3 s, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. The adhesive patch monitor detected more arrhythmia events compared with the Holter monitor over the total wear time (96 vs. 61 events; p < 0.001), although the Holter monitor detected more events during the initial 24-h monitoring period (61 vs. 52 events; p = 0.013). Novel, single-lead, intermediate-duration, user-friendly adhesive patch monitoring devices, such as the Zio Patch, represent the changing face of ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, the loss of quality, automated rhythm analysis and inability to detect myocardial ischemia continue to remain important issues that will need to be addressed prior to the implementation of these new devices.

  12. Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

  13. Apollo 13 Astronaut Fred Haise and Apollo 13 Mission Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Fred Haise Jr. of Biloxi, Miss., views his Apollo 13 mission patch, the flight on which he served in 1970, in a StenniSphere display donated to NASA by the American Needlepoint Guild. The exhibit is on permanent display at StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center. In its first year of operation, more than 251,000 visitors representing over 40 countries have viewed the 123 hand-stitched patches in the exhibit. Forty-two guild members from 20 states made the trip to StenniSphere for the opening of the exhibit, one of the most popular at StenniSphere.

  14. In Vivo Antihypercholesterolemic Potential of Swietenia mahagoni Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation aims to evaluate antihypercholesterolemic potential of Swietenia mahagoni leaf aqueous extract (MAE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. In the study, Wistar albino rats (170–220 g) were segregated into 5 groups; all the groups except normal control group were given high fat diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. After induction of cholesterolemia, normal control and positive control groups were treated with saline, statin group was treated with atorvastatin, and remaining two groups received MAE in two doses (250 and 500 mg kg−1 BW) for a treatment period of one month. After the treatment period, weight of rats was recorded and they were anesthetized and decapitated. Blood samples were taken and triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, malondialdehyde (MDA), and urea were determined. Liver and kidney were taken for the estimation of lipid peroxides. The positive control group showed higher values of triglycerides (109 ± 5.1 mg/dL), total cholesterol (134 ± 4.6 mg/dL), LDL-C (44 ± 1.2 mg/dL), MDA, and bile acid content when compared to a normal control group (triglycerides (89 ± 3.2 mg/dL), total cholesterol (72 ± 3.4 mg/dL), and LDL-C (28 ± 1.2 mg/dL)). Treatment with MAE decreased the cholesterol levels, HDL-C, ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels and the effect was dependent on the dose. The results of this study indicated that MAE possesses hypolipidemic potential and thus could be useful in the treatment of hypercholesterolemic condition.

  15. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  16. Patched1 and Patched2 inhibit Smoothened non-cell autonomously.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brock; Casillas, Catalina; Alfaro, Astrid C; Jägers, Carina; Roelink, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo) inhibition by Patched (Ptch) is central to Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a proton driven antiporter, is required for Smo inhibition via an unknown mechanism. Hh ligand binding to Ptch reverses this inhibition and activated Smo initiates the Hh response. To determine whether Ptch inhibits Smo strictly in the same cell or also mediates non-cell-autonomous Smo inhibition, we generated genetically mosaic neuralized embryoid bodies (nEBs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These experiments utilized novel mESC lines in which Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Shh and 7dhcr were inactivated via gene editing in multiple combinations, allowing us to measure non-cell autonomous interactions between cells with differing Ptch1/2 status. In several independent assays, the Hh response was repressed by Ptch1/2 in nearby cells. When 7dhcr was targeted, cells displayed elevated non-cell autonomous inhibition. These findings support a model in which Ptch1/2 mediate secretion of a Smo-inhibitory cholesterol precursor. PMID:27552050

  17. Patched1 and Patched2 inhibit Smoothened non-cell autonomously

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brock; Casillas, Catalina; Alfaro, Astrid C; Jägers, Carina; Roelink, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo) inhibition by Patched (Ptch) is central to Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a proton driven antiporter, is required for Smo inhibition via an unknown mechanism. Hh ligand binding to Ptch reverses this inhibition and activated Smo initiates the Hh response. To determine whether Ptch inhibits Smo strictly in the same cell or also mediates non-cell-autonomous Smo inhibition, we generated genetically mosaic neuralized embryoid bodies (nEBs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These experiments utilized novel mESC lines in which Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Shh and 7dhcr were inactivated via gene editing in multiple combinations, allowing us to measure non-cell autonomous interactions between cells with differing Ptch1/2 status. In several independent assays, the Hh response was repressed by Ptch1/2 in nearby cells. When 7dhcr was targeted, cells displayed elevated non-cell autonomous inhibition. These findings support a model in which Ptch1/2 mediate secretion of a Smo-inhibitory cholesterol precursor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17634.001 PMID:27552050

  18. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    In this thesis, developments of rectangular microstrip patch antenna to have circular polarization agility with wideband performance, for wireless applications are presented. First, a new technique to achieve circularly polarized (CP) probe feed single-layer microstrip patch antenna with wideband characteristics is proposed. The antenna is a modified form of the popular E-shaped patch, used to broaden the impedance bandwidth of a basic rectangular patch antenna. This is established by letting the two parallel slots of the E-patch unequal. Thus, by introducing asymmetry two orthogonal currents on the patch are excited and circularly polarized fields are realized. The proposed technique exhibits the advantage of the simplicity inherent in the E-shaped patch design. It requires only slot lengths, widths, and position parameters to be determined. Also, it is suitable for later adding the reconfigurable capability. With the aid of full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS, investigations on the effect of various dimensions of the antenna have been carried out via parametric analysis. Based on these investigations, a design procedure for a CP E-shaped patch is summarized. Various design examples with different substrate thicknesses and material types are presented and compared, with CP U-slot patch antennas, recently proposed in the literature. A prototype has been constructed following the suggested design procedure to cover the IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN band. The performance of the fabricated antenna was measured and compared with the simulation results for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain. Good agreement is achieved between simulation and measured results demonstrating a high gain and wideband performance. Second, a polarization reconfigurable single feed E-shaped patch antenna with wideband performance is proposed. The antenna is capable of switching from right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) to left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and

  19. A comparative study of the effects of using normalized patches for penalized likelihood tomographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xue; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Patch-based regularization methods, which have proven useful not only for image denoising, but also for tomographic reconstruction, penalize image roughness based on the intensity differences between two nearby patches. However, when two patches are not considered to be similar in the general sense of similarity but still have similar features in a scaled domain after normalizing the two patches, the difference between the two patches in the scaled domain is smaller than the intensity difference measured in the standard method. Standard patch-based methods tend to ignore such similarities due to the large intensity differences between the two patches. In this work, for patch-based penalized likelihood tomographic reconstruction, we propose a new approach to the similarity measure using the normalized patch differences as well as the intensity-based patch differences. A normalized patch difference is obtained by normalizing and scaling the intensity-based patch difference. To selectively take advantage of the standard patch (SP) and normalized patch (NP), we use switching schemes that can select either SP or NP based on the gradient of a reconstructed image. In this case the SP is selected for restoring large-scaled piecewise-smooth regions, while the NP is selected for preserving the contrast of fine details. The numerical experiments using software phantom demonstrate that our proposed methods not only improve overall reconstruction accuracy in terms of the percentage error, but also reveal better recovery of fine details in terms of the contrast recovery coefficient.

  20. Pharmacokinetic study between a bilayer matrix fentalyl patch and a monolayer matrix fentanyl patch: single dose administration in healthy volunteers*

    PubMed Central

    Zecca, Ernesto; Manzoni, Andrea; Centurioni, Fabio; Farina, Alberto; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Seiler, Dan; Perrone, Tania; Caraceni, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Aims Transdermal fentanyl is a well established treatment for cancer pain. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative bioavailability of fentanyl from two different transdermal systems by evaluating plasma drug concentrations after single administration of Fentalgon® (test), a novel bilayer matrix type patch, and Durogesic SMAT (reference), a monolayer matrix type patch. In the Fentalgon patch the upper 6% fentanyl reservoir layer maintains a stable concentration gradient between the lower 4% donor layer and the skin. The system provides a constant drug delivery over 72 h. Methods This was an open label, single centre, randomized, single dose, two period crossover clinical trial, that included 36 healthy male volunteers. The patches were applied to non-irritated and non-irradiated skin on the intraclavicular pectoral area. Blood samples were collected at different time points (from baseline to 120 h post-removal of the devices) and fentanyl concentrations were determined using a validated LC/MS/MS method. Bioequivalence was to be claimed if the 90% confidence interval of AUC(0,t) and Cmax ratios (test: reference) were within the acceptance range of 80–125% and 75–133%, respectively. Results The 90% confidence intervals of the AUC(0,t) ratio (116.3% [109.6, 123.4%]) and Cmax ratio (114.4% [105.8, 123.8%] were well included in the acceptance range and the Cmax ratio also met the narrower bounds of 80–125%. There was no relevant difference in overall safety profiles of the two preparations investigated, which were adequately tolerated, as expected for opioid-naïve subjects. Conclusions The new bilayer matrix type patch, Fentalgon®, is bioequivalent to the monolayer matrix type Durogesic SMAT fentanyl patch with respect to the rate and extent of exposure of fentanyl (Eudra/CT no. 2005-000046-36). PMID:25612845

  1. Behavior of Leaf Meristems and Their Modification

    PubMed Central

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A major source of diversity in flowering plant form is the extensive variability of leaf shape and size. Leaf formation is initiated by recruitment of a handful of cells flanking the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to develop into a complex three-dimensional structure. Leaf organogenesis depends on activities of several distinct meristems that are established and spatiotemporally differentiated after the initiation of leaf primordia. Here, we review recent findings in the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate leaf meristem activities in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We then discuss recent key studies investigating the natural variation in leaf morphology to understand how the gene regulatory networks modulate leaf meristems to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms during the course of evolution. PMID:26648955

  2. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  3. An Innovative Way to Monitor Leaf Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnello, A.; Paredes, K.; Trinh, U.; Saleska, S. R.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Anthony John Garnello, Karina Paredes, Uyen Khanh Ho Trinh, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Leaf age is an important characteristic for controlling plant functional performance and is associated with the changes of leaf physical, chemical, and physiological properties. Understanding how plant physiology changes over time will allow more accurate predictions of growth patterns, and a more comprehensive understanding of vegetative life histories. There still lacks an efficient technique in monitoring leaf age, tagging leaves is still the only way to accurately monitor leaf age. The goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric, accurate technique for better monitoring of leaf age. In order to acquire true leaf age records, 10 individual plant species were selected at the University of Arizona campus, and newly flushing leaves were tagged and monitored during the Monsoon season (from early June, 2013, to mid October, 2013). Every 2 weeks, 10 to 15 leaves in relative age order were harvested from each 1-meter branch to measure multiple key leaf metrics, including leaf thickness (via micrometer), fresh and dry weight, fresh and dry area (via ImageJ software), and leaf hyperspectral reflectance (via a handheld ASD Field Pro). Other leaf traits were also derived from our measurements, such as specific leaf area (SLA), leaf density (fresh weight/leaf volume), water percentage, and shrinkage ratio (1-dry area/fresh area). The hyperspectral version of vegetation index (a ratio derived from two spectral channels) was generated for each branch sample, by randomly selecting two channels from within the spectral domain of 350 nm to 2500 nm. The preliminary result documents three types of hyperspectral vegetation index (VI) which are highly related with leaf relative age order (R2>0.9). These include the sensitive spectral domains correlated with (a) leaf pigments (~550nm) and leaf physical

  4. Fitness-maximizing foragers can use information about patch quality to decide how to search for and within patches: optimal Levy walk searching patterns from optimal foraging theory.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A M

    2012-07-01

    Optimal foraging theory shows how fitness-maximizing foragers can use information about patch quality to decide how to search within patches. It is amply supported by empirical studies. Nonetheless, the theory largely ignores the fact that foragers may need to search for patches as well as for the targets within them. Here, using an exact but simple mathematical argument, it is shown how foragers can use information about patch quality to facilitate the execution of Lévy walk movement patterns with μ = 2 at inter-patch scales. These movement patterns are advantageous when searching for patches that are not depleted or rejected once visited but instead remain profitable. The analytical results are verified by the results of numerical simulations. The findings bring forth an innovative theoretical synthesis of searching for and within patches and, suggest that foragers' memories may be adaptive under spatially heterogeneous reward schedules.

  5. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    PubMed

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  6. LEAF: A Microcomputer Program for Constructing the Tukey Stem and Leaf Graph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Pietro J.; Smith, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a BASIC microcomputer program that constructs the Tukey (1977) stem and leaf graph. Options within the LEAF program include a modified stem and leaf where the stem is split and a parallel stem and leaf graph where two separate sets of data are displayed from a common stem. (Author)

  7. Astronomy Patch Day: An Interactive Astronomy Experience for Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, K. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Schutz, K.

    2005-12-01

    To help encourage a new generation of women in science, we have created Astronomy Patch Day for the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council in Tucson, Arizona. This all-day event is an interactive experience for Girl Scouts ages 5-18 to learn about astronomical concepts and women in astronomy. Our first Astronomy Patch Day, held on March 19, 2005, in conjunction with the Sahuaro Council's annual Science, Math, and Related Technologies (SMART) program, was very successful, reaching about 150-200 girls and their leaders. Individual troops rotated every half hour among our six activity booths: Earth-Moon, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Universe, and Ask an Astronomer, which were staffed by trained Girl Scout Leaders as well as faculty, post-doctoral researchers, and graduate students from Steward Observatory. To earn a patch, younger girls (ages 5-12) had to complete activities at three booths and older girls had to complete all six activities. Positive feedback for this event was received from both the girls and leaders. We plan to hold Astronomy Patch Day annually, possibly with different and/or additional activities in future years. K. Knierman is supported by an Arizona/NASA Space Grant Fellowship. This outreach program is supported by NIRCam/JWST E/PO.

  8. Phytoplankton patch patterns: Seascape anatomy in a turbulent ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, James G.; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu; Seuront, Laurent; Wolk, Fabian; Li, Hua

    Marine phytoplankton experience competition, predation, infection and aggregation occurring across distances of micrometres to centimetres. However, the consequences of these interactions influence global processes, such as climate and fisheries productivity. There is a long-standing default assumption that these global processes cannot be traced to plankton distributions and interactions below a few metres because of the homogenising effect of turbulence [Hutchinson, G.E., 1961. The paradox of the plankton. Am. Nat. 95, 137-146.; Siegel, D.A., 1998. Resource competition in a discrete environment: Why are plankton distributions paradoxical? Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1133-1146.]. We show that, in active turbulence, phytoplankton patches, on the order of 10 cm, have repeatable asymmetry and regular spacing over distances of centimetres to tens of metres. The regularity and hierarchical nature of the patches in mixed ocean water means that phytoplankton are distributed in a dynamic, but definite seascape topography, where groups of patches coalesce between intermittent turbulent eddies. These patches may link large scale processes and microscale interactions, acting as fundamental components of marine ecosystems that influence grazing efficiency, taxonomic diversity, and the initiation of aggregation and subsequent carbon flux.

  9. Dry patch stability of shear driven liquid film

    SciTech Connect

    D.G. Penn; M.L. de Bertodano; P. Lykoudis; S.G. Beus

    2000-05-01

    The breakdown of the liquid film at the wall in annular gas-liquid flow may lead to the formation of a stable dry patch. For the case of heat transfer surfaces this causes a hot spot, The dry patch is a partial area on the solid surface that is non-wetted due to a local disturbance of the flow and is sustained by surface tension. Dry patch stability is dependent on a balance of body and surface forces. In the present study the interfacial shear force drives the film and the gravity force is negligible. A new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow field in the film around the dry patch has been obtained. The CFD results confirm Murgatroyd's shear force model (1965), although the details are more complex. Furthermore, there is agreement between the CFD solution and the experimental value of the characteristic length scale, L, for the shear force. In addition new experimental data have been taken for adiabatic upward annular air-water and air-ethylene glycol flows at room temperature in a 9.5 mm diameter tube. They provide validation of Murgatroyd's model over a wider range of the film's Reynolds number than previous data.

  10. Use of microstrip patch antennas in grain permittivity measurement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El Sabbagh, M.A.; Ramahi, O.M.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.; Khan, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a compact size free-space setup is proposed for the measurement of complex permittivity of granular materials. The horn antennas in the conventional setup are replaced by microstrip patch antennas which is a step toward system miniaturization. The experimental results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained with horn antennas.

  11. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  12. Patch testing of 490 patients in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Y; Lam, T H

    1996-07-01

    Patch testing, using European standard allergens and suspected causative substances brought in by patients, was carried out in 490 patients with eczema in Hong Kong and 437 completed the test. Before patch testing, 244, 141 and 105 patients were diagnosed as having contact dermatitis, endogenous eczema and unclassified eczema, respectively. After patch testing, the diagnosis of the causal agent was changed in 54 contact dermatitis patients, and 18% of endogenous eczema patients and 34% of unclassified eczema patients were re-diagnosed as contact dermatitis. In the patients with a final diagnosis of contact dermatitis, 19.5% were positive to fragrance mix, followed by nickel sulfate (16.4%) and cobalt chloride (11.3%). The commonest causative agents for contact dermatitis were soap or detergent (22.0%) and traditional Chinese medicine (17.3%); the latter was a more common cause of contact dermatitis than Western medicine (9.0%) or metals (13.4%). The prevalence of allergic reaction to fragrance in Hong Kong was higher than among Chinese in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei or Singapore (78% ethnic Chinese). Dermatologists should have a high index of suspicion about traditional medications and should patch test with the suspected substance when patients give a history of use.

  13. CAD-oriented cavity model for rectangular patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouroude, D.; Himdi, M.; Daniel, J. P.

    1990-06-01

    A cavity model well suited for computer-aided design is presented. The patch antenna is described by geometrical and electrical parameters. Using a cavity model, input impedance as a function of frequency is then calculated with a fast computer program implemented on a PC. Resonant resistance and resonant frequency are deduced.

  14. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  15. The pathways of Marine Plastic into the Ocean Garbage Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, E.; England, M. H.; Froyland, G.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the plastic debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial time scales. We find that garbage patches emerge in each of the five subtropical basins. The evolution of each of the five patches is markedly different, however. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial time scales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. In order to increase public awareness on this issue of sustainability in the ocean, we have used the methods and data of this study to create a public website at www.adrift.org.au where all interested can investigate the spread of tracer from any and all points on the ocean surface.

  16. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  17. Enhanced skin adhesive patch with modulus-tunable composite micropillars.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won Gyu; Kim, Doogon; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Ha, Laura; Kang, Seong Min; Suh, Kahp Y

    2013-01-01

    Modulus-tunable composite micropillars are presented by combining replica molding and selective inking for skin adhesive patch in "ubiquitous"-health diagnostic devices. Inspired from hierarchical hairs in the gecko's toe pad, a simple method is presented to form composite polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars that are highly adhesive (∼1.8 N cm(-2) ) and mechanically robust (∼30 cycles).

  18. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring. PMID:27004608

  19. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Käferböck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application.

  20. Optimum Three Impulse Trajectory Generator with Patched Conic Trajectory Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, M. H.; Pines, S.; Horsewood, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Optimal multi-impulse trajectories were investigated as a nominal about which asymptotic expansion was used to obtain approximations of optimal low thrust trajectories. The work consisted of the analysis and description of an optimal 3-impulse trajectory program. A patched-conic trajectory model was specifically designed for compatibility with the subsequent addition of the low thrust expansion approximation.

  1. ECG patch monitors for assessment of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lobodzinski, S Suave

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of long-term monitoring is the improvement of diagnostic yield. Despite the clear utility of Holter monitoring in clinical cardiology, issues of relatively low diagnostic yield, cost and inconvenience have motivated the development of ultra-portable devices referred to as ECG patch monitors. Although the "gold standard" for assessing cardiac rhythm abnormalities remains a 12-lead Holter, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for evaluating cardiac rhythm in real-world environments such as the workplace or home. To facilitate patient acceptance these monitors underwent a radical miniaturization and redesign to include wireless communication, water proofing and a patch carrier for attaching devices directly to the skin. We review recent developments in the field of "patch" devices primarily designed for very long-term monitoring of cardiac arrhythmic events. As the body of supporting clinical validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of cardiac monitoring applications. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal cardiac activity data by patch devices may have significant implications for device selection, monitoring duration, and care pathways for arrhythmia evaluation and atrial fibrillation surveillance. From a research standpoint, the new devices may allow for the development of novel diagnostic algorithms with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with exercise and drug regimens.

  2. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.

  3. Nicotine patch and lozenge are effective for women.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Sweeney, Christine T; Dresler, Carolyn M

    2005-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that women may be less likely to obtain therapeutic benefit from nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The present study tested this hypothesis, using two different types of NRT medications. A secondary analysis of two randomized clinical trials was performed: One compared active 21-mg nicotine patch with placebo among 193 men and 309 women, and the other compared active 2-mg or 4-mg nicotine lozenge with placebo among 788 men and 1,030 women. Using logistic regression analysis of 6-month continuous abstinence and survival analysis, we assessed the efficacy of patch and lozenge among women and tested for a gender x treatment interaction. Active NRT was more effective than placebo among women, for both patch and lozenge. In the lozenge trial, women were less successful than men. The gender x treatment interaction was not significant in either study, whether assessed by logistic regression or survival analysis. In the lozenge trial, gender moderated the effects of smoking rate and dependence (but not treatment) on outcome: These variables affected success rates only among women. Treatment with nicotine patch or lozenge is effective for women, and the analysis did not reveal significant gender differences in efficacy. Gender differences in outcome may be moderated by nicotine dependence. PMID:15804684

  4. 161. GENERAL VIEW OF BASE. VIEW SOUTH FROM DOG PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. GENERAL VIEW OF BASE. VIEW SOUTH FROM DOG PATCH BEACH SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, THE AIRFIELD, BULKHEAD, BUILDING 64, 61, 3,4,5,6, STRUCTURE 68 (WATER TOWER), BUILDING 11 AND STRUCTURE 67 (WATER TOWER). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  5. Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1-5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21-40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  6. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-03-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring.

  7. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  8. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion.

    PubMed

    Barton, Philip S; Cunningham, Saul A; Macdonald, Ben C T; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species' dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes.

  9. Species Traits Predict Assemblage Dynamics at Ephemeral Resource Patches Created by Carrion

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Philip S.; Cunningham, Saul A.; Macdonald, Ben C. T.; McIntyre, Sue; Lindenmayer, David B.; Manning, Adrian D.

    2013-01-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and spatially patchy resource that supports a diverse subset of species linked to nutrient cycling and the decomposition process. A number of studies have separately documented changes in the diversity of plants, arthropods and vertebrates at individual carcasses, but there are few studies that have examined how functional traits of different groups of organisms underpin their responses to carrion patches. We used a carrion addition experiment to compare changes in composition and functional traits of insect and plant assemblages at carcasses compared with control sites. We found that significant changes in insect assemblage evenness and heterogeneity was associated with species’ dispersal traits, and that plant assemblage responses to subsequent soil nitrogen changes was most apparent among graminoids and exotic species. Beetles at carcasses were twice as large as their counterparts at control sites during the first week of carrion decomposition, and also had higher wing loadings. Plants with high specific leaf area responded faster to the carcass addition, and twice as many species recolonised the centre of carcasses in exotic-dominated grassland compared with carcasses in native-dominated grassland. These results provide an example of how traits of opportunist species enable them to exploit patchy and dynamic resources. This increases our understanding of how carcasses can drive biodiversity dynamics, and has implications for the way carrion might be managed in ecosystems, such as appropriate consideration of spatial and temporal continuity in carrion resources to promote heterogeneity in nutrient cycling and species diversity within landscapes. PMID:23326549

  10. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See Elements... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity. (See... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  14. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    PubMed

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  15. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  16. Speeding up 3D speckle tracking using PatchMatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zontak, Maria; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Echocardiography provides valuable information to diagnose heart dysfunction. A typical exam records several minutes of real-time cardiac images. To enable complete analysis of 3D cardiac strains, 4-D (3-D+t) echocardiography is used. This results in a huge dataset and requires effective automated analysis. Ultrasound speckle tracking is an effective method for tissue motion analysis. It involves correlation of a 3D kernel (block) around a voxel with kernels in later frames. The search region is usually confined to a local neighborhood, due to biomechanical and computational constraints. For high strains and moderate frame-rates, however, this search region will remain large, leading to a considerable computational burden. Moreover, speckle decorrelation (due to high strains) leads to errors in tracking. To solve this, spatial motion coherency between adjacent voxels should be imposed, e.g., by averaging their correlation functions.1 This requires storing correlation functions for neighboring voxels, thus increasing memory demands. In this work, we propose an efficient search using PatchMatch, 2 a powerful method to find correspondences between images. Here we adopt PatchMatch for 3D volumes and radio-frequency signals. As opposed to an exact search, PatchMatch performs random sampling of the search region and propagates successive matches among neighboring voxels. We show that: 1) Inherently smooth offset propagation in PatchMatch contributes to spatial motion coherence without any additional processing or memory demand. 2) For typical scenarios, PatchMatch is at least 20 times faster than the exact search, while maintaining comparable tracking accuracy.

  17. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R.; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with

  18. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  19. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

    2005-06-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and

  20. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  1. Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-04-01

    Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult.

  2. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants. PMID:23911731

  3. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications, and Tolerances B1L—Choice Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil... percent. B2L—Fine Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, rich in oil, deep color.... B3L—Good Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, oily, strong color...

  8. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  9. Genetic-Based Dissection Unveils the Inputs and Outputs of Striatal Patch and Matrix Compartments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jared B; Klug, Jason R; Ross, Danica L; Howard, Christopher D; Hollon, Nick G; Ko, Vivian I; Hoffman, Hilary; Callaway, Edward M; Gerfen, Charles R; Jin, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The striatum contains neurochemically defined compartments termed patches and matrix. Previous studies suggest patches preferentially receive limbic inputs and project to dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), whereas matrix neurons receive sensorimotor inputs and do not innervate SNc. Using BAC-Cre transgenic mice with viral tracing techniques, we mapped brain-wide differences in the input-output organization of the patch/matrix. Findings reveal a displaced population of striatal patch neurons termed "exo-patch," which reside in matrix zones but have neurochemistry, connectivity, and electrophysiological characteristics resembling patch neurons. Contrary to previous studies, results show patch/exo-patch and matrix neurons receive both limbic and sensorimotor information. A novel inhibitory projection from bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to patch/exo-patch neurons was revealed. Projections to SNc were found to originate from patch/exo-patch and matrix neurons. These findings redefine patch/matrix beyond traditional neurochemical topography and reveal new principles about their input-output connectivity, providing a foundation for future functional studies.

  10. Grassland fire and cattle grazing regulate reptile and amphibian assembly among patches.

    PubMed

    Larson, Danelle M

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches (ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing (ε ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  11. Effects of patch quality and network structure on patch occupancy dynamics of a yellow-bellied marmot metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Armitage, Kenneth B; Blumstein, Daniel T; Vanvuren, Dirk H; Oli, Madan K

    2006-01-01

    1. The presence/absence of a species at a particular site is the simplest form of data that can be collected during ecological field studies. We used 13 years (1990-2002) of survey data to parameterize a stochastic patch occupancy model for a metapopulation of the yellow-bellied marmot in Colorado, and investigated the significance of particular patches and the influence of site quality, network characteristics and regional stochasticity on the metapopulation persistence. 2. Persistence of the yellow-bellied marmot metapopulation was strongly dependent on the high quality colony sites, and persistence probability was highly sensitive to small changes in the quality of these sites. 3. A relatively small number of colony sites was ultimately responsible for the regional persistence. However, lower quality satellite sites also made a significant contribution to long-term metapopulation persistence, especially when regional stochasticity was high. 4. The northern network of the marmot metapopulation was more stable compared to the southern network, and the persistence of the southern network depended heavily on the northern network. 5. Although complex models of metapopulation dynamics may provide a more accurate description of metapopulation dynamics, such models are data-intensive. Our study, one of the very few applications of stochastic patch occupancy models to a mammalian species, suggests that stochastic patch occupancy models can provide important insights into metapopulation dynamics using data that are easy to collect.

  12. Power Input to non-deterministic Subsystems via Piezoelectric Patch Actuators: Effect of the patch size and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Azni N.; Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nor, Khairul A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Many engineering systems such as aircraft and automotive are considered built-up structures, fabricated from components that are classified as deterministic subsystems (DS) and non-deterministic subsystems (Non-DS). The response of Non-DS is sensitive to uncertainties therefore presents problems in vibration control. Therefore, analytical solution to estimate average power delivered by a piezoelectric (PZT) patch actuator when attached to a Non-DS needs to be established. The response of Non-DS is estimated using statistical modelling technique such as statistical energy analysis (SEA), in which any external input to the subsystem must be represented in terms of power input. In this paper, ensemble average of power given by a PZT patch actuator to a simply-supported plate when subjected to structural uncertainties is studied using Lagrangian method. The effects of size and location of the PZT actuators on the power delivered to the plate are investigated. It is found that changing the patch location on the structure will not affect the average power supplied while changing the patch size will change the power magnitude proportionally but with some variations at higher frequency.

  13. Leaf physiognomy and climate: A multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. M.; Taylor, S. E.

    1980-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that leaf physiognomy is representative of the local or microclimate conditions under which plants grow. The physiognomy of leaf samples from Oregon, Michigan, Missouri, Tennessee, and the Panama Canal Zone has been related to the microclimate using Walter diagrams and Thornthwaite water-budget data. A technique to aid paleoclimatologists in identifying the nature of the microclimate from leaf physiognomy utilizes statistical procedures to classify leaf samples into one of six microclimate regimes based on leaf physiognomy information available from fossilized samples.

  14. Rapid Establishment of a Regular Distribution of Adult Tropical Drosophila Parasitoids in a Multi-Patch Environment by Patch Defence Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Peter W.; Hemerik, Lia; Gort, Gerrit; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Females of the larval parasitoid of Drosophila, Asobara citri, from sub-Saharan Africa, defend patches with hosts by fighting and chasing conspecific females upon encounter. Females of the closely related, palearctic species Asobara tabida do not defend patches and often search simultaneously in the same patch. The effect of patch defence by A. citri females on their distribution in a multi-patch environment was investigated, and their distributions were compared with those of A. tabida. For both species 20 females were released from two release-points in replicate experiments. Females of A. citri quickly reached a regular distribution across 16 patches, with a small variance/mean ratio per patch. Conversely, A. tabida females initially showed a clumped distribution, and after gradual dispersion, a more Poisson-like distribution across patches resulted (variance/mean ratio was closer to 1 and higher than for A. citri). The dispersion of A. tabida was most probably an effect of exploitation: these parasitoids increasingly made shorter visits to already exploited patches. We briefly discuss hypotheses on the adaptive significance of patch defence behaviour or its absence in the light of differences in the natural history of both parasitoid species, notably the spatial distribution of their hosts. PMID:21765889

  15. Intelligent Patching of Conceptual Geometry for CFD Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2010-01-01

    The iPatch computer code for intelligently patching surface grids was developed to convert conceptual geometry to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) geometry (see figure). It automatically uses bicubic B-splines to extrapolate (if necessary) each surface in a conceptual geometry so that all the independently defined geometric components (such as wing and fuselage) can be intersected to form a watertight CFD geometry. The software also computes the intersection curves of surface patches at any resolution (up to 10.4 accuracy) specified by the user, and it writes the B-spline surface patches, and the corresponding boundary points, for the watertight CFD geometry in the format that can be directly used by the grid generation tool VGRID. iPatch requires that input geometry be in PLOT3D format where each component surface is defined by a rectangular grid {(x(i,j), y(i,j), z(i,j)):1less than or equal to i less than or equal to m, 1 less than or equal to j less than or equal to n} that represents a smooth B-spline surface. All surfaces in the PLOT3D file conceptually represent a watertight geometry of components of an aircraft on the half-space y greater than or equal to 0. Overlapping surfaces are not allowed, but could be fixed by a utility code "fixp3d". The fixp3d utility code first finds the two grid lines on the two surface grids that are closest to each other in Hausdorff distance (a metric to measure the discrepancies of two sets); then uses one of the grid lines as the transition line, extending grid lines on one grid to the other grid to form a merged grid. Any two connecting surfaces shall have a "visually" common boundary curve, or can be described by an intersection relationship defined in a geometry specification file. The intersection of two surfaces can be at a conceptual level. However, the intersection is directional (along either i or j index direction), and each intersecting grid line (or its spine extrapolation) on the first surface should intersect

  16. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers. PMID:22854182

  17. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers.

  18. A Patch to MCNP5 for Multiplication Inference: Description and User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Jr., Clell J.

    2014-05-05

    A patch to MCNP5 has been written to allow generation of multiple neutrons from a spontaneous-fission event and generate list-mode output. This report documents the implementation and usage of this patch.

  19. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed. PMID:21609316

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D.; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results: Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:23326091