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Sample records for albino mice methods

  1. Antidepressant Activity of Brahmi in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty; M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Sri G, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Context: In traditional system of medicine brahmi has been used to enhance memory. Recently it has been reported to have action in psychiatric disorders. With these backgrounds the work has been undertaken to study antidepressant activity of brahmi in albino mice. Aim: To evaluate antidepressant activity of brahmi in experimental models. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant activity was studied in albino mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and shock induced depression (SID). Imipramine (10mg/kg), fluoxetine (30mg/kg) were used as standard drugs and brahmi (10, 20, 30mg/kg) was used as test drug. Results: Brahmi exhibited significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and reduced the shock induced decrease in activity in SID models. It didn’t show any activity in the TST model. Conclusion: Brahmi has shown antidepressant activity in FST and SID. PMID:24783074

  2. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  3. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  4. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  5. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  6. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  8. Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Singh, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies. Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (P<0.01) levels of the activities of the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH and increased levels of cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. The plant extract significantly restored the antioxidant enzyme level in the liver and exhibited significant dose dependent curative effect against NDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver. Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer. PMID:24592311

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  10. Melanin precursors prevent premature age-related and noise-induced hearing loss in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Contreras, Julio; Zurita, Esther; Cediel, Rafael; Cantero, Marta; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Montoliu, Lluís

    2010-02-01

    Strial melanocytes are required for normal development and correct functioning of the cochlea. Hearing deficits have been reported in albino individuals from different species, although melanin appears to be not essential for normal auditory function. We have analyzed the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) of two transgenic mice: YRT2, carrying the entire mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene expression-domain and undistinguishable from wild-type pigmented animals; and TyrTH, non-pigmented but ectopically expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in melanocytes, which generate the precursor metabolite, L-DOPA, but not melanin. We show that young albino mice present a higher prevalence of profound sensorineural deafness and a poorer recovery of auditory thresholds after noise-exposure than transgenic mice. Hearing loss was associated with absence of cochlear melanin or its precursor metabolites and latencies of the central auditory pathway were unaltered. In summary, albino mice show impaired hearing responses during ageing and after noise damage when compared to YRT2 and TyrTH transgenic mice, which do not show the albino-associated ABR alterations. These results demonstrate that melanin precursors, such as L-DOPA, have a protective role in the mammalian cochlea in age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.

  11. Eye-specific projections of retinogeniculate axons are altered in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rebsam, Alexandra; Bhansali, Punita; Mason, Carol A

    2012-04-04

    The divergence of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into ipsilateral and contralateral projections at the optic chiasm and the subsequent segregation of retinal inputs into eye-specific domains in their target, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), are crucial for binocular vision. In albinism, affected individuals exhibit a lack or reduction of pigmentation in the eye and skin, a concomitant reduced ipsilateral projection, and diverse visual defects. Here we investigate how such altered decussation affects eye-specific retinogeniculate targeting in albino mice using the C57BL/6 Tyr(c-2J/c-2J) strain, in which tyrosinase, necessary for melanogenesis, is mutated. In albino mice, fewer RGCs from the ventrotemporal (VT) retina project ipsilaterally, reflected in a decrease in cells expressing ipsilateral markers. In addition, a population of RGCs from the VT retina projects contralaterally and, within the dLGN, their axons cluster into a patch separated from the contralateral termination area. Furthermore, eye-specific segregation is not complete in the albino dLGN and, upon perturbing postnatal retinal activity with epibatidine, the ipsilateral projection fragments and the aberrant contralateral patch disappears. These results suggest that the defects in afferent targeting and activity-dependent refinement in the albino dLGN arise from RGC misspecification together with potential perturbations of early activity patterns in the albino retina.

  12. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25 nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  13. Bacopa monniera Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum in Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Mahitha, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B; Mallikarjuna, K; Durga Mahalakshmi, Ch N; Sushmal, N John

    2015-02-01

    In the recent years usage of nanomedicine plays a promising strategy in the improvement of medical treatment. The ecofriendly synthesized silver nanoparticles has introduced a new opportunity to increase the efficacy of drug by reducing its side effects. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant property of Bacopa monniera stabilized silver nanoparticles against aluminum induced toxicity in albino mice. Forty male albino mice were randomly divided into five groups. First group was treated as control, second group received aluminum acetate (5 mg/kg b . w), third group received Bacopa monniera extract (5 mg/kg b . w), fourth group received BmSNPs (5 mg/kg b . w), fifth group received aluminum acetate plus BmSNPs. Exposure to aluminum acetate significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels with a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the brain, liver and kidney of mice. Degenerative changes were also observed in brain, liver and kidney of aluminum treated mice. No significant changes in the oxidative stress were observed in the Bacopa monniera and BmSNPs alone treated mice. Whereas, co-administration of BmSNPs to Al treated mice showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase of SOD, CAT and GPx indicating the antioxidant potential of nanoparticles and in counteracting Al induced oxidative stress and histological response in male albino mice. These findings clearly implicate that BmSNPs are able to eradicate the oxidative stress and prevent the tissue damage in aluminum exposed mice.

  14. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of Xanthium indicum stem extract in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthium indicum stem is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum stems (XISE) in mice. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice. Results The methanol extract of stems showed dose-dependent and statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight (p values, respectively, < than 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.01). Highest reduction in blood glucose level (31.2%) was observed with the highest dose (400 mg) of the extract. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose levels by 46.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract when administered at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice, respectively, by 41.7, 50.0, 54.2, and 61.0%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 37.5%. Conclusion The experimental results obtained in the present study validate the use of X. indicum stems in folk medicines of Bangladesh to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. PMID:24171758

  15. Assessment of retinal degeneration in outbred albino mice.

    PubMed

    Serfilippi, Laurie M; Pallman, Danielle R Stackhouse; Gruebbel, Margarita M; Kern, Thomas J; Spainhour, Charles B

    2004-02-01

    Evaluation of a pharmaceutical's safety includes assessment of the potential for ophthalmologic toxicity. These nonclinical studies commonly use various outbred stocks of mice. Pretest indirect ophthalmoscopic examinations in the commonly used outbred stock Hsd:ICR(CD-1) indicated that retinal degeneration was a problem in this particular outbred stock of mice. This prompted the authors to examine other stocks of outbred mice routinely used in the performance of nonclinical safety studies. Groups of mice were observed over a 13-week period to determine the progression and changing incidence of retinal degeneration. Light intensity in the room and caging was measured during the study, and it was determined that light did not play a direct role in the progression of the retinal degeneration observed during the study. Histomorphologic examination of the mouse eyes was performed at the end of the study to confirm the presence of retinal degeneration observed after ophthalmoscopic examination. The incidence of retinal atrophy in the various outbred stocks of mice was: Crl:CFW(SW)BR (98.3%), Tac(SW)fBR (80%), Tac:Icr:Ha(ICR)fBR (75%), Hsd:ICR(CD-1) (43.3%), and Crl:CF-1BR (3.0%). Retinal atrophy was not observed in the following outbred mice stocks: Crl:CD-1(ICR)BR, HsdWin:CFW1, and Hsd:NSA(CF-1). On the basis of these findings, it is highly recommended that pretest ophthalmologic screening be performed on mice to obviate pre-existing conditions from confounding or invalidating nonclinical study results.

  16. Effect of some anthelmintics on Hymenolepis nana in albino mice.

    PubMed

    el-Ridi, A M; el-Gamal, R L; Farghaly, A M; Nada, S M

    1989-12-01

    Mebendazole and emetine (orally and parenterally) were used to treat mice infected with H. nana. Yomesan, in a single oral dose, was also used as a standardized well-known cesticidal drug. Emetine had a marked effect on cysticercoids leading to highly significant reduction in their number. Also, it caused complete removal of adult worms in infected mice. Mebendazole had no effect on the cysticercoid stage, but it caused significant reduction in the number of adult worms. Yomesan, showed a marked lethal effect on both the cysticercoids and adult worms leading to highly significant reduction in their number.

  17. [Effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma in Swiss albino mice].

    PubMed

    Lubo-Palma, Adonías; Nava-Leal, Carmen; Villasmil, Víctor; Quevedo, Ana Luisa; Montiel, Maria; Simoes, David; Faría, Clarisa

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma. An experimental study was designed with 25 Swiss albino mice (healthy females) living 50 days under controlled laboratory conditions. For the experimental group, 21 mice were selected at random and divided into 3 groups (B, C, and D) of 7 animals each; thereafter they were exposed, respectively, to 50, 100 and 150 ppm of cadmium chloride dissolved in water offered ad libitum. They were compared with the control group A (6 remaining mice). Beginning on week three, physical and behavioral changes were observed: darkening of the eyes, yellowish discoloration of hair, flaccid and hypotonic muscles, irritability, aggressiveness and indifference. Ovaric histological findings were compared among the groups through optic microscopy and they were the following in cadmium exposed mice: 1) in the epithelium, proliferation, finger-like projections, hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis; 2) in the ovary cortex, increased numbers of atresic follicles, decreased number of follicles in different stages of maturation, disorganization, edema and decreased number of yellow bodies; 3) in the interfollicular zone, areas of disorganization, edema and necrosis, mainly in the samples belonging to group D; 4) in the ovaric medulla, congestion, hyperemia and large sanguineous vasodilatation tending to haemorrhage. Since these effects increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride, we may conclude that cadmium chloride is a highly toxic agent on the ovaric parenchyma of Swiss albino mice.

  18. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  19. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  20. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  1. Simple generation of albino C57BL/6J mice with G291T mutation in the tyrosinase gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Seiya; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kato, Kanako; Mizuno-Iijima, Saori; Tanimoto, Yoko; Daitoku, Yoko; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) are associated with a variety of human diseases. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system is expected to be useful as a genetic modification method for production of SNM-induced mice. To investigate whether SNM-induced mice can be generated by zygote microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor, we attempted to produce albino C57BL/6J mice carrying the Tyr gene SNM (G291T) from pigmented C57BL/6J zygotes. We first designed and constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for the Tyr gene (px330-Tyr-M). DNA cleavage activity of px330-Tyr-M at the target site of the Tyr gene was confirmed by the EGxxFP system. We also designed an ssDNA donor for homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated gene modification. The px330-Tyr-M vector and ssDNA donor were co-microinjected into the pronuclei of 224 one-cell-stage embryos derived from C57BL/6J mice. We obtained 60 neonates, 28 of which showed the ocular albinism and absence of coat pigmentation. Genomic sequencing analysis of the albino mice revealed that the target of SNM, G291T in the Tyr gene, occurred in 11 mice and one founder was homozygously mutated. The remaining albino founders without Tyr G291T mutation also possessed biallelic deletion and insertion mutants adjacent to the target site in the Tyr locus. Simple production of albino C57BL/6J mice was provided by C57BL/6J zygote microinjection with px330-Tyr-M DNA vector and mutant ssDNA (G291T in Tyr) donor. A combination of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and optional mutant ssDNA could be expected to efficiently produce novel SNM-induced mouse models for investigating human diseases.

  2. Effects of L-cysteine on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Sayed, S S

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that adversely affects nervous tissues; it often occurs as an environmental pollutant. We investigated histological changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of adult albino mice following exposure to lead acetate. We also studied the possible ameliorative effect of the chelating agent, L-cysteine, on lead-induced neurotoxicity. We divided albino mice into six groups: 1) vehicle-only control, 2) L-cysteine control, 3 and 4) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, and 5 and 6) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, followed by 50 mg/kg L-cysteine for 7 days. Lead acetate administration caused disorganization of cell layers, neuronal loss and degeneration, and neuropil vacuolization. Brain sections from lead-intoxicated mice treated with L-cysteine showed fewer pathological changes; the neuropil showed less vacuolization and the neurons appeared less damaged. L-cysteine at the dose we used only marginally alleviated lead-induced toxicity.

  3. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

  4. Anticarcinogenic effect of black tea on pulmonary tumors in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-25

    The widespread consumption of tea as beverage throughout the world has stimulated interest in the possibility of its use in chemoprevention of cancer. The present set of investigation was carried out to evaluate the anticarcinogenic activity of black tea using lung tumorigenesis model in Swiss albino mice. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN), a known inducer of pulmonary tumors was given at the multiple (total eight) doses of 20mg/kg body weight through oral intubation to Swiss albino mice. Simultaneously, three different groups of animals received 1, 2 and 4% aqueous black tea extracts (ATE) as a sole source of drinking solution. The positive control group received DEN treatment only. The animals were sacrificed after 28 weeks of the first dose of DEN. They were identified for different histological types of alveologenic pulmonary tumors. In the positive DEN treated group, higher incidences of pulmonary tumors were observed, while in ATE treated groups, a lower incidence of DEN induced lung tumorigenicity was recorded. The percentage of mice having lung tumors was decreased following ATE administration. Besides this, significant decrease in the number of tumors/mouse was observed in 2 and 4% ATE supplemented groups. The histological examination revealed a significant decrease in pulmonary adenomas at all doses of ATE. The number of animals showing pulmonary adenocarcinomas induced by DEN was found to be inhibited significantly by 4% ATE. In addition, splenomegaly was found to be protected by ATE administration.

  5. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  6. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease.

  7. Temporal effects of mancozeb on testes, accessory reproductive organs and biochemical constituents in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ksheerasagar, Raghavendra L; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2003-12-01

    Mancozeb, a fungicide of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate group was orally administered at 800 mg/kg body weight to male Swiss albino mice for 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Daily body weight of the mice were recorded. The mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 24 h of terminal exposure of mancozeb. Testes weight decreased significantly in 20 and 30 days mancozeb treated mice. However, there was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia, diameter of spermatocytes and spermatids in 20 days and number of spermatids in 10 days mancozeb treated mice. Histologic studies of the testis of the mice treated with mancozeb for long duration revealed spermatogenesis inhibition reflected by significant decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells and sperms, when compared with that of controls. In the mice treated with mancozeb for 20 and 30 days showed significant decrease in the weight of the prostate gland. However weight of Cowper's glands decreased significantly in 30 days mancozeb treated mice. There was significant decrease in the kidney, spleen and liver weight, where as thyroid weight increased significantly in mice treated with mancozeb for 30 days. However, thymus weight increased significantly only in the mice treated with mancozeb for 10, 20 and 30 days. In mice treated with mancozeb for 20 days caused significant decrease in the level of protein and a significant increase in the level of total lipids in the testis. However, there was significant decrease in the level of glycogen in the kidney. In mice treated with mancozeb for 30 days caused significant decrease in the levels of protein and glycogen and significant increase in the level of total lipids in the testis and liver and a significant decrease in the protein, glycogen and total lipids in the kidney. These observed effects of mancozeb on testis and biochemical constituents may be due to hormonal imbalance in any of the stages in the hypothalamo-hypophysial-testicular axis.

  8. Effect of Dietary Factors upon the Resistance of Albino Mice to Experimental Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Herbert W.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1965-01-01

    Layton, Herbert W. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.), and Guy P. Youmans. Effect of dietary factors upon the resistance of albino mice to experimental infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 90:958–964. 1965.—Each of the major nutritional components of a synthetic diet was quantitatively altered to determine its effect upon the resistance of albino mice to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The animals were challenged after the first 2 weeks of feeding, and the percentage that survived acute death was determined statistically. The level of protein which provided the greatest percentage of survival was 30%; increases or decreases from this level were detrimental. The optimal fat level was found to be 5% for either corn oil or coconut oil. Survival decreased when greater amounts of oil were added, and this effect was especially marked for 40% coconut oil. Vitamin A enhanced survival when increased from the normal level of 20,000 units per kg of diet to 160,000 units, but further increases were harmful. An amount of 75 g/kg of a vitamin B complex mixture afforded optimal resistance, but 25-g shifts in either direction lowered this resistance. Vitamin K-free diets resulted in high levels of survival, and addition of the vitamin resulted in proportional decreases in resistance. PMID:5847809

  9. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  10. Anti-implantation effect of a carbamate fungicide mancozeb in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bindali, Bharati B; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2002-04-01

    Mancozeb, an organocarbamate fungicide, was administered to examine the effect on implantation at doses of 18, 24, 30 and 36 mg/kg body weight/d to normal virgin swiss albino mice for 8 days to pregnant mice. The vaginal smear and body weight of the mice were recorded daily and mice were sacrificed on 9th day of pregnancy. There was a complete inhibition of implantation in 36 mg mancozeb treated mice with 100% pre-implantation loss. There was a partial inhibition of implantation in 24 and 30 mg mancozeb treated mice with 53.44 and 90.16% pre-implantation loss respectively. However, implantation was not affected in 18 mg mancozeb treated mice with 4.92% pre-implantation loss when compared to oil treated controls. To study the temporal effect, the effective dose of 36 mg/kg body weight/d mancozeb was administered orally for 3 and 5 days and on day 3 only. There was a complete inhibition of implantation in 5 days treated mice with 100% pre-implantation loss and partial inhibition of implantation of 3 days treated mice with 75% pre-implantation loss. However, implantation was not affected in mice treated on day 3 only with 1.63% pre-implantation loss when compared to control mice. There was a significant decrease in the diestrus phase with the result there was a concomitant increase in the estrus phase and there was a significant decrease in the uterus weight with 24, 30 and 36 mg and for 3 and 5 days with 36 mg mancozeb treatment. Inhibition of implantation by mancozeb may be due to hormonal imbalance or its toxic effects.

  11. Toxicity study of food-grade carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized from maize husk in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Md Ibrahim H; Yeasmin, Mst Sarmina

    2016-11-01

    Food-grade carboxymethyl cellulose was prepared from maize husk agro-waste and was evaluated sub-chronic oral toxicity in Swiss albino mice. 40 male mice were divided into 4 groups and fed diets with 0 (control) - 10% CMC for a period of 3 months. Daily oral doses were 5 - 20mg/g body weight to the mice/day. Animal care and handling were conformed according to internationally accepted standard guidelines. Haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during this period. At the end of the study, tissues and organs were studied for histopathological changes. Repeat-dose oral toxicity study was carried out according to OECD guideline 408. The result did not show any treatment related abnormalities in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters. However, water intake, urine production and urinary sodium excretion increased with increasing doses of CMC. The weekly body weight showed no significant differences between control and mice treated with different doses of CMC. In mice of the treated groups, no abnormalities in the histopathology of liver, heart, lung and kidney were detected. This indicated the prepared CMC has no toxic effect at different doses on cellular structure, and support the safety use of CMC as food additives and an excipient for pharmaceuticals.

  12. Generating Chimeric Mice by Using Embryos from Nonsuperovulated BALB/c Mice Compared with Superovulated BALB/c and Albino C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Esmail, Michael Y; Qi, Peimin; Connor, Aurora Burds; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyrtm1Arte (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age. Key parameters measured included the average number of injectable embryos per donor, the percentage of live pups born from the total number of embryos transferred to recipients, and the number of chimeric pups with high embryonic-stem–cell contribution by coat color. Although albino B6 donors produced significantly more injectable embryos than did BALB/c donors, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor produced high-percentage (at least 70%) chimeras more than 2.5 times as often as did albino B6 mice and 20 times more efficiently than did 4-wk-old BALB/c donors. These findings clearly suggest that 12-wk-old BALB/c mice be used as blastocyst donors to reduce the number of mice used to generate each chimera, reduce the production of low-percentage chimeras, and maximize the generation of high-percentage chimeras from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. PMID:27423145

  13. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes.

  14. Effects of a sunscreen formulation on albino hairless mice: a morphological approach.

    PubMed

    Hossy, Bryan Hudson; da Costa Leitão, Alvaro Augusto; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Allodi, Silvana; de Pádula, Marcelo; de Oliveira Miguel, Nádia Campos

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a sunscreen formulation on the skin of albino hairless mice subjected to simulated solar light (SSL) in terms of morphological changes. Young adult albino hairless mice HRS/J (n = 36) were used as an experimental model for determining skin photoaging changes. Mice were irradiated with SSL, and the sunscreen (estimated SPF 30, PF-UVA) was obtained from the Pharmacy College/UFRJ, Brazil. The animals were divided into four groups: non-treated (G1), radiation only (G2), sunscreen-treated (G3) and vehicle + radiation (G4). Animals from groups G2, G3 and G4 were irradiated weekly (5 weeks), with no immobilization. One week after the final exposure, the dorsal skin was observed using a dermatoscopic camera. Biopsies were analyzed in order to quantify neovascularization and to evaluate histological aspects of the skin. Neovascularization was also evaluated with immunohistochemical reactions for the Von Willebrand factor. Animals from G2 displayed classical morphological changes denoting skin photoaging: thickening of the epidermis, increased dermal cellularity, follicular keratosis, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. Animals from groups G3 and G1 displayed similar morphological profiles, without these changes. Animals from group G4 showed more morphological changes than group G2, emphasizing the relative importance of the putative photosensitizing components present in the vehicle formulation. The extent of the morphological skin changes suggested that the sunscreen formulation was effective against SSL, and showed the importance of assessing the phototoxicity of vehicle formulations.

  15. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  16. Ferulic acid, a dietary phenolic acid, modulates radiation effects in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Karthikeyan, Arumugam; Bandugula, Venkata Reddy; Rajendra Prasad, Nagarajan

    2012-09-15

    The radioprotective efficacy of Ferulic acid (FA) against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. To study the radiation protection, mice were administered with ferulic acid intraperitoneally (i.p) (50 mg/kg body weight.), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ferulic acid on the sixth day, animals were whole body exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiations. Effect of ferulic acid pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation status in spleen, liver and intestine was analyzed. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzymatic status and decreased lipid peroxidation marker levels were observed in ferulic acid pretreated group, when compared to the irradiated animals. Our study also shows increased % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice blood lymphocytes. Ferulic acid (50 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment significantly decreased the % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated mice lymphocytes. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by ferulic acid pretreatment. In conclusion, present study indicated ferulic acid treatment prevents radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and restored antioxidant status and histopathological changes in experimental animals.

  17. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  18. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  19. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  20. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property.

  1. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  2. Anticlastogenic activity of morin against whole body gamma irradiation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Prabhakar, Koiram Rajanna; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabhakar; Priyadarsini, Kavirayani Indira; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikajuna

    2007-02-14

    Anticlastogenic activity of morin was explored against whole body gamma radiation, at a dose rate of 1.66 Gy/min in Swiss albino mice pretreated intraperitoneal or orally. Pretreatment with morin 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg/kg, i.p. delayed and reduced percentage mortality and increased mean survival times in mice irradiated with 10 Gy gamma radiation. Intraperitoneal route was found superior to oral route. An i.p. dose of 100 mg/kg was found to be the most effective dose in preventing radiation-induced weight loss, increasing the mean survival times and reducing percentage mortality. Morin (100 mg/kg) pretreatment effectively maintained spleen index (spleen weight/body weight x 100) and stimulated endogenous spleen colony forming units. Pretreatment with morin (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced dead, inflammatory, and mitotic cells in irradiated mice jejunum along with a significant increase in goblet cells and rapidly multiplying crypt cells. Morin (100 mg/kg) also maintained the villus height close to normal, prevented mucosal erosion and basement membrane damage in irradiated jejunum. Nuclear enlargement in epithelial cells of jejunum was lower in morin treated mice compared to radiation control. Morin (100 mg/kg) also significantly elevated the endogenous antioxidant enzymes viz. glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), in normal mice at 2, 4 and 8 h post treatment. Drastic decrease in endogenous enzymes (GSH, GST, catalase and SOD) and total thiols was observed in irradiated mice at 2, 4 and 8 h post irradiation, while pretreatment with morin (100 mg/kg) prevented this decrease. Morin (100 mg/kg) also elevated radiation LD(50) from 9.2 to 10.1 Gy, indicating a dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.11.

  3. Escherichia coli Braun Lipoprotein (BLP) exhibits endotoxemia – like pathology in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmikanth, Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana; Jacob, Shancy Petsel; Kudva, Avinash Kundadka; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Yashaswini, Puttaraju Srikanta Murthy; Sumanth, Mosale Seetharam; Goncalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F.; Silva, Adriana R.; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.; Prabhu, Sandeep Kumble; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Marathe, Gopal Kedihithlu

    2016-01-01

    The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes sepsis, but bacterial peptides also promote inflammation leading to sepsis. We found, intraperitoneal administration of live or heat inactivated E. coli JE5505 lacking the abundant outer membrane protein, Braun lipoprotein (BLP), was less toxic than E. coli DH5α possessing BLP in Swiss albino mice. Injection of BLP free of LPS purified from E. coli DH5α induced massive infiltration of leukocytes in lungs and liver. BLP activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) ex vivo to adhere to denatured collagen in serum and polymyxin B independent fashion, a property distinct from LPS. Both LPS and BLP stimulated the synthesis of platelet activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator, in human PMNs. In mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, while both BLP and LPS similarly upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA; BLP was more potent in inducing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression. Peritoneal macrophages from TLR2−/− mice significantly reduced the production of TNF-α in response to BLP in contrast to macrophages from wild type mice. We conclude, BLP acting through TLR2, is a potent inducer of inflammation with a response profile both common and distinct from LPS. Hence, BLP mediated pathway may also be considered as an effective target against sepsis. PMID:27698491

  4. Chicoric acid regulates behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by chronic stress in experimental Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Bani, Sarang

    2011-09-01

    The present study was taken up to see the effect of chicoric acid (CA) on behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by chronic restraint stress in experimental Swiss albino mice. CA at 1mg/kg dose level exhibited considerable antidepressant activity as shown by significant decrease in immobility period in the Porsolt's swim stress-induced behavioral despair test and escape failures in Learned "helplessness test". The antidepressant activity shown by CA can be attributed to its modulating effect on nor-adrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and 5- hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) as shown by their quantification in CA treated chronically stressed mice. Further, a significant antioxidant effect was exhibited by CA as shown by estimation of lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) and glycogen in liver of chronically stressed mice. It also normalized altered values of serum glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in a dose dependent manner. The stress busting potential of CA was further confirmed by its regulating effect on raised plasma corticosterone levels and significant attenuation of the depleted ascorbic acid, cholesterol and corticosterone levels in adrenal glands. Thus, our results suggest that CA possesses considerable stress busting potential, and that anti-oxidation may be one of the mechanisms underlying its antistress action.

  5. Effects of black tea extract on transplantable and solid tumors in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Javed, S; Shukla, Y

    2000-09-01

    The chemopreventive effects of green tea and its polyphenols are well documented in the literature. Epidemiological studies have suggested that green tea consumption might be effective in the prevention of certain human cancers. About 80% of the tea is consumed as black tea. Limited studies have been carried out to assess the usefulness of black tea as anti-carcinogen. The present set of investigations were initiated to study the anti-tumorigenic potential of aqueous black tea extract (ATE) in Swiss albino mice in in vivo animal bioassay, using 7, 12 dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA) as carcinogen. In the experimental group, 2% ATE was given orally as sole source of drinking water, while the control were allowed to drink normal water, ad lib. The results revealed that drinking of 2% ATE could effectively inhibit the onset of tumorigenesis, cumulative number of tumors and average number of tumors per mouse. In ATE drinking group 44% animals remained tumor free till the termination of experiment, i.e. 26 weeks. In the second set of experiment the preventive efficacy of 2% ATE of different cultivars of black tea, viz orthodox, CTC and dust were tested in Ehrlich Ascites (EA) tumor bearing mice. The preventive effects of ATE were observed in terms of increased life span (ILS). All the cultivars of tea showed more than 25% increase in life span of the animals. Cytotoxic effect of various doses of all three cultivars of black tea was also observed in vitro on EA cells.

  6. Study of anti-fertility effect of lemon seeds (Citrus limonum) in female albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, T R; Kothekar, M A; Mateenuddin, Mohd

    2005-01-01

    Among the citrus species, Citrus-limonum is native of North West region of India. The petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Citrus-limonum (lemon) seeds were investigated for anti-fertility effect in female albino mice. The extracts were administered orally for 7 days after insemination (i.e. post-ovulatory test). The control group received 4% gum acacia. The animals were examined for implantation sites on 10th day of pregnancy and the number of pups delivered at term for each group was recorded. The alcoholic extract showed significant anti-fertility effect as compared to petroleum ether and aqueous extracts. The alcoholic extract was subjected for fractionation and the fractions were again tested for their anti-fertility effect. The fraction of ethyl-acetate (12-25 fractions) showed most encouraging anti-fertility activity. In second part of the study, the alcoholic extract and its ethyl-acetate fraction (12-25 fractions) were subjected to evaluation of their mechanism of action and it was found that their principal mode of action is as an anti-zygotic agent. Withdrawal of the test drug, resulted in complete restoration of fertility. Thus the ethyl-acetate fraction (12-25 fractions) of alcoholic extract of lemon seeds exerted reversible anti-fertility effect in female mice by virtue of its anti-zygotic action.

  7. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  8. Influence of Enriched Environment on Viral Encephalitis Outcomes: Behavioral and Neuropathological Changes in Albino Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bento-Torres, João; Trévia, Nonata; de Almeida Lins, Nara Alves; Passos, Aline; Santos, Zaire; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, Victor Hugh; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    An enriched environment has previously been described as enhancing natural killer cell activity of recognizing and killing virally infected cells. However, the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral changes in relation to virus clearance and the neuropathology of encephalitis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that environmental enrichment leads to less CNS neuroinvasion and/or more rapid viral clearance in association with T cells without neuronal damage. Stereology-based estimates of activated microglia perineuronal nets and neurons in CA3 were correlated with behavioral changes in the Piry rhabdovirus model of encephalitis in the albino Swiss mouse. Two-month-old female mice maintained in impoverished (IE) or enriched environments (EE) for 3 months were behaviorally tested. After the tests, an equal volume of Piry virus (IEPy, EEPy)-infected or normal brain homogenates were nasally instilled. Eight days post-instillation (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, brains were fixed and processed to detect viral antigens, activated microglia, perineuronal nets, and T lymphocytes by immuno- or histochemical reactions. At 20 or 40 dpi, the remaining animals were behaviorally tested and processed for the same markers. In IEPy mice, burrowing activity decreased and recovered earlier (8–10 dpi) than open field (20–40 dpi) but remained unaltered in the EEPy group. EEPy mice presented higher T-cell infiltration, less CNS cell infection by the virus and/or faster virus clearance, less microgliosis, and less damage to the extracellular matrix than IEPy. In both EEPy and IEPy animals, CA3 neuronal number remained unaltered. The results suggest that an enriched environment promotes a more effective immune response to clear CNS virus and not at the cost of CNS damage. PMID:21264301

  9. Ferulic acid inhibits UVB-radiation induced photocarcinogenesis through modulating inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ambothi, Kanagalakshmi; Prasad, N Rajendra; Balupillai, Agilan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the photochemopreventive effects of ferulic acid (FA) against chronic ultraviolet-B (290-320 nm) induced oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis in the skin of Swiss albino mice. Chronic UVB exposure (180 mJ/cm(2) for 30 weeks; thrice in a week) induced tumor formation in the mice skin that showed increased expression of carcinogenic and inflammatory markers when compared with the control animals. The intraperitoneal (FAIP) and topical (FAT) administration of FA significantly reduced the incidence of UVB-induced tumor volume and tumor weight in the mice skin. Histopathological studies revealed that both FAIP and FAT administration prevented the UVB-induced hyperplasia, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and dysplastic feature in the mice skin. Further, it has been observed that FA treatment reverted chronic UVB-induced oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) accompanied with modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and IL-6 in the mice skin tumor. FA treatment also modulates mutated p53, Bcl-2 and Bax expressions in the UVB-induced mice skin tumor. Thus, the results of the present study indicate ferulic acid has potential against UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the Swiss albino mice.

  10. Acute, 28days sub acute and genotoxic profiling of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Sandur, Rajendra; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Roy, Souvik; Janadri, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin-Magnesium complex is one of the youngest alkaline rare earth metal (Magnesium) complexes with flavonoids (Quercetin) in organo-metalic family. Earlier studies describe the details of the complex formation, characterization and antioxidant study of the complex but toxicity profile is still under darkness. The present study was taken up to investigate the oral acute toxicity, 28days repeated oral sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice. Quercetin-Magnesium complex showed mortality at a dose of 185mg/kg in the Swiss albino mice. In 28days repeated oral toxicity study, Quercetin-Magnesium complex was administered to both sex of Swiss albino mice at dose levels of 150, 130 and 100mg/kg body weight respectively. Where 150mg/kg dose shows increased levels of white blood cells and changes in total protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histopathological study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex shows minor structural alteration in kidney at 150mg/kg dose. No observed toxic level found in 130mg/kg or below doses. No genotoxic effect found in any doses of the complex. Therefore 130mg/kg or below dose level could be better for further study.

  11. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one.

  12. On some relationships between dopaminergic and serotoninergic mechanisms in pentylenetetrazol convulsions in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, M; Roussinov, K

    1979-01-01

    Experiments with pentylenetetrazol convulsion model in albino mice--80 mg/kg subcutaneously--have revealed the following. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT, introduced intracerebroventricularly in a dose of 100 micrograms per mouse is eliminated by 500 mg/kg L-DOPA, 100 mg/kg amantadine, 5 mg/kg amphetamine and apomorphine, while for lower doses of the dopaminergic agent only a tendency towards antagonism is observed. The inhibitory effect of 50HTP in a dose of 200 mg/kg i. p. is eliminated by 500 mg/kg L-DOPA, 50 mg/kg amantadine and 5 mg/kg amphetamine, but it is not influenced by these drugs in doses of 250 mg/kg L-DOPA, 25 mg/kg amantadine and 5 mg/kg apomorphine, although when applied independently L-DOPA and amantadine in these lower doses potentiate convulsive reactions. The results obtained show that the dopaminergic and 5-HT-ergic systems have an antagonist effect on the convulsive reactivity in the case of pentylenetetrazol convulsion model. These results are in agreement with our views about the determining role of the balance between the various neurotransmitter systems in convulsive-seizure reactions.

  13. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P < .05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow. PMID:20107585

  14. Negative temporal summation of the responses to pairs of tone bursts in albino mice inferior colliculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, Nikolay G.; Cai, Chen Qi; Jie, Tang

    2003-10-01

    The extracellular activities of single units in an inferior colliculus of narcotized albino mice have been studied. As a stimuli pairs of best frequency (BF) tone bursts with different duration have been used and forward masking has been studied. The test tone usually has a 40 ms duration at intensity 5 dB above threshold. The intensity and duration of the masker could be changed. It was shown that the forward masking essentially depends upon the duration of the first burst. In many cases, the negative temporal summation can be seen. The increase in the duration of first burst (or masker) leads to the decrease in the whole response. Moreover, the BF tone burst which did not evoke any spike response could inhibit the response to the second (test) tone in some cases. Therefore in many units the inhibitory threshold was lower than the excitatory threshold even at the best frequency. The local application of bicuculline through a multibarrel-electrode increased the pulse activity considerably. However, the effect of forward masking usually left even after an inhibitory antagonist (bicuculline) application. [Work supported by grants 39970251 from NSFC, T010360056 from the Foreign Expert Bureau of the State Council of China, and 02-04-3900 from RFBR-NSFC.

  15. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  16. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against glyphosate toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yapar, Kürşad; Oruç, Ertan; Yalçın, Emine

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against the active agent of Roundup® herbicide (Monsanto, Creve Coeur, MO, USA). The Swiss Albino mice were randomly divided into six groups, with each group consisting of six animals: Group I (control) received an intraperitoneal injection of dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL, once only), Group II received glyphosate at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, Group III received G. biloba at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, Group IV received G. biloba at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight, Group V received G. biloba (50 mg/kg of body weight) and glyphosate (50 mg/kg of body weight), and Group VI received G. biloba (150 mg/kg of body weight) and glyphosate (50 mg/kg of body weight). The single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at the end of 72 hours, and their blood, bone marrow, and liver and kidney tissues were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels and the presence of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and pathological damages. The results indicated that serum AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine levels significantly increased in mice treated with glyphosate alone compared with the other groups (P<.05). Besides, glyphosate-induced oxidative damage caused a significant decrease in GSH levels and a significant increase in MDA levels of the liver and kidney tissues. Moreover, glyphosate alone-treated mice presented higher frequencies of CAs, MNs, and abnormal metaphases compared with the controls (P<.05). These mice also displayed a lower mean mitotic index than the controls (P<.05). Treatment with G. biloba produced amelioration in indices of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity relative to Group II. Each dose of G. biloba provided significant

  17. Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M

    2007-11-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Mice were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg b.wt./day) once a day for three consecutive days, and after 30 min of treatments on the third day were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 12, 24, 48 hrs and 5, 10 and 20 days post-irradiation to evaluate the percentage of bone marrow cells, frequency of micronuclei and erythropoietin level in serum. An exposure to gamma radiation resulted in a significant decline in the number of bone marrow cells such as leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure resulted in significant increases in the numbers of leucoblasts, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band/stab forms, polymorphs, pronormoblasts and normoblasts, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes in bone marrow as compared to the control group. Pretreatment with leaf extract of M. piperita followed by radiation exposure also resulted in significant decreases in micronucleus frequencies in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice. A significant increase in erythropoietin level was observed at all the studied intervals in leaf extract of M. piperita pretreated irradiated animals as compared to control animals (radiation alone). The results of the present investigation suggest the protective effects of leaf extract of M. piperita against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow may be attributed to the maintenance of EPO level in Swiss albino mice.

  18. The bioflavonoid galangin suppresses the growth of ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss Albino mice: a molecular insight.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Jai V; Wadegaonkar, Prasad A; Hajare, Sunil W

    2012-07-01

    Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancer caused by various stress conditions. Galangin (4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-), a flavonoid, is a polyphenolic compound found primarily in medicinal herb, Alpinia galanga. This study aims to demonstrate the galangin as a pharmacological lead compound using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico model targeting specific cancer condition and proteins. The proliferation of MCF-7 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells was significantly inhibited with an IC₅₀ of 34.11 and 22.29 μg/ml, respectively. In an animal model system, galangin has inhibited the tumor growth by 73.51% ± 4.742 in EAC-induced Swiss Albino mice with no evidences of mortality as compared to standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. The effectiveness of galangin is proven in an animal system suggesting its pharmacokinetics behavior in an animal model which is also complemented by outcome of in silico analysis with more than 88 % of human intestinal absorption and significant Caco-2 cell, MDCK cell, and skin permeability as predicted by in silico methods. Galangin was docked against 19 different proteins involved in tumorogenesis and apoptosis; the energetic analysis indicates that it exhibits higher predicted binding free energy of -12.7 kcal/mol with Bcl-xL protein.

  19. Effect of GABAB receptor antagonists (CGP 35348 and CGP 55845) on serum interleukin 6 and 18 concentrations in albino mice following neonatal hypoxia ischemia insult.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Quratulane; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2016-09-01

    Interleukin (IL) 6 and 18 plays an important role in inflammatory response following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of two GABAB receptor antagonists (CGP 35348 and 55845), respectively, on the serum IL6 and IL 18 concentrations in albino mice. Albino mice pups (of both genders) were subjected to Murine model of hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy on postnatal day 10 (right common carotid artery was ligated followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes). After neonatal brain damage and following weaning, mice were divided in three groups, in gender specific manner, and fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old. At this time point, group 1 received intraperitonial saline solution (control group), group 2 was supplemented with CGP 35348 (1mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight) and group 3 with CGP 55845 (1mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight), intraperitonially, for 12 days and IL 6 and 18 concentrations were determined in serum by ELISA. It was observed that CGP 35348 supplementation resulted in reduced interlukin-6 and interlukin-18 concentrations in male albino mice. While CGP 55845 supplementation increased IL-6 and IL-18 concentrations in female albino mice following HIE. Our results are indicating that GABAB receptor antagonist's supplementation affects IL concentrations in albino mice in a gender specific manner following neonatal brain damage and can be further explored for the treatments of hypoxia ischemia associated neurological ailments.

  20. Protective effect of Selenium nanoparticle against cyclophosphamide induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Biswas, Jaydip; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2014-08-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for various types of cancer. However, its use causes severe cytotoxicity to normal cells in human. It is well known that the undesirable side effects are caused due to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Selenium is an essential micronutrient for both animals and humans and has antioxidant and membrane stabilizing property, but selenium is also toxic above certain level. Nano selenium has been well proved to be less toxic than inorganic selenium as well as certain organoselenium compounds. The objective of the study is to evaluate the protective role of Nano-Se against CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. CP was administered intraperitoneally (25 mg/kg b.w.) and Nano-Se was given by oral gavages (2 mg Se/kg b.w.) in concomitant and pretreatment scheme. Intraperitoneal administration of CP induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes aspartate and alanine transaminases and increased the malonaldehyde level, depleted the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase), and induced DNA damage and chromosomal aberration. Oral administration of Nano-Se caused a significant reduction in malonaldehyde, ROS level and glutathione levels, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activity, reduction in chromosomal aberration in bone marrow, and DNA damage in lymphocytes and also in bone marrow. Moreover, the chemoprotective efficiency of Nano-Se against CP induced toxicity was confirmed by histopathological evaluation. The results support the protective effect of Nano-Se against CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity.

  1. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Alrobai, Ali A.; Almalki, Daklallah A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  2. Delayed neurogenesis leads to altered specification of ventrotemporal retinal ganglion cells in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper binocular vision depends on the routing at the optic chiasm of the correct proportion of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons that project to the same (ipsilateral) and opposite (contralateral) side of the brain. The ipsilateral RGC projection is reduced in mammals with albinism, a congenital disorder characterized by deficient pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes. Compared to the pigmented embryonic mouse retina, the albino embryonic mouse retina has fewer RGCs that express the zinc-finger transcription factor, Zic2, which is transiently expressed by RGCs fated to project ipsilaterally. Here, using Zic2 as a marker of ipsilateral RGCs, Islet2 as a marker of contralateral RGCs, and birthdating, we investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of RGC production as they relate to the phenotype of diminished ipsilateral RGC number in the albino retina. Results At embryonic day (E)15.5, fewer Zic2-positive (Zic2+) RGCs are found in the albino ventrotemporal (VT) retina compared with the pigmented VT retina, as we previously reported. However, the reduction in Zic2+ RGCs in the albino is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in Zic2-negative (Zic2−) RGCs, resulting in fewer RGCs in the VT retina at this time point. At E17.5, however, the number of RGCs in the VT region is similar in pigmented and albino retinae, implicating a shift in the timing of RGC production in the albino. Short-term birthdating assays reveal a delay in RGC production in the albino VT retina between E13 and E15. Specifically, fewer Zic2+ RGCs are born at E13 and more Zic2− RGCs are born at E15. Consistent with an increase in the production of Zic2− RGCs born at later ages, more RGCs at E17.5 express the contralateral marker, Islet2, in the albino VT retina compared with the pigmented retina. Conclusions A delay in neurogenesis in the albino retina is linked to the alteration of RGC subtype specification and consequently leads to the reduced ipsilateral projection that

  3. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  4. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  5. The effect of GABAmimetics on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in albino mice.

    PubMed

    El Zahaf, Najwa Ahmed; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in depression are conflicting. Therefore, it was decided to examine the effect of different drugs that enhance the GABA system on the time of immobility induced by the forced swim test (FST). Materials and methods Adult albino mice were divided into several groups of six animals. Each group received an intraperitoneal injection of either imipramine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), vigabatrin (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), zolpidem (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), or alprazolam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg). Control groups received the appropriate vehicle. One hour after injection, the duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST. The percentage change in the duration of immobility from the control was calculated for each group. The statistical test of the difference between the treated and the control groups was calculated using unpaired Student's t-test. Results Imipramine produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility (78, 74, and 56%, respectively). Different doses of diazepam, vigabatrin, and zolpidem produced a significant increase in the duration of immobility (119, 126, and 128%), (116, 124, and 128%), and (108, 109, and 119%), respectively. The two low doses of alprazolam produced a significant increase (115 and 120%), while the high dose produced a significant decrease in the duration of immobility (74%). Conclusion Increasing central GABAergic activity by different mechanisms has resulted in a depressant-like activity measured as an increase in the duration of immobility in the FST model of depression.

  6. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  7. Maternal behavior, paternal behavior, and pup survival in CD-1 albino mice (Mus musculus) in three different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Wright, S L; Brown, R E

    2000-06-01

    Parental behavior, food consumption, and pup development in litters of CD-1 albino mice (Mus musculus) with single mothers or paired mothers in 3 different housing conditions were compared. Fewer pups survived when parents were required to run in a wheel to obtain food, and these pups had lower weights than pups in the wheel-noncontingent and no-wheel groups. The presence of the male facilitated pup survival in the wheel-contingent group but had no effect on pup growth. Mice in the wheel-contingent group ran more revolutions than those in the wheel-noncontingent group and spent less time in parental care. In the wheel-contingent group, males spent more time running and ate less food than females, suggesting that males may indirectly facilitate pup development by providing food for the mother. The results suggest that the presence of the male increases pup care and may facilitate maternal behavior under appropriate environmental conditions.

  8. An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Effect of Memantine in Animal Models of Anxiety in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    AK, Afzal Khan; Shivaramegowda, Rekha M

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the adverse effects produced by the present conventional medicines for anxiety disorders, research for newer drugs is still desirable. From the literature it is evident that NMDA receptors play a key role in animal models of anxiety. Aim The present study is done to evaluate the antianxiety effect of memantine in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015. Animals were divided into four groups. Twelve mice were randomly allotted in each group. Animals in the first group received normal saline as a control 10ml/kg, lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to second group, memantine 3mg/kg as a test drug was given to the third group and memantine 3mg/kg + lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to the fourth group. All the drugs were given for 7 consecutive days by intraperitoneal route. Results Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test. On the 1st day, memantine treated group did not show statistical significant anxiolytic effect in both the behavioural paradigms when compared to control group. On the 8th day, the animals showed significant decrease p<0.001 in step down latency period in shock free zone (185.4±3.87 Vs 278.3±5.49), significant increase p<0.001 in step down errors (6.8±0.78 Vs 1.4±0.19) and significant increase p<0.001 in total time spent in shock zone (32.1±2.22 Vs 5.6±0.6). In open field test, on 8th day the animals treated with memantine when compared to control group, showed significant increase p<0.001 in number of squares crossed (112.7± 2.69 Vs 83.2±2.96), time spent in central square (11.5±1.26 Vs 3.4±0.65), no. of rearings (32.4±2.61 Vs 17±1.81) and significant decrease p<0.001 in freezing time (15.2±1.12 Vs 20.2±2.29). Memantine showed synergistic antianxiety effect when combined with lorazepam. Conclusion Memantine showed significant anxiolytic effect in open field and passive avoidance response tests which are

  9. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-01-01

    The skin, being a cell-renewal system, is one of the first organs to be affected in total-body irradiation during radiotherapy. An attempt has been made in the present study to explore radiation-induced biochemical alterations caused by whole-body gamma irradiation and their modulation in Swiss albino mice by Aloe vera leaf extract (AVE). Mice were selected for this study from an inbreed colony and divided into four different groups: I (double-distilled water-treated group): considered as normal; II (Aloe vera-treated group): the animals were administered 1 g/kg body-wt/day Aloe vera leaf extract; III (radiation-treated group): the animals were exposed to 6 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min; and IV (combination group): animals were administered Aloe vera leaf extract continuously for 15 consecutive days, and on the 15th day they were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma radiation after 30 minutes of extract administration. The animals from the above groups were autopsied after 6 hours, 24 hours, and at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of radiation. Biochemical estimations of DNA, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide-dismutase were made. Total DNA, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the skin, and glutathione (GSH) in the liver and blood significantly decreased compared to normal, but lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver and blood increased in the irradiated control group. In contrast, in experimental animals, DNA, catalase, and SOD in the skin and GSH in the liver and blood increased significantly, whereas LPO in the liver and blood decreased in comparison to irradiated control animals. Thus, Aloe vera leaf extract is found to have damage-resistant properties against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

  10. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE.

  11. Differential effects of retinal degeneration on sleep and wakefulness responses to short light-dark cycles in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, F-C; Liao, Y-H; Tsai, L-L

    2013-09-17

    This study characterizes the different response patterns of sleep and wakefulness (W) to short light-dark (LD) cycles in albino mice and examines whether retinal degeneration resulting from prolonged bright light treatment and/or rd/rd mutation alters such response patterns. Eight young male Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice with normal eyes, seven young male rd/rd Friend Virus B type (FVB) mice, six young ICR and five young rd/rd FVB mice receiving 48-h bright light treatment, and five older rd/rd FVB mice were implanted with skull and muscle electrodes to record sleep and W. All the mice were maintained in 12-h-12-h LD cycles at baseline and received 2 days of short LD cycle treatment, which included 5-min-5-min LD cycles for a total of 24 cycles presented 4h after lights-on and again 4h after lights-off. All the five mouse groups maintained photo-entrainment of sleep and W rhythms at the baseline and showed a preference for paradoxical sleep (PS) occurrence in the 5-min dark period and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in the 5-min light period and a brief alerting effect of light onset on experimental days. Retinal degeneration rising from bright light treatment and/or genetic mutation failed to eliminate or reduce the response of PS and NREMS to short LD cycles, although it enhanced the LD contrast of W, i.e., bright light treatment prolonged the alerting effect of light and the rd mutation increased the suppressing effect of the dark on W. These results suggest that sleep responses to short LD cycles and the brief alerting effect of light were independent of the photoreceptors in the outer retina. Furthermore, the residual photoreceptors in the outer retina and/or the photosensitive cells in the inner retina may actively modulate the effect of light and dark signals on W.

  12. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia.

  13. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Artesunate-Induced Subchronic Toxicity in Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.

    2015-01-01

    India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice. PMID:26673878

  14. Functional and morphological effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension in retinas of adult albino Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; de la Villa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) on the survival and retrograde axonal transport of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), as well as on the function of retinal layers. Methods Adult albino Swiss mice (35–45 g) received laser photocoagulation of limbal and episcleral veins in the left eye. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 17, 35, and 63 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes was measured with a Tono-Lab before LP and at various days after LP. Flash electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic threshold response (STR) and a- and b-wave amplitudes were recorded before LP and at various times after LP. RGCs were labeled with 10% hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt) applied to both superior colliculi before sacrifice and in some mice, with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR) applied to the ocular stump of the intraorbitally transected optic nerve. Retinas were immunostained for RT97 or Brn3a. Retinas were prepared as whole-mounts and photographed under a fluorescence microscope. Labeled RGCs were counted using image analysis software, and an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. Results IOP increased to twice its basal values by 24 h and was maintained until day 5, after which IOP gradually declined to reach basal values by 1 wk. Similar IOP increases were observed in all groups. The mean total number of OHSt+ RGCs was 13,428±6,295 (n=12), 10,456±14,301 (n=13), 12,622±14,174 (n=21), and 10,451±13,949 (n=13) for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively; these values represented 28%, 23%, 26%, and 22% of the values found in their contralateral fellow retinas. The mean total population of Brn3a+ RGCs was 24,343±5,739 (n=12) and 10,219±8,887 (n=9), respectively, for groups I and III; these values represented 49% and 20%, respectively, of the values found in their fellow eyes. OHT retinas showed an absence of OHSt+ and DTMR+ RGCs in both focal wedge-shaped and diffuse regions of the retina. By 1

  15. Effect of Tocopheryl Acetate on Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposed Swiss Albino Mice Inbred Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Janardan; Shamal, SN; Supriya, K; Srivastava, Mona; More, RS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is worldwide problem which can be correlated with teratogenicity. Tocopheryl acetate plays as an antioxidant against the oxidative stress evolved by cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Aim To study the effect of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and Tocopheryl acetate on fetuses of mice. Materials and Methods Pregnant mice randomly assigned to different groups (Group I (control), Group II (Tocopheryl acetate), Group III(soyabean oil used as vehicle for Tocopheryl acetate), Group IV (Cigarette smoke Exposed), Group V (Cigarette smoke exposed plus Tocopheryl acetate) and Group VI(Cigarette smoke exposed plus soyabean oil) were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times a day for 20 minutes each time and Tocopheryl acetate with dose of 200mg/kg/day in 0.3ml of soyabean oil as vehicle orally through oral gavage from the 5th day of gestation to 15th day. Results Cigarette smoke exposed mice showed significant fetal weight loss, resorption, placental anomalies, severe growth retardation, venous congestion, haemorrhage, limbs defects and enphalocele. Negligible abnormalities were seen among the control and Tocopheryl acetate group. Cigarette smoke exposed group with Tocopheryl acetate exhibited weight gain among the fetus as well as no gross abnormalities. The oxidative stress was significantly increased by increasing Malondialdehyde (MDA) 293±81.57 μmol/mg (p<0.0001) and decreasing Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) 1.43 ± 0.23mg/ml, (p<0.0001) Reduced Glutathione (GR) 0.017±0.002mg/ml, (p<0.01) and Catalase (CAT) 0.248±0.005mg/ml, (p<0.0001). Tocopheryl acetate induced group significantly maintained the oxidative stress with all p <0.0001. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tocopheryl acetate may have an ameliorating effect on the cigarette smoke during pregnancy on fetus. PMID:27891325

  16. Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neelam; Giri, Sarbani; Das, Samrat; Upadhaya, Puja

    2016-10-13

    Even though there are contradictory reports regarding the cellular and molecular changes induced by mobile phone emitted radiofrequency radiation (RFR), the possibility of any biological effect cannot be ruled out. In view of a widespread and extensive use of mobile phones, this study evaluates alterations in male germ cell transformation kinetics following RFR exposure and after recovery. Swiss albino mice were exposed to RFR (900 MHz) for 4 h and 8 h duration per day for 35 days. One group of animals was terminated after the exposure period, while others were kept for an additional 35 days post-exposure. RFR exposure caused depolarization of mitochondrial membranes resulting in destabilized cellular redox homeostasis. Statistically significant increases in the damage index in germ cells and sperm head defects were noted in RFR-exposed animals. Flow cytometric estimation of germ cell subtypes in mice testis revealed 2.5-fold increases in spermatogonial populations with significant decreases in spermatids. Almost fourfold reduction in spermatogonia to spermatid turnover (1C:2C) and three times reduction in primary spermatocyte to spermatid turnover (1C:4C) was found indicating arrest in the premeiotic stage of spermatogenesis, which resulted in loss of post-meiotic germ cells apparent from testis histology and low sperm count in RFR-exposed animals. Histological alterations such as sloughing of immature germ cells into the seminiferous tubule lumen, epithelium depletion and maturation arrest were also observed. However, all these changes showed recovery to varied degrees following the post-exposure period indicating that the adverse effects of RFR on mice germ cells are detrimental but reversible. To conclude, RFR exposure-induced oxidative stress causes DNA damage in germ cells, which alters cell cycle progression leading to low sperm count in mice.

  17. Free radical scavenging and radioprotective activity of dehydrozingerone against whole body gamma irradiation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Dhawan, Jatin; Kumar, Suryakant; Manjula, S N; Subramanian, G; Unnikrishnan, M K; Rao, C Mallikarjuna

    2007-10-20

    Dehydrozingerone (DZ) was explored for in vitro-in vivo antioxidant potential and in vivo radioprotective activity against whole body gamma irradiation in Swiss albino mice. DZ scavenged the ABTS (2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (1, 1-dipehnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals at room temp. DZ reduced Fe (III) to Fe (II) at pH 7.4 and scavenged the NADH/phenazine methosulfate generated superoxide radical in cell free system. DZ also scavenged the nitric oxide radical generated by sodium nitroprusside. To evaluate the radioprotective activity, mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation 30 min after the drug treatment at a dose rate of 1.66 Gy/min. Pretreatment with DZ 75, 100 and 125 mg/kg, i.p. reduced the radiation induced mortality and increased the mean survival times (MSTs). An i.p. dose of DZ 100 mg/kg was found the most effective dose in preventing radiation sickness and increasing the MST. Pretreatment DZ100 mg/kg maintained the spleen index (spleen weight/body weight x 100) and stimulates the endogenous spleen colony forming units (CFU). Pretreatment with DZ100 mg/kg maintained the villus height close to normal, prevents mucosal erosion and basement membrane damage in irradiated mice jejunum. However, no significant reductions in dead, inflammatory and mitotic cells were observed in DZ pretreated mice, but there was an increased in crypt cells proliferation and regeneration. Pretreatment with DZ100 mg/kg significantly elevated the endogenous antioxidant enzymes (GSH, GST and SOD) in mice at 2, 4 and 8 h post sham irradiation. Radiation induced fall in endogenous antioxidant enzymes was significantly prevented by DZ pretreatment. Pretreatment with DZ 75 and 100 mg/kg reduced the radiation induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNCE) in mice bone marrow. DZ also maintained the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) ratio (P/N ratio) in

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  19. Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Zari, Talal A

    2010-10-01

    Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the crude tea leaves extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The average body weight of animals with diabetes and their percentage changes of body weight gain after 15 and 30 days were significantly lower than that of the normal control mice. In diabetic mice, supplementation with tea leaves extract decreased the loss of body weight. After 15 and 30 days, significant increases in the levels of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) were noted in STZ-diabetic mice fed with normal diet. Also, the values of total protein in this group were statistically declined after 15 and 30 days. The levels of serum glucose and GPT were significantly elevated after 15 and 30 days in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Moreover, the level of serum GOT was notably increased after 30 days. Insignificant alterations were observed in the levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Thus, the present results have shown that tea leaves extract has the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antihyperproteinemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and kidney damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes in mice.

  20. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  1. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ritu; Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P < 0.001, and catalase, P < 0.001), nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P < 0.001), and total proteins (P < 0.001) when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  2. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ritu; Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P < 0.001, and catalase, P < 0.001), nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P < 0.001), and total proteins (P < 0.001) when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer. PMID:24696677

  3. Alteration in inflammatory/apoptotic pathway and histone modifications by nordihydroguaiaretic acid prevents acute pancreatitis in swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ujwal Mukund; Gupta, Chanchal; Wagh, Preshit Ravindra; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2011-11-01

    Reactive oxygen radicals, pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines have been implicated in caerulein induced acute pancreatitis. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a plant lignin, has marked anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of NDGA against caerulein induced pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of eight doses of caerulein in male swiss albino mice. NDGA was administered after 9 h of acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic damage and the protective effect of NDGA were assessed by oxidative stress parameters and histopathology of pancreas. The mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (DNAJ C15 and HSPD1) was examined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Expression of HSP 27, NF-κB, TNF-α, p-p38, Bcl-2, p-PP2A, procaspase-3, caspase-3 and histone modifications were examined by western blotting. NDGA attenuated the oxidative stress, led to increased plasma α-amylase and decreased IGF-1 in AP mice. It modulated the mRNA and protein levels of heat shock proteins and reduced the expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and p-p38. It increased the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in the pancreas of AP mice. In addition, NDGA prevented the changes in modifications of histone H3 in acute pancreatitis. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which suggests that NDGA prevents the progression of acute pancreatitis by involving alteration of histone H3 modifications and modulating the expression of genes involved in inflammatory/apoptotic cascade, which may be responsible for decreased necrosis and increased apoptosis in this model of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Evaluation of in vivo cytogenetic toxicity of europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) in male and female Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bollu, Vishnu Sravan; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Dasari, Rama Krishna; Rao, Soma Shiva Nageshwara; Misra, Sunil; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Our group already demonstrated that europium hydroxide nanorods (EHNs) show none or mild toxicity in C57BL/6 mice even at high dose and exhibited excellent pro-angiogenic activity towards in vitro and in vivo models. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo cytogenetic toxicity of intraperitoneally administered EHNs (12.5-250 mg/kg/b.w.) in male and female Swiss albino mice by analyzing chromosomal aberrations (CAs), mitotic index (MI), micronucleus (MN) from bone marrow and peripheral blood. Furthermore, we performed the cytogenetic toxicity study of EHNs towards Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, in order to compare with the in vivo results. The results of CA assay of mice treated with EHNs (12.5-125 mg/kg/b.w.) showed no significant change in the formation of aberrant metaphases compared to the control group. Also, there was no significant difference in the number of dividing cells between the control group and EHNs-treated groups observed by MI study, suggesting the non-cytotoxicity of EHNs. Additionally, FACS study revealed that EHNs do not arrest cells at any phase of cell cycle in the mouse model. Furthermore, MN test of both bone marrow and peripheral blood showed no significant differences in the induction of MNs when compared with the control group. In vitro results from CHO cells also support our in vivo observations. Considering the role of angiogenesis by EHNs and the absence of its genotoxicity in mouse model, we strongly believe the future application of EHNs in treating various diseases, where angiogenesis plays an important role such as cardiovascular diseases, ischemic diseases and wound healing.

  5. Effect of HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor on DNA synthesis and free radical oxidation in the gastric mucosa under normal conditions and during indometacin-induced ulcerative process in the stomach of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Timoshin, S S; Bragina, V V; Lebedko, O A; Sazonova, E N; Zhivotova, E Yu; Fleischman, M Yu

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of simvastatin (24 mg/kg per os for 30 days) on DNA synthesis ((3)H-thymidine autoradiography) and free radical oxidation (chemiluminescent method) in the gastric mucosa of albino mice under normal conditions and in ulcerative process induced by single indometacin administration. Simvastatin treatment activated free radical oxidation, which was seen from enhanced chemiluminescence in the mucosa homogenate (by 1.7-4.6 times). Administration of indometacin against the background of simvastatin treatment potentiated local oxidative stress and inhibited DNA synthesis. Under these conditions, the area of ulcerative lesion in the gastric mucosa increased by 3.0 times.

  6. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  7. Antioxidant potential of black tea against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Neetu; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals and related reactive species have been implicated in the etiology of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Antioxidant enzymes exist in cells to protect against the effects of these free radicals and other oxygen-derived species, which are produced during the oxidative stress. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most commonly consumed beverage worldwide. Both green and black tea are known to possess many pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antipyretic, antibacterial, and antineoplastic effects. In the present study, the preventive effects of black tea extract (BTE) was evaluated in Swiss albino mice against 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oxidative stress. The animals were given 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% BTE as the sole source of drinking solution for 1 week prior to the administration of DMBA, which was given orally as a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At the end of the study period, the liver, kidney, and prostate tissues were dissected out for the determination of antioxidant enzyme levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase), and lipid peroxidation. A dose-dependent protective effect of BTE against DMBA-induced depletion in enzymes activity was observed in all three tissues examined. Similarly, a significant dose-dependent inhibition of the lipid peroxidation caused by DMBA was observed in the BTE-administered animals in all three tissues examined. Our results revealed that BTE provides protection against oxidative damage induced by xenobiotics.

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  9. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil) on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Lekha, George; Mohan, Karthik; Samy, Irudhaya Arockia

    2010-01-01

    Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO), extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract's efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours. PMID:21808561

  10. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  11. Effect of methomyl formulation, a carbamate pesticide on ovarian follicular development and fertility in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shanthalatha, A; Madhuranath, B N; Yajurvedi, H N

    2012-01-01

    Administration of 5 mg methomyl (40%) kg(-1) b.wt. mouse(-1) (equal to 50% of LD50 dose), every day for 90 days to adult female mice resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, relative weight of the ovary, uterus and fallopian tube; mean number of small, preantral, antral and pre-ovulatory follicles and fertility compared to controls. On the other hand, total duration of the estrous cycle was significantly increased compared to controls. One month after the cessation of the treatment (a commercial methomyl preparation-lannate) the effect on estrous cycle and organ weight was not restored. Treatment of 2.5 mg or 1 mg lannate kg(-1) b. wt., although did not alter duration of the estrous cycle; relative weight of the ovary, uterus, and fallopian tube and fertility, caused a significant decrease in mean number of small follicles compared to controls. All the groups of mice treated with lannate showed loss in body weight (15.15% in 1 mg, 6.61% in 2 mg and 12.16% in 5 mg treated groups) whereas controls showed a gain in body weight (20.02%) during the period of experimentation. The results indicate that 5 mg lannate kg(-1) b. wt causes loss of follicles and infertility, whereas lower dosages (2.5 and 1 mg) reduce the number of small follicles which might shorten reproductive life span of mice.

  12. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  13. Squaraine PDT induces oxidative stress in skin tumor of swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, T. R.; Gayathri, Devi D.; Ramaiah, D.; Abraham, Annie

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using a sensitizing drug is recognized as a promising medical technique for cancer treatment. It is a two step process that requires the administration of a photosensitizer followed by light exposure to treat a disease. Following light exposure the photosensitizer is excited to a higher energy state which generates free radicals and singlet oxygen. The present study was carried out to assess the oxidative damage induced by bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6- trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine in skin tumor tissues of mice with/ without light treatment. Skin tumor was induced using 7, 12-Dimethyl Benz(a)anthracene and croton oil. The tumor bearing mice were given an intraperitoneal injection with the squaraine dye. After 24h, the tumor area of a few animals injected with the dye, were exposed to visible light from a 1000 W halogen lamp and others kept away from light. All the mice were sacrificed one week after the PDT treatment and the oxidative profile was analyzed (TBARS, SOD, catalase, GSH, GPx and GR) in tumor/ skin tissues. The dye induces oxidative stress in the tumor site only on illumination and the oxidative status of the tumor tissue was found to be unaltered in the absence of light. The results of the study clearly shows that the tumor destruction mediated by PDT using bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6-trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine as a photosensitizer is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, produced by the light induced changes in the dye.

  14. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Pranita P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders. PMID:27379263

  15. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, K. P.; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice. PMID:21829300

  16. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, K P; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.

  17. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue–gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead-exposed mice were significantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days), the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight) and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate-exposed group and treatment with garlic improved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate. PMID:21483544

  18. Chemopreventive effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Al-Hazimi, Awdah; Al-Mogbel, Mohammed; Hossain, Ashfaque; Bagchi, Debasis

    2012-06-01

    The chemopreventive potential of cardamom was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mouse skin papillomagenesis. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor yield and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated orally with 0.5 mg of cardamom powder in suspension continuously at pre-, peri-, and post-initiational stages of papillomagenesis compared with the control group. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were also comparatively lower in the cardamom-treated mouse group. Treatment of cardamom suspension by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation level of the liver (P < .01). In addition, the reduced glutathione level was significantly elevated in comparison with the control group (P < .05) following cardamom suspension treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate the potential of cardamom as a chemopreventive agent against two-stage skin cancer.

  19. Presence of toll like receptor-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and its modulation by Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. .

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandrayee; Prakash, Nune Ravi; Manna, Sunil Kumar; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors identifying pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They play a critical role in the innate immune response during the initial interaction between the infecting microorganism and phagocytic cells. Here, we verified the presence of TLR-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and their modulation after infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. It was seen that TLR-2 gene transcribed to its respective mRNA on S. aureus infection, in thymus, spleen and lymph node of mice but their levels and mode of expression varied. When challenged with LPS no prominent changes in the expression of TLR-2 receptor was observed but its expression increased gradually with time in the thymus, spleen and lymph node of S. aureus infected mice. TLR-2 expression was also found enhanced in infected splenic macrophages. By studying the serum cytokine profile the functionality of the receptor was measured. The results indicate the presence of TLR-2 in thymus, spleen and lymph node of Swiss albino strain of mice and that they are modulated by S. aureus.

  20. Biochemical and histopathological responses of the Swiss albino mice treated with uranyl nitrate and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha Vijayan, P; Rekha, P D; Dinesh, U; Arun, A B

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal ubiquitous in the natural environment. In its chemical form, it is known to induce nephrotoxicity both in human and in animals. Its toxicity is dose and time dependent, also varies with form of uranium. In the present study, we assessed the nephrotoxicity induced by a single dose of uranyl nitrate (UN) in mice at different time intervals and recovery from its toxicity. Two doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight of uranyl nitrate was injected intraperitoneally and animals were sacrificed after 1, 3, 5, 14, and 28 d of administration. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of post-UN dosing in comparison to control were evaluated. Tubular damage to about 75% was observed after 3 d (4 mg/kg) and the biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased. Progression of tubular damage was not found after 5 d. Dose-dependent recovery of uranyl nitrate-treated animals was observed after 14 and 28 d of dosing. The concentration of uranium retained in kidney correlates with biochemical and histopathological analysis.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: experimental parasitism in the central nervous system of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Socorro, Grace; Avila, Régulo; Hernández, Ana; Merchán, Solángel; Ortiz, Diana; Primavera, Gabriela; Chique, José; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes a pan-infection, Chagas disease, in American mammals through fecal transmission by triatomine insects, resulting in an acute phase parasitemia with intracellularity mainly in the myocells and cells of the central nervous system (CNS).The parasites, due to the immune response, then decrease in number, characteristic of the life-long chronicity of the disease. We infected a mouse model with isolates obtained from reservoirs and vectors from rural and urban endemic areas in Venezuela. Intracellular proliferation and differentiation of the parasite in astrocytes, microglia, neurons, endothelial cells of the piarachnoid, cells of the Purkinje layer, and spinal ganglion cells, as well as extracellularly in the neuropil, were evaluated during the acute phase. Damages were identified as meningoencephalitis, astrocytosis, reactive microglia, acute neuronal degeneration by central chromatolysis, endothelial cell hyperplasia, edema of the neuropil, and satellitosis. This is the first time that satellitosis has been reported from a mammal infected with T. cruzi. Intracellular T. cruzi and inflammatory infiltrates were found in cardiac and skeletal myocytes and liver cells. No parasitism or alterations to the CNS were observed in the chronic mice, although they did show myocarditis and myocitis with extensive infiltrates. Our results are discussed in relation to hypotheses that deny the importance of the presence of tissue parasites versus the direct relationship between these and the damages produced during the chronic phase of Chagas disease. We also review the mechanisms proposed as responsible for the nervous phase of this parasitosis.

  2. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel 1-substituted fentanyl analogs in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Maurya, Chandra Kant; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Ajai Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl [N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide] is a potent opioid analgesic agent, but a has narrow therapeutic index. We reported earlier on the synthesis and bioefficacy of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs (1–4) in mice. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of four additional analogs, viz. N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6), isopropyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (7) and t-butyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (8). The median lethal dose (LD50) determined by intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes suggests these analogs to be comparatively less toxic than fentanyl. On the basis of observational assessment on spontaneous activities of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, all the analogs were found to be similar to fentanyl. Naloxone hydrochloride abolished the neurotoxic effects of these analogs, thereby ascertaining their opioid receptor-mediated effects. All the analogs displayed significant analgesic effects, measured by formalin-induced hind paw licking and tail immersion tests at their respective median effective dose (ED50). They also exhibited 8–12 fold increase in therapeutic index over fentanyl. However, 5 and 6 alone produced lower ED50 (20.5 and 21.0 µg/kg, respectively) and higher potency ratio (1.37 and 1.33, respectively) compared to fentanyl. They could thus be considered for further studies on pain management. PMID:26109885

  4. Boric acid enhances in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell proliferation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S; Al-Shabanah, O A; Al-Harbi, M M; Al-Bekairi, A M; Raza, M

    2001-08-13

    The influence of boric acid, a boron carrier, on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell-bearing mice was investigated in view of its importance in the boron neutron capture therapy and the influence of boron on proliferation and progression of cancer cells mediated by proteoglycans and collagen. The present study included the evaluation of boric acid for the effects on total count and viability of EAC cells in addition to their non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as parameters for conjugative detoxication potency and possible oxidative damage. The EAC cell-bearing animals were also observed for the effect on survival, body weight changes, and histopathological evaluation of the tumors grown at the site of inoculation. The treatment with boric acid significantly increased the total number of peritoneal EAC cells and their viability. A significant increase in the body weight was observed that dose-dependently reached plateau levels by 20 days of treatment. Conversely, a reduction in the duration of survival of these animals was evident with the same protocol. Boric acid treatment resulted in a decrease in NP-SH contents with a concomitant increase in MDA levels in EAC cells as revealed by the results of the biochemical analysis. These data are supported by our results on histopathological investigations, which apparently showed fast growth, in addition to several mitotic figures and mixed inflammatory reaction, after treatment with boric acid. It seems likely that a particular combination of properties of boric acid, rather than a single characteristic alone, will provide useful information on the use of this boron carrier in neutron capture therapy.

  5. Myrica nagi attenuates cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Alam, A; Iqbal, M; Saleem, M; Ahmed, S; Sultana, S

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to identify new chemopreventive agents which could be useful for man. Myrica nagi, a subtropical shrub, has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity and other pharmacological and physiological disorders. We have shown a chemopreventive effect of Myrica nagi on cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in mice. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment at a dose level of 30 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone enhances susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for iron-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and induction of xanthine oxidase activity which are accompanied by decrease in the activities of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and depletion in the level of cutaneous glutathione. Parallel to these changes a sharp decrease in the activities of phase II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase has been observed. Application of Myrica nagi at doses of 2.0 mg and 4.0 mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of cumene hydroperoxide (30 mg/animal/0.2 ml acetone) treatment resulted in significant inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for lipid peroxidation induced by iron ascorbate and xanthine oxidase activities were significantly reduced (P<0.05). In addition the depleted level of glutathione, the inhibited activities of antioxidants, and phase II metabolizing enzymes were recovered to a significant level (P<0.05). The protective effect of Myrica nagi was dose-dependent. In summary our data suggest that Myrica nagi is an effective chemopreventive agent in skin and capable of ameliorating cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity.

  6. In-vivo characterization of endogenous porphyrin fluorescence from DMBA-treated Swiss Albino mice skin carcinogenesis for measuring tissue transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Aruna, Prakasa R.

    2002-05-01

    Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of endogenous porphyrin emission from DMBA treated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was carried out. The emission of endogenous porphyrin from normal and abnormal skin tissues was studied both in the presence and absence of exogenous ALA to compare the resultant porphyrin emission characterictics. The mice skin is excited at 405nm and emission spectra are scanned from 430 to 700nm. The average fluorescence emission spectra of mice skin at normal and various tissues transformation conditions were found to be different. Two peaks around 460nm and 636nm were observed and they may be attributed to NADH, Elastin and collagen combination and endogenous porphyrin emission. The intensity at 636nm increases as the stage of the cancer increases. Although exogenous ALA enhances the PPIX level in tumor, the synthesis of PPIX was also found in normal surrounding skin, in fact, with higher concentration than that of tumor tissues.

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15 ± 1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4 ± 3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and

  8. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  9. Antagonistic role of tea against sodium arsenite-induced oxidative DNA damage and inhibition of DNA repair in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dona; Roy, Madhumita

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is of increasing health concern in West Bengal, India. Arsenic has been associated with various human cancers, but the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is not clearly elucidated. Oxidative stress and defective repair mechanisms may promote accumulation of mutations and may be a stepping stone for carcinogenesis. Prevention of arsenic-induced oxidative stress and repair inhibition may reduce the chances of initiation of cancer. Tea polyphenols are reported to have excellent chemopreventive properties against cancer. This study aimed to elucidate the role of tea against arsenic-induced formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and arsenic-suppressed DNA repair in Swiss albino mice. Both green and black tea gave fruitful results in the reduction of 8OHdG and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in Swiss albino mice administered sodium arsenite (As III). DNA repair enzymes--such as PARP1, DNA β-polymerase, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, DNA protein kinase (catalytic subunit), XRCC 4, DNA ligase IV, and DNA topoisomerase IIβ--were induced by the phytochemicals at both the protein and genetic levels. Thus, tea polyphenols may prove effective in treating arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  10. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  11. In vivo protection studies of bis-quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)- N-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK oximes) against tabun and soman poisoning in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Swami, D; Nagar, D P; Singh, K P; Acharya, J; Karade, H N; Yadav, R

    2017-01-01

    The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum. Using various doses of tabun and soman (subcutaneously (sc)), in multiples of their IC50, AChE reactivation ability of the oximes was studied. Besides, acute toxicity (0.8× LD50, im, 24 h postexposure) of HNK-102 and 2-PAM was also compared by determining biochemical, hematological variables and making histopathological observations. Protection offered by HNK-102 against tabun poisoning was found to be four times higher compared to 2-PAM. However, nearly equal protection was noted with all the four oximes against soman poisoning. HNK-102 reactivated brain AChE activity by 1.5 times more than 2-PAM at IC50 dose of soman and tabun. Acute toxicity studies of HNK-102 and 2-PAM showed sporadic changes in urea, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, and so on compared to control group, however, not supported by histopathological investigations. The present investigation showed superiority of newly synthesized HNK-102 oxime over standard 2-PAM, as a better antidote, against acute poisoning of tabun (4.00 times) and soman (1.04 times), in Swiss albino mice.

  12. Increase in dermal collagen fibril diameter and elastogenesis with UVB exposure: an optical and ultrastructural study in albino Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho; Cassia, Flavia de Freire; Pascarelli, Bernardo Miguel; Souza, Sonia Oliveira; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Filgueira, Absalom Lima; Japiassu, Maria Augusta; Takiya, Christina Maeda

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complex biological phenomenon, dependent not only on the innate or intrinsic process ("biological clock"), but also on extrinsic elements, primarily chronic sun exposure (photoaging). In order to verify dermal morphological changes in the elastic fiber system and collagen associated with aged skin, we performed a light and electron microscopic study on exposed-shaved albino mice, which were exposed to UVB radiation. The experimental group consisted of 48 exposed animals, randomly distributed in three groups and submitted to different radiation doses (A, 28800 J/m2; B, 57600 J/m2; and C, 86400 J/m2) and studied 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure discontinuation. Nonexposed-shaved and nonexposed-nonshaved animals were included as controls. From the day of exposure discontinuation and subsequently, the elastic system and collagen network were progressively modified. The increase in collagen fibril diameter was prominent in the 60 and 90 day groups (p<0.05), as noticed on electron microscopy. Elastic fiber density also increased after irradiation (p<0.05). On electron microscopy, elastogenesis was seen in the deep dermis. The comparative study among the groups disclosed clear relationship between doses and "elastotic changes". It also showed that chronological aging of mice skin was apparently intensified after UVB exposure. Skin elastogenesis seems to be a major consequence of UVB exposure, apart from elastolysis, and occurs not only in humans but also in hairless mice submitted to continuous, long-term UVB exposure.

  13. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    PubMed

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination.

  14. Leucas aspera inhibits the Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice: A preliminary study exploring possible mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Bibin Baby; Dash, Suvakanta; Lahkar, Mangala; Sarma, Usha; Samudrala, Pavan Kumar; Thomas, Jaya Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: North East India is a rich source of medicinal plants and a number of plant extracts are used by tribal peoples living in this area for various disorders. L.aspera is such a plant, traditionally used as an antitumor agent. Aim: In the present study, aerial parts of L.aspera were investigated for antitumor activity in Dalton's lymphoma (DAL) bearing mice. The ability of plant extract in free radical scavenging, neoangiogenesis inhibition and macrophage stimulation were also checked. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies ethyl acetate fraction of L.aspera (EALA) was selected for the detailed study. DAL ascites tumor model was performed to check the antitumor activity of EALA (200 and 400mg/kg of body weight). Hematological and histopathological parameters were estimated. Antioxidant levels, neoangiogenesis and peritoneal macrophage count were also determined. Results: In vitro MTT and Trypan blue assay results showed the cytotoxic effect of EALA in DAL cells lines. EALA treatment resulted in significant decrease in ascites tumor volume and viable cell count. Hematological and liver antioxidant parameters were normalised by EALA treatment. It was also found that EALA treatment inhibits neovascularisation and produce macrophage stimulation in treated mice. Conclusion: The results showed that EALA is a promising anticancer agent and its activity is comparable to the standard drug 5-Flouro uracil (5-FU). PMID:24914276

  15. Mitigating role of baicalein on lysosomal enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme status during lung carcinogenesis of Swiss albino mice induced by benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Naveenkumar, Chandrashekar; Raghunandakumar, Subramanian; Asokkumar, Selvamani; Binuclara, John; Rajan, Balan; Premkumar, Thandavamoorthy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2014-06-01

    The lungs mainly serve as a primary site for xenobiotic metabolism and constitute an important defense mechanism against inhalation of carcinogens. Our current study aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) in Swiss albino mice exposed to tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] for its ability to mitigate pulmonary carcinogenesis. Here, we report that altered activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsin-D, cathepsin-B, acid phosphatase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucuronidase, and β-D-N-acetyl glucosaminidase), phase I biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase), and phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase, and DT-diaphorase) were observed in the B(a)P-induced mice. Treatment with BE significantly restored back the activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. Moreover, assessment of lysosomal abnormalities by transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that BE treatment effectively counteract B(a)P-induced oxidative damages. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analysis of CYP1A1 revealed that BE treatment effectively negate B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of CYP1A1. Further analysis of scanning electron microscopic studies in lung was carried out to substantiate the anticarcinogenic effect of BE. The overall data suggest that BE treatment significantly inhibits lysosomal and microsomal dysfunction, thus revealing its potent anticarcinogenic effect.

  16. The high antioxidative power of quercetin (aglycone flavonoid) and its glycone (rutin) avert high cholesterol diet induced hepatotoxicity and inflammation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sikder, Kunal; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Das, Nilanjan; Manna, Krishnendu; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-06-01

    The present study demonstrates for the first time the protective role of two common flavonoids, quercetin and its glycone rutin, against high cholesterol diet (2%) induced hepatotoxicity and inflammation. Swiss albino mice were given either a standard laboratory diet (control), high cholesterol diet (HCD) or high cholesterol diet along with quercetin or rutin (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) in their respective groups. The HCD mice exhibited a gain in body weight, significant rise in serum and hepatic level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, liver function enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). Histopathological studies showed hepatic fat accumulation and tissue disintegration. There was significant depletion of major hepatic antioxidants (P < 0.05). Immunoblot studies revealed a high expression of redox sensitive transcription factors NF-κB and TNF-α. A subsequent rise in the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers like C reactive protein and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 were also found from the RT-PCR study. Simultaneous treatment with quercetin or rutin along with HCD significantly prevented the gains in body weight, lipid level, liver function enzymes, lipid peroxidation level and expression of inflammatory markers. The restoration of hepatic antioxidant homeostasis and hepatic morphology has also been observed. Hence, the present study illustrates the hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of two similar flavonoids.

  17. [Efficacy of cefixime and cefepime vs. other cephalosporins in experimental plague of albino mice due to variants FI+ and FI- of the plague microbe].

    PubMed

    Ryzhko, I V; Shcherbaniuk, A I; Moldavan, I A; Tsuraeva, R I; Anisimov, B I; Trishina, A V

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy of cefixime and cefepime vs. ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoperazone was studied in vitro and in the treatment of experimental plague of albino mice due to natural, antigen complete strains of the plague microbe and the pathogen variants deprived of the ability to produce the capsule antigen fraction I (FI- phenotype). The MICs of cefixime and cefepime for 20 FI+ and 20 FI- strains of the plague microbe were 0.02-0.08 mg/l, that corresponded to the MICs of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. The MICs of cefoperazone were somewhat higher (0.1-0.2 mg/l). The ED50 values of cefixime and cefepime for prevention and treatment of experimental plague in mice statistically did not significantly differ from the ED50 values of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoperazone. The efficacy indices (EIs) of cefixime and cefepime were > 10(4) independent of the infective strain phenotype (FI+ or FI-) and did not differ from those of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. The efficacy of cefotaxime and cefoperazone was somewhat lower (EIs 1.7 x 10(3)-8.9 x 10(3)). Both the antibacterials were shown to provide high protective and therapeutic efficacy (80-100% of the survivors) independent of the phenotype (FI+ or FI-) of the pathogen infective strain. The results allowed to consider the antibiotics prospective in prevention and treatment of plague.

  18. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  19. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome.

  20. Attenuation of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in diabetes STZ-induced type 1 by biotin in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldahmash, Badr Abdullah; El-Nagar, Doaa Mohamed; Ibrahim, Khalid Elfakki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems. This study was designed to investigate the effect of biotin to regulate blood glucose level, reduced toxicity and oxidative stress in liver of diabetic mice STZ-induced type 1. Male mice were divided into three groups, the first one served as the control group, the second and the third groups received single ip dose of 150 mg/kg of STZ, the second group served as the untreated diabetic group, the third group received daily oral dose of 15 mg/kg of biotin, livers and liver index showed insignificant difference among groups. Blood glucose level showed a significant decrease in treated diabetic mice compared to untreated diabetic mice. Biochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in liver enzymes AST and ALT compared to the control group. Histopathological examination showed severe changes in untreated diabetic liver tissue manifested by dilated portal vein, leukocytic infiltration, fatty degeneration and moderate to severe histopathological score, whereas, treated diabetic mice with biotin showed reduction in hepatotoxicity represented by appearance of relative healthy hepatocytes and normal histopathological score. Immunohistochemistry of acrolein showed intense immunoreactions in liver section of untreated diabetic mice and faint immunoreactions in treated diabetic mice with biotin as evidence to oxidative stress reduction. PMID:26981014

  1. Effect of nanohypericum (Hypericum perforatum gold nanoparticles) treatment on restraint stressinduced behavioral and biochemical alteration in male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, D. Jaya; ArulKumar, S.; Sabesan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Backgorund: Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE), is known for its antidepressant effect. Methods: In the present study we investigated the effect of H. perforatum gold nanoparticles (Nanohypericum-HPGNPs) protective role against restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hrs/day. HPE (200 mg/kg) and nanohypericum (20 mg/kg) were administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjected to acute immobilized stress. Behavioral test parameters for anxiety and spatial memory were assessed followed by biochemical parmeters (lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, etc.) subsequently. Results: The behavior study showed severe anxiety and memory loss compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in lipid per oxidation, depletion of super oxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and glutathione per oxidase as compared to unstressed animal. Twenty one days of H. perforatum and nanohypericum treatment in a dose of 200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively, significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral and oxidative damage. Conclusion: In conclusion nanohypericum prove the modest activity than the HPE. PMID:21713134

  2. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  3. Stimulatory effects of Cuminum cyminum and flavonoid glycoside on Cyclosporine-A and restraint stress induced immune-suppression in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Satti, Naresh Kumar; Suri, Krishan Avtar; Amina, Musarat; Bani, Sarang

    2010-04-15

    Many herbs and spices are known to modulate the immune system and have been shown to restore the immunity in immuno-compromised individuals. Spices generally used to increase the taste and flavor of food also has the history of usage as an ayurvedic medicine. Therefore to explore the health modulating effects of Cuminum cyminum and to identify the active compound, immunomodulatory properties were evaluated using flowcytometry and ELISA in normal and immune-suppressed animals. C. cyminum and compound 1 stimulated the T cells and Th1 cytokines expression in normal animals. Swiss albino mice subjected to Cyclosporine-A induced immune-suppression were dosed orally with C. cyminum (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on consecutive days. The results showed that administration significantly increased T cells (CD4 and CD8) count and Th1 predominant immune response in a dose dependent manner thereby suggesting immunomodulatory activity through modulation of T lymphocytes expression. In restraint stress induced immune-suppressed animals, compound 1 countered the depleted T lymphocytes, decreased the elevated corticosterone levels and size of adrenal glands and increased the weight of thymus and spleen. Based on the data we may conclude that C. cyminum is a potent immunomodulator and may develop as a lead to recover the immunity of immuno-compromised individuals.

  4. Anticlastogenic effects of black tea (World blend) and its two active polyphenols theaflavins and thearubigins in vivo in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chaudhuri, T; Ganguly, D K; Giri, A K

    2001-10-26

    This study investigated the inhibition of cyclophosphamide (CP) and dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced genetic damage by black tea (World blend) and its two active polyphenols theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR) in Swiss albino mice as measured by chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Three different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%) of tea and a single dose of TF and TR were tested for their anticlastogenic effects against DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight) and CP (20 mg/kg for CA and 10 mg/kg for SCE). A significant decrease in CA was observed in all the three concentrations of tea extract plus DMBA treated groups when compared with the respective DMBA treated group alone. Similarly a significant decrease in CA was observed in all the three concentrations of tea extracts plus CP treated series when compared with the group treated with CP alone. In SCE assay, a significant decrease in SCE was observed in 5, 10 and 20% black tea extract plus CP and 10 and 20% tea extracts plus DMBA treated groups when compared with the CP or DMBA treated group alone. In the single dose of TF and TR treated groups a significant decrease in both CA and SCE was observed in both the TF and TR plus both the carcinogen treated groups when compared with their positive controls. The protective effects of black tea extracts were more significant than that of its two polyphenols. This study indicates that both black tea and its active polyphenols TF and TR have significant anticlastogenic effects in bone marrow cells of mice.

  5. The course of experimental staphylococcus infection in albino mice during action of certain factors of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, V. Y.; Shilov, V. M.; Borman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of certain factors of space flight, acceleration and hypokinesia, on the course of experimental staphylococcus infection in mice. Combined action of hypokinesia and acceleration caused a marked depression of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and formation of a considerable amount of alpha toxin.

  6. Spondias pinnata stem bark extract lessens iron overloaded liver toxicity due to hemosiderosis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata (SPME) on iron overload induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron-dextran into mice and resulting liver damage was manifested by significant rise in serum enzyme markers (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) and reduction in liver antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH). Hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured in response to the oral administration of SPME of different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight). In order to determine the efficiency as iron chelating drug, the release of iron from ferritin by SPME was further studied. Enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes were detected in SPME treated mice. SPME produced a dose dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, liver fibrosis; and levels of serum enzyme markers and ferritin were also reduced dose dependently. The liver iron content was also found to be less in SPME treated group compared to control group. The reductive release of ferritin iron was augmented significantly after dose dependent addition of SPME. The ameliorating effect of SPME on damaged liver was furthermore supported by the histopathological studies that showed improved histological appearances. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the hepatoprotective efficiency of SPME in iron intoxicated mice, and hence possibly useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases.

  7. Protective effect of Clerodendrum colebrookianum leaves against iron-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Chatterjee, Anupam; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-05-01

    Liver toxicity due to iron overload leads to oxidative damage of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids which in turn manifests several human diseases. Here, we evaluated the improving effect of Clerodendrum colebrookianum leaf on iron overload induced liver injury along with in vitro iron chelation and the protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron-dextran into mice. Post oral administration of different doses of the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed significant decrease in different biochemical markers such as liver iron, serum ferritin and serum enzyme levels, along with decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and collagen content. In addition, the extract effectively enhanced the antioxidant enzyme levels and also exhibited the potential activity of the reductive release of ferritin iron. The protective effect of C. colebrookianum extract on injured liver was furthermore supported by the histopathological studies that showed improvement histologically. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the hepatoprotective efficiency of C. colebrookianum leaf in iron overloaded mice, and hence, a potential iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases.

  8. Chemopreventive Effect of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) Against Benzo(α)Pyrene-Induced Forestomach Papillomagenesis in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Dhanarasu, Sasikumar; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention has recently gained significant recognition. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), a dietary phytoproduct, is a popular spice that is regularly used as a flavoring agent in various cuisines, and is much valued for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the cancer chemopreventive potential of cardamom was investigated against benzo(α)pyrene [B(α)P]-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. Results showed that treatment with cardamom [(B(α)P + cardamom] reduced tumor incidence and multiplicity significantly (P<0.001) by 41.67% and 74.55%, respectively, compared to that of the B(α)P control group. Biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the hepatic activities of glutathione-S-transferases (P<0.01), superoxide dismutase (P<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (P<0.001), and catalase (P<0.001) in mice treated with cardamom compared with the control. Furthermore, the nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione was significantly (P<0.001) increased in the cardamom-treated group, whereas the lipid peroxidation level along with lactate dehydrogenase activity exhibited a significant (P<0.01) reduction with cardamom treatment compared to the control. These results suggest that cardamom has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent against forestomach cancer.

  9. Consumption of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances systemic immune response, antioxidative capacity and HPA axis functions in aged male swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Sharma, Anamika; Kumari, Amita; Kulurkar, Pankaj Markand; Raj, Rajneesh; Gulati, Ashu; Padwad, Yogendra S

    2017-03-24

    The present investigation assessed the potential of green tea phytochemical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in alleviating age-associated aberrations in immunity, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and redox homeostasis using 16 months old male Swiss albino mice. Four groups of animals (n = 6 per group) were supplemented with either aqueous EGCG at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/animal or vehicle control for 6 weeks. A concurrent analysis of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in splenocytes, differential leucocyte population, T cell differentiation markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), neutrophil functions, immunoglobulins profile in intestine, circulatory HPA axis hormonal levels as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress in the liver was performed. We observed a remarkable increase in plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels of 100 mg EGCG fed animals while eosinophils and monocytes counts in blood increased. EGCG consumption increased the fraction of CD3(+)CD8(+) cells in splenocytes and CD28 expression on PBMCs. The immunoglobulins profile revealed decreased production of secretory IgA, IgE and IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Liver extracts showed increase in superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity while lipid peroxidation along with inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) decreased. Our results collectively show that EGCG consumption during aging strengthens systemic immunity by enhancing cellular immune response and simultaneously attenuating antibody response aided by an increase in adrenal DHEA production. Thus, consumption of green tea may be beneficial in alleviating some of the deleterious aspects of aging and immunosenescence in elderly.

  10. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impairs Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In this study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29, and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various end-points studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29, but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 63 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization.

  11. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad; Fareed, Sheeba; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR],13 C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6’→1”)-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50 of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01. PMID:26957871

  12. Comparative toxicity of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, and /sup 252/Cf in C57BL/Do black and albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Gardner, P.A.; Talbot, L.R.; McFarland, S.S.; Pollard, I.A.; Atherton, D.R.; VanMoorhem, D.; Brammer, D.

    1983-09-01

    Groups of C57BL/Do (black and albino) mice were injected with graded activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, or /sup 252/Cf and were followed throughout life. Bone sarcoma was the principal radiation-induced end point, and the risks associated with average skeletal doses of the four transuranium radionuclides, relative to radium, were determined. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was calculated for each emitter by dividing its risk coefficient (bone sarcomas per 10(/sup 6/) mouse-rad) by the risk coefficient for /sup 226/Ra. Combined data for males and females in both black and albino mice gave the following values +/- SD for the RBE relative to /sup 226/Ra . 1.0: /sup 239/Pu . 15.3 +/- 3.9, /sup 241/Am . 4.9 +/- 1.4, /sup 249/Cf . 5.0 +/- 1.4, and /sup 252/Cf . 2.6 +/- 0.8. About 70% of the tumors occurred in the axial skeleton, and the risk coefficient for females averaged about four times higher than for males when all five nuclides were included. The RBE of fission fragment irradiation from /sup 252/Cf for cancer induction, relative to alpha irradiation, for the combined data in all of the animals given /sup 252/Cf and /sup 249/Cf, was 0.02 +/- 0.28, in agreement with the calculated theoretical value of 0.03, based on the ratio of summed track lengths in tissue.

  13. Comparative toxicity of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, and /sup 252/Cf in C57BL/Do black and albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Gardner, P.A.; TAlbot, L.R.; McFarland, S.S.; Pollard, T.A.; Atherton, D.R.; vanMoorhem, D.; Brammer, D.

    1983-09-01

    Groups of C57BL/Do (black and albino) mice were injected with graded activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, or /sup 252/Cf and were followed throughout life. Bone sarcoma was the principal radiation-induced end point, and the risks associated with average skeletal doses of the four transuranium radionuclides, relative to radium, were determined. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was calculated for each emitter by dividing its risk coefficient (bone sarcomas per 10/sup 6/ mouse-rad) by the risk coefficient for /sup 226/Ra. Combined data for males and females in both black and albino mice gave the following values +- SD for the RBE relative to /sup 226/Ra = 1.0: /sup 239/Pu = 15.3 +- 3.9, /sup 241/Am = 4.9 +- 1.4, /sup 249/Cf = 5.0 +- 1.4, and /sup 252/Cf = 2.6 +- 0.8. About 70% of the tumors occurred in the axial skeleton, and the risk coefficient for females averaged about four times higher than for males when all five nuclides were included. The RBE of fission fragment irradiation from /sup 252/Cf for cancer induction, relative to ..cap alpha.. irradiation, for the combined data in all of the animals given /sup 252/Cf and /sup 249/Cf, was 0.02 +- 0.28, in agreement with the calculated theoretical value of 0.03, based on the ratio of summed track lengths in tissue.

  14. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  15. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Koiram, Prabhakar R; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Kunwar, Amit; Mishra, Beena; Barik, Atanu; Priyadarsini, Indira K; Mazhuvancherry, Unnikrishnan K

    2007-05-01

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 min before gamma-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like GSH, GST, catalase, SOD, TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals.

  16. Microclones derived from the mouse chromosome 7 D-E bands map within the proximal region of the c14CoS deletion in albino mutant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Toenjes, R.R.W.; Weith, A.; Rinchik, E.M.; Winking, H.; Carnwath, J.W.; Kaliner, B.; Paul, D. )

    1991-07-01

    A group of radiation-induced perinatal-lethal deletions that include the albino (c) locus on mouse chromosome 7 causes failure of expression of various hepatocyte-specific genes when homozygous. The transcription of such genes could be controlled in trans by a regulatory gene(s) located within the proximal region of the C14CoS deletion. To identify this potential regulatory gene, a microclone library was established from microdissected D and E bands of chromosome 7. Three nonoverlapping microclones (E305, E336B, and E453B) hybridizing with wildtype but not with C14CoS/C14CoS DNA were isolated. E336B represents a single-copy DNA fragment, whereas E305 and E453B hybridized with 3 and 10 EcoRI DNA restriction fragments, respectively. All fragments map exclusively within the deletion. The microclones hybridized to DNA of viable C6H/C14CoS deletion heterozygotes but not to DNA of homozygotes for the lethal mutation c10R75M, which belongs to the same complementation group as c14CoS. DNA of viable homozygous mutant C62DSD, which carries a deletion breakpoint proximal to that of c6H, hybridized only with E453B. This microclone identified 6 EcoRI restriction fragments in C62DSD/C62DSD DNA. The results demonstrate that of the isolated microclones, E453B identifies a locus (D7RT453B) that maps closest to the hsdr-1 (hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation) locus, which maps between the proximal breakpoints of deletions c10R75M and c62DSD.

  17. Potential O-acyl-substituted (-)-Epicatechin gallate prodrugs as inhibitors of DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandeep; Manon, Benu; Vir Singh, Tej; Dev Sharma, Pritam; Sharma, Manu

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (1) is one of the principal catechins of green tea and exhibits cancer-preventive activities in various animal models. However, this compound is unstable in neutral or alkaline medium and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability. To improve its stability, O-acyl derivatives of 1 were prepared by isolating the partially purified tea catechin fraction from green tea extract and treating it with a variety of acylating agents. The resulting derivatives, compounds 2-6, were screened for their antitumor potential against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis of skin in mice. The results showed that the antitumor activity decreased with the increase in size of the chain length of the acyl groups, i.e., from compound 2, derivative with an Ac group, to compound 6, possessing a valeryl group. Moreover, the C(4) derivative with a branched acyl chain, 5, had a lower activity than the linear C(4) derivative 4. This reduction in the inhibitory activity may be due to the steric hindrance by the two Me groups. Moreover, significant increases in the protein levels analyzed by ELISA of c-Jun, p65, and p53 were observed in the skin of DMBA/TPA treated mice, whereas mice treated with 2 and DMBA/TPA had a similar expression of these transcription factors than the control mice. The prodrug potential of the O-acyl derivatives 2-6 showed that they were adequately stable to be absorbed intact from the intestine, more stable at gastric pH, and suitable for oral administration.

  18. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ahmed A.; Maodaa, Salah N.; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns. PMID:26966507

  19. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  20. Comparative Study on the Estimation of Estrous Cycle in Mice by Visual and Vaginal Lavage Method

    PubMed Central

    Ekambaram, Gnanagurudasan; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evaluation of estrous cycle in laboratory animals can be a useful measure of the integrity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. Assessment of vaginal cytology is crucial to assess the milieu and compare the endocrine status of animals among the experimental groups. Aim The present study was attempted to compare the estimation of estrous cycle by visual method and non invasive vaginal lavage method. Materials and Methods Sixty healthy female swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The appearance of the vagina with respect to the opening of vagina, vaginal swellings were observed. Non-invasive method was used in vaginal lavage method in which nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells and leucocytes present in vaginal smears were used to identify the estrous stages. Results The estimation of estrous cycle by visual method coincides with the vaginal lavage method. In Vaginal lavage method, the accurate proportion of cells and the transition phases can be evaluated. Conclusion The non-invasive method reduces the risk of pseudo -pregnancy and mechanical trauma. Though, visual method is quick and reliable, for accurate estimation of the stage of the estrous, non-invasive vaginal lavage method is ideal. PMID:28273958

  1. The central nervous system effects of carbon disulfide in male albino rats utilizing the tritiated 2-deoxyglucose method

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, W.E. III.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology employed was the autoradiographic 2-deoxyglucose method. Due to the coupling between functional activity and energy metabolism, these autoradiographs can be likened to a stain for functional activity under varying physiological and pathological states. Exposure regimes consisted of intraperitoneal injections of: (1) 400 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight five days per week for eight weeks; (2) 600 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight for five consecutive days; (3) 800 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight for only a single injection. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the autoradiograms were employed. Appropriate statistical techniques were then be used to test for significant differences in the optical densities of structures between experimental and control radiographs. The results indicate a significant effect across all levels of analyses for the eight week group and the five day group for the auditory and olfactory central pathways.

  2. In vivo exposure of swiss albino mice to chronic low dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) lowers poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of bone marrow cell and blood lymphocyte proteins.

    PubMed

    Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2006-08-01

    Efforts to identify an easy and convenient biomarker of carcinogenesis with potentials of application in mass screening program continue. In a series of investigations on mice exposed to different carcinogens, poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR) of cellular proteins of different tissues has been shown to be a potential biomarker of carcinogenesis. Because blood based biomarker of carcinogenesis offers significant advantage in its use in a cancer screening program, this investigation was undertaken to find correlations between initiation of carcinogenesis and PAR of bone marrow cell (BMC) and blood lymphocyte (BL) proteins in mice chronically exposed to low dose of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for up to four weeks in vivo. The exposure was either alone or in combination with 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), an inhibitor of PAR. Total PAR of cellular proteins and of histone H1 protein were monitored by slot and Western blot immunoprobe assays, respectively. The PAR of total cellular proteins as well as of histone H1 was down-regulated in duration of exposure dependent manners. The results suggest that BMC and BL mirrored status of PAR in other tissues. This finding opens up the possibility of using PAR as a biomarker of carcinogenesis in a blood based test utilizing immunoprobe assay of cellular PAR.

  3. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera.

  4. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-mediated memory dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by attenuating insulin resistance and elevating hippocampal GLUT4 levels independent of insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Sharma, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neuronal functioning, altered insulin signaling, and behavioral dysfunction. Quercetin has shown neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects, besides modulating cognition and insulin signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we explored whether or not quercetin ameliorates stress-mediated cognitive dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanism. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to an array of unpredicted stressors for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. The effect of chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) and quercetin treatment on cognition were evaluated using novel object recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Hippocampal neuronal integrity was observed by histopathological examination. Blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and insulin levels were measured by commercial kits and insulin resistance was evaluated in terms of HOMA-IR index. Hippocampal insulin signaling was determined by immunofluorescence staining. CUS induced significant cognitive dysfunction (NOR and MWM) and severely damaged hippocampal neurons, especially in the CA3 region. Quercetin treatment alleviated memory dysfunction and rescued neurons from CUS-mediated damage. Fasting blood glucose, serum corticosterone, and serum insulin were significantly elevated in stressed animals, besides, having significantly higher HOMA-IR index, suggesting the development of insulin resistance. Quercetin treatment alleviated insulin resistance and attenuated altered biochemical parameters. CUS markedly down-regulated insulin signaling in CA3 region and quercetin treatment improved neuronal GLUT4 expression, which seemed to be independent of insulin and insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that intact insulin functioning in the hippocampus is essential for cognitive functions and quercetin improves CUS-mediated cognitive dysfunction by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling.

  5. Cytological and biochemical effects of St. John's Wort supplement (a complex mixture of St. John's Wort, Rosemary and Spirulina) on somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino mice.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, A M

    2008-12-01

    Commercially available St. John's wort supplement (SJWS) composed of an herbal mixture of St. John's Wort (SJW), Rosemary (RM) and Spirulina (SP) is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP) are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin) and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin). However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed) use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1) determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2) investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day) of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv) quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn from extremities of light

  6. [Efficacy of levofloxacin, lomefloxacin and moxifloxacin vs. other fluoroquinolones in experimental plague due to FI+ and FI- strains of Yersinia pestis in Albino mice].

    PubMed

    Ryzhko, I V; Tsuraeva, R I; Anisimov, B I; Trishina, A V

    2009-01-01

    Activity of levofloxacin, lomefloxacin and moxifloxacin against 20 FI+ and 20 FI- strains of Yersinia pestis was studied. It was shown that the strains were highly susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. In the experiments on mice subcutaneously infected with suspension of strains 231 FI+ and 231 FI- of Y. pestis in a dose of about 1000 LD50 (10(4) microbial cells) the ED50 of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was 5.5-14.0 mg/kg independent of the infective culture phenotype and that of lomefloxacin was 18.5 mg/kg. Estimation of the impact of the pathogen infective dose value on the results of the experimental plague treatment with the therapeutic dose equivalent to the human one showed high efficacy of the fluoroquinolones (efficacy index of 10(4)). The treatment for 7 days provided 90-100-percent survival of the animals. The prophylactive use of lomefloxacin (in 5 hours - 5 days) was less efficient (70-80% of the survivals) in the animals infected with the antigen-changed (FI-) variant of the pathogen. Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin provided 90-100-percent survival of the animals treated for a course of 5 days independent of the pathogen phenotype. The study demonstrated that the use oflevofloxacin, lomefloxacin and moxifloxacin was prospective for the prophylaxis and therapy of experimental plague.

  7. Carbon nanotube and asbestos exposures induce overlapping but distinct profiles of lung pathology in non-swiss Albino CF-1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Evan A.; Carreira, Vinicius S.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as important occupational and environmental toxicants owing to their increasing prevalence and potential to be inhaled as airborne particles. CNTs are a concern because of their similarities to asbestos, which include fibrous morphology, high aspect ratio, and biopersistence. Limitations in research models have made it difficult to experimentally ascertain the risk of CNT exposures to humans and whether these may lead to lung diseases classically associated with asbestos, such as mesothelioma and fibrosis. In this study we sought to comprehensively compare profiles of lung pathology in mice following repeated exposures to multi-wall CNTs or crocidolite asbestos (CA). We show that both exposures resulted in granulomatous inflammation and increased interstitial collagen, CA exposures caused predominantly bronchoalveolar hyperplasia whereas CNT exposures caused alveolar hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes (T2Ps). T2Ps isolated from CNT-exposed lungs were found to have upregulated proinflammatory genes, including IL-1ß, in contrast to those from CA-exposed. Immunostaining in tissue showed that while both toxicants increased IL-1ß protein expression in lung cells, T2P-specific IL-1ß increases were greater following CNT exposure. These results suggest related but distinct mechanisms of action by CNTs versus asbestos which may lead to different outcomes in the two exposure types. PMID:26839332

  8. Method of identification and isolation of organs of endocrine secretion in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kashirina, N.K.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe a procedure based on electron autoradiography for isolating and determining the morphology of the adrenal, pituitary, and thyroid glands in albino mice, and use the procedure to give a description, in this paper, of the configuration, location, and physiological interaction of these glands relative to the other organs in these laboratory animals. The procedure overcomes the difficulties encountered in such determinations owing to factors such as smallness.

  9. Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of Alstonia scholaris on the albino mice bone marrow cells and peripheral human lymphocyte culture against methyl methane sulfonate induced genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Md. Sultan; Ahmad, Sheeba; Ali, Afsar; Afzal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in modern medicine for the prevention and treatment of cancer is an important aspect. For this reason, it is important to identify antitumor promoting agents present in medicinal plants commonly used by the human population. Materials and Methods: We used in vivo and in vitro methods using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and replication index (RI) as markers, exposed by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as well as alcoholic extract of Alstonia scholaris in five increasing concentrations (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg/kg body weight for in vivo and 150, 200, 250 and 300 μg/ml of culture) and of three different durations of 24, 48 and 72 h in the presence as well absence of S9 mix. Results: Extracts of Alstonia reduces the total aberrant cells ranges from 10.0% to 41.84% and frequencies of aberration in the aberrant cells ranges from 220 to 124 against 290 aberrations causes due to MMS in vivo. Similarly in the in vitro, it reduces CAs (39.62%, 32.83%, and 38.48%) and (45.31%, 44.46%, and 38.34%) at 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure respectively; in the absence as well as presence of liver S9 fraction. It also reduces SCE from 7.70 to 4.20 per cell and enhances RI from 1.45 to 1.64. Conclusion: Extracts of Alstonia significantly reduces the number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberration per cell at each concentration and duration of exposure in vivo; and CAs and SCE in vitro and enhances RI. PMID:27308264

  10. Synthesis, Structure, Electrochemistry, and Spectral Characterization of Bis-Isatin Thiocarbohydrazone Metal Complexes and Their Antitumor Activity Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sathisha, M. P.; Revankar, V. K.; Pai, K. S. R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry, and biological studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of thiocarbohydrazone ligand are described. The ligand is synthesized starting from thiocarbohydrazide and isatin. It is evident from the IR data that in all the complexes, only one part of the ligand is coordinated to the metal ion resulting mononuclear complexes. The ligand coordinates essentially through the carbonyl oxygen of the isatin fragment, the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group, and sulfur atom after deprotonation to give five membered rings. H1 NMR spectrum of the ligand shows only one set of signals for the aromatic protons, while the NH of isatin and NH of hydrazone give rise to two different singlets in the 11–14 ppm range. The formulations, [Cu(L)Cl]·2H2O, [Cu(L)(CH3COO)]·2H2O, [Ni(L)Cl], [Ni(L)(CH3COO)], [Co(L2)], and [Zn(L2)]·2H2O are in accordance with elemental analyses, physical, and spectroscopic measurements. The complexes are soluble in organic solvents. Molar conductance values in DMF indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes. Copper complex displays quasireversible cyclic voltametric responses with Ep near −0.659 v and 0.504 v Vs Ag/AgCl at the scan rate of 0.1 V/s. Copper(II) complexes show a single line EPR signals. For the observed magnetic moment and electronic spectral data possible explanation has been discussed. From all the available data, the probable structures for the complexes have been proposed. The compounds synthesized in present study have shown promising cytotoxic activity when screened using the in vitro method and at the same time were shown to have good activity when tested using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model. The antimicrobial screening showed that the cobalt complex possesses enhanced antimicrobial activity towards fungi. PMID:18320020

  11. Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, W M; Distler, C; Dekomien, G; Arning, L; Hoffmann, K-P; Epplen, J T

    2007-08-01

    Albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. Mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. In this study, we demonstrate that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The coding sequence of the five exons of TYR was determined in genomic DNA from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. It was not possible to amplify TYR exon 4 in albino ferrets originating from different breeds. The deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from albino and pigmented ferrets. This is the first report of a deletion of a TYR exon in a non-human mammal.

  12. The "Inscrutable Albino" in Contemporary Ethnic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TuSmith, Bonnie

    1993-01-01

    In both canonical European American literature and contemporary ethnic American literature, there exists a counterpart to the "inscrutable Oriental" stereotype, the "inscrutable Albino." The albino motif is explored in some ethnic works to demonstrate how the trope functions in each and what this says about the author's world…

  13. Method for non-invasively recording electrocardiograms in conscious mice

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Victor; Otero, Jose M; Lopez, Orlando; Morgan, James P; Amende, Ivo; Hampton, Thomas G

    2001-01-01

    Background The rapid increase in the development of mouse models is resulting in a growing demand for non-invasive physiological monitoring of large quantities of mice. Accordingly, we developed a new system for recording electrocardiograms (ECGs) in conscious mice without anesthesia or implants, and created Internet-accessible software for analyzing murine ECG signals. The system includes paw-sized conductive electrodes embedded in a platform configured to record ECGs when 3 single electrodes contact 3 paws. Results With this technique we demonstrated significantly reduced heart rate variability in neonates compared to adult mice. We also demonstrated that female mice exhibit significant ECG differences in comparison to age-matched males, both at baseline and in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. Conclusions The technology we developed enables non-invasive screening of large numbers of mice for ECG changes resulting from genetic, pharmacological, or pathophysiological alterations. Data we obtained non-invasively are not only consistent with what have been reported using invasive and expensive methods, but also demonstrate new findings regarding gender-dependent and age-dependent variations in ECGs in mice. PMID:11476671

  14. Methods to Record Circadian Rhythm Wheel Running Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siepka, Sandra M.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic approaches (phenotype to gene) are powerful methods to identify mouse circadian clock components. The success of these approaches, however, is highly dependent on the quality of the phenotype— specifically, the ability to measure circadian rhythms in individual mice. This article outlines the factors necessary to measure mouse circadian rhythms, including choice of mouse strain, facilities and equipment design and construction, experimental design, high-throughput methods, and finally methods for data analysis. PMID:15817291

  15. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  16. Study on Neuromuscular Blockade Action of Verapamil in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagaral, Jayashree; GH, Shashikala; K, Jagadeesh; Kumar K, Sharath; GS, Jayanth; PK, Chennaveerappa; Patil, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) are now widely employed in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and peri operative hypertension. It has been reported that calcium channel blockers inhibit neuromuscular transmission. They have been shown to increase the neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blocking agents in in-vitro muscle nerve preparations. The present study is undertaken to demonstrate the effect of calcium channel blocker, verapamil on neuromuscular transmission in albino rats. Objectives: To study the neuromuscular blockade action of verapamil in albino rats. Methods: Twenty four albino rats of either sex weigh 150-250gms are selected and are randomly divided into 4 equal groups. The experimental rats are divided into four groups of 6 rats each and they are given the following treatment. Group 1(Control) - Normal saline (1ml/ kg), Group 2 (Standard) - Pancuronium (0.04 mg/kg) Group 3-Verapamil (2.5mg/kg), Group 4-given Verapamil (10mg/kg). The time of onset of hind limb paralysis and total duration of recovery are noted using inclined screen method. Results: Analysis of the results of group 3 that was received 2.5mg/kg of Verapamil, there was no onset of paralysis, in group 4 that received injection Verapamil 10mg/kg, showed neuromuscular blockade activity. The mean onset of hind limb paralysis was delayed compared to standard group and the mean duration of hind limb paralysis was shorter than standard group. It was statistically significant (P≤ 0.05). Interpretation and conclusion: It is generally held that external calcium is not necessary for the contraction of mammalian skeletal muscle, the demonstration of inward calcium currents that can be abolished by CCBs in these muscles prompted to re-examine the effect of Verapamil on the neuromuscular transmission. The present study allows us to determine the neuromuscular blockade activity of Verapamil. PMID:24086855

  17. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, Ankush; Walunj, Manisha; Aghera, Hetal; Nariya, Mukesh; Goyal, Mandip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triphalādi kvātha is well known herbal Ayurvedic formulation used in Prameha (~type 2 diabetes mellitus). In the present study, kvātha was converted into granules and assessed for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Triphalādi granules (650 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered in normal albino mice for assessment of hypoglycemic activity. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules was assessed in glucose (5 g/kg, p.o.) solution overloaded mice. The blood sugar level (BSL) was measured with the help of one touch easy glucometer. Results: Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease in blood glucose level after one hour in comparison to initial values while decreasing BSL by 27.92% in comparison to control group in normal albino mice. In hyperglycemic study, Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease the BSL after 2 hr. of administration compared to control group. Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level. PMID:27621517

  18. FASTER: an unsupervised fully automated sleep staging method for mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Genshiro A; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the stages of sleep, or sleep staging, is an unavoidable step in sleep research and typically requires visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) data. Currently, scoring is slow, biased and prone to error by humans and thus is the most important bottleneck for large-scale sleep research in animals. We have developed an unsupervised, fully automated sleep staging method for mice that allows less subjective and high-throughput evaluation of sleep. Fully Automated Sleep sTaging method via EEG/EMG Recordings (FASTER) is based on nonparametric density estimation clustering of comprehensive EEG/EMG power spectra. FASTER can accurately identify sleep patterns in mice that have been perturbed by drugs or by genetic modification of a clock gene. The overall accuracy is over 90% in every group. 24-h data are staged by a laptop computer in 10 min, which is faster than an experienced human rater. Dramatically improving the sleep staging process in both quality and throughput FASTER will open the door to quantitative and comprehensive animal sleep research. PMID:23621645

  19. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity.

  20. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  1. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  2. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  3. Formylhydrazine carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Toth, B.

    1978-01-01

    Administration of 0.125% formylhydrazine in drinking water to 6-week-old randomly bred Swiss albino mice for life, induced lung tumours. Compared to untreated controls, the lung-tumour incidence rose from 15 to 94% in the females and from 22 to 100% in the males. The treatment had no detectable tumorigenic effect in other organs. PMID:678435

  4. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of beryllium in albino rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Agrawal, V.P.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Arsenic compounds, if chronically exposed to human beings, significantly increase incidences of epidermoid carcinomas of the skin and lung. Nickel has been considered to be an important metallic carcinogen. Regarding beryllium, different opinions are held so far as its carcinogenic nature is concerned. While it is reported that there is an equivocal increase in the incidences of respiratory cancers in patients with chronic pulmonary berylliosis, investigation shows no increase in the incidence of respiratory cancer. Among experimental animals, intravenous injections of suspensions of beryllium salts to rabbits have been shown to induce osteogenic sarcomas. This abstract deals with the histopathological and enzymological study of lungs of albino rats after prolonged beryllium treatment.

  6. Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-04-07

    Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult.

  7. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  8. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, David L.; Little, Edward E.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medakaOryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  9. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Myristica fragrans houtt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mini; Kumar, Madhu

    2007-03-01

    Nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans, MF (Family: Myristicaceae) possesses antifungal, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Its radioprotective effect against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30 )as 6.83 Gy and 8.89 Gy for irradiated only and (MF + radiation) groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.3. Administration of MF significantly enhanced hepatic glutathione (GSH) and decreased testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) level whereas acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity did not show any significant alteration. Irradiation resulted in significant elevation in LPO level and ACP activity, and decreased the GSH content and ALP activity. MF pretreatment effectively protected against radiation induced biochemical alteration as reflected by a decrease in LPO level and ACP activity, and an increase in GSH and ALP activity. The present study has implications for the potential use of MF as a radioprotector.

  10. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  11. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  12. Effects of leflunomide on inflamation and fibrosis in bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Aygul; Duran, Latif; Tutuncu, Serife; Guzel, Ahmet; Gunaydın, Mithat; Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Selcuk, Mustafa Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Purposes Pulmonary fibrosis is a rare and progressive lung disease with a high mortality rate. The treatment regimens still fail to recover the disease. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activity that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of LEF in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods A total of 21 male, adult wistar albino rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups as control, BLM and BLM plus LEF groups (n=7). In BLM group, mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of BLM (2.5 U/kg). Control group received the same volume of saline instead of BLM. In LEF group, in addition to BLM, LEF (10 mg/kg, daily) was administrated by oral gavage. The effect of LEF on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was studied by measurements of serum clara cell protein-16 (CC-16), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels and lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB by immunhistochemical examinations. Results LEF significantly increased the level of CC-16 and decreased the level of AOPP (P=0.042 and P=0.003 respectively). Lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB significantly decreased in LEF group compared to BLM group by immunhistochemical examinations (P<0.001). Conclusions LEF reduces oxidative stress factors, alveolar inflammation and attenuates lung injury and fibrosis. PMID:24255778

  13. Photoperiodicity in the male albino laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Wallen, E P; Turek, F W

    1981-01-29

    Animals inhabiting areas where there are drastic changes in the environment often reproduce only during limited time periods to ensure that young are raised in optimal environmental conditions. The lack of a well defined breeding season in many domesticated animals, presumably because the selective pressures for seasonal breeding have been minimized, suggests that the neuroendocrine events controlling seasonal cyclicity have been bred out of these animals. Little is known about the underlying neuroendocrine changes which may occur during the evolution of a species from a seasonal to a nonseasonal breeder. Whereas the changing photoperiod is the primary environmental cue which initiates and/or terminates the reproductive season in many animals, this is not so in the albino rat Rattus norvegicus, a model nonseasonal breeder. Nevertheless, daylength can influence various reproductive parameters in laboratory rats, suggesting that some of the neuroendocrine components that controlled seasonal breeding previously are still extant in this species. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of daylength on the responsiveness of the neuroendocrine--gonadal axis to the negative-feedback effects of testosterone. This paradigm was chosen because of the important role played by photic-induced changes in steroid feedback sensitivity in the control of seasonal reproduction. We report here that although daylength has very little effect on neuroendocrine--gonadal function in the intact male laboratory rat, it seems that some component(s) of a photoperiodic system involving the pineal gland has been preserved.

  14. Effect of chrysotile asbestos fibers on germ cells of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rita, P.; Reddy, P.P.

    1986-10-01

    An Indian form of chrysotile asbestos procured from a local asbestos factory (Hyderabad) was tested for its toxic effects on spermatocytes and sperm of mice. Swiss albino male mice were fed orally with chrysotile asbestos suspended in water. The concentration tested was 20 mg/kg/day. Chronic oral administration of chrysotile failed to induce chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperms in mice.

  15. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments.

  16. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  17. Robust method for 3D arterial spin labeling in mice.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Brige Paul; Bishop, Jonathan; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Wu, Jian; Henkelman, R Mark; Sled, John G

    2012-07-01

    Arterial spin labeling is a versatile perfusion quantification methodology, which has the potential to provide accurate characterization of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mouse models. However, a paucity of physiological data needed for accurate modeling, more stringent requirements for gradient performance, and strong artifacts introduced by magnetization transfer present special challenges for accurate CBF mapping in the mouse. This article describes robust mapping of CBF over three-dimensional brain regions using amplitude-modulated continuous arterial spin labeling. To provide physiological data for CBF modeling, the carotid artery blood velocity distribution was characterized using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound. These blood velocity measurements were used in simulations that optimize inversion efficiency for parameters meeting MRI gradient duty cycle constraints. A rapid slice positioning algorithm was developed and evaluated to provide accurate positioning of the labeling plane. To account for enhancement of T(1) due to magnetization transfer, a binary spin bath model of magnetization transfer was used to provide a more accurate estimate of CBF. Finally, a study of CBF was conducted on 10 mice with findings of highly reproducible inversion efficiency (mean ± standard-error-of-the-mean, 0.67 ± 0.03), statistically significant variation in CBF over 12 brain regions (P < 0.0001) and a mean ± standard-error-of-the-mean whole brain CBF of 219 ± 6 mL/100 g/min.

  18. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  19. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout.

  20. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man.

  1. Comparison of seven methods for extraction of bacterial DNA from fecal and cecal samples of mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Janina; Patron, Kevin; Legrand-Frossi, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Merlin, Christophe; Alauzet, Corentine; Lozniewski, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of bacterial DNA from fecal samples of mice is commonly performed in experimental studies. Although DNA extraction is a critical step in various molecular approaches, the efficiency of methods that may be used for DNA extraction from mice fecal samples has never been evaluated. We compared the efficiencies of six widely used commercial kits (MasterPure™ Gram Positive DNA Purification Kit, QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit; NucliSENS® easyMAG®, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™, FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Feces and FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil) and a non-commercial method for DNA isolation from mice feces and cecal contents. DNA quantity and quality were assessed by fluorometry, spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Cell lysis efficiencies were evaluated by qPCR targeting three relevant bacteria in spiked specimens. For both feces and intestinal contents, the most efficient extraction method was the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil.

  2. Effect of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve on insulinemia and glycemia in Acomys cahirinus mice.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Jeanrenaud, B

    1988-08-01

    To investigate the parasympathetic regulation of the endocrine pancreas in spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), unilateral electrical stimulations of the left cervical vagus nerve were performed in these animals and their controls, the albino mice. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured before and after the stimulation. The stimulation parameters were: 2-2.5 V, 14 Hz, 1 msec for the albino mice and 3 V, 14 Hz, 1 msec or 15-20 V, 20 Hz, 1 msec for the spiny mice. Already 2 min after the start of the stimulation, the acomys as well as the albino mice showed a significant increase in plasma insulin levels which was accompanied by a weak but significant increase in glycemia. However, the total insulin output in the acomys mice was half than that of the albino mice. Carbachol administration had no effect on insulin secretion in the acomys mice, while it increased that of the controls. Atropine pretreatment failed to abolish the insulin release elicited by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve in the acomys mice, while it abolished it in the albino ones. It is proposed that the vagus-nerve mediated insulin release that is present in the acomys mice is exerted, not via muscarinic receptors as in controls, but possibly via other neurotransmitter(s).

  3. High intensity social conflict in the Swiss albino mouse induces analgesia modulated by 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Canto de Souza, A; Nunes de Souza, R L; Péla, I R; Graeff, F G

    1997-03-01

    Social conflict between mice produces analgesia in the attacked mouse. Both the magnitude and type (opioid or nonopioid) of this analgesia have been related to attack intensity and strain of mouse. In the present study low intensity social conflict (7 bites) did not produce analgesia, whereas high intensity - 30 and 60 bites - interactions produced, respectively, short-lasting (5 min) and very short-lasting (1 min) analgesia in Swiss albino mice, when compared with nonaggressive interaction (0 bite). The 30 bites aggressive interaction induced analgesia (AIIA) was not affected by IP injection of either naloxone (5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) or diazepam (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). However, this attack-induced analgesia was reduced after IP administration of the 5-HT1A agonists, gepirone (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) and BAY R 1531 (0.01 mg/kg). These results indicate that the analgesia induced by 30 bites social conflict in Swiss albino mice does not involve opioid and GABA-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD) mechanisms. In addition, they suggest that high-intensity social conflict activates serotonergic pain modulatory systems that act through 5-HT1A receptors.

  4. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2011-12-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast.

  5. Of Mice and Meth: A New Media-Based Neuropsychopharmacology Lab to Teach Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Daniel L.; Zschau, Tony; Hays, Arthur; McAllister, Kristin; Harrison, Michelle; Cate, Kelly L.; Shanks, Ryan A.; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an innovative neuropsychopharmacology laboratory that can be incorporated into any research methods class. The lab consists of a set of interconnected modules centered on observations of methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes in mice and is designed to provide students with an opportunity to acquire basic skills…

  6. The effect of handling method on the mouse grimace scale in two strains of laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amy L; Leach, Matthew C

    2016-08-01

    Pain assessment in laboratory animals is an ethical and legal requirement. The mouse grimace scale (MGS) is a new method of pain assessment deemed to be both accurate and reliable, and observers can be rapidly trained to use it. In order for a new pain assessment technique to be effective, we must ensure that the score awarded by the technique is only influenced by pain and not by other husbandry or non-painful but integral aspects of research protocols. Here, we studied 16 male mice, housed under standard laboratory conditions. Eight mice were randomly assigned to tail handling and eight to tube handling on arrival at the unit. On each occasion the mice were removed from their cage for routine husbandry, they were picked up using their assigned handling method. Photographs of the mouse faces were then scored by treatment-blind observers as per the MGS manual (see Nature Methods 2010, Vol. 7, pp 447-449), and scores from the two groups were compared. There was no significant difference in MGS scores between the mice that had been handled using a tube compared with the tail. Consequently, these methods of handling did not influence the baseline grimace score given, suggesting that these handling techniques are not confounding factors when establishing baseline MGS scores, further validating this technique.

  7. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  8. Electrostimulation and morphologic study of the nerves to the bone marrow of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    DePace, D M; Webber, R H

    1975-01-01

    The innervation of the bone marrow of the albino rat was investigated by electrostimulation and morphological methods. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic trunks resulted in the release of reticulocytes and neutrophils into the circulating blood. The effects of stimulation on other cell types in the bone marrow could not be definitely established. It was concluded that the nerve fibers to the bone marrow were distributed to the arteries. It is postulated that the transmitter substance released at the autonomic nerve endings may have an effect upon the permeability of the venous sinusiods and the mobility of the blood cells in the marrow parenchyma resulting in their release into the circulating blood.

  9. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  10. A simplified method to detect epididymal sperm aneuploidy (ESA) in mice using three-chromosome fish

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; O`Hogan, S.; Wyrobek, A.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a new method (ESA) to detect aneuploidy and polyploidy in epididymal sperm of mice using three-chromosome FISH. In comparison to a previous method (TSA-testicular spermatid aneuploidy), which required late-step spermatids, the ESA method utilizes epididymal sperm, which are easier to collect than testicular cells. The ESA method also provides a homogenous population of cells, which significantly speeds up the scoring procedure. A total of 6 mice were investigated by the ESA method and results compared with those obtained by the TSA method: 2 mice each of Robertsonian (8.14) heterozygotes, Rb(8.14) homozygotes and B6C3F1. About 10,000 sperm were scored per mouse. For the ESA method, epididimides were cut into small pieces and filtered. Sperm were prepared for hybridization by sonication and a modification of the DTT/LIS method previously described. Sperm aneuploidy was detected by multi-color FISH using three DNA probes specific for mouse chromosomes X, Y and 8. The sex ratio of X8(49.7%) and Y8(49.6%) did not differ from the expected 1:1. The efficiency of ESA was very high; -0.3% of the cells showed no hybridization domain. Hyperhaploidy frequencies for chromosomes X, Y and 8 compared well between the ESA and TSA methods for Rb(8.14) heterozygous (p=0.79) and B6C3F1 mice (p>0.05). The data obtained from Rb(8.14) homozygotes were similar to those from B6C3F1, as predicted (p=0.3). This highly efficient ESA assay is therefore, recommended for future studies of the mechanism of induction of aneuploidy in male germ cells. It also lays a solid foundation for automated scoring.

  11. Evaluation of Wound Healing Effect of Topical Phenytoin on Excisional Wound in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hasamnis, AA; Mohanty, BK; Muralikrishna; Patil, S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Wound healing is a significant healthcare problem in today’s medical practice. Despite extensive treatment modalities that are supposed to hasten the wound healing process, the outcomes of existing methods are far from optimal. One such agent that has been tried previously and found controversial in wound healing is phenytoin. In this study, the wound-healing efficacy of phenytoin was investigated in albino rats. Materials and Methods: 20 male Wistar albino rats were subjected to excisional wounds measuring 500 mm2 on the back and then randomized to two groups (n = 10): Control group (A) and treatment group (B). The control group received no drug treatment till the end of the study. 1% Phenytoin cream was applied to the wounds of rats in the group B and continued till the 16th day of the study. The areas of wounds were measured on the Days 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the experiment. The percentages of the healing wounds were calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. The total number of days required for complete epithelization of wounds was noted in each group. Results: Statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in average wound area was seen in Group B (P value=0.0017, 0.0001, 0.0001, 0.0001), respectively, on Days 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the experiment in comparison to Group A. The average number of days required for complete epithelization of wound area was less in Group B as compared to Group A (P=0.0120). The difference was statically significant Conclusion: In the present study, topical phenytoin accelerated healing of excisional wound in albino rats. PMID:21331193

  12. Reduced neuronal size and dendritic length in the medial superior olivary nucleus of albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Conlee, J W; Parks, T N; Creel, D J

    1986-01-15

    We have previously demonstrated that circumscribed structural and functional abnormalities exist in the brainstem auditory system of albino cats. Anomalies in the auditory brainstem evoked response of albino cats were correlated with anatomical defects in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO) of the same animals. To examine whether a similar syndrome is present in other albino mammals, we studied the MSO of albino and pigmented rabbits using both Nissl-stained and Golgi-impregnated material. Neurons in the MSO of the albinos were significantly smaller (24%) than those in the pigmented rabbits and there was no overlap in the size distributions between the two groups. Neurons in the abducens nucleus of the albinos were also 14% smaller than in the pigmented rabbits, but this difference was not statistically reliable. The broad overlap in the distributions of neuronal size in the abducens nucleus between groups indicated that not all cells in the albino brainstem are significantly smaller than normal. In the Golgi-impregnated material, the mean total dendritic length for the 'marginal' cell type in the MSO was 39% shorter in albinos than in the pigmented animals. The branching density of dendrites was also significantly reduced in the albinos. Mean total dendritic length for cerebellar granule cells was a statistically insignificant 6% longer in the albinos, demonstrating that dendritic structure is not uniformly affected in all regions of the albino brain. The demonstration of similar anatomical differences in albino rabbits and cats indicates that whatever process produces these effects is not species-specific and may be common to the albinos of other mammalian species. The evidence that the amount of cochlear melanin may be related to differences in auditory function further suggests that the differences in the MSO of the albinos may ultimately be related to absence of inner ear pigmentation and not to other gene effects.

  13. Clastogenic effects of dietary supplement--Spirulina alga, and some medicinal plant products from Boswellia serrata, Withania somnifera on mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, S; Mukhopadhyay, M J; Mukherjee, A

    2001-10-01

    Pretreatment of aqueous extracts of Zyrulina (Spirulina), Aswagandha (Withania) and Nopane (Boswellia) on colchicine induced chromosome damage showed weakness of clastogenic activity in Swiss albino mice. None of the treatments increased significantly the number of chromosome aberrations.

  14. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  15. A hybrid registration-based method for whole-body micro-CT mice images.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaochao; Gao, Xueyuan; Xu, Xianhui; Zhu, Shouping; Liang, Jimin

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of whole-body small animal in vivo imaging in preclinical research has proposed the new demands on imaging processing and analysis. Micro-CT provides detailed anatomical structural information for continuous detection and different individual comparison, but the body deformation happened during different data acquisition needs sophisticated registration. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method for registering micro-CT mice images, which combines the strengths of point-based and intensity-based registration methods. Point-based non-rigid method using thin-plate spline robust point matching algorithm is utilized to acquire a coarse registration. And then intensity-based non-rigid method using normalized mutual information, Halton sampling and adaptive stochastic gradient descent optimization is used to acquire precise registration. Two accuracy metrics, Dice coefficient and average surface distance are used to do the quantitative evaluation. With the intra- and intersubject micro-CT mice images registration assessment, the hybrid method has been proven capable of excellent performance on micro-CT mice images registration.

  16. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    PubMed

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  17. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  18. Effect of chronic cyanide intoxication on memory in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Namasivayam, A

    2000-01-01

    Cyanide is a chemical widely used in industry, and is a major environmental pollutant. Its toxicity is caused by inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The effect of sublethal doses of cyanide on memory and hippocampal neurotransmitters was studied in male Wistar strain albino rats. Cyanide reduced the memory along with reduction in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hippocampus. Pre-existing malnutrition in the animals exaggerated these effects.

  19. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  20. The effect of lead on the process of spermatogenesis in sex glands of male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shubina, Olga Sergeevna; Dudenkova, Natalia Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager. M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™. Results: It is shown that when exposed to lead acetate a decrease in the production of all populations of spermatogenic cells, decreased spermatogenesis index and an index of relaxation (tension spermatogenesis), the increase in the index of ripening, index meiotic activity and germinative index, which indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the testes. On preparations, it is possible to see that after the influence of acetate of lead the head of spermatozoa becomes more roundish, breaks of tails observed. Conclusion: Lead acetate reduces the productivity of the seminal glands, which leads to the decrease of the concentration of spermatozoa, and their viability. The results of the studies suggest a negative impact of lead acetate in the course of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male white rats. PMID:27847424

  1. Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths. PMID:24409412

  2. Comparison of methods for detection of pinworms in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Effler, J Camille; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Erwin, Julie G; Cartner, Samuel C; Schoeb, Trenton R

    2008-05-01

    Though pinworm infestation remains common in laboratory rodent colonies, there is little information regarding current practices for pinworm detection and their relative efficacy. The authors surveyed research institutions to find out the prevalence of pinworm infestations and the detection methods they used. They also tested mice and rats from colonies that were known to be infested with Syphacia sp. and compared the following detection methods: perianal tape test, fecal flotation, fecal concentration, cecal content examination, cecal flotation and histological examination. Though the different methods yielded comparable efficacy overall, the authors recommend using more than one type of test to increase detection potential.

  3. A simple method for short-term controlled anesthesia in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Drobac, Estelle; Durand, Estelle; Laudenbach, Vincent; Mantz, Jean; Gallego, Jorge

    2004-09-15

    In this study, we describe a simple and inexpensive method for inducing short-term anesthesia and rapid recovery in newborn mice. Litters of Swiss mice pups were randomly allocated to testing on postnatal days 2, 5, and 8. Anesthesia was induced by placing the pup in a syringe and adding a volume of isoflurane-saturated gas that produced an estimated level of 32% isoflurane. Exposure to isoflurane lasted 30 s. All the pups survived the anesthesia. At all study ages, this method abolished the nociceptive response to tail clamp without inducing mortality, thus showing effective anesthesia. Recovery from anesthesia was assessed immediately after isoflurane exposure, based on two nonnoxious behavioral tests: the defensive response to a drop of water (10 tests, 1 min apart) and 10 min later the righting reflex, i.e., the time to recovery of the prone position (five tests, 10 min apart). The water drop test scores increased during the recovery phase toward the control values in all age groups. Treatment and time had no significant effect on righting reflex scores. The initial volume in the syringe, the volume of added isoflurane-saturated gas, and the duration of exposure may be adjusted according to postnatal age and specific strains or species (e.g., rats). This method is well suited to behavioral or physiological phenotype studies in developing mice, in which noxious procedures must precede functional testing, making rapid recovery from anesthesia a key requirement.

  4. A simple guide screw method for intracranial xenograft studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Bogler, Oliver; Johns, Terrance G

    2011-09-26

    The grafting of human tumor cells into the brain of immunosuppressed mice is an established method for the study of brain cancers including glioblastoma (glioma) and medulloblastoma. The widely used stereotactic approach only allows for the injection of a single animal at a time, is labor intensive and requires highly specialized equipment. The guide screw method, initially developed by Lal et al.,(1) was developed to eliminate cumbersome stereotactic procedures. We now describe a modified guide screw approach that is rapid and exceptionally safe; both of which are critical ethical considerations. Notably, our procedure now incorporates an infusion pump that allows up to 10 animals to be simultaneously injected with tumor cells. To demonstrate the utility of this procedure, we established human U87MG glioma cells as intracranial xenografts in mice, which were then treated with AMG102; a fully human antibody directed to HGF/scatter factor currently undergoing clinical evaluation(2-5). Systemic injection of AMG102 significantly prolonged the survival of all mice with intracranial U87MG xenografts and resulted in a number of complete cures. This study demonstrates that the guide screw method is an inexpensive, highly reproducible approach for establishing intracranial xenografts. Furthermore, it provides a relevant physiological model for validating novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  5. Comparison of Submental Blood Collection with the Retroorbital and Submandibular Methods in Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rainy D; Fenyk-Melody, Judy E; Tran, Sam M; Chen, Guang; Stocking, Kim L

    2016-01-01

    Nonterminal blood sample collection of sufficient volume and quality for research is complicated in mice due to their small size and anatomy. Large (>100 μL) nonterminal volumes of unhemolyzed or unclotted blood currently are typically collected from the retroorbital sinus or submandibular plexus. We developed a third method—submental blood collection—which is similar in execution to the submandibular method but with minor changes in animal restraint and collection location. Compared with other techniques, submental collection is easier to perform due to the direct visibility of the target vessels, which are located in a sparsely furred region. Compared with the submandibular method, the submental method did not differ regarding weight change and clotting score but significantly decreased hemolysis and increased the overall number of high-quality samples. The submental method was performed with smaller lancets for the majority of the bleeds, yet resulted in fewer repeat collection attempts, fewer insufficient samples, and less extraneous blood loss and was qualitatively less traumatic. Compared with the retroorbital technique, the submental method was similar regarding weight change but decreased hemolysis, clotting, and the number of overall high-quality samples; however the retroorbital method resulted in significantly fewer incidents of insufficient sample collection. Extraneous blood loss was roughly equivalent between the submental and retroorbital methods. We conclude that the submental method is an acceptable venipuncture technique for obtaining large, nonterminal volumes of blood from mice. PMID:27657712

  6. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste.

  7. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  8. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shatavisa; Sen, Sukanta; Biswas, Arunava; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use. PMID:26729959

  9. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    SL, Shruthi; PS, Vaibhavi; VH, Pushpa; AM, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introducation Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. Aim To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Materials and Methods Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet’s apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet’s test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. Results EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. Conclusion EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions. PMID:26870704

  10. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  11. Semi-automated method to measure pneumonia severity in mice through computed tomography (CT) scan analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johri, Ansh; Schimel, Daniel; Noguchi, Audrey; Hsu, Lewis L.

    2010-03-01

    Imaging is a crucial clinical tool for diagnosis and assessment of pneumonia, but quantitative methods are lacking. Micro-computed tomography (micro CT), designed for lab animals, provides opportunities for non-invasive radiographic endpoints for pneumonia studies. HYPOTHESIS: In vivo micro CT scans of mice with early bacterial pneumonia can be scored quantitatively by semiautomated imaging methods, with good reproducibility and correlation with bacterial dose inoculated, pneumonia survival outcome, and radiologists' scores. METHODS: Healthy mice had intratracheal inoculation of E. coli bacteria (n=24) or saline control (n=11). In vivo micro CT scans were performed 24 hours later with microCAT II (Siemens). Two independent radiologists scored the extent of airspace abnormality, on a scale of 0 (normal) to 24 (completely abnormal). Using the Amira 5.2 software (Mercury Computer Systems), a histogram distribution of voxel counts between the Hounsfield range of -510 to 0 was created and analyzed, and a segmentation procedure was devised. RESULTS: A t-test was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in the mean voxel value of each mouse in the three experimental groups: Saline Survivors, Pneumonia Survivors, and Pneumonia Non-survivors. It was found that the voxel count method was able to statistically tell apart the Saline Survivors from the Pneumonia Survivors, the Saline Survivors from the Pneumonia Non-survivors, but not the Pneumonia Survivors vs. Pneumonia Non-survivors. The segmentation method, however, was successfully able to distinguish the two Pneumonia groups. CONCLUSION: We have pilot-tested an evaluation of early pneumonia in mice using micro CT and a semi-automated method for lung segmentation and scoring system. Statistical analysis indicates that the system is reliable and merits further evaluation.

  12. A method for detecting therapeutic activity against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W C; Bartels, E; Cuckler, A C

    1978-02-01

    A simple and rapid assay, suitable for routine screening against Schistosoma mansoni in mice, can be achieved by using a reduction in the severity of hepatic lesions as the chief criterion of efficacy. Previous attempts to use this criterion were largely hampered by the use of inappropriate time schedules. Provided the timing of treatment and necropsy is restricted to a certain schedule, a mere glance at the opened abdomen of an infected mouse is sufficient to determine whether schistosome reproduction has been suppressed (by chemosterilization or by broader anthelmintic effects). The essence of the necessary schedule is treatment beginning at 4 weeks after infection and prolonged (continuously or intermittently) for 2 weeks, followed by necropsy at 8 weeks after infection. Using the methods described, two persons can easily examine mice for therapeutic response at the rate of 300 per hour. The assay has been shown to detect both schistosomaticidal and chemosterilizing compounds.

  13. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  14. The pigmentary system of developing axolotls. III. An analysis of the albino phenotype.

    PubMed

    Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J

    1986-03-01

    The albino mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Pigment cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope in order to determine any unusual structural characteristics and to determine what happens to each of the cell types as development proceeds. Chemical analyses of pteridine pigments were also carried out, and the pattern of pteridines in albino animals was found to be more complex than, and quantitatively enhanced (at all developmental stages examined) over, the pattern observed in comparable wild-type axolotls. The golden colour of albino axolotls is due primarily to sepiapterin (a yellow pteridine) and secondarily to riboflavin (and other flavins). Coincident with enhanced levels of yellow pigments, xanthophore pigment organelles (pterinosomes) in albino skin reach a mature state earlier than they do in wild-type axolotl skin. This morphology is conserved throughout development in albino animals whereas it is gradually lost in the wild type. Unpigmented melanophores from albino axolotls are illustrated for the first time, and in larval albino axolotls the morphology of these cells is shown to be very similar to xanthophore morphology. In older animals xanthophores are easily distinguished from unpigmented melanophores. Iridophores seem to appear in albino skin at an earlier stage than they have been observed in wild-type skin. Morphologically, wild-type and albino iridophores are identical.

  15. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i)) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  16. Quality of plasma sampled by different methods for multiple blood sampling in mice.

    PubMed

    Christensen, S D; Mikkelsen, L F; Fels, J J; Bodvarsdóttir, T B; Hansen, A K

    2009-01-01

    For oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in mice, multiple blood samples need to be taken within a few hours from conscious mice. Today, a number of essential parameters may be analysed on very small amounts of plasma, thus reducing the number of animals to be used. It is, however, crucial to obtain high-quality plasma or serum in order to avoid increased data variation and thereby increased group sizes. The aim of this study was to find the most valid and reproducible method for withdrawal of blood samples when performing OGTT. Four methods, i.e. amputation of the tail tip, lateral tail incision, puncture of the tail tip and periorbital puncture, were selected for testing at 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C after a pilot study. For each method, four blood samples were drawn from C57BL/6 mice at 30 min intervals. The presence of clots was registered, haemolysis was monitored spectrophotometrically at 430 nm, and it was noted whether it was possible to achieve 30-50 microL blood. Furthermore, a small amount of extra blood was sampled before and after the four samplings for testing of whether the sampling induced a blood glucose change over the 90 min test period. All methods resulted in acceptable amounts of plasma. Clots were observed in a sparse number of samples with no significant differences between the methods. Periorbital puncture did not lead to any haemolysed samples at all, and lateral tail incision resulted in only a few haemolysed samples, while puncture or amputation of the tail tip induced haemolysis in a significant number of samples. All methods, except for puncture of the tail tip, influenced blood glucose. Periorbital puncture resulted in a dramatic increase in blood glucose of up to 3.5 mmol/L indicating that it is stressful. Although lateral tail incision also had some impact on blood glucose, it seems to be the method of choice for OGTT, as it is likely to produce a clot-free non-haemolysed sample, while periorbital sampling, although producing a

  17. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  18. A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method for β-defensin-2 detection in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhou, Tao; Yu, Lei; Tan, Wenwen; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2015-03-01

    A competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method for porcine β-defensin-2 (pBD-2) detection in transgenic mice was established. Several factors that affect detection, including luminol, p-iodophenol and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, as well as pH, were studied and optimized. The linear range of the proposed method for pBD-2 detection under optimal conditions was 0.05-80 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9960. Eleven detections of a 30 ng/mL pBD-2 standard sample were performed. Reproducible results were obtained with a relative standard deviation of 3.94%. The limit of detection of the method for pBD-2 was 3.5 pg/mL (3σ). The proposed method was applied to determine pBD-2 expression levels in the tissues of pBD-2 transgenic mice, and compared with LC-MS/MS and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. This suggests that the CLEIA can be used as a valuable method to detect and quantify pBD-2.

  19. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency. PMID:24675426

  20. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-03-28

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency.

  1. New visible endotracheal intubation method using the endoscope system for mice inhalational anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki; Ogawa, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Mika; Shioya, Kyoko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2014-06-01

    Appropriate and effective anesthesia is critical, because it has a strong influence on laboratory animals, and its affect greatly impacts the experimental data. Inhalational anesthesia by endotracheal intubation is currently prevailing in general anesthesia and is prefered over injection anesthesia, especially for large laboratory animals, because it is a safe and easy control agent. However, it is not common for small laboratory animals, because of the high degree of technical skills required. We assessed the capability of use for mice of the endotracheal intubation by using the endoscope system "TESALA AE-C1" and inhalational anesthesia using a ventilator. Endotracheal intubation was successfully performed on all 10 C57BL/6 mice injected with M/M/B: 0.3/4/5 comprised of medetomidine, midazoram and butorphanol, at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg + 4.0 mg/kg + 5.0 mg/kg body weight/mouse, respectively. After the intubated mice were connected with the inhalational anesthesia circuit and the ventilator, vital signs were measured until 15 min after the connection. The data with M/M/B: 0.3/4/5 showed stable and normal values, which indicated that this new endotracheal intubation method was simple, reliable and safe, which mean that this anesthesia is favorable in regard to the animal's welfare.

  2. Evaluation of intrinsic respiratory signal determination methods for 4D CBCT adapted for mice

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachael; Pan, Tinsu; Rubinstein, Ashley; Court, Laurence; Ahmad, Moiz

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: 4D CT imaging in mice is important in a variety of areas including studies of lung function and tumor motion. A necessary step in 4D imaging is obtaining a respiratory signal, which can be done through an external system or intrinsically through the projection images. A number of methods have been developed that can successfully determine the respiratory signal from cone-beam projection images of humans, however only a few have been utilized in a preclinical setting and most of these rely on step-and-shoot style imaging. The purpose of this work is to assess and make adaptions of several successful methods developed for humans for an image-guided preclinical radiation therapy system. Methods: Respiratory signals were determined from the projection images of free-breathing mice scanned on the X-RAD system using four methods: the so-called Amsterdam shroud method, a method based on the phase of the Fourier transform, a pixel intensity method, and a center of mass method. The Amsterdam shroud method was modified so the sharp inspiration peaks associated with anesthetized mouse breathing could be detected. Respiratory signals were used to sort projections into phase bins and 4D images were reconstructed. Error and standard deviation in the assignment of phase bins for the four methods compared to a manual method considered to be ground truth were calculated for a range of region of interest (ROI) sizes. Qualitative comparisons were additionally made between the 4D images obtained using each of the methods and the manual method. Results: 4D images were successfully created for all mice with each of the respiratory signal extraction methods. Only minimal qualitative differences were noted between each of the methods and the manual method. The average error (and standard deviation) in phase bin assignment was 0.24 ± 0.08 (0.49 ± 0.11) phase bins for the Fourier transform method, 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.31 ± 0.08) phase bins for the modified Amsterdam shroud method, 0

  3. Visualization of chorioretinal vasculature in mice in vivo using a combined OCT/SLO imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Mayank; Zhang, Pengfei; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Chorioretinal blood vessel morphology in mice is of great interest to researchers studying eye disease mechanisms in animal models. Two leading retinal imaging modalities -- Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) -- have offered much insight into vascular morphology and blood flow. OCT "flow-contrast" methods have provided detailed mapping of vascular morphology with micrometer depth resolution, while OCT Doppler methods have enabled the measurement of local flow velocities. SLO remains indispensable in studying blood leakage, microaneurysms, and the clearance time of contrast agents of different sizes. In this manuscript we present results obtained with a custom OCT/SLO system applied to visualize the chorioretinal vascular morphology of pigmented C57Bl/6J and albino nude (Nu/Nu) mice. Blood perfusion maps of choroidal vessels and choricapillaris created by OCT and SLO are presented, along with detailed evaluation of different OCT imaging parameters, including the use of the scattering contrast agent Intralipid. Future applications are discussed.

  4. Bile secretion in albino rat following chronic honey intake.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Okwari, O O; Osim, E E

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of honey intake on bile secretion, bile electrolytes, bilirubin and cholesterol levels including plasma cholesterol in albino rats. 20 male albino rats (200-210 g) were used in the study. The rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups (control and honey-fed groups), each group containing 10 rats. The control was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1 ml of honey to every initial 10 ml of water) for 22 weeks. After 22 weeks the animals were starved for 12 hrs before the experiment, weighed and anaesthetized with sodium thiopentone (6 mg/100 mg body weight) intraperitoneally. The common bile duct was cannulated and bile collected for 3 hrs. The rate of bile flow was noted, the concentrations of bile electrolytes and bilirubin, bile and plasma cholesterol levels were determined in the control and test groups. The results obtained showed a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the rate of bile flow in the test (0.30+/-0.03 ml/hr) compared with the control groups (0.45+/-0.04 ml/hr). There were no significant differences in the concentration of bile electrolytes and bilirubin in the two groups. However, there was a significant [P<0.05] increase in the bile cholesterol and decrease in plasma cholesterol levels in the test rats compared with the control. It is therefore concluded that chronic consumption of unprocessed Nigerian honey resulted in decrease bile flow, increase bile cholesterol and decrease plasma cholesterol in albino rats.

  5. Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

  6. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  7. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis.

  8. Evaluation of diagnostic methods for Myocoptes musculinus according to age and treatment status of mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Rice, Kelly A; Albacarys, Lauren K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Perkins, Cheryl; Henderson, Kenneth S; Watson, Julie

    2013-11-01

    Detecting and controlling murine fur mites continues to be challenging. Here we compared the efficacy of fur-pluck, cage PCR, and fur PCR testing of mice naturally infested with Myocoptes musculinus and make recommendations regarding the application of these diagnostic strategies in aged or treated mice. We compared all 3 diagnostic methods in groups of infested and noninfested control mice over time. For fur plucks, we used a scoring system to quantitatively compare mite infestations across ages. Mice that were 4 wk old had higher egg and mite scores than did older mice, with average scores at 4 wk corresponding to 40 to 100 individual fur mites and eggs per sample. Furthermore, 15% and 20% of samples from infested mice at 24 and 28 wk of age, respectively, lacked all fur mites and eggs. Cage PCR results varied as mice grew older. Fur PCR testing was the most sensitive and specific assay in untreated infested mice, particularly when mite densities were low. In addition, we compared fur-pluck and fur PCR tests for evaluating the efficacy of selamectin treatment. Two treatments with selamectin eliminated Myocoptes fur-mite infestations. At 8 wk after treatment, all fur-pluck samples were negative, but one-third of treated infested cages remained positive by fur PCR assay; at 16 wk after treatment, all cages were negative by fur PCR assay. Because offspring of infested mice were invariably heavily infested, breeding of suspected infested mice with subsequent testing of offspring was the definitive testing strategy when fur-pluck and PCR results conflicted.

  9. Methods for long-term 17β-estradiol administration to mice.

    PubMed

    Ingberg, E; Theodorsson, A; Theodorsson, E; Strom, J O

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models constitute a cornerstone in the elucidation of the effects and biological mechanisms of 17β-estradiol. However, a thorough assessment of the methods for long-term administration of 17β-estradiol to mice is lacking. The fact that 17β-estradiol has been demonstrated to exert different effects depending on dose emphasizes the need for validated administration regimens. Therefore, 169 female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and administered 17β-estradiol using one of the two commonly used subcutaneous methods; slow-release pellets (0.18 mg, 60-day release pellets; 0.72 mg, 90-day release pellets) and silastic capsules (with/without convalescence period, silastic laboratory tubing, inner/outer diameter: 1.575/3.175 mm, filled with a 14 mm column of 36 μg 17β-estradiol/mL sesame oil), or a novel peroral method (56 μg 17β-estradiol/day/kg body weight in the hazelnut cream Nutella). Forty animals were used as ovariectomized and intact controls. Serum samples were obtained weekly for five weeks and 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. The peroral method resulted in steady concentrations within--except on one occasion--the physiological range and the silastic capsules produced predominantly physiological concentrations, although exceeding the range by maximum a factor three during the first three weeks. The 0.18 mg pellet yielded initial concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the physiological range, which then decreased drastically, and the 0.72 mg pellet produced between 18 and 40 times higher concentrations than the physiological range during the entire experiment. The peroral method and silastic capsules described in this article constitute reliable modes of administration of 17β-estradiol, superior to the widely used commercial pellets.

  10. Molecular mapping within the mouse albino-deletion complex.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D K; Hand, R E; Rinchik, E M

    1989-11-01

    Induced germ-line deletion mutations in the mouse provide a malleable experimental system for in-depth molecular and functional analysis of large segments of the mammalian genome. To obtain an initial bank of molecular probes for the region of mouse chromosome 7 associated with the albino-deletion complex, random anonymous DNA clones, derived from a library constructed from flow-sorted chromosomes, were screened on DNAs from Mus musculus-Mus spretus F1 hybrids carrying large, multilocus, lethal albino deletions. Clones falling within a given deletion interval can easily be recognized because hybridization bands that represent restriction fragment length polymorphisms specific for the mutant (deleted) chromosome inherited from the M. musculus parent will be absent. Among 72 informative clones used as probes, one, which defines the locus D7OR1, mapped within two deletions that are 6-11 centimorgans in length. Submapping of this anonymous clone across a panel of 27 smaller deletions localized D7OR1 distal to a chromosomal subregion important for survival of the preimplantation embryo, proximal to globin [beta-chain (Hbb)], and near the shaker-1 (sh-1) locus. The results of these deletion-mapping experiments were also confirmed by standard three-point linkage analysis. This strategy for selection and rapid mapping of anonymous DNA probes to chromosomal segments corresponding to germ-line deletion mutations should contribute to the generation of more detailed physical and functional maps of genomic regions associated with mutant developmental phenotypes.

  11. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of skin tumor of mice treated with several medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the differences between cancerous tissue, drug treated tissue and its corresponding normal tissue by infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods Methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Aloe barbandesis, Tinospora cordifolia and Triticum aestivum were assessed for the isolation and purification of active compound. After that, combine crude and combine isolated samples were prepared. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of different drugs, it was administered at a concentration of 400 mg/kg body weight daily up to 16 weeks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to differentiate the drug treated tissues with the normal and cancerous tissue. In the present study, spectra of different tissues were recorded in the range of 400-4 000 cm−1. Results The results of the present study have shown that the remarkable difference exists between the IR spectra of normal, drugs treated and cancerous tissue in terms of frequencies and intensities of prominent bands of cellular biomolecules. Conclusions Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests the chemopreventive effect of above treated drugs and the best result was observed in combine crude sample and in combine isolated sample or synergistic effect of individual crude and isolated extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

  12. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Muluken Walle; Walle, Bizuayehu; Rebba, Kidist

    2016-01-01

    Background Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. Methods Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively. Results There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. PMID:27574478

  13. A high-throughput method to measure NaCl and acid taste thresholds in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2009-05-01

    To develop a technique suitable for measuring NaCl taste thresholds in genetic studies, we conducted a series of experiments with outbred CD-1 mice using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and two-bottle preference tests. In Experiment 1, we compared conditioning procedures involving either oral self-administration of LiCl or pairing NaCl intake with LiCl injections and found that thresholds were the lowest after LiCl self-administration. In Experiment 2, we compared different procedures (30-min and 48-h tests) for testing conditioned mice and found that the 48-h test is more sensitive. In Experiment 3, we examined the effects of varying strength of conditioned (NaCl or LiCl taste intensity) and unconditioned (LiCl toxicity) stimuli and concluded that 75-150 mM LiCl or its mixtures with NaCl are the optimal stimuli for conditioning by oral self-administration. In Experiment 4, we examined whether this technique is applicable for measuring taste thresholds for other taste stimuli. Results of these experiments show that conditioning by oral self-administration of LiCl solutions or its mixtures with other taste stimuli followed by 48-h two-bottle tests of concentration series of a conditioned stimulus is an efficient and sensitive method to measure taste thresholds. Thresholds measured with this technique were 2 mM for NaCl and 1 mM for citric acid. This approach is suitable for simultaneous testing of large numbers of animals, which is required for genetic studies. These data demonstrate that mice, like several other species, generalize CTA from LiCl to NaCl, suggesting that they perceive taste of NaCl and LiCl as qualitatively similar, and they also can generalize CTA of a binary mixture of taste stimuli to mixture components.

  14. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  15. The Effect of Carvedilol on Blood Glucose Levels In Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    R.N., Suresha; V., Ashwini; B., Pragathi; H.L., Kalabharathi; A.M., Satish; V.H., Pushpa; M.K., Jayanthi; P., Snehalatha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carvedilol is a commonly used drug in hypertension, congestive heart failure in diabetics. It has moderate calcium channel blocking property in addition to α1 and non selective β antagonistic activity. Though some studies bring forth the beneficial effects of Carvedilol in cardiovascular comorbidities in diabetes, there is no consensus on its effects on glycaemic levels. Aims: To evaluate the effect of oral Carvedilol administration for 5 days on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Material and Methods: Twelve adult albino rats of either sex weighing between 150 – 200 g were selected from central animal facility and randomly divided into 2 groups – Control [Distilled water (1ml/rat orally)] and Test (0.8mg/kg body weight orally) and the respective drugs were administered over 5 days. Following overnight fasting, on the fifth day 1 hour after the last dose of the respective drug, OGTT was performed. The CBG (Capillary Blood Glucose) levels were measured at 0 min, glucose (2g/kg body weight) dissolved in water was administered to all the rats orally. The blood sample from tail vein (obtained by tail snipping) at 60 and 150 minutes were analysed for CBG levels using a standardized glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Data was presented as Mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, non–parametric tests, percentages and cross tabs were used in the analysis of data within the same group and between different groups when required. Results: Carvedilol group showed higher CBG levels at all time intervals of OGTT as compared to the Control group i.e., 0, 60 and 150 minutes, the highest being (103.8±5.029 )mg/dl at 60 minutes and was statistically significant. Carvedilol group however showed lesser inter–interval variation compared to the Control group at the same time intervals respectively but was statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Carvedilol has hyperglycaemic potential when given orally

  16. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in Mice under Various Ratio- and Time-Based Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression…

  17. [Relations between the methods of isolating Brucella lipopolysaccharides and their effect on hemopoiesis in mice].

    PubMed

    Malikov, V E; Sanin, A V; Nikolaeva, T N

    1985-07-01

    The comparative study of the effect produced by different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations obtained from B. melitensis virulent strain 565 and B. abortus vaccine strain 19-BA on hematopoiesis in mice was made. The LPS preparations were obtained (1) by Boivin's technique, (2) by Westphal's technique and (3) by mild alkaline hydrolysis of Bovin's active complex, this technique having been developed at the Brucellosis Laboratory of the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. All tests (the spleen endocolonization test, the hydroxyurea kill test, the determination of the content of splenic colony-forming units in the peripheral blood) showed that LPS from B. melitensis virulent strain 565 had a more pronounced disturbing effect on hematopoiesis than LPS from B. abortus vaccine strain 19-BA. Among the LPS preparations obtained by different methods, the one obtained with the use of the technique developed at the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology proved to have the mildest effect on hematopoiesis, probably due to the partial saponification of the lipid component of LPS. Lipid A in a dose of 0.1-10 micrograms produced no activating effect on the hematopoiesis characteristics under study. None of the LPS preparations proved to be capable of stimulating the formation of transitory endogenous colonies in the spleen of mice.

  18. Atomization method for verifying size effects of inhalable particles on lung damage of mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chen; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Lan; Tian, Yonggang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-02-01

    To explore the size effects of inhalable particles on lung damage, aqueous aerosol containing cadmium was studied as a model to design a new type of two-stage atomization device that was composed of two adjustable parts with electronic ultrasonic atomization and pneumatic atomization. The working parameters and effectiveness of this device were tested with H2O atomization and CdCl2 inhalation, respectively. By gravimetrically detecting the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 and analysing the particle size with a laser sensor, we confirmed the particle size distribution of the aqueous aerosol produced by the new device under different working conditions. Then, we conducted experiments in male Kunming mice that inhaled CdCl2 to determine the size effects of inhalable particles on lung damage and to confirm the effectiveness of the device. The new device could effectively control the particle size in the aqueous aerosol. The inhaled CdCl2 entered and injured the lungs of the mice by causing tissue damage, oxidative stress, increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and triggering an inflammatory response, which might be related to where the particles deposited. The smaller particles in the aqueous aerosol atomized by the new two-stage atomization device deposited deeper into lung causing more damage. This device could provide a new method for animal experiments involving inhalation with water-soluble toxins.

  19. Effect of genetically modified corn on the jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Okasha, Ebtsam F

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure.

  20. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A. Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J. Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. Materials and Methods: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Results and Discussion: Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. Conclusions: The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. SUMMARY The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity. PMID:28250649

  1. Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora indica (W.) Leaves on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Priyadarshini, D.; Soundarya, G.; Kumar, Ch. Kishore; Rani, K. Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background Ulcer can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also cumulatively referred as peptic ulcers. It affects nearly 10% of world population. Aim To investigate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora indica W. leaves (ESIL) on albino rats. Materials and Methods The present study was carried by pylorus ligation, ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of ESIL (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. for 7 days) was compared with standard drugs (Ranitidine). In pyloric ligation induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were gastric volume, pH, total acidity, free acidity, and ulcer index whereas in ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer model, the ulcer index was determined for severity of ulcers. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Results In pyloric ligation model; the volume of gastric content, total/free acidity and pepsin activity was significantly decreased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 and pH of the gastric juice was significantly increased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 in ESIL treated groups as compared to control group. All the doses of ESIL showed dose dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) reduction in the ulcer index as compared to control group in all the experimental models. Conclusion The results of the study indicate that the ESIL have better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. PMID:27790462

  2. An acoustic startle-based method of assessing frequency discrimination in mice.

    PubMed

    Clause, Amanda; Nguyen, Tuan; Kandler, Karl

    2011-08-30

    The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a reflexive contraction of skeletal muscles in response to a loud, abrupt acoustic stimulus. ASR magnitude is reduced if the startle stimulus is preceded by a weaker acoustic or non-acoustic stimulus, a phenomenon known as prepulse inhibition (PPI). PPI has been used to test various aspects of sensory discrimination in both animals and humans. Here we show that PPI of the ASR is an advantageous method of assessing frequency discrimination. We describe the apparatus and its performance testing frequency discrimination in young CD1 mice. Compared to classical conditioning paradigms, PPI of the ASR is less time consuming, produces robust results, and can be used without training even in young animals. This approach can be used to investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying frequency discrimination, its maturation during development, and its relationship to tonotopic organization.

  3. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  4. Ocular penetration of grepafloxacin after intravitreal administration in albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Solans, C; Bregante, M A; Garcia, M A; Perez, S

    2004-06-01

    Ocular penetration of grepafloxacin into several ocular tissues was determined in albino and pigmented rabbits following a single intravitreal administration. After administration, grepafloxacin was detected in all ocular tissues studied in both breeds of rabbits. The superior mean penetration ratios were found in the chorioretina and lens of albino rabbits, and in the chorioretina, iris and lens of pigmented rabbits. A significantly greater penetration of grepafloxacin was found in the chorioretina and iris of the pigmented rabbits than in those of the albino rabbits. As a final conclusion, grepafloxacin detected in different ocular structures could attain therapeutic concentrations against a variety of ocular conditions.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and ocular penetration of grepafloxacin in albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Perez, S; Solans, C; Bregante, M A; Pinilla, I; García, M A; Honrubia, F

    2002-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin were determined in albino and pigmented rabbits following a single 10 mg/kg intravenous administration. The penetration of grepafloxacin into various ocular tissues was also determined after continuous intravenous infusion in both types of animal. Grepafloxacin showed a bicompartmental model of distribution in both pigmented and albino rabbits with significant differences in the pharmacokinetics between the two types of animal. After continuous intravenous infusion, significantly greater penetration of grepafloxacin was found in the iris, cornea and chorioretina of pigmented rabbits compared with albino rabbits.

  6. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device.

  7. [Investigation of the presence of Francisella tularensis by culture, serology and molecular methods in mice of Thrace Region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unal Yilmaz, Gülizar; Gurcan, Saban; Ozkan, Beytullah; Karadenizli, Aynur

    2014-04-01

    Tularemia is a disease that has been reported in Turkey since 1936. Although mice are considered to have a role in the transmission of Francisella tularensis to man, this has not been exactly confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of F. tularensis in mice by using culture, serology and molecular methods. For this purpose, four villages (Edirne-Demirkoy, Kirklareli-Kaynarca, Tekirdag-Muzruplu, Tekirdag-Sinanli) were selected in Thrace Region of Turkey where tularemia cases had been reported previously. A total of 126 live-catch mouse traps were established in warehouses, barns, areas near wells, water tanks and creeks in the villages in December 2012. Traps were kept overnight and the next day the animals collected were identified at species-level. The live-captured mice were anesthetized and their heart blood samples were obtained. Subsequently, liver and spleen tissues were removed from every mouse under aseptic conditions in the class-2 safety cabinet. These tissues were cultivated in Francis medium containing 5% sheep blood, 0.1% cystein, 1% glucose and incubated for seven days in both normal atmosphere and 5% carbondioxide incubator at 37°C. Tularemia microagglutination test was performed by using the sera which were obtained from live-captured mice. Finally, DNAs were isolated from both liver and spleen tissues of mice, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Tularemia RT-PCR; Public Health Agency of Turkey, Ankara) were performed. In our study, a total of 19 mice were captured and of these 11 were alive. Ten mice were identified as Apodemus flavicollis, seven were Mus macedonicus and two were Mus musculus. There were no Francisella tularensis isolation in the cultures of mice liver and spleen tissues. Serological tests yielded negative results for 10 mice whose serum samples could be obtained. In RT-PCR, positivity were detected in spleen tissues of two mice which were captured from Kaynarca where first tularemia cases in

  8. Methods for the Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Sinoatrial Node Myocytes from Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Emily J.; St Clair, Joshua R.; Proenza, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs) act as the natural pacemakers of the heart, initiating each heart beat by generating spontaneous action potentials (APs). These pacemaker APs reflect the coordinated activity of numerous membrane currents and intracellular calcium cycling. However the precise mechanisms that drive spontaneous pacemaker activity in SAMs remain elusive. Acutely isolated SAMs are an essential preparation for experiments to dissect the molecular basis of cardiac pacemaking. However, the indistinct anatomy, complex microdissection, and finicky enzymatic digestion conditions have prevented widespread use of acutely isolated SAMs. In addition, methods were not available until recently to permit longer-term culture of SAMs for protein expression studies. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol and video demonstration for the isolation of SAMs from adult mice. A method is also demonstrated for maintaining adult mouse SAMs in vitro and for expression of exogenous proteins via adenoviral infection. Acutely isolated and cultured SAMs prepared via these methods are suitable for a variety of electrophysiological and imaging studies. PMID:27805586

  9. An Isolation Method for Assessment of Brain Mitochondria Function in Neonatal Mice with Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Caspersen, Casper S.; Sosunov, Alexander; Utkina-Sosunova, Irina; Ratner, Veniamin I.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Ten, Vadim S.

    2010-01-01

    This work was undertaken to develop a method for the isolation of mitochondria from a single cerebral hemisphere in neonatal mice. Mitochondria from the normal mouse brain hemisphere isolated by the proposed method exhibited a good respiratory control ratio of 6.39 ± 0.53 during glutamate-malate-induced phosphorylating respiration. Electron microscopy showed intact mitochondria. The applicability of this method was tested on mitochondria isolated from naïve mice and their littermates subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Hypoxic-ischemic insult prior to reperfusion resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of phosphorylating respiration compared to naïve littermates. This was associated with a profound depletion of the ATP content in the ischemic hemisphere. The expression for Mn superoxide dismutase and cytochrome C (markers for the integrity of the mitochondrial matrix and outer membrane) was determined by Western blot to control for mitochondrial integrity and quantity in the compared samples. Thus, we have developed a method for the isolation of the cerebral mitochondria from a single hemisphere adapted to neonatal mice. This method may serve as a valuable tool to study mitochondrial function in a mouse model of immature brain injury. In addition, the suggested method enables us to examine the mitochondrial functional phenotype in immature mice with a targeted genetic alteration. PMID:18349523

  10. Immunomodulatory activities of gemifloxacin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Umair, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Ghafoor, Aamir; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Gemifloxacin is a broad spectrum antibiotic and has shown excellent coverage against a wide variety of microorganisms. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of gemifloxacin in male swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Three doses of gemifloxacin 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg were used intraperitoneally (IP) for the evaluation of immune responses in mice. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), heamagglutination assay, jerne hemolytic plaque formation assay and cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay were performed to evaluate the effect of gemifloxacin on immune responses. Results: DTH assay has shown the significant immune suppressant potential of gemifloxacin at 25 mg/kg dose and 75mg/kg dose. Total leukocyte count (TLC) has shown decrease in leukocyte count (P<0.05) in drug treatment groups before cyclophosphamide administration and significant decrease (P<0.001) in leukocyte count after cyclophosphamide administration as compared to negative control group. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) has shown significant decrease (P<0.001) in percentage count of lymphocytes in 75 mg/kg treatment group in leukopenic mice while increase (P<0.01) in monocytes percentage in 50 mg/kg treatment group in leukopenic mice and increase in neutrophil percentage count (P<0.05) in all treatment groups was observed after cyclophosphamide administration. Humoral immune response is shown to be suppressed in dose dependent manner by both heamagglutination titre values (P<0.001) and jerne hemolytic plaque formation assay (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this work clearly demonstrate that gemifloxacin has significant immunomodulatory potential. PMID:27803786

  11. Human genome-specific real-time PCR method for sensitive detection and reproducible quantitation of human cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengyue; Xie, Zhenhua; Guo, Ling; Wang, Chengmei; Xie, Weidong; Wu, Yaojiong

    2012-12-01

    Xenotransplantation of human cells into immunodeficiency mice has been frequently used to study stem cells in tissue repair and regeneration and cancer cell metastasis. However, a sensitive and reproducible method to quantify cell engraftment lacks. Here, we developed a Real-Time PCR-based method which facilitated consistent detection and quantification of small amounts of human cells distributed in mouse organs after infusion. The principle of the method was to directly detect a humans-specific sequence in the human-murine genomic DNA mixture. In a mouse myocardial infarction model, the Real-Time PCR-based method consistently determined the amounts of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) engrafted into the heart and other organs 7 days after infusion of as little as 2.5 × 10(5) cells, indicating a high sensitivity, and the amounts of hMSCs detected in mice highly correlated to the numbers of hMSCs transplanted. Importantly, different from previous PCR-based methods, our method produced highly consistent and reproducible results. The reliability of the method was further proven by parallel analyses of DiI-labeled hMSCs in tissue sections and in single cell suspensions of mice. Our data show that the present human genomic DNA-specific primers-based Real-Time PCR method is sensitive and highly reproducible in determining the amount of xenotransplanted human cells in murine tissues.

  12. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  13. Gastric cytoprotection and honey intake in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Egwurugwu, J N; Osim, E E

    2011-11-23

    Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa .Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores. The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+/-0.70 for the control group and 1.6+/-0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group. It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric

  14. A method for the generation of YAC transgenic mice by pronuclear microinjection.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, A; Larin, Z; Montoliu, L; Thies, E; Kelsey, G; Lehrach, H; Schütz, G

    1993-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) represent the latest generation of vectors which have the great advantage of large insert size. The introduction of YACs into mammalian cells and organisms has become an important goal, since it offers the potential to study the control of large and complex transcription units and identify genes by complementation. Microinjection into the nucleus is the most direct and efficient way of delivering YAC DNA into cells, but requires the purification of the YAC from the remaining yeast chromosomes. Here we describe a detailed method for the isolation of pure, intact and highly concentrated YAC DNA. As a model system the murine tyrosinase gene was chosen and four YACs covering this locus were isolated. Introduction by homologous recombination in yeast of sequences permitting YAC amplification greatly facilitated the isolation of YAC DNA at high concentrations. YAC DNA stabilized in a salt and polyamine containing buffer did not compromise the survival of microinjected oocytes and was suitable for the generation of transgenic mice. Applications and benefits of this technique will be discussed. Images PMID:8233827

  15. Assessment of anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rajesh Kumar; Kaur, Dilpreet; Pahwa, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The present study was to assess the anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice. Materials and Methods: The anxiolytic activity was examined using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), and motor coordination by rotarod test. Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of six mice each. Group 1 received vehicle control (normal saline); Group 2 received diazepam (1 mg/kg); Groups 3, 4, and 5 received nerolidol 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Nerolidol (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time spent and a number of entries in open arm as compared to vehicle control in EPM test. In OFT, the nerolidol showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in number of rearings and time spent in center and periphery, suggesting exploratory behavior of animals. Furthermore, nerolidol did not alter the fall down latency in rotarod test. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that nerolidol exerts an anxiolytic effect without altering the motor coordination. PMID:27756960

  16. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  17. Querectin Alleviates Zinc Oxide Nanoreprotoxicity in Male Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed M A; Ali, Haytham A; Saadeldin, Islam M; Ahmed, Mona M

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanopartciles (ZnONPs) involved in advanced technologies, and their wide-scale use in consumer market makes human beings more prone to the exposure to ZnONPs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate amelioration of ZnONP-induced toxicities with querectin in male albino rats. ZnONPs-treated rats showed a significant decrease in sperm cell count, sperm motility, live and normal sperms, as well as serum testosterone level. Severe histopathological damage with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity and the GSH level were observed in the affected testis. Relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and a significant decrease in 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, and Nr5A1 transcripts. Rats-administered querectin along with ZnONPs showed less toxic effects on all studied reproductive traits and mRNA transcripts. Our results suggest that querectin is beneficial for preventing or ameliorating ZnONP reproductive toxicities in males.

  18. Muscarinic receptors of the albino rabbit ciliary process.

    PubMed

    Mallorga, P; Babilon, R W; Buisson, S; Sugrue, M F

    1989-04-01

    Muscarinic receptor binding sites were identified in membranes prepared from albino rabbit ciliary processes, using the muscarinic antagonist [3H]L-quinuclidinyl benzylate as the radioligand. Analysis of saturation binding experiments demonstrated that [3H]L-quinuclidinyl benzylate bound to an apparent homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd value of 6.4 pm and a Bmax value of 155 fmol mg-1 protein. Seventy percent (70%) of binding sites showed high affinity for pirenzepine, i.e. belonged to the M1 subtype. In contrast, AF-DX 116 was unable to discriminate between subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in this tissue. Carbachol caused a dose-dependent increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover (EC50 = 154 microM) in ciliary processes. A maximum stimulation of 652% of basal activity was obtained following a 45 min incubation with 10 mM carbachol. The potency of muscarinic antagonists to block the carbachol-induced response was comparable to that found for M1 receptors in other tissues. Oxotremorine and pilocarpine behaved like partial agonists in this assay. The carbachol-induced increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover was also observed in a suspension of epithelial cells from ciliary processes and it was blocked by atropine; thus, indicating the presence of muscarinic receptors functionally coupled to phosphatidylinositol turnover in these cells.

  19. [Effect of different transfection reagents and injection methods in mice testicular injection on the expression of exogenous gene].

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Li, Xiang; Wu, Caifeng; Zhang, Shushan; Zhang, Tingyu; Zhang, Defu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of three different transfection reagents (Lipofectamine™ LTX & PLUS™, Lipofectamine 2000 and Nano-PAMAM-D) and three different testicular injection methods (rete testicular injection, seminiferous tubules injection and testicular interstitial injection) on the efficiency of production transgenic mice. After the mixtures of plasmid DNA (pEFP-C1) and transfection reagent were injected with different testicular injection methods, the sperm density, vitality, positive sperm rates and PCR positive transgenic mice rate were examined 30 days after injection. The results showed that the damage degree from slight to serious of three transfection reagents was Lipofectamine™ LTX & PLUS™, Lipofectamine 2000, and PAMAM-D. The sperm positive rates with green fluorescence of these three groups were 35.65%±0.69%, 12.86%±0.35% and 10.04%±0.20%, respectively. The PCR positive rates of transgenic newborn mice were 29.17%, 13.70% and 5.88%, respectively. Among the groups of different testicular injection methods, the damage degree from slight to serious was rete testicular injection, seminiferous tubules injection, and testicular interstitial injection, whereas the sperm positive rates with green fluorescence were 35.13%, 15.13%, and 0%, respectively. The PCR positive rates of transgenic newborn mice among different testicular injection groups were 33.3%, 12.5%, and 0.0%. The combination of rete testicular injection and Lipofectamine™ LTX & PLUS™ had the lowest toxicity and highest transgenic efficiency in the production of transgenic mice.

  20. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  1. Nephroprotective Effect of the Leaves of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) against Toxicity Induced by Diclofenac Sodium in Albino Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, A; Hasan, IJ; Sarfraz, M; Jafri, L; Ashraf, MA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis against toxicity induced by diclofenac sodium in albino rabbits. Subjects and Method: Thirty-six healthy albino rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 served as the untreated control, group 2 was treated only with diclofenac sodium, group 3 with the nephroprotective drug silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with different doses of Aloe barbadensis, ie 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively after being treated with diclofenac sodium. Blood samples were collected after every five days up to fifteen days. Haematological and histopathological parameters were determined by using diagnostic kits. Results: Results of haematological studies showed that use of the powder of Aloe barbadensis normalized the level of different factors eg, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values. Histopathological studies showed that Aloe barbadensis ameliorated pyknotic nuclei in the renal epithelial cells and reduced oxidative stress by increasing the level of catalase and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Conclusion: These results have shown that Aloe barbadensis can normalize oxidative stress and can be used as an effective nephroprotective agent against drug-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27398602

  2. Hypoglycemic activity of bio-tea in mice.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, C

    2000-03-01

    Administration of bio-tea (1.71 ml/kg) to normal albino mice caused hypoglycemia after 30 min which reached to maximum after 2 hr with a significant decrease in blood sugar level (BSL) and became normal beyond 8 hr. In alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice, repeated treatments of bio-tea for 3 days (five doses) brought about a significant fall in mean BSL. Continuous decrease in BSL was observed after 4 hr of administration of last dose of bio-tea. Hypoglycemic effect was persistent in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Effect on glucose tolerance test showed a significant fall in BSL of bio-tea treated animals after 1 hr of glucose treatment indicating hypoglycemic effect of bio-tea.

  3. A simple and inexpensive method for determining cold sensitivity and adaptation in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Vogt, Sherri K; Gereau, Robert W

    2015-03-17

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice.

  4. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  5. The pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis on the intestinal organs of rats and mice: an experimental investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequently isolated species of the coagulase negative staphylococci from human stool. However, it is not clear how its presence in the gut affects the cellular structures and functions of this organ. In this study therefore, the pathogenicity of strains of S. epidermidis which were isolated from the stool samples of apparently healthy children was investigated in mice and rats. Methods The albino mice (22—30 g) and albino rats (100-155 g) of both sexes were infected orally and intraperitoneally with graded doses of the bacteria and subjected to behavioral and histopathological examinations. Results Acute infection in these animals caused temporary behavioural changes as shown by restlessness and abdominal stretchings but did not result in death even at a dosage of 2 × 109 cfu/kg. Daily administration of the same dose for 14 days resulted in the death of 11 out of 21 (52.4%) mice. Histopathological examination of the affected organs showed congestions, aggregations and multinucleated hepatocytes in the liver, infiltration of the kidney tubule interstitial by chronic inflammatory cells, coagulative necrosis of the kidney, spleen, intestine and stomach cells as well as marked stroma fibrosis of the spleen. Coagulative necrosis of cells was the most frequently occurring pathological alteration. Lethality and pathological effects reflected the virulence factors expressed by the organism which are biofilm formation, haemagglutination properties and capsule production. Conclusions The results indicate that strains of S. epidermidis colonising the gut can cause serious pathological changes on certain organs such as kidney, liver, intestine, stomach and spleen which, depending on their severity, could be fatal. PMID:25016472

  6. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence in Mice: Correlation With HPLC Quantitation of RPE Lipofuscin and Measurement of Retina Outer Nuclear Layer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Janet R.; Blonska, Anna; Flynn, Erin; Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Secondi, Roberta; Ueda, Keiko; Delori, François C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Our study was conducted to establish procedures and protocols for quantitative autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in mice, and to report changes in qAF, A2E bisretinoid concentration, and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in mice of different genotypes and age. Methods. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) images (55° lens, 488 nm excitation) were acquired in albino Abca4−/−, Abca4+/−, and Abca4+/+ mice (ages 2–12 months) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). Gray levels (GLs) in each image were calibrated to an internal fluorescence reference. The bisretinoid A2E was measured by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histometric analysis of ONL thicknesses was performed. Results. The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (95% confidence interval) was ±18% for between-session qAF measurements. Mean qAF values increased with age (2–12 months) in all groups of mice. qAF was approximately 2-fold higher in Abca4−/− mice than in Abca4+/+ mice and approximately 20% higher in heterozygous mice. HPLC measurements of the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E also revealed age-associated increases, and the fold difference between Abca4−/− and wild-type mice was more pronounced (approximately 3–4-fold) than measurable by qAF. Moreover, A2E levels declined after 8 months of age, a change not observed with qAF. The decline in A2E levels in the Abca4−/− mice corresponded to reduced photoreceptor cell viability as reflected in ONL thinning beginning at 8 months of age. Conclusions. The qAF method enables measurement of in vivo lipofuscin and the detection of genotype and age-associated differences. The use of this approach has the potential to aid in understanding retinal disease processes and will facilitate preclinical studies. PMID:23548623

  7. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Larysa B.; Matvienko, Anatoliy V.; Kovalenko, Valentina M.

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2) mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I – control (intact animals), II – chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days). Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (–53%) and methionine (+133%). The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure. PMID:26109895

  8. Copper-deficient mice have higher cardiac norepinephrine turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, A.M.; Prohaska, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Male Swiss albino mice were studied at 6 weeks of age. Their dams were fed a copper-deficient diet (modified AIN-76A) starting 4 days after birth and given deionized water (-Cu) or water with CuSO{sub 4} added (+Cu) (20 {mu}g Cu/ml). When 3 weeks of age mice were weaned and housed in stainless steel cages on the respective treatment of their dams. Turnover of norepinephrine (NE) was studied in 8 experiments using 2 separate techniques. The first procedure used {alpha}-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (300 mg/kg i.p.) to inhibit tyrosine hydroxlase activity. The loss of residual NE was determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Regression lines were constructed and fractional turnover (%/h) and calculated turnover (ng/g/h) were determined for heart, cerebellum and adrenal gland. In 4 experiments loss of NE in cerebellum of -Cu ad +Cu mice was equivalent. Loss of NE from adrenal gland could not be detected in the 8 h time course. Loss of NE, both fractional turnover and calculated turnover, from heart of -Cu mice was 4-5 fold higher compared to +Cu controls. A second method using m- hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) (100 mg/kg i.p.), which inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, confirmed the results. For all 4 experiments the cardiac accumulation of L-DOPA (measured by HPLC) was faster in -Cu mice compared to controls. The higher turnover rate of NE in heart and perhaps other sympathetic nerves may contribute to the higher urinary NE output observed previously.

  9. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  10. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  11. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  12. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  13. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  14. Design of a new variable-ventilation method optimized for lung recruitment in mice.

    PubMed

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Hueser, Lauren E; Majumdar, Arnab; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2008-05-01

    Variable ventilation (VV), characterized by breath-to-breath variation of tidal volume (Vt) and breathing rate (f), has been shown to improve lung mechanics and blood oxygenation during acute lung injury in many species compared with conventional ventilation (CV), characterized by constant Vt and f. During CV as well as VV, the lungs of mice tend to collapse over time; therefore, the goal of this study was to develop a new VV mode (VV(N)) with an optimized distribution of Vt to maximize recruitment. Groups of normal and HCl-injured mice were subjected to 1 h of CV, original VV (VV(O)), CV with periodic large breaths (CV(LB)), and VV(N), and the effects of ventilation modes on respiratory mechanics, airway pressure, blood oxygenation, and IL-1beta were assessed. During CV and VV(O), normal and injured mice showed regional lung collapse with increased airway pressures and poor oxygenation. CV(LB) and VV(N) resulted in a stable dynamic equilibrium with significantly improved respiratory mechanics and oxygenation. Nevertheless, VV(N) provided a consistently better physiological response. In injured mice, VV(O) and VV(N), but not CV(LB), were able to reduce the IL-1beta-related inflammatory response compared with CV. In conclusion, our results suggest that application of higher Vt values than the single Vt currently used in clinical situations helps stabilize lung function. In addition, variable stretch patterns delivered to the lung by VV can reduce the progression of lung injury due to ventilation in injured mice.

  15. A high molecular weight protein Bengalin from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis C.L. Koch) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Subhash; Das Gupta, Shubho; Gomes, Aparna; Giri, Biplab; Dasgupta, Subir Chandra; Biswas, Ajay; Mishra, Roshnara; Gomes, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the presence of a high molecular weight protein (Bengalin) from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in experimental osteoporosis developed in female albino Wister rats. Bengalin was purified through DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of the Bengalin was found to be 72kDa and the first 20 amino acid sequence was found to be G-P-L-T-I-L-H-I-N-D-V-H-A-A/R-F-E-Q/G-F/G-N-T. Bengalin exhibited significant antiosteoporosis activity in experimental female rats, which was confirmed through analysis of urine Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE & OH-P. Bengalin (3 microg and 5 microg/100g rat/i.p.) antagonized osteoporosis by restoring urinary Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE and OH-P, serum/plasma Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), ALP, TRAP, PTH, T(3), TSH, Osteocalcin, IL1, IL6 and TNF alpha and bone minerals Ca(2+), P, Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Na(+), as compared with the sham operated control rats. Bone minerals density of osteoporosis female rats was improved due to Bengalin, observed through DEXA scan. Subacute toxicity studies in male albino mice, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity. In vivo experiments, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity on isolated guinea pig heart, guinea pig auricle, and neurotoxicity on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. Further detail studies on the toxicity, antiosteoporosis and structural identity of Bengalin are warranted.

  16. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Haq, A.K.; Pomerantz, S.H.; Halaban, R.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a lambdagt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were form related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase.

  17. An antibody induction method in mice for the potency assays of diphtheria and tetanus components in combined vaccines.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, S C; Sharma, S B; Kumar, A; Sokhey, J

    1998-09-01

    Eleven batches of Adsorbed Diphtheria-Tetanus (DT) vaccines and thirteen batches of Adsorbed Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DTP) vaccines were tested for the potency of diphtheria and tetanus components by an Antibody Induction Method (AIM) developed in mice. The potency results obtained were found comparable and did not show any statistically significant difference with those obtained by WHO recommended lethal challenge tests for diphtheria in guinea pigs and for tetanus in mice. AIM in mice is more economical as both diphtheria and tetanus components of combined vaccine can be tested in the same experiment and the procedure also eliminates the use of guinea pigs required in the lethal challenge/conventional tests. The data obtained while testing tetanus component by the conventional antibody induction (IP) method in guinea pigs suggests that minimum requirements laid down in i.p. is too low which may be fixed as at least 3 out of 9 guinea pig sera and should contain > or = 4 units of tetanus antitoxin per ml.

  18. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats.

  19. A method for longitudinal, transcranial imaging of blood flow and remodeling of the cerebral vasculature in postnatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Letourneur, Annelise; Chen, Victoria; Waterman, Gar; Drew, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the weeks following birth, both the brain and the vascular network that supplies it undergo dramatic alteration. While studies of the postnatal evolution of the pial vasculature and blood flow through its vessels have been previously done histologically or acutely, here we describe a neonatal reinforced thin‐skull preparation for longitudinally imaging the development of the pial vasculature in mice using two‐photon laser scanning microscopy. Starting with mice as young as postnatal day 2 (P2), we are able to chronically image cortical areas >1 mm2, repeatedly for several consecutive days, allowing us to observe the remodeling of the pial arterial and venous networks. We used this method to measure blood velocity in individual vessels over multiple days, and show that blood flow through individual pial venules was correlated with subsequent diameter changes. This preparation allows the longitudinal imaging of the developing mammalian cerebral vascular network and its physiology. PMID:25524276

  20. Evaluation of the foetal time to death in mice after application of direct and indirect euthanasia methods.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mediavilla, C; Cámara, J A; Salazar, S; Segui, B; Sanguino, D; Mulero, F; de la Cueva, E; Blanco, I

    2016-04-01

    Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that the killing of mammal foetuses during the last third of their gestational period should be accomplished through effective and humane methods. The fact that murine foetuses are resistant to hypoxia-mediated euthanasia renders the current euthanasia methods ineffective or humane for the foetuses when these methods are applied to pregnant female mice. We have assessed the time to death of foetuses after performing either indirect (dam euthanasia) or direct (via intraplacental injection--a new approach to euthanasia) euthanasia methods in order to determine a euthanasia method that is appropriate, ethical and efficient for the killing of mouse foetuses. The respective times to death of foetuses after performing the three most commonly used euthanasia methods (namely cervical dislocation, CO2inhalation and intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital administration) were recorded. Absence of foetal heartbeat was monitored via ultrasound. We consider that the most effective and humane method of foetal euthanasia was the one able to achieve foetal death within the shortest possible period of time. Among the indirect euthanasia methods assessed, the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose to pregnant female mice was found to be the fastest for foetuses, with an average post-treatment foetal death of approximately 29.8 min. As for the direct euthanasia method assessed, foetal time to death after intraplacental injection of sodium pentobarbital was approximately 14 min. Significant differences among the different mouse strains employed were found. Based on the results obtained in our study, we consider that the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose by intraplacental injection to be an effective euthanasia method for murine foetuses.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Pioglitazone (Actos) is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects. This study investigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder. Materials and Methods: 120 albino mice were divided into four groups; 30 in each. The first group (control) received water, second (diabetic) group received alloxan only, while the third and the fourth groups received alloxan with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of pioglitazone, respectively for 90 days. Results: Prolonged use of pioglitazone induced significant abnormalities of hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers and some hematological indices associated with histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, and bladder that increased based on administered dose. Conclusion: Subchronic use of pioglitazone leads to hepatic, renal, cardiac, hematological, and bladder affection depending on the applied dose. PMID:27635194

  2. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  3. A New Method for Respiratory Gating During Microcomputed Tomography of Lung in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Evan M; Price, Roger E; Kurie, Jonathan M; Rivera, Belinda S; Cody, Dianna D

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of regulated cyclic breath-holds to improve microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging of small (diameter, less than 1 mm) mouse lung tumors in vivo. Two novel techniques that use a modified small-animal ventilator were examined and compared with a previously used respiratory gating μCT technique and a free-breathing μCT technique. Two mice were scanned with each of these 4 μCT techniques (voxel size, 92 μm). The appearance of small lung tumors (maximal diameter, 0.5 to 1.0 mm) and the characteristics of line profiles of the lung–diaphragm boundary were used to compare the images obtained from the 4 acquisition techniques. The use of cyclic breath-holds, synchronized with the CT exposures, led to marked improvement in the visualization of the mouse lung structure and lesion conspicuity. A secondary experiment was performed to assess the stress placed on mice by the acquisition techniques. PMID:18702451

  4. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material.

  5. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  6. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  7. Phytochemical analysis and a study on the antiestrogenic antifertility effect of leaves of Piper betel in female albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Sasmita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper betel (PB) Linn (PBL) on the estrous cycle of female albino rats. Materials and Methods: Both the extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at three dose levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and the vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for the different phases of the estrous cycle for a period of 30 days. Result: The estrous cycle was irregular and prolonged in the treated groups indicating anestrus condition, which would result in infertility. Both types of the extract showed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus and estrus with a prolonged diestrus at 1000 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day doses as compared with control. However, no change was seen in the metestrus phase. The rats treated with PB showed a significant (P < 0.05), dose-dependent decrease in the estrus phase, in comparison to the control group, the effect was more with the methanolic extract. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase with decreased number of cornified cells. There was a significant reduction in the number of the estrous cycle, in the PBL treated group. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic PB extract, which was not observed in the control group. However, the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day had no effect either on the estrous cycle or on its different phases. The observed effect of PB leaves could be due to the flavonoids and saponin contents, which also contributes to its antiestrogenic mechanism of action. Conclusion: Both the aqueous and methanolic extract of PBL possesses antifertility effect in female albino rats. PMID:25737606

  8. Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p < 0.05). Hence, the soaked Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities.

  9. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  10. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Effects of photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative-HPD) and light dose on vascular targets in the albino mouse ear

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.K.; Davis, K.; Straight, R.C.; Waner, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic damage to normal tissues, including skin, appears to occur by photooxidative damage to the normal microvasculature as the primary target sensitized by HPD bound to the vascular wall or endothelial cell. Initial damage to the microvasculature was measured by the increase in vascular permeability (VP) as measured by Evans Blue dye (EB) extravasation as a function of HPD and laser light (632 nm) dose. Albino, Swiss-Webster mice (female 122-25 g, 5 mice per group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with incremental doses of HPD (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg). After 48 hours the left ear of each mouse was masked as a control and the right ear was irradiated at 632 nm using the Aurora-Lexel Argon-dye laser with an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 and light doses of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 J/cm2 directed to a 3-mm spot on the mouse ear. No EB leakage occurred in the absence of HPD at any light dose or in the absence of light at any HPC dose. Vascular permeability increased as a function of HPD dose up to 30 mg/kg. AT 50 mg/kg HPD, there was a decrease in VP. At each HPD dose above 10 mg/kg, the VP increased as a function of light dose up to 75 J/cm2. Further increase in light dose was without effect. The amount of HPD porphyrin recovered from irradiated ears decreased as a function of light dose. There appeared to be an irreversible photo destruction of the porphyrin exposed to light.

  12. Analysis of the albino-locus region of the mouse. IV. Characterization of 34 deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Raymer, G.D.

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-four independent nonviable c-locus mutations (types c/sup al/, albino lethal and c/sup as/, albino subvital), derived from radiation experiments, were tested for invovlvement of nearby markers tp, Mod-2, sh-1, and Hbb: 10, 22, and 2 involved, respectively, none of these markers, Mod-2 alone, and Mod-2 plus sh-1. When classified on this basis, as well as according to developmental stage at which homozygotes die, and by limited complementation results, the 34 independent mutations fell into 12 groups. From results of a full-scale complementation grid of all 435 possible crosses among 30 of the mutations, we were able to postulate an alignment of eight functional units by which the 12 groups fit a linear pattern. Abnormal phenotypes utilized in the complementation study were deaths at various stages of prenatal or postnatla development, body weight, and reduction or absence of various enzymes. Some of these phenotypes can be separated (e.g., glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency and neonatal death). - We conclude that all of the nonviable albino mutations are deficiencies overalpping at c, and ranging in size from < 2cM to 6 to 11 cM. The characterization of this array of deficiencies should provide useful tools for gene-dosage studies, recombinant-DNA fine-structure analyses, etc. Since many of the combinations of lethals produce viable albino animals that resemble the standard c/c type, we conclude (1) that the c locus contains no sites essential for survival, and (b) that viable nonalbino c-locus mutations (c/sup xv/) are the result of mutations within the c cistron. Viable albinos (c/sup av/, the majority of radiation-induced c-locus mutations) may be intracistronic mutations or very small deficiencies.

  13. Route and method of delivery of DNA vaccine influence immune responses in mice and non-human primates.

    PubMed Central

    McCluskie, M. J.; Brazolot Millan, C. L.; Gramzinski, R. A.; Robinson, H. L.; Santoro, J. C.; Fuller, J. T.; Widera, G.; Haynes, J. R.; Purcell, R. H.; Davis, H. L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the large number of studies that have evaluated DNA-based immunization, few have directly compared the immune responses generated by different routes of immunization, particularly in non-human primates. Here we examine the ability of a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-encoding plasmid to induce immune responses in mice and non-human primates (rhesus monkeys: Macaca mulatta) after delivery by a number of routes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight different injected [intraperitoneal (IP), intradermal (ID), intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), intraperineal (IPER), subcutaneous (SC), sublingual (SL), vaginal wall (VW)] and six noninjected [intranasal inhalation (INH), intranasal instillation (INS), intrarectal (IR), intravaginal (IVAG), ocular (Oc), oral feeding (oral)] routes and the gene gun (GG) were used to deliver HBsAg-expressing plasmid DNA to BALB/c mice. Sera were assessed for HBsAg-specific antibodies (anti-HBs, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity measured. Three of the most commonly used routes (IM, ID, GG) were compared in rhesus monkeys, also using HBsAg-expressing vectors. Monkeys were immunized with short (0-, 4- and 8-week) or long (0-, 12- and 24-week) intervals between boosts, and in the case of GG, also with different doses, and their sera were assessed for anti-HBs. RESULTS: In one study, anti-HBs were detected in plasma of mice treated by five of eight of the injected and none of the six noninjected routes. The highest levels of anti-HBs were induced by IM and IV injections, although significant titers were also obtained with SL and ID. Each of these routes also induced CTL, as did IPER and VW and one noninjected route (INH) that failed to induce antibodies. In a second study, GG (1.6 microg) was compared to ID and IM (100 microg) delivery. Significant titers were obtained by all routes after only one boost, with the highest levels detected by IM. Delivery to the skin by GG induced exclusively IgG1

  14. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities.

  15. Effect of Diallyl Disulphide on Diabetes Induced Dyslipidemia in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kashinath, R.T.; Ambekar, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which may lead to various complications, the important being dyslipidemia leading to Coronary Heart Disorders (CHD), the major cause for morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Diabetes Mellitus could be treated by nutritional therapy/drug therapy and others. But the drug therapy would have its own limitations and side effects. To overcome from this an herbal extract is recommended, such as Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) a principle compound of Garlic oil. Aim To assess the hypolipidemic effect of Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Healthy adult wistar strain male albino rats weighing around 100-150 grams were randomly selected from the animal house at BLDE University’s Shri B.M.Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bijapur, India. Diabetes was induced using alloxan and was treated with DADS. After a stipulated time the rats were anesthetised and sacrificed to collect the blood and liver tissue. Various Lipid parameters, HMG CoA Reductase, Fecal bile acids were estimated in the blood, feces and homogenised liver tissue using standard procedures. Statiscal Analysis One-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc t-test is done. Result There was significant decrease in the blood and liver tissue lipid parameters of DADS treated alloxan induced diabetic rats when compared to the alloxan induced diabetic rats. Conclusion From this study it can be concluded that the DADS a principle compound of garlic, definitely has the hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats, which is reducing the morbidity in diabetic cases due to dyslipidemia without the adverse effects. PMID:26023549

  16. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  17. Nicotine alters male reproductive hormones in male albino rats: The role of cessation

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyipo, Ibukun P; Raji, Yinusa; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The use of nicotine through smoking remains a serious health problem. It has been associated with reduced fertility, although the mechanism responsible is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nicotine-induced infertility is associated with altered male reproductive hormones in male albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male rats were divided equally into five groups and treated orally for thirty days. Group I, which served as the control received 0.2 ml/kg normal saline, Group II and III received 0.5 mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0 mg/kg (high dose) body weight of nicotine, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups were gavaged with 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine but were left untreated for another 30 days. These groups served as the recovery groups. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and prolactin using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Results showed that nicotine administration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) testosterone in the low and high treated groups and FSH in the high dose treated group when compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in mean LH and prolactin level in the high dose treated group when compared with the control. However, the values of the recovery groups were comparable with the control. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study suggest that nicotine administration is associated with distorted reproductive hormones in male rats although ameliorated by nicotine cessation. It is plausible that the decreased testosterone level is associated with testicular dysfunction rather than a pituitary disorder. PMID:23869150

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria bark ethanol extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Kale, Mrudula; Misar, A V; Dave, Vivek; Joshi, Maruti; Mujumdar, A M

    2007-06-13

    Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria Linn. bark ethanol extract was demonstrated in albino mice using TPA-, EPP- and AA-induced ear edema models. The systemic activity of extract was confirmed using acute and sub-acute anti-inflammatory models in albino rats. The ethanol extract exhibited significant systemic anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, by inhibition of histamine and prostaglandin phases of acute inflammation. The extract also showed significant activity against turpentine-induced exudative changes and no activity against granular tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma in albino rats. Thus, resultant anti-inflammatory activity might be due to effects on several mediators involving cyclo-oxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin formation and leukocyte migration from the vessels.

  19. The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss hydroalcoholic extract and fractions in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shamsizadeh, Ali; Fatehi, Farangis; Arab Baniasad, Fatemeh; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora) with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced chemical kindling. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used. All groups received 11 separate intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg) with two-day intervals. 30 min before the injection of PTZ, mice received vehicle, Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract (300 and 600 mg/kg), n-hexane, acetone, methanol fraction extracts (150 mg/kg), or diazepam (10 mg/kg). Results: The kindled mice that were pretreated with vehicle showed a gradual increase in their seizure scores up to the end of the study. The hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora (300 and 600 mg/kg) reduced seizure scores significantly. However, n-hexane, acetone and methanol extracts did not affect seizure scores significantly. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora did reduce the severity of seizure attacks in PTZ-induced chemical kindling in mice. PMID:28078241

  20. UPLC-MS method for quantification of pterostilbene and its application to comparative study of bioavailability and tissue distribution in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Li, Yongzhi; Zhang, Xinshi; Chen, Bo; Deng, Yulin; Li, Yujuan

    2015-10-10

    A UPLC-MS method was developed for determination of pterostilbene (PTS) in plasma and tissues of mice. PTS was separated on Agilent Zorbax XDB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linear calibration curve of PTS in mouse plasma and tissues ranged from 1.0 to 5000 and 0.50 to 500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.9979), respectively, with lowest limits of quantification (LLOQ) were between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the assay were satisfactory. The validated method was applied to the study of bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) bearing mice. The bioavailability of PTS (dose 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg) in normal mice were 11.9%, 13.9% and 26.4%, respectively; and the maximum level (82.1 ± 14.2 μg/g) was found in stomach (dose 28 mg/kg). The bioavailability, peak concentration (Cmax), time to peak concentration (Tmax) of PTS in LLC mice was increased compared with normal mice. The results indicated the UPLC-MS method is reliable and bioavailability and tissue distribution of PTS in normal and LLC mice were dramatically different.

  1. Modulating Effects of Spirulina platensis against Tilmicosin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic used to treat cattle for pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease. However, overdoses of this medication have been reported to induce cardiac damage. Our experimental objective was to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) administration against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Materials and Methods Our experimental in vivo animal study used 40 male albino mice that were divided into five groups of eight mice per group. The first group served as a control group and was injected with saline. The second group received SP at dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for five days. The third group received a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Groups 4 and 5 were given SP at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days just before administration of TIL at the same dose and regimen used for group 3. Results TIL treated animals showed a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, however they had evidence of an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. SP normalized elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB. Furthermore, SP reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Administration of SP minimized the toxic effects of TIL by its free radicalscavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25870843

  2. Evaluation of neurotoxicity of repeated dermal application of chlorpyrifos on hippocampus of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Nilesh K; Siong, How Hee; Nadarajah, Vishna D

    2008-01-01

    Dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide is important because of its use in agriculture and control of household pests. The objectives of this study are to investigate firstly, the biochemical changes in the blood and secondly, histomorphometric changes in the hippocampus of adult mice following dermal application of chlorpyrifos in sub-toxic doses. Male Swiss albino mice (60 days) were segregated into one control and two treated groups (n=10). Chlorpyrifos, diluted with xylene, was applied in doses of 1/2 of LD(50) (E1) and 1/5 of LD(50) (E2) over the tail of mice of the two treated groups, 6 hours daily for 3 weeks. AChE levels in the serum and brain were estimated using a spectrophotometric method (Amplex Red reagent). Coronal serial sections were stained with 0.2 % thionin in acetate buffer and pyramidal neurons of Cornu Ammonis of hippocampus were counted at 400x magnification using Image Pro Express software. At the end of 3 weeks, body weights were reduced significantly in E1 group. Serum AChE concentrations were reduced by 97 % in E1 and 74 % in E2 groups compared to controls. The neurons of CA 3 and CA 1 in the hippocampus showed evidences of morphological damage in both treated groups. Furthermore, the neuronal count was significantly reduced in CA 3 layer of hippocampus in E1 group.

  3. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  4. GEMINI: Initial behavioral results after full severance of the cervical spinal cord in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Oh, Hanseul; Hwang, In-Kyu; Hong, Ki-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, we report the preliminary data on the use of a fusogen [polyethylene glycol (PEG)] after full cervical cord transection in mice to facilitate the fusion of both ends of a sharply transected spinal cord. Methods: Cervical laminectomy and a complete, visually confirmed cervical cord (C 5) transection was performed on female albino mice (n = 16). In Group 1 (n = 8), a fusogen, (PEG) was used to bridge the gap between the cut ends of the spinal cord. Group 2 received the same spinal cord transection but was treated with saline. Outcome was assessed daily using a standard scale (modified 22-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) and filmed on camera. Results: The PEG group (group 1) showed partial restoration of motor function after 4 weeks of observation; group 2 (placebo) did not recover any useful motor activity. Conclusion: In this preliminary experiment, PEG, but not saline, promoted partial motor recovery in mice submitted to full cervical transection. PMID:27656325

  5. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects 661W cells from H2O2-mediated cell death and enhances electroretinography response in dim-reared albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H2O2-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. Methods The 661W cells were pretreated with CAPE and then stressed with H2O2. Cell death was measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, and mRNA and proteins were analyzed. Sprague Dawley rats were raised on either a control or CAPE (0.02%) diet and exposed to various light conditions for short or long periods. Retinal histology, mRNA, protein, lipid composition, and retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) were measured at the end of feeding. Results Pretreatment of 661W cells with CAPE reduced H2O2-mediated cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho1). Albino rats fed with CAPE had greater expression of Ho1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), less expression of FOS-like antigen (Fosl) and lipoxygenase 12 (Lox12) genes in the retina, less translocation of nuclear factor kappaB protein to the nucleus, and a lower molar ratio of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Further, the ERGs of the retinas of CAPE-fed rats were significantly higher than those of the control-fed rats when raised in dim light. Conclusions CAPE can activate the antioxidative gene expression pathway in retinal cells in vitro and in vivo. Feeding CAPE to albino rats can enhance ERG responses and change the lipid profile in the rats’ retinas. PMID:22690111

  6. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a simple method to infect mice with L3 larvae obtained from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Hübner, Marc P; Torrero, Marina N; McCall, John W; Mitre, Edward

    2009-09-01

    Litomosoides sigmodontis is a filarial nematode that is used as a mouse model for human filarial infections. The life cycle of L. sigmodontis comprises rodents as definitive hosts and tropical rat mites as alternate hosts. Here, we describe a method of infecting mice with third stage larvae (L3) extracted from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). This method enables infection of mice with a known number of L3 larvae without the time-consuming dissection of L3 larvae from mites and results in higher worm recovery and patency rates than conventional methods. Additionally, this method allows for geographical separation of the facility maintaining the L. sigmodontis life cycle from the institution at which mice are infected.

  7. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD1 Mice Part 1: Methods Development for the Analysis of Tissues and Fluids from Pregnant and Lactating Mice and Their Pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies involving the analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has 33 increased recently because PFOA is routinely detected in human blood samples from around the world. Recent studies with mice have shown that dosing pregnant dams with PFOA during gestation gives ...

  8. Method for recording spinal reflexes in mice: effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, DOI, tolperisone and baclofen on monosynaptic spinal reflex potentials.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Honda, M; Ono, H

    2001-05-01

    Mice were used to record the spinal reflex potentials and to examine the effects of some drugs upon them. In anesthetized mice, laminectomy was performed in the lumbo-sacral region, and monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex potential were recorded from the L5 ventral root after stimulation of the L5 dorsal root. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) produced transient and long-lasting increases in the MSR amplitude, respectively. Tolperisone hydrochloride and baclofen produced transient and long-lasting MSR depressions, respectively. These results show that mice can be used to record spinal reflex potentials, and that it may be possible to study the spinal cord function of mutant and knockout mice using this method.

  9. In vivo visualization of bonghan ducts inside blood vessels of mice by using an Alcian blue staining method.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Kim, Min Su; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2008-05-01

    An in vivo method using Alcian blue (AB) was developed for visualizing floating threadlike tissues inside blood vessels of mice. These novel structures called intravascular Bonghan ducts (IBHDs) are considered as extension of acupuncture meridians. For in vivo imaging of IBHDs, AB solution (pH 7.4) that stains mucopolysaccharides like hyaluronic acid was used. After injecting AB solution into the femoral vein of a mouse, the threadlike structures, stained deep blue, inside the inferior vena cava. The histological results, such as hematoxylin, eosin, and AB staining, show the compositions of the cells and the extracellular matrix in the IBHD. Further studies are needed to investigate their physiological functions, especially in relation with those of other circulatory systems.

  10. Six novel P gene mutations and oculocutaneous albinism type 2 frequency in Japanese albino patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tamio; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Matsunaga, Jun; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Naoko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki; Terao, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yasushi

    2003-05-01

    Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in the P gene that codes one of the melanosomal proteins, the function of which remains unknown. In this paper, we report the frequency of OCA2, 8%, among the Japanese albino population, six novel mutations containing four missense substitutions (P198L, P211L, R10W, M398I), and two splice site mutations (IVS15+1 G>A, IVS24-1 G>C). One of them, R10W, was within the putative signal peptide at the N-terminal of the P protein. This is the first report on the frequency of OCA2 in the Japanese albino population.

  11. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sutapa; Guha, Debjani

    2008-03-01

    Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.

  12. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  13. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  15. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  16. Destructive and regenerative changes in the albino rat kidney during mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a morphological analysis of destructive and regenerative changes observed during a study of serial semithin sections of the kidneys of albino rats with mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis. The results of this investigation indicate that injury to the epithelium of the urinary tubules by mercuric chloride is heterogenous in depth, and this has a substantial influence on the viability of the animals and on the subsequent process of repair of the damage.

  17. Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alaa-Eldin, Eman Ahmad; El-Shafei, Dalia Abdallah; Abouhashem, Nehal S

    2017-01-01

    Commercial mixtures of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin pesticides are widely used to enhance the toxic effects of cypermethrin on target insects. So, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into main four groups: group I (control group) included 16 rats, subdivided into negative and positive control; group II (eight rats) received chlorpyrifos 6.75 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); group III (eight rats) (received cypermethrin 12.5 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); and group IV (eight rats) (received chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 12 weeks. We found that single CPF and CYP exposures significantly have adverse effects on reproductive function of adult male albino rats manifested by reduced testicular weight, decreased sperm count, motility and viability, significantly increased percent of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, and significant increments in sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) with respect to control group. Furthermore, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group. This was accompanied with histopathological changes in the testis of rats such as necrosis, degeneration, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells in some seminiferous tubules, edema, congested blood vessels, and exudate in interstitial tissue of the testis. Notably, all these changes were exaggerated in rats treated concomitantly with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin rendering the mixture more toxic than the additive effects of each compound and causing greater damage on the reproductive system of male albino rats than the individual pesticides.

  18. Antiepileptic and Antioxidant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ferula Assa Foetida Gum on Pentylentetrazole- induced Kindling in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Heidari, Hamid; Azizi, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Considering the prevalence of epilepsy and the failure of available treatments for many epileptic patients, finding more effective drugs in the treatment of epilepsy seems necessary. Oxidative stress has a special role in the pathogenesis of epileptic syndrome. Therefore, in the present study, we have examined the anti-epileptic and anti-oxidant properties of the Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract, using the pentylentetrazole (PTZ) kindling method. In this experimental study, sixty male Albino mice weighing 25-30 g were selected and were randomly divided into 6 groups. 1- the control group, 2- PTZ-kindled mice, 3- positive control group which received valproate (100 mg/kg) as anti-convulsant drug, 4-5 & 6- the groups of kindled mice that pretreated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg doses of Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract. Methods Kindling has been induced in all groups, except for the control group via 11 PTZ injections (35 mg /kg; ip) every other day for 22 days. In the 24th day, the PTZ challenge dose was injected (75 mg / kg) to all groups except the control group. The intensity of seizures were observed and noted until 30 minutes after PTZ injection. At list, the mice were decapitated and the brains of all the mice were removed.. and their biochemical factors levels including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined. Results Results of this study show that Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract is able to reduce seizure duration and its intensity. In addition, this extract has reduced MDA and NO levels and increased the level of SOD in the brain tissue compared to the PTZ- kindled mice. Discussion It can be concluded that Ferula Assa Foetida gum extract, in specific doses, is able to show an anti-epileptic effect because of its antioxidant properties, probably acting through an enzyme activity mechanism. PMID:25337361

  19. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  20. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  1. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidences for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Rekha; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil, commonly known as Malkangni or Jyotishmati, was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders. Celastrus paniculatus seed oil has significant antidepressant-like activity in chronic unpredictable stressed mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil in unstressed mice and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The seed oil (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, PO) and fluoxetine per se were administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On the 14th day, 60 min after drug administration, animals were subjected to Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swim Test (FST). The mechanism of action was also studied. Results: The oil significantly decreased immobility period of mice in both tail suspension test and forced swim test, indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (P<0.0001). ED50 value of celastrus seed oil using FST and TST were 17.38 and 31.62 mg/kg, respectively. The oil did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. It significantly inhibited brain MAO–A activity and decreased plasma corticosterone levels. Sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor), and baclofen (GABAB agonist) significantly attenuated the oil-induced antidepressant-like effect, when assessed during TST. Discussion: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice possibly through interaction with dopamine D2, serotonergic, and GABAB receptors; as well as inhibition of MAO–A activity and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:27303599

  2. Optical properties of albino rat skin heated in vitro: comparison of photoacoustic and integrating sphere measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Vijverberg, Helene; Jacques, Steven L.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    1994-08-01

    The optical properties represented by the absorption coefficient ((mu) a) and reduced scattering coefficient [(mu) s(1-g) or (mu) 's] at (lambda) equals 355 nm of thermally altered albino rat skin were measured in vitro by two methods: (1) a time-resolved stress detection (TRSD) technique which directly measured the effective attenuation coefficient ((mu) eff) and the absorption coefficient ((mu) a), and (2) the well-known integrating sphere technique which measured total transmittance (Tt) nd total diffuse reflectance (Rd). The skin pieces were wrapped in water-tight packets and heated for 20 minutes in a calibrated water bath (temperature range: 20 degree(s) - 90 degree(s)C) and the same skin samples were used for both measurement methods. The experimental data were analyzed to specify the absorption and the scattering properties. The results, which were in general agreement for both methods, indicated that denaturation of the rat skin caused a decrease in scattering due to melting of the collagen fibers. The decrease began at 55 degree(s)C and plateaued at 65 degree(s) - 70 degree(s)C and was essentially unchanged at higher temperatures. Absorption was not significantly affected by denaturation except for a transient rise at 50 degree(s) - 60 degree(s)C.

  3. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  4. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirapara, Hiren N.; Ghori, Vishal M.; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3rd, 7th, and 11th day and for reepithelization on 11th day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. Results: EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3rd (P < 0.001) and 11th (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7th (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly

  5. Orthotopic bone transplantation in mice. III. Methods of reducing the immune response and their effect on healing

    SciTech Connect

    Kliman, M.; Halloran, P.F.; Lee, E.; Esses, S.; Fortner, P.; Langer, F.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of reducing the immune response to allogeneic bone grafts, either by pretreating the graft or by immunosuppressing the recipient, were compared. Tibial grafts from B10.D2 mice, either untreated or pretreated in various ways, were transplanted into B10 recipients. The antibody response was followed and the extent of bone healing at 4 months was assessed. Pretreatment of the graft by X-irradiation, freezing, or by incubation in alloantisera (either anti-H-2 or anti-Ia) reduced or abolished the immunogenicity of the graft. Immunosuppression of the recipient with methotrexate or antilymphocyte serum (ALS) also greatly depressed the antibody response. But when healing was assessed, none of these treatments except ALS improved the delayed healing of the bone allografts. The reason for this failure was probably that X-irradiation, freezing, alloantiserum pretreatment, and methotrexate all interfered with bone healing directly, whereas ALS did not. We conclude that many methods will reduce the immune response to allogeneic bone, but that only ALS will improve the healing of the allogeneic bone. Furthermore, as a corollary to the observation that pretreatment with anti-Ia serum markedly reduced the immunogenicity of bone allografts, we conclude that much of the immunogenicity of bone allografts is attributable to a population of Ia-positive cells.

  6. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Latha, K.; Rammohan, B.; Sunanda, B. P. V.; Maheswari, M. S. Uma; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18–25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Results: In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves. PMID:26109787

  7. Method for optic nerve intensity characterization in mice from Mn2+ enhanced MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D.; Ribic, J.; Butzkueven, H.; Fang, K.; Kilpatrick, T. J.; Egan, G. F.; Salvado, O.

    2009-02-01

    Investigating whether manganese transport is impaired in the optic nerve of small animal model is a new approach for evaluating optic neuritis. One needs to quantify signal intensity enhancement due to Mn2+ after intra-orbital injection, along the optic nerve from MR images. Quantification is very challenging as the optic nerve (ON) is not straight, its location does not correspond to standard slice orientation, the noise is substantial, and the signal is subject to inhomogeneity from the coil sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method whereby 1) the retina point and the start of the chiasm in a mouse brain MR image are defined manually in a 3D visualization environment, 2) optic nerve in reformatted slices perpendicular to the optic nerve segment is semi-manually selected, 3) an automatic algorithm extracts the intensities along the optic nerve while correcting for intensity inhomogeneity, and 4) a model for the Mn2+ diffusion with a exponential decay function is fitted to the intensity profile. Results for the study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are reported whereby statistically significant differences were found between the EAE and the control group.

  8. Effect of extract of Hibiscus on the ultrastructure of the testis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is a popular beverage in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, Hibiscus tea is known for its medicinal effects for thousands of years, scientific evidence of its systemic safety is very limited. The current study aimed to assess the potential adverse effects of H. sabdariffa extract on sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure of albino mice. Thirty adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups and were given: (a) distilled water, (b) cold Hibiscus aqueous extract, and (c) boiled Hibiscus aqueous extract. Hibiscus extract was administered orally daily for 4 weeks in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/mouse. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, mice were decapitated and the testes and epididymides were excised and processed for transmission electron microscopy to assess ultrastructural and sperm abnormalities. The results clearly demonstrate that aqueous extracts from dried calyx of H. sabdariffa, either cold or boiled, alter normal sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure and adversely influence the male reproductive fertility in albino mice. The current data suggest that Hibiscus extract should be consumed with caution, and reasonable estimates of the human risk associated with its consumption should be provided.

  9. Evaluation of the Hepato and Nephron-Protective Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture using Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adebesin, Olumide Adedapo; Okpuzor, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A polyherbal formulation prepared from a mixture of leaves of Gongronema latifolia, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina (GOV) was evaluated for hepato-nephro protective properties against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Normal Wistar albino rats were orally treated with different doses of GOV extract (2, 4 and 8 g/kg b. wt), distilled water and some standard hepatoprotective drugs such as Liv 52 and silymarin for 14 days. However, a day prior to the 14th day, 3 g/kg body weight dose of Acetaminophen (APAP) was administered p.o. 1h before GOV and the standard drugs to induce hepatic and renal damage. The normal control was setup which received only distilled water. The serum levels of liver marker enzymes, biochemical analytes, antioxidant enzymes and hematological parameters were monitored. Results: The results showed that pretreatment of experimental animals with a different doses of the polyherbal formulation dose dependently caused a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the levels of most of the measured hematological parameters but significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the levels of MCV and monocytes when compared to the APAP induced toxin control group. Rats pretreated with GOV exhibited significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum levels of ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Urea and a subsequent decrease in Albumin, Creatine and Total protein when compared to the normal rats. This trend in enzyme and biochemical analytes levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reversed when compared to toxin control group. GOV significantly (p < 0.05) and dose dependently increased the serum, kidney and hepatic CAT, GPx, GSH, GST, SOD and total protein activity in APAP induced damage in rats compared to the toxin control groups. Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that the polyherbal formulation possess hepato and nephron-protective potential against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats, thus

  10. Anti-cholesterol activity test of tanjung (Mimusops elengi L.) leaf extract in the water using in vivo method in mice (Mus musculus L.) DDY-strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristantini, Dewi; Pradana, Bhayangkara Tegar

    2017-02-01

    High cholesterol level in blood is one of deadly cardiovascular disease's causes which is triggered by accumulation of cholesterol patching in blood vessels through heart and using synthetic medicine has several side effect. However, tanjung (M. elengi) which abundant in Indonesia is believed that it can strengthen and clean plaque in blood vessels wall. In this study, anti-cholesterol activity of tanjung (M. elengi) leaf extract in the water will be tested by in vivo method to 6 group of mice (Mus musculus) DDY-strain. The result showed that tanjung (M. elengi) leaf extract has significant effect to decrease total cholesterol level of mice, more extract given to mice, it will give higher cholesterol decreasing. TE 3 can decrease cholesterol level as much as 36%. In this study, it can be concluded that tanjung (M. elengi) leaf extract can be used as cholesterol decreasing medicine.

  11. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Gaskill, Brianna N; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female's dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001). Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis, pair mating

  12. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.; Gaskill, Brianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male’s territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female’s dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001). Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis, pair mating

  13. Germ cell mutagenicity of phthalic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Jha, A M; Singh, A C; Bharti, M

    1998-12-03

    Mutagenicity of phthalic acid was evaluated by employing dominant lethal mutation and sperm head abnormality assays in male Swiss albino mice. For the dominant lethal mutation assay, adult male mice received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either 40 mg or 80 mg/kg b.w. of phthalic acid for 5 consecutive days. For the sperm head abnormality assay, the mice were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. as a single i.p. injection. Treatment of adult male mice with phthalic acid resulted in induction of dominant lethal mutations and abnormal sperm heads. The results obtained indicate that phthalic acid is a germ cell mutagen.

  14. Silicone rubber nipples: effects of sesame-oil extract on reproduction in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatim, Al-Ser A Gader; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Galil, Khidir A

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated a type of silicone rubber (SR) nipple for toxicity, caused by chemical migrants, on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. They followed an extraction method (set forth in the 20th revised edition of the United States Pharmacopeia) in which sesame oil was a vehicle. They prepared the extract daily and administered it orally (50 ml/kg of body weight) into pregnant Swiss albino mice from gestation Day 0 until delivery. They gave a control group of mice the pure vehicle that was subjected to the same conditions. The authors recorded pregnancy weight gain, gestation period, litter size, stillbirths, and offspring sex ratio. They performed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pregnancy hormones (progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin) for each trimester and monitored birth weight, growth rate, and sex hormone levels (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in females; testosterone in males) in offspring. The authors detected SR-extractable chemicals by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The decrease in weight gain from Day 6 of gestation until delivery and the shortness in the gestation period were significant in dams (p< or = .05). Newly born pups demonstrated a significantly (p < or = .05) lower body weight that continued with age, and this became highly significant (p< or = .01) from Day 6. Blood hormone levels in dams and offspring indicated no significance. In conclusion, the studied SR nipples indicated leachability, which could affect reproduction, without a manifest endocrine modulation.

  15. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. PMID:22778509

  16. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  17. Effect of clove and cinnamon extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats: Immunopathological and antimicrobial study.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H; Abdelhafez, S; Ismail, T A

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms so we evaluated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 40 adult healthy male albino rats divided into four groups: Group 1: negative control group (received intragastric saline solution daily); Group 2: injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis then received intragastric saline solution daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric clove extract 500 mg/kg/day; and Group (4): injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric cinnamon 500 mg/kg/day. Five rats from each group were sacrificed after 1 and 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozymes activity and nitric oxide production, lymphocyte transformation test, as well as counting of both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirmed the efficacy of clove extract as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of its use in treatment of such bacterial infections.

  18. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  19. Haematological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, B V; Alabi, O T; Adebayo, J O; Soladoye, A O; Abioye, A I R; Jimoh, S A

    2004-06-01

    The haematological effect of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum was evaluated in male albino rats during a 21 day administration at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w, orally. Parameters evaluated include the serum lipids, red and white cell indices. The results showed that the extract administered decreased most of the parameters relating to red cell and increased most of those parameters relating to white cells. It also decreased the total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with no significant effect on the triglyceride levels.

  20. The neurotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the retinal ganglion cells of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, C M; Marani, E; Rietveld, W J

    1986-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) administered postnatally to the albino rat causes extensive destruction of the retina. This MSG effect does not result in complete blindness. Ganglion cells surviving the MSG treatment are healthy and functional. Using retrogradely transported HRP and Nissl staining in whole mounted retinas, it was found that the ganglion cells left after MSG treatment are not smaller than those in controls, that these cells do not belong to one cell size group, and that no cells size group is selectively missed. The results explain why photic entrainment of MSG treated animals is still possible.

  1. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  2. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg), Tc (100 mg/kg), Pe (300 mg/kg), 1 formulation (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg) and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg) daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further. PMID:26834422

  3. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes.

  4. Therapeutic potentials of combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mild to moderately lead intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yingjun; Zhang, Jun; Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin; Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacies of combined use of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mild to moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Female albino mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% (moderate lead exposure) or 0.05% (mild lead exposure) lead acetate. After the cessation of lead exposure, mice were supplemented by gavage with saline solution, 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w) DMSA, 100 mg/kg b.w DMSA, calcium and ascorbic acid, or 50 mg/kg b.w DMSA and calcium as well as ascorbic acid, respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method was used to analyze lead levels in blood, bone, liver, kidney and brain. Activities of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were determined by colorimetric method. DMSA supplemented alone could reduce lead levels in both soft tissues and bone and reverse lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD in mild to moderately lead-intoxicated mice. On the other hand, combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid achieved better therapeutic efficacies in mobilizing lead in blood, liver and kidney, and reversing lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD in moderately lead intoxicated mice than DMSA supplemented alone. Moreover, the better therapeutic efficacies were also found in mildly lead intoxicated mice in mobilizing lead in blood and bone achieved by combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid. Combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid seems to be the better choice in the treatment of mild to moderate lead-intoxication.

  5. Synthesis and psychobiological evaluation of modafinil analogs in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent with low potential for abuse and dependence, has a reliable structure to find some novel derivatives with better activity and lower potential for abuse and risk of dependency. This study was designed to evaluate psychobiological activity of some novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives. Methods Seven novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives were synthesized through three reactions: a) preparation of benzhydrylsulfanyl acetic acid through reaction of benzhydrol with thioglycolic acid, b) formation of desired amide by adding the substituted aniline to activated acid with EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl amino propyl) carbodiimide). This reaction was catalyzed by HOBt (N- hydroxylbenzotriazole), and c) oxidation of sulfur to sulfoxide group with H2O2. Then, their psychobiological effect on the performance of male albino mice were compared to that of modafinil as following: wakefulness by determining the effects of derivatives on phenobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex (LOPR); exploratory activity by measuring activity in the open field test (OFT); depression by measuring immobility time (IT) during forced swimming test (FST) and the anxiogenic and anxiolytic like effects by using elevated plus-maze test (EPM). All tests were videotaped and analyzed for the frequency and duration of the behaviors during the procedures. Conclusions 2-(Benzhydrylsulfonyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)acetamide (4c) showed comparable result in LOPR test. However, all analogs were found to be stimulant except 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-phenylacetamide (4a). Also 4c led the most exploratory activity in mice among derivatives. FST results showed that 4a had the longest IT while modafinil, 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(3-chlorophenyl) acetamide (4b) and 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(4-ethylphenyl) acetamide (4d) had the shortest IT. In EPM, all derivatives showed anxiogenic-like behavior since they decreased open arms time and open arms

  6. A new easy accessible and low-cost method for screening olfactory sensitivity in mice: behavioural and nociceptive response in male and female CD-1 mice upon exposure to millipede aversive odour.

    PubMed

    Capone, Francesca; Puopolo, Maria; Branchi, Igor; Alleva, Enrico

    2002-06-01

    In a previous study, mice were found to be repelled by the odour emitted by the millipede (Ommatoiulus sabulosus) as a defensive strategy against predators [Physiol. Behav. 74 (2001) 305-311]. To develop a standardised test for screening olfactory capabilities in rodents, we have characterised the behavioural response displayed by adult male and female CD-1 mice when exposed to a Stimulus Object (SO) consisting of a millipede-shaped sponge previously soaked either in a Toluquinone (TQ) solution (5g/100ml; Fluka), a chemical component of the exudate secreted by the millipede, or in distilled water. In Experiment 1, behaviours performed when exposed to the SO were scored (15min for 5 consecutive days). TQ exposure suppressed nearly completely Catching and Eating the SO, and increased general activity in a sex-dependent fashion. In Experiment 2, performances in a hot-plate test (50+/-0.5 degrees C, cut-off 60s) were assessed immediately after a 15-min exposure to the SO. Toluquinone-exposed mice showed a subtle yet significant decrease of pain threshold. TQ exposure assay is a new, easily testable, and low-cost method for measuring rodents olfactory sensitivity relevant for the analysis of the pharmacological agents, lesions and transgenesis.

  7. Two types of albino mutants in desert and migratory locusts are caused by gene defects in the same signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Tanaka, Seiji; Jouraku, Akiya; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2017-04-15

    Albinism is caused by mutations in the genes involved in melanin production. Albino nymphs of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria reared under crowded conditions are uniformly creamy-white in color. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in locusts. The albino strain of L. migratoria is known to lack the dark-color-inducing neuropeptide corazonin (Crz). In this study, we report that this albino strain has a 10-base-pair deletion in the gene LmCRZ, which encodes Crz. This mutation was found to cause a frame-shift, resulting in a null mutation in Crz. On the other hand, the albino strain of S. gregaria is known to have an intact Crz. This strain was found to possess a single-nucleotide substitution in the middle of the Crz receptor-encoding gene, SgCRZR, which caused a nonsense mutation, resulting in a truncated receptor. Silencing of SgCRZR in wild-type S. gregaria nymphs greatly reduced the area and intensity of their black patterning, suggesting that the functional defect of SgCRZR likely causes the albinism. The expression level of SgCRZR in the albino S. gregaria was comparable to that in the wild type. Unlike the wild type, the albino strain of this locust did not show a phase-dependent shift in a morphometric trait controlled by Crz. From these results, we conclude that the mutations in LmCRZ and SgCRZR are responsible for the albinism in L. migratoria and S. gregaria, respectively, indicating that the two types of albinism are caused by different genetic defects in the same Crz signaling pathway.

  8. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome of Arabidopsis albino or pale green mutants with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.

    PubMed

    Satou, Masakazu; Enoki, Harumi; Oikawa, Akira; Ohta, Daisaku; Saito, Kazunori; Hachiya, Takushi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Nagata, Noriko; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Motohashi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    We used four mutants having albino or pale green phenotypes with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins to analyze the regulatory system of metabolites in chloroplast. We performed an integrated analyses of transcriptomes and metabolomes of the four mutants. Transcriptome analysis was carried out using the Agilent Arabidopsis 2 Oligo Microarray, and metabolome analysis with two mass spectrometers; a direct-infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR/MS) and a gas chromatograph-time of flight mass spectrometer. Among approximately 200 known metabolites detected by the FT-ICR/MS, 71 metabolites showed significant changes in the mutants when compared with controls (Ds donor plants). Significant accumulation of several amino acids (glutamine, glutamate and asparagine) was observed in the albino and pale green mutants. Transcriptome analysis revealed altered expressions of genes in several metabolic pathways. For example, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated. These results suggest that nitrogen assimilation is constitutively promoted in the albino and pale green mutants. The accumulation of ammonium ions in the albino and pale green mutants was consistently higher than in Ds donor lines. Furthermore, genes related to pyridoxin accumulation and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated, which may have occurred as a result of the accumulation of glutamine in the albino and pale green mutants. The difference in metabolic profiles seems to be correlated with the disruption of chloroplast internal membrane structures in the mutants. In albino mutants, the alteration of metabolites accumulation and genes expression is stronger than pale green mutants.

  9. Comparison of green and albino individuals of the partially mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipactis helleborine on molecular identities of mycorrhizal fungi, nutritional modes and gene expression in mycorrhizal roots.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Kenji; Yamato, Masahide; Miura, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Takahashi, Kazuya; Ida, Yoshiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2017-03-01

    Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances and gene expression in their mycorrhizae by RNA-seq and cDNA de novo assembly. Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi showed that green and albino E. helleborine harboured similar mycobionts, mainly Wilcoxina. Stable isotope analyses indicated that albino E. helleborine plants were fully mycoheterotrophic, whereas green individuals were partially mycoheterotrophic. Gene expression analyses showed that genes involved in antioxidant metabolism were upregulated in the albino variants, which indicates that these plants experience greater oxidative stress than the green variants, possibly due to a more frequent lysis of intracellular pelotons. It was also found that some genes involved in the transport of some metabolites, including carbon sources from plant to fungus, are higher in albino than in green variants. This result may indicate a bidirectional carbon flow even in the mycoheterotrophic symbiosis. The genes related to mycorrhizal symbiosis in autotrophic orchids and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants were also upregulated in the albino variants, indicating the existence of common molecular mechanisms among the different mycorrhizal types.

  10. Clinical evaluation and molecular screening of a large consecutive series of albino patients.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Del Longo, Alessandra; Veniani, Emanuela; Scarcello, Manuela; Terrana, Roberta; Radaelli, Adriano Egidio; Calò, Donata; Mingoia, Giuseppe; Rossetti, Antonella; Marsico, Giovanni; Mazza, Marco; Gesu, Giovanni Pietro; Cristina Patrosso, Maria; Penco, Silvana; Piozzi, Elena; Primignani, Paola

    2017-02-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. In this study we recruited 321 albino patients and screened them for the genes known to cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1-4 and OCA6) and ocular albinism (OA1). Our purpose was to detect mutations and genetic frequencies of the main causative genes, offering to albino patients an exhaustive diagnostic assessment within a multidisciplinary approach including ophthalmological, dermatological, audiological and genetic evaluations. We report 70 novel mutations and the frequencies of the major causative OCA genes that are as follows: TYR (44%), OCA2 (17%), TYRP1 (1%), SLC45A2 (7%) and SLC24A5 (<0.5%). An additional 5% of patients had GPR143 mutations. In 19% of cases, a second reliable mutation was not detected, whereas 7% of our patients remain still molecularly undiagnosed. This comprehensive study of a consecutive series of OCA/OA1 patients allowed us to perform a clinical evaluation of the different OCA forms.

  11. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  12. Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  13. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

  14. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  15. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  16. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats.

  18. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Ramesh, V.; Sridhar, M. P.; Sasikala, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC) in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal PMID:26015745

  19. Correlation among the toxicity profiling (28-days repeated oral dose toxicity), toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin, the active metabolite of prulifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Utpal; Roy, Bikash; Das, Anjan Kumar; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate correlation among 28-days repeated oral dose toxicity, toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin (active metabolite of prulifloxacin) in Wistar albino rats. Prulifloxacin was administered for 28-days in rats at 0, 100, 200, 400mg/kg/day followed by 14-days recovery period. Simultaneously different toxicokinetic parameters and tissue distributions of ulifloxacin was examined by LC-MS/MS method. Plasma levels and tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin were increased with dose-related manner. Ulifloxacin was also distributed to many tissues, and concentration in lungs nearly equivalent to the plasma concentration. Based on these results it was concluded that long-term repeated dose of prulifloxacin may produce different blood parameters abnormality, liver damage, stomach ulcer, joint damage and dysfunction of lungs in rats which relates to high tissue distribution and accumulation of ulifloxacin in these tissues. These findings help in management of prulifloxacin induced adverse effects by appropriate dose selection in clinical practice.

  20. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of dexamethasone in nude mice plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yin; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Jian; Ye, Suofu; Ji, Xiwei; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tianyan; Lu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive and rapid analytical method for the determination of dexamethasone was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in nude mice. Using testosterone as an internal standard, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach after one-step precipitation with acetonitrile was validated and used to determine the concentrations of dexamethasone in nude mice plasma. The method utilized a simple isocratic reverse phase separation over a Dionex C18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-water (40:60, v/v). The analyte was detected by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer via electrospray and multiple reaction monitoring was employed to select both dexamethasone at m/z 393.0/147.1 and testosterone at m/z 289.5/97.3 in the positive ion mode. The calibration curves were linear (r >0.99) ranging from 2.5 to 500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation ranged from 1.69 to 9.22% while the relative error ranged from -1.92 to -8.46%. This method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of dexamethasone and its pharmacokinetics was characterized by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption in female nude mice.

  1. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Boitet, Evan R.; Turner, Ashley N.; Johnson, Larry W.; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R.; Hymel, Katherine M.; Gross, Alecia K.; Kesterson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  2. Application of an In Vivo Hepatic Triacylglycerol Production Method in the Setting of a High-Fat Diet in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ono-Moore, Kikumi D.; Ferguson, Matthew; Blackburn, Michael L.; Issafras, Hassan; Adams, Sean H.

    2016-01-01

    High-fat (HF) diets typically promote diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic dysfunction (i.e., insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis). Dysfunction of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism may contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis, via increased de novo lipogenesis or repackaging of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Hepatic TAG production (HTP) rate can be assessed through injecting mice with nonionic detergents that inhibit tissue lipoprotein lipase. Potential confounding effects of detergent-based HTP tests (HTPTs) used in longitudinal studies—including the impact on food intake, energy balance, and weight gain—have not been reported. To examine this, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a 10% or 60% kcal diet. After 4 weeks, the mice underwent an HTPT via poloxamer 407 intraperitoneal injections (1000 mg/kg). Weight gain, energy intake, and postabsorptive TAG levels normalized 7–10 days post-HTPT. The post-HTPT recovery of body weight and energy intake suggest that, in metabolic phenotyping studies, any additional sample collection should occur at least 7–10 days after the HTPT to reduce confounding effects. Diet-specific effects on HTP were also observed: HF-fed mice had reduced HTP, plasma TAG, and NEFA levels compared to controls. In conclusion, the current study highlights the procedural and physiological complexities associated with studying lipid metabolism using a HTPT in the DIO mouse model. PMID:28036028

  3. CNS Depressant and Antinociceptive Effects of Different Fractions of Pandanus Foetidus Roxb. Leaf Extract in Mice

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Md Mominur; UDDIN, Muhammad Erfan; ISLAM, Abu Mohammed Taufiqual; CHOWDHURY, Md Ashraf Uddin; RAHMAN, Md Atiar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various parts of Pandanus foetidus Roxb. are used as traditional medicines. However, scientific reports concerning the effect of this plant on central nervous system (CNS) depression and analgesia are unavailable. This study investigated the CNS depressant and antinociceptive effects of Pandanus foetidus leaf extracts in a rodent model. Methods: The sedative and anxiolytic activities of Pandanus foetidus extract (500 g) were tested using behavioural models of Swiss albino mice, and the analgesic activity was assessed by formalin-induced pain and tail immersion tests at 200 mg/kg body weight of the mice. The data were analysed by a one-way ANOVA, a repeated measure of ANOVA and a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) using the SPSS software. Acute toxicity was tested using an established method. Results: Compared with the aqueous fraction, the methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of the extract exhibited a more significant (P < 0.001) reduction of locomotor activity in the mice in the open field, hole-cross, and elevated plus maze (EPM). The methanol fraction maximized the duration of sleeping time caused by the thiopental sodium induction. The extract produced a significant step-down in pain, as shown by the paw licking time in the early and late phases of the formalin test. In the tail immersion test, the chloroform fraction maximally reduced the heat-induced analgesia. The extract was found to be non toxic. Conclusion: The methanol, petroleum ether, and chloroform fractions of P. foetidus have strong CNS depressant and antinociceptive effects and thus merit further pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26715894

  4. Comprehensive measurement of UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer burden in mice using photographic images as a substitute for the caliper method

    PubMed Central

    Bazin, Marc; Purohit, Nupur K.

    2017-01-01

    The vernier caliper has been used as a gold standard to measure the length, width and height of skin tumors to calculate their total area and volume. It is a simple method for collecting data on a few tumors at a time, but becomes tedious, time-consuming and stressful for the animals and the operator when used for measuring multiple tumors in a large number of animals in protocols such as UVB-induced non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in SKH-1 mice. Here, we show that photographic images of these mice taken within a few minutes under optimized conditions can be subjected to computerized analyses to determine tumor volume and area as accurately and precisely as the caliper method. Unlike the caliper method, the photographic method also records the incidence and multiplicity of tumors, thus permitting comprehensive measurement of tumor burden in the animal. The simplicity and ease of this method will permit more frequent monitoring of tumor burden in long protocols, resulting in the creation of additional data about dynamic changes in progression of cancer or the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. The photographic method can broadly substitute the caliper method for quantifying other skin pathologies. PMID:28187193

  5. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber.

  6. Effects of X radiation on the retina of the albino rabbit as viewed with the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J.C.; Barsa-Newton, M.C.; Wardly, J.

    1980-02-01

    The eyes of albino rabbits were exposed in vivo to 7000 rad of X radiation, and the retinas were examined with a scanning electron microscope 24 and 72 h after irradiation. The rods and cones of the retina were observed to show the most severe damage.

  7. Low dose exposure of diethylnitrosamine affects mice liver thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Pariat, T; Sharan, R N

    1995-11-17

    Swiss albino mice exposed to 5 and 10 mg diethylnitrosamine kg-1 body weight by intravenous route up to four weeks showed cyto- and genotoxic effects. Distortion of cell and nucleus shapes and extensive necrosis were observed. Thymidine kinase activity in the liver declined in diethylnitrosamine dose and duration dependent manners. The adult-form of thymidine kinase isozyme declined continuously during this period. Simultaneously, two isozymic forms of thymidine kinase, with small anodic migrations in an electrophoretic field, were gradually induced. Significance of theses changes in diethylnitrosamine induced precarcinogenic toxicity has been discussed.

  8. Arsenic-induced Histological Alterations in Various Organs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Dilruba, Sayada; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Rahman, Lutfur; Khatun, Zohora; Riad, Wahiduzzaman; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Srikanta; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Rahman, Zillur; Hossain, Khaled; Haque, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of arsenic in mice through groundwater is well documented but little is known about the histological changes of organs by the metalloid. Present study was designed to evaluate arsenic-induced histological alterations in kidney, liver, thoracic artery and brain of mice which are not well documented yet. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 2 groups and treated as follows: Group 1: control, 2: arsenic (sodium arsenite at 10 mg/kg b.w. orally for 8 wks). Group 2 showed marked degenerative changes in kidney, liver, thoracic artery, and brain whereas Group 1 did not reveal any abnormalities on histopathology. We therefore concluded that arsenic induces histological alterations in the tested organs. PMID:26740907

  9. Cytogenetic Alterations in Preimplantation Mice Embryos Following Male Mouse Gonadal Gamma-irradiation: Comparison of Two Methods for Reproductive Toxicity Screening

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Mahdieh; Mozdarani, Hossein; Nazari, Elmina

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome instability is a main cause of chromosomal alterations in both somatic and germ cells when exposed to environmental, physical and chemical genotoxicants. Germ cells especially spermatozoa are more vulnerable to suffering from DNA damaging agents during spermatogenesis and also more potent in transmitting genome instability to next generation. Methods To investigate the effects of γ-rays on inducing abnormalities manifested as numerical Chromosome Aberrations (CA) and Micronucleus (MN) in preimplantation embryos, adult male NMRI mice were irradiated with 4 Gy of γ-rays. They were then mated at weekly intervals with superovulated, non-irradiated female mice in 6 successive weeks. About 68 hr post coitous, four to eight cell embryos were retrieved and fixed on slides using standard methods in order to screen for CA and MN. Results In embryos generated from irradiated mice, the frequency of aneuploidy and MN increased dramatically at all post-irradiation sampling times as compared to the control (p<0.01). The frequency of embryos expressed MN was much higher than chromosomally abnormal embryos, although the trend of MN formation was similar to chromosomal abnormalities seen in corresponding sampling times. Conclusion Irradiation of sperms at any stages of spermatogenesis may lead to stable chromosomal abnormalities affecting pairing and disjunction of chromosomes in successive preimplantation embryos that are expressed as MN. Although chromosome analysis of embryos showed various types of chromosomal abnormalities, MN assay provide a simpler and faster technique for investigating the genotoxicity of agents affecting embryos at preimplantation stages. PMID:25215176

  10. A study of the effects on mice of smoke and gases from controlled fires in simulated aircraft cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreci, A. P.; Furst, A.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Male Swiss albino mice were exposed to the pyrolysis products of two fire-retardant materials, a chlorinated aromatic polyamide and a copolymer of vinylidine fluoride and hexafluoropropene. Comparison tests were made with cotton and a 50/50 cotton-polyester composite. In addition, tests were conducted under the presence of CO, and mice were injected intraperitoneally or intramuscularly with aqueous solutions containing dissolved effluents from the pyrolysis of cotton or of chlorinated aromatic polyamide. Results indicate that unique thermodecomposition products of the polymeric materials are more toxic to mice than are other products from cotton under similar controlled conditions.

  11. Piroxicam-induced hepatic and renal histopathological changes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebaid, Hossam; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Danfour, Mohamed A; Tohamy, Amany; Gabry, Mohamed S

    2007-01-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate Piroxicam-induced histopathological changes in livers and kidneys of male albino mice. Methods Animals were classified into a control group and 4 treated groups. Piroxicam was injected intraperitoneally using 0.3 mg/kg every day for four weeks. Each week a group of mice was sacrificed. Liver and kidneys were obtained for histological and histochemical examination. Animals were classified into a control group and 4 treated groups. Piroxicam was injected intraperitoneally using 0.3 mg/kg every day for four weeks. Each week a group of mice was sacrificed. Liver and kidneys were obtained for histological and histochemical examination. Results Liver sections appeared with inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoids, and increased number of Kupffer cells. Kidney sections appeared with some cellular inflammations. The glomeruli were shrunk resulting in widening of the urinary space. Oedema and vacuolations were noticed in the tubular cells. There was a positive correlation between these pathological changes and the increased treatment periods. Histochemical staining revealed that glycogen and protein contents had decreased in the hepatocytes. This depletion worsened gradually in liver cells after two, three, and four weeks. Similar depletion of the glycogen content was observed in kidney tissue. However, protein content appeared to be slightly decreased in the kidney tubules and glomeruli. Incensement of coarse chromatin in the nuclei of hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and most inflammatory cells were detected by Fuelgen method. Kidney tissues appeared with a severe decrease in coarse chromatin in the nuclei. Liver sections appeared with inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoids, and increased number of Kupffer cells. Kidney sections appeared with some cellular inflammations. The

  12. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be

  13. High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahboobeh; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Abroun, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg) at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI), latency period (LP), and tumor multiplicity (TM) were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05) induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group. Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions. PMID:23508728

  14. Effect of Drug Alprazolam on Restrained Stress Induced Alteration of Serum Cortisol and Antioxidant Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kori, Rohini Sharanappa; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H.; Desai, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stress can cause harmful effects in the body that induce a wide range of biochemical and behavioural changes. As anti-stress drugs are routinely used to combat stress hence study is needed to assess the contraindication of these drugs in the physiological systems. Aim To investigate the effect of alprazolam on restrained stress induced alteration of serum cortisol, and antioxidant vitamin levels in male albino rats. Materials and Methods Adult male albino rats (body weight 175-225g) were divided into four groups of six animals in each. Group I (control), kept undisturbed in the metabolic cage throughout the 42 days experimental period. Group II (stress) rats were kept in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 hr/day for 42 days. Group III (stress+ withdrawal) rats were stressed for 21 days and withdrawal of stress for remaining 21 days (total 42 days). Group IV (stress + alprazolam) rats were only stressed for 21 days and treated with drug alprazolam (5mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) in continuation with stress for remaining 21 days (total period is 42 days). At the end of 42 days all the rats were sacrificed and serum cortisol, vitamin C and E levels were estimated. Results Group II (stressed) showed a significant increase in serum cortisol level with concomitant decrease of serum vitamin C and E levels. Group III (withdrawal) and Group IV (+alprazolam) rats showed significant reduction of serum cortisol along with subsequent increase of serum vitamin C and E concentrations. Conclusion Results indicate a possible antioxidant effect of alprazolam on restrained stress induced alteration of serum cortisol and antioxidant vitamin levels. PMID:27656428

  15. Ultrastructural alterations in liver of mice exposed chronically and transgenerationally to aqueous extract of betel nut: Implications in betel nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Yashmin; Sharan, Rajeshwar N

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) induces the formation of preneoplastic nodules in the liver of Swiss Albino mice and leads to increased predisposition to cancer when administered transgenerationally. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the alterations in ultrastructure of subcellular organelles in the liver nodules using transmission electron microscopy and to determine whether these alterations have implications in AEBN-induced carcinogenesis. Male and female Swiss Albino mice were exposed to AEBN chronically and transgenerationally at a dose of 2 mg/mL in drinking water for 24 weeks. Extensive polymorphism was noted in nuclear shape and heterochromatin organization. Heterochromatin aggregation and marginalization were observed in the nuclei of chronically exposed mice, whereas transgenerationally exposed mice exhibited dispersion or loss of heterochromatin. The nuclear envelope was disrupted, and the nucleoli were enlarged in chronically exposed mice, whereas in transgenerationally exposed mice the nucleoli were reduced in size or totally absent. The cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum were dilated and disrupted, and a large number of autophagic vesicles were observed in both chronically and transgenerationally exposed mice. Atypical mitochondria that underwent extensive cristolysis and progressively declined in size and number from the chronically exposed mice to the different generations of transgenerationally exposed mice were also observed. Thus, exposure to AEBN resulted in severe loss of ultrastructural integrity of cells in the liver nodules, and the progressive loss of mitochondrial function appeared to play a significant role in increasing the predisposition to cancer of mice exposed transgenerationally to AEBN.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Shukla, S D; Sharma, K; Bhatnagar, M

    2001-09-01

    The neuroprotective effects of W. somnifera were studied on stressed adult female Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats were subjected to immobilization stress for 14 h and were treated with a root powder extract of W. somnifera available as Stresscom capsules (Dabur India Ltd). Control rats were maintained in completely, non stressed conditions. Thionin stained serial coronal sections (7 microm) of brain passing through the hippocampal region of stressed rats (E(1) group) demonstrated 85% degenerating cells (dark cells and pyknotic cells) in the CA(2) and CA(3) sub-areas. Treatment with W. somnifera root powder extract significantly reduced (80%) the number of degenerating cells in both the areas. The study thus demonstrates the antistress neuroprotective effects of W. somnifera.

  17. Effects of substance P on the isolated iris sphincter muscle of the albino rabbit.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, A; Mochizuki, M; Masuda, K

    1982-01-01

    Effects of substance P on the isolated iris sphincter muscle of the albino rabbit were studied. The muscle was incubated in an organ bath containing Krebs' physiologic solution and the muscle tension was recorded with an isometric transducer. Substance P induced dose-dependent muscle contraction in the concentration range from 3 x 10(-11) to 3 x 10(-7) M and ED50 was estimated to be 3.7 x 10(-9) M. The muscle contraction was not antagonized by tropicamide, phentolamine, propranolol, chlorpheniramine, cimetidine, methysergide or baclofen. Tetrodotoxin (3 x 10(-7) g/ml) pretreatment did not change the muscle contraction induced by substance P. A retrobulbar capsaicin injection did not cause supersensitivity in the muscle response to substance P. These results indicate that the iris sphincter muscle contraction caused by substance P is not mediated by cholinergic-, adrenergic-, histamine- or serotonine-recepters and suggests that its action on the muscle is direct.

  18. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive.

  19. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  20. Analyzing LED-induced haemal fluorescent spectra on laboratory small albino rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shumei; Luo, Xiaosen; Lan, Xiufeng; Jiao, Fangxiang; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Xu, Jiaying; Lu, Shiyue; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jiangang

    2002-04-01

    Native fluorescence spectral characteristics of red blood cells were studied in the visible region in this paper. Blood samples were collected from normal small albino rats. Native fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte were induced using Light Emitting Diode (LED) at yellow wavelength about 570+/- 16 nm ((Delta) (lambda) 0.5approximately equals 32nm). As the rat's erythrocyte content of in physiological water is increasing, the fluorescent primary emission peak is red shifted from 588 nm to above 615 nm. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity at about 600 nm was found to be maximal while the rat's erythrocyte consistence is 1%. Moreover, it is shown in large numbers of experiments that LED-induced fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte are similar with the whole blood. It may make sense for low- intensity light therapy.

  1. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  2. A simple cage-autonomous method for the maintenance of the barrier status of germ-free mice during experimentation.

    PubMed

    Hecht, G; Bar-Nathan, C; Milite, G; Alon, I; Moshe, Y; Greenfeld, L; Dotsenko, N; Suez, J; Levy, M; Thaiss, C A; Dafni, H; Elinav, E; Harmelin, A

    2014-10-01

    The use of germ-free (GF) isolators for microbiome-related research is exponentially increasing, yet limited by its cost, isolator size and potential for trans-contamination. As such, current isolator technology is highly limiting to researchers engaged in short period experiments involving multiple mouse strains and employing a variety of mono-inoculated microorganisms. In this study, we evaluate the use of positive pressure Isocages as a solution for short period studies (days to 2-3 weeks) of experimentation with GF mice at multiple simultaneous conditions. We demonstrate that this new Isocage technology is cost-effective and room-sparing, and enables maintenance of multiple simultaneous groups of GF mice. Using this technology, transferring GF mice from isolators to Isocage racks for experimentation, where they are kept under fully germ-free conditions, enables parallel inoculation with different bacterial strains and simultaneous experimentation with multiple research conditions. Altogether, the new GF Isocage technology enables the expansion of GF capabilities in a safe and cost-effective manner that can facilitate the growth, elaboration and flexibility of microbiome research.

  3. Investigation of the ex vivo and in vivo iontophoretic delivery of aceclofenac from topical gels in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Bhavik; Koland, Marina; Shama, K Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iontophoresis was used to enhance the delivery of aceclofenac (ACF) from topical gels formulated with various polymers for the purpose of relieving pain and inflammation. Materials and Methods Gels were formulated from hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol 934P, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC). The formulations were evaluated for cathodal iontophoretic delivery of ACF through excised rat abdominal skin at three levels of current density of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mA/cm2. The in vivo effectiveness of the drug delivered passively as well as under the influence of iontophoresis at pH 7.4 at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 was also investigated using male Albino rats with carrageenan induced paw edema. Results and Discussion: In the ex vivo studies, though it was clear that iontophoresis significantly increased drug permeation through the excised skin from all formulations; the percentage drug permeated from HPMC gels was superior to that from carbopol 934P or NaCMC gels but increased with an increase in the current density only for the former. The steady state flux, permeability coefficient, enhancement factor were significantly greater from HPMC gels than from the gels of the ionic polymers due to the interference of competitive ions. With iontophoresis, the carrageenan induced paw edema was significantly reduced by 61.53% (P < 0.01) for HPMC gels as compared to the control although passive permeation without iontophoresis showed a 54.6% reduction (P < 0.05) at the end of 4 h. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that ACF could be administered topically by using iontophoresis from a suitably formulated gel for effective control of pain and inflammation. PMID:24015382

  4. Role of cytokines in anti-implantation activity of H2 receptor blockers in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shyam S; Ittiyavirah, Sibi P

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the negative effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) on the immune system and body weight gain of rats and the preventive effects of curcumin were examined. For this purpose, 3-4 months old 128 Wistar albino rats with 280-310g body weights were used. The 2microg/kg dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 100mg/kg dose of curcumin were dissolved in corn oil and orally given to the rats found in the experimental and control groups. Then, the serum samples were taken from all rats at 15, 30, 45 and 60th days to analyzed for the determination of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-13 levels by ELISA method. The data of body weight gain was measured at 15, 30, 45 and 60th days. The results indicated that 2,3,7,8,3,7,8-TCDD caused to increase significantly (p<0.05) in serum TNF-alpha levels. However, it caused significantly (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-13 in rats. On contrary, curcumin increased IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-13 levels, but decreased TNF-alpha level in rats. Additionally, TCDD caused significantly (P<0.01) reductions in the body weight gain. However curcumin reversed this effect of TCDD.In conclusion, 2,3,7,8-TCDD significantly suppressed the humoral immunity and body weight gain in rats at doses of 2microg/kg. However curcumin, which was found in some plants, eliminated the effect of TCDD on immune system and body weight when it was given together with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. It is thought that this effect may have occurred via curcumin and TCDD were binding aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) competitively.

  5. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  6. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  7. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  8. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment. PMID:23248396

  9. Role of ginger against the reproductive toxicity of aluminium chloride in albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Moselhy, W A; Helmy, N A; Abdel-Halim, B R; Nabil, T M; Abdel-Hamid, M I

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate reproductive disorders concomitant with aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) toxicity in Albino male rats. Attention was also directed to study the protective influence of ginger against this toxicity. Forty-five mature Albino Wistar male rats were equally divided into three groups; the first group was served as control group while those of the second group (AlCl(3) ) were daily treated with 34 mg/kg bw. AlCl(3) orally. The third group (AlCl(3)  + ginger) was treated daily with AlCl(3) as in group 2 in combination with ginger (40 mg/kg bw), which started 2 weeks prior to AlCl(3) . Five animals from each group were sacrificed on days 30, 45 and 60 of treatment. AlCl(3) administration significantly decreased serum testosterone levels, increased testicular homogenate malondialdehyde and deteriorated semen picture with increased testicular DNA fragmentation. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative changes of the seminiferous tubules with focal areas of necrosed spermatogenic cells, marked degeneration and desquamation of the lining epithelial cells of epididymis as well as multiple calcified material in prostate gland following 60 days of aluminium treatment. Ginger treatment started to improve significantly all studied parameters after 60 days as compared with AlCl(3) -treated group. In the current study, it was concluded that AlCl(3) had a destructive effect on all the studied reproductive parameters. Treatment with ginger has an ameliorating effect against AlCl(3) toxicity after 60 days post-treatment.

  10. Protective effects of Eruca sativa (rocket) on abamectin insecticide toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Meligi, Noha M; Hassan, Hanaa Fawzy

    2017-03-01

    The extensive use of insecticides has hazardous effects since they can damage human health as well as the environment. Abamectin has been widely used in veterinary medicine and as a pesticide in agriculture. It is considered as one of the most commonly used insecticides in Egypt. The focus of the present study is to examine the toxic effects of sublethal dose (1 mg/kg b.wt.) of abamectin (Crater 3.37% EC) in male albino rats and to evaluate the efficiency of Eruca sativa suspension to ameliorate the abamectin toxicity. The present study was achieved using 18 male albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, abamectin-treated group, and abamectin + E. sativa-treated group. Rats of the third group were orally administrated a mixture of sublethal dose of abamectin (1 mg/kg b.wt.) and E. sativa suspension (5 g/kg b.wt.) three times a week for 28 days. At the end of the study period, blood samples were collected from all groups to measure the various hematological and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that rats, after abamectin exposure, exhibited general signs of toxicity and disturbance in the hematological and biochemical parameters. In addition, administration of E. sativa suspension ameliorated the hematological and biochemical parameters. These findings suggested that the exposure to abamectin might be responsible for hypertension, liver and kidney dysfunction, lipid profile disturbance, and oxidative stress, reflected in hematological and biochemical parameters. It was also found that the administration of E. sativa suspension reduced the detrimental impact of abamectin on some hematological and biochemical parameters.

  11. Protective effects of erdosteine against nephrotoxicity caused by gamma radiation in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Elkady, A A; Ibrahim, I M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of erdosteine against gamma radiation-induced renal lesions in male albino rats. Twenty-eight albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy), treated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week), and treated irradiated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week, then exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy). The results revealed that the administration of erdosteine to rats before irradiation significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in kidney function (creatinine and urea) compared with irradiated group. Also the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6 activities were markedly improved compared with the corresponding values of irradiated group. Kidney catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione concentration showed approximately normal level when compared with the irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of renal lesions in irradiated group, while in treated irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture. Erdosteine acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorate the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological changes and might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damage.

  12. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino Zebrafish Line to Characterize In Vivo Expression of neurod

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Ochocinska, Margaret J.; Hitchcock, Peter F.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults. PMID:22235264

  13. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on induced skeletal muscle chemodenervation atrophy in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Azza S; Al-Ghonemy, Nabila M; Ahmed, Samah M; Mohamed, Samar R

    2017-04-01

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups. Biochemical analysis of serum LDH, CK and Real-time PCR for Bcl-2, caspase 3 and caspase 9 was measured. Skeletal muscle sections were stained with H and E, Mallory trichrome, and Immunohistochemical reaction for Bax and CD34. Improvement in the skeletal muscle histological structure was noticed in BM-MSCs treated group, however, in the recovery group, some sections showed apparent transverse striations and others still affected. Immunohistochemical reaction of Bax protein showed strong positive immunoreaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers in the induced atrophy group. BM-MSCs treated group showed weak positive reaction while the recovery group showed moderate reaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical reaction for CD34 revealed occasional positive CD34 stained cells in the induced atrophy group. In BM-MSCs treated group, multiple positive CD34 stained cells were detected. However, recovery group showed some positive CD34 stained cells at the periphery of the muscle fibers. Marked improvement in the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles after BM-MSCs therapy. Hence, stem cell therapy provides a new hope for patients suffering from myopathies and severe injuries.

  14. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed.

  15. Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (P<0.01) at 20mg/kg/day. Relative weight of heart and spleen decreased significantly (P<0.05) at higher dose level. Non significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was observed in both the imidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (P<0.01, P<0.05) in acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity in plasma and brain of both the imidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats.

  16. Modulation of muscarinic system with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant attenuates depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Paramdeep; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several studies suggest that muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine is a rapidly acting antidepressant for the treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of synergistic potential of scopolamine with antidepressants for the treatment of depression without memory impairment in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressants such as citalopram, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, and venlafaxine at their median effective dose that is 12.5, 42.8, 17.5, 15.7 mg/kg p.o., respectively, were evaluated in combination with scopolamine 0.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally for the synergistic potential for ameliorating depression in Swiss albino mice. A battery of tests including forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were performed in all the groups comprising vehicle control, scopolamine, antidepressants per se, and the combinations of antidepressants with scopolamine. This was followed by the locomotor activity and memory tests. Results: Behavioral studies indicated that only antidepressant venlafaxine with scopolamine resulted in 95.5% and 93.6% reduction in immobility time compared to the vehicle control in FST and TST, respectively. This is significant (P < 0.0001) synergistic hyper-additive antidepressive-like effect compared to scopolamine per se and venlafaxine per se treatment effects in antidepressant paradigms. All the data were evaluated using the one-way analysis of variance followed by individual comparisons using Tukey's post-hoc test. Control open field studies demonstrated no significant increase in general locomotion after co-administration of the compounds. Step down avoidance paradigm confirmed that scopolamine at the selected dose has no cognition deficit in any mice. Conclusions: The dose of scopolamine selected for synergistic potential has no detrimental effect on memory. The present results suggest the concoction of scopolamine with venlafaxine for enhanced synergistic antidepressive

  17. Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor-9 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Sethi, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, healthy male Swiss albino mice (n=30) aging 8-10 weeks were used to evaluate TLR-9 expression in lungs of mice following indoxacarb exposure with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indoxacarb was administered orally dissolved in groundnut oil at 4 and 2 mg/kg/day for 90 days. On day 91, five animals from each group were challenged with LPS/normal saline solution at 80 µg/animal. The lung tissues were processed for real time and immunohistochemical studies. Results: LPS resulted increase in fold change m-RNA expression level of TLR-9 as compare to control, while indoxacarb (4 mg/kg) alone and in combination with LPS resulted 16.21-fold change and 29.4-fold change increase in expression of TLR-9 m-RNA, respectively, as compared to control. Similarly, indoxacarb (2 mg/kg) alone or in combination with LPS also altered TLR-9 expression. Further at protein level control group showed minimal expression of TLR-9 in lungs as compare to other groups, however, LPS group showed intense positive staining in bronchial epithelium as well as in alveolar septal cells. Indoxacarb at both doses individually showed strong immuno-positive reaction as compare to control, however when combined with LPS resulted intense staining in airway epithelium as compare to control. Conclusion: Chronic oral administration of indoxacarb for 90 days (4 and 2 mg/kg) alters expression of TLR-9 at m-RNA and protein level and co-exposure with LPS exhibited synergistic effect. PMID:27956782

  18. Ultraviolet emission and excitation fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of DMBA-treated Swiss Albino mice skin carcinogenesis for measuring tissue transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruna, Prakasa R.; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2002-05-01

    The ultraviolet fluorescence emission spectra of skin tissues under different pathological conditions were measured at 280nm excitation. At this excitation wavelength, the normal skin showed a primary peak emission at 352nm and this primary peak emission from neoplastic skin shows a blue shift with respect to normal tissue. This blue shift increases as the stage of abnormality increases and it is maximum (19nm) for well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. This alteration is further confirmed from fluorescence excitation spectra of the tissues for 340nm emission. The study concludes that the change in the emission of tryptophan around 340nm may be due to partial unfolding of protein.

  19. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts.

  20. Improved methods for chronic light-based motor mapping in mice: automated movement tracking with accelerometers, and chronic EEG recording in a bilateral thin-skull preparation.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Gergely; Boyd, Jamie D; Ledue, Jeff; Murphy, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation of the mouse cortex can be used to generate motor maps that are similar to maps derived from electrode-based stimulation. Here we present a refined set of procedures for repeated light-based motor mapping in ChR2-expressing mice implanted with a bilateral thinned-skull chronic window and a chronically implanted electroencephalogram (EEG) electrode. Light stimulation is delivered sequentially to over 400 points across the cortex, and evoked movements are quantified on-line with a three-axis accelerometer attached to each forelimb. Bilateral maps of forelimb movement amplitude and movement direction were generated at weekly intervals after recovery from cranial window implantation. We found that light pulses of ~2 mW produced well-defined maps that were centered approximately 0.7 mm anterior and 1.6 mm lateral from bregma. Map borders were defined by sites where light stimulation evoked EEG deflections, but not movements. Motor maps were similar in size and location between mice, and maps were stable over weeks in terms of the number of responsive sites, and the direction of evoked movements. We suggest that our method may be used to chronically assess evoked motor output in mice, and may be combined with other imaging tools to assess cortical reorganization or sensory-motor integration.

  1. AMP-regulated protein kinase activity in the hearts of mice treated with low- or high-fat diet measured using novel LC-MS method.

    PubMed

    Rybakowska, I M; Slominska, E M; Romaszko, P; Olkowicz, M; Kaletha, K; Smolenski, R T

    2015-06-01

    AMP-regulated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in regulation of energy-generating pathways in response to the metabolic needs in different organs including the heart. The activity of AMPK is mainly controlled by AMP concentration that in turn could be affected by nucleotide metabolic pathways. This study aimed to develop a procedure for measurement of AMPK activity together with nucleotide metabolic enzymes and its application for studies of mice treated with high-fat diet. The method developed was based on analysis of conversion of AMARA peptide to pAMARA by partially purified heart homogenate by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Activities of the enzymes of nucleotide metabolism were evaluated by analysis of conversion of substrates into products by HPLC. The method was applied for analysis of hearts of mice fed 12 weeks with low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD). The optimized method for AMPK activity analysis (measured in presence of AMP) revealed change of activity from 0.089 ± 0.035 pmol/min/mg protein in LFD to 0.024 ± 0.002 in HFD. This coincided with increase of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity from 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.06 nmol/mg tissue/min and decrease of AMP-deaminase (AMPD) activity from 1.26 ± 0.35 to 0.56 ± 0.15 nmol/mg tissue/min for LFD and HFD, respectively. We have proven quality of our LC/MS method for analysis of AMPK activity. We observed decrease in AMPK activity in the heart of mice treated with high-fat diet. However, physiological consequences of this change could be modulated by decrease in AMPD activity.

  2. Chemical characterization of hair melanins in various coat-color mutants of mice.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, H; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Hirobe, T

    1995-09-01

    Mammalian melanins exist in two chemically distinct forms: the brown to black eumelanins and the yellow to reddish pheomelanins. Melanogenesis is influenced by a number of genes, the levels of whose products determine the quantity and quality of the melanins produced. To examine the effects of various coat-color genes on the chemical properties of melanins synthesized in the follicular melanocytes of mice, we have introduced new methods to solubilize differentially pheomelanins and brown-type eumelanins. We applied these and previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric methods for assaying eu- and pheomelanins to characterize melanins in various mutant mice: black, lethal yellow, viable yellow, agouti, brown, light, albino, dilute, recessive yellow, pink-eyed dilution, slaty, and silver. It was demonstrated that 1) complete solubilization of melanins in Soluene-350 is a convenient method to estimate the total amount of eu- and pheomelanins, 2) lethal yellow, viable yellow, and recessive yellow hairs contain almost pure pheomelanins, and 3) melanins from brown, light, silver, and pink-eyed black hairs share chemical properties in common that are characterized by partial solubility in strong alkali. We suggest that 1) the brown-type eumelanins have lower degrees of polymerization than the black-type eumelanins, and 2) slaty hair melanin contains a greatly reduced ratio of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid-derived units as compared with black and other eumelanic hair melanins. These results indicate that our methodology, high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric methods combined, may be useful in chemically characterizing melanin pigments produced in follicular melanocytes.

  3. Development of a protocol for selection of genes fit for the in vivo knockdown method and its application to insulin receptor substrate genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mikako; Kakutani, Yukari; Kaburagi, Misako; Funabashi, Hisakage; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Prediabetes model mice in which more than one gene associated with diabetes is knocked down simultaneously are potentially useful for pharmaceutical and medical studies of diabetes. However, the effective conditions for sufficient knockdown in vivo are dependent on the intrinsic properties of the target genes. It is necessary to investigate which genes are applicable or not to the in vivo knockdown method. In this study, insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (Irs-1, Irs-2) were selected as target genes. Effective siRNAs against the respective genes were designed, and their efficacy was confirmed by cell-based experiments. Based on the results of siRNAs, shRNA expression vectors against Irs-1 and Irs-2 were constructed, respectively. Their efficacy was also confirmed by cell-based experiments. A hydrodynamic method was applied to the delivery of the vectors to mice. This method was found to be effective for predominant delivery to the liver by demonstrative delivery of an EGFP expression vector and successive histochemical analysis. Fifty micrograms of the shRNA expression vector was injected into the tail vein. After 24 h, the liver, pancreas, and muscle were isolated, and the expression levels of Irs-1 and Irs-2 were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the liver, Irs-2 was effectively knocked down to 60% of the control level, but Irs-1 was not influenced even under the same conditions. The protocol developed here is feasible for the selection of genes fit for in vivo knockdown method.

  4. Preserving GABAergic interneurons in acute brain slices of mice using the N-methyl-D-glucamine-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Geng; Li, Yue; Geng, Hong-Yan; Yang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ke-Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Defects in the function and development of GABAergic interneurons have been linked to psychiatric disorders, so preservation of these interneurons in brain slices is important for successful electrophysiological recording in various ex vivo methods. However, it is difficult to maintain the activity and morphology of neurons in slices from mice of >30 days old. Here we evaluated the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG)-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) method for the preservation of interneurons in slices from mice of up to ∼6 months old and discussed the steps that may affect their quality during slicing. We found that the NMDG-aCSF method rescued more cells than sucrose-aCSF and successfully preserved different types of interneurons including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons. In addition, both the chemical and electrical synaptic signaling of interneurons were maintained. These results demonstrate that the NMDG-aCSF method is suitable for the preservation of interneurons, especially in studies of gap junctions.

  5. Efficacy of caspofungin against central nervous system Aspergillus fumigatus infection in mice determined by TaqMan PCR and CFU methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav; Imai, Jackie; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2005-04-01

    We have reported previously that prolonged caspofungin (CAS) dosing enhances survival in a murine model of central nervous system aspergillosis. In this study we determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and CFU enumeration whether CAS could reduce fungal burdens, prior to the deaths of untreated animals, and also assessed progressive infection in untreated mice. Mice were infected intracranially and treated for 4 days with CAS (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day) or amphotericin B (AMB) (3 mg/kg/day) starting 1 day postinfection. Fungal burdens in brains and kidneys of untreated controls were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 to assess progressive infection; burdens in treated animals were determined on day 5. qPCR showed higher burdens than CFU enumeration in all comparisons. In untreated animals, qPCR showed transiently increased burdens in brains, while CFU enumeration showed a decrease. qPCR showed increased burdens in kidneys, but CFU enumeration did not. Neither method indicated drug efficacy in the brain. Both methods showed AMB efficacy in the kidneys, and qPCR demonstrated CAS efficacy at all doses. Spearman correlations of qPCR and CFU determination results showed a significant correlation for most untreated groups; results correlated well for kidneys (P < or = 0.03) but not for brains in treated mice. Regression analyses of qPCR and CFU groups indicated different slopes for progressive infection in untreated animals but the same slopes for CAS dose-response efficacy. qPCR appeared to better reflect the progression of untreated infection. The lack of demonstration of efficacy in the brain suggests that longer dosing is necessary to cause burden reduction. These results also suggest that, when there is drug efficacy in a therapeutic study, either method appears to be useful for determining Aspergillus fumigatus burdens.

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization method for the identification of a new strain of murine hepatitis virus from xenografted SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Toohey, Brendan; Purcell, Damian F J; Kannourakis, George

    2015-12-01

    During attempts to clone retroviral determinants associated with a mouse model of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify unique viruses in the liver of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with LCH tissues. A partial genomic sequence of a murine coronavirus was identified, and the whole genome (31428 bp) of the coronavirus was subsequently sequenced using PCR cloning techniques. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the genome sequence of the new virus was 91-93% identical to those of known murine hepatitis viruses (MHVs). The predicted open reading frame from the nucleotide sequence encoded all known proteins of MHVs. Analysis at the protein level showed that the virus was closely related to the highly virulent MHV-JHM strain. The virus strain was named MHV-MI. No type D retroviruses were found. Degenerate PCR targeting of type D retrovirus and 5'-RACE targeting of other types of retroviruses confirmed the absence of any retroviral association with the LCH xenografted SCID mice.

  7. An improved method for the establishment of a model of Graves' disease in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Tan, Jian; Li, Ning; Meng, Zhaowei

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to develop a stable Graves' disease (GD) model in BALB/c mice by immunization and electroporation (EP). A total of 90 mice were divided into experimental (n=50), control (n=20) and blank (n=20) groups. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/thyroid‑stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor 268 was constructed and injected into the bilateral gastrocnemius of experimental group mice at weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10. Equal volumes of saline were injected into the control and blank groups at the same time. The experimental and control groups were subjected to EP at the same time and location to enhance immunization. The levels of total serum thyroxine (T4) and serum TSH were examined by radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, respectively. The levels of serum thyrotropin receptor N‑terminal (TRAb N) and C‑terminal (TRAb C) antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Whole body pertechnetate (99mTcO4‑) imaging was performed. Mouse weight and thyroid morphology and pathology were analyzed. The GD BALB/c mouse model was successfully established, with a positive rate of 79.17% (38/48). T4 levels increased from baseline levels of 12.05±4.23 to 52.51±23.58 ng/ml by week 12 (P<0.0001). TSH levels decreased from baseline levels of 5.53±2.78 to 1.43±0.89 µIU/ml by week 12 (P<0.0001). TRAb N antibody levels increased from baseline levels of 0.006±0.002 to 0.278±0.106 mIU/ml by week 12 (P<0.0001). TRAb C antibody levels increased from baseline levels of 11.111±2.808 to 46.701±26.436 arbitrary units/ml by week 12 (P<0.0001). At week 21, TSH levels remained reduced compared with pre‑immunization levels (P<0.0001). Although T4, and TRAb N and C levels decreased, they remained increased compared with preimmunization levels (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, P=0.001). There were no significant alterations in antibody levels between the control and blank groups. Following four immunizations, the uptake of 99mTcO4‑ by the thyroid was significantly increased in the

  8. Effect of drugs modulating serotonergic system on the analgesic action of paracetamol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Yogita S.; Belsare, Peeyush; Panditrao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult albino mice were assigned to five groups: Normal saline, PCT, fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) + PCT, buspirone (5-HT1A Agonist) + PCT, and ondansetron (5HT3 antagonist) + PCT. Hot-plate and formalin test were used to determine pain threshold, tests being conducted 60 min after the last treatment. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Coadministration of buspirone with PCT attenuated the antinociceptive activity of PCT (P < 0.001), whereas fluoxetine + PCT increased pain threshold in the hot-plate and formalin test (P = 0.0046). Analgesic effect of PCT was not affected by ondansetron in formalin models. It attenuated analgesic action of PCT in hot-plate test (P = 0.0137). Conclusion: The results suggest that 5-HT1 receptors could also be responsible for the analgesic effect of PCT. Also, higher analgesia is produced by co-administration of SSRI (fluoxetine) + PCT. PMID:27298498

  9. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect. PMID:22494845

  10. Carcinome basocellulaire chez un albinos congolais (République Démocratique du Congo): à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Nday, David Kakez; Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Fundi, Jimmy Ngoie; Kitenge, Tony Kayembe; Numbi, Luboya

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas d'un carcinome basocellulaire non décris dans la littérature de notre pays chez un adulte jeune congolais âgé de 25 ans, de sexe masculin présentant une récidive probable de la tumeur. Cette observation permet de décrire le carcinome basocellulaire chez un sujet noir albinos, et de souligner les particularités thérapeutiques. PMID:26161197

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene manipulation to create single-amino-acid-substituted and floxed mice with a cloning-free method

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaolong; Chen, Chao; Veevers, Jennifer; Zhou, XinMin; Ross, Robert S.; Feng, Wei; Chen, Ju

    2017-01-01

    Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology is a powerful tool to manipulate the genome with extraordinary simplicity and speed. To generate genetically modified animals, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing is typically accomplished by microinjection of a mixture of Cas9 DNA/mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into zygotes. However, sgRNAs used for this approach require manipulation via molecular cloning as well as in vitro transcription. Beyond these complexities, most mutants obtained with this traditional approach are genetically mosaic, yielding several types of cells with different genetic mutations. Recently, a growing body of studies has utilized commercially available Cas9 protein together with sgRNA and a targeting construct to introduce desired mutations. Here, we report a cloning-free method to target the mouse genome by pronuclear injection of a commercial Cas9 protein:crRNA:tracrRNA:single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) complex into mouse zygotes. As illustration of this method, we report the successful generation of global gene-knockout, single-amino-acid-substituted, as well as floxed mice that can be used for conditional gene-targeting. These models were produced with high efficiency to generate non-mosaic mutant mice with a high germline transmission rate. PMID:28176880

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene manipulation to create single-amino-acid-substituted and floxed mice with a cloning-free method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolong; Chen, Chao; Veevers, Jennifer; Zhou, XinMin; Ross, Robert S; Feng, Wei; Chen, Ju

    2017-02-08

    Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology is a powerful tool to manipulate the genome with extraordinary simplicity and speed. To generate genetically modified animals, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing is typically accomplished by microinjection of a mixture of Cas9 DNA/mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into zygotes. However, sgRNAs used for this approach require manipulation via molecular cloning as well as in vitro transcription. Beyond these complexities, most mutants obtained with this traditional approach are genetically mosaic, yielding several types of cells with different genetic mutations. Recently, a growing body of studies has utilized commercially available Cas9 protein together with sgRNA and a targeting construct to introduce desired mutations. Here, we report a cloning-free method to target the mouse genome by pronuclear injection of a commercial Cas9 protein:crRNA:tracrRNA:single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) complex into mouse zygotes. As illustration of this method, we report the successful generation of global gene-knockout, single-amino-acid-substituted, as well as floxed mice that can be used for conditional gene-targeting. These models were produced with high efficiency to generate non-mosaic mutant mice with a high germline transmission rate.

  13. A study of an aroma extraction method and evaluation of the aroma extract contribution to the palatability and reinforcement effect of dried bonito using mice.

    PubMed

    Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okamura, Maya; Shiibashi, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Tsukasa; Nammoku, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Japanese cuisine has provided satisfying meals by fully utilizing the characteristic aroma and taste of katsuodashi (dried bonito broth), though it is not rich in sugars or fats. Katsuodashi is a very basic and indispensable element in Japanese cuisine, and is a hot water extract of katsuobushi (dried bonito). It has been reported that a dextrin solution containing natural dried bonito broth has a significant reinforcement effect, and has been suggested that the olfactory stimulation is important for the reinforcement effect. We examined various source materials for broth and identified an optimal method of aroma extraction by two-bottle choice and conditioned place preference tests in mice. By two-bottle choice tests, a solution containing arabushi (a type of katsuobushi) aroma extract obtained by a supercritical CO2 extraction method showed a significantly high preference. The conditioned place preference test showed the dashi-taste solution with arabushi supercritical CO2 extract had a reinforcement effect. Our results suggest that the arabushi extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction contains components responsible for preference and reinforcement effects in mice; it could become conducive to making Japanese cuisine more satisfying and palatable.

  14. Modulation of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and D-penicillamine depends on ethanol dose and number of conditioning trials.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Baliño, Pablo; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that both 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), which inhibits metabolism of ethanol (EtOH) to acetaldehyde by inhibiting catalase, and D-penicillamine (D-P), an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent, modulate EtOH-conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino Swiss (IOPS Orl) mice. These studies followed a reference-dose-like procedure, which involves comparing cues that have both been paired with EtOH. However, the role of EtOH-derived acetaldehyde has not been examined using a standard CPP method, and efficacy of these treatments could be different under the two circumstances. In the present investigation, we manipulated the strength of CPP across five separate studies and evaluated the effect of D-P and AT on EtOH-induced CPP following a standard unbiased CPP procedure. Mice received pairings with vehicle-saline injections with one cue and, alternatively, with AT- and D-P-EtOH with another cue. Our studies indicate that AT and D-P only disrupt CPP induced by EtOH in mice when the number of conditioning sessions and the dose of EtOH are low. These findings suggest that acquisition of EtOH-induced CPP may depend on the levels of acetaldehyde available during memory acquisition and the strength of the memory. Therefore, we propose that, at least when the memory processes are labile, brain acetaldehyde could participate in the formation of Pavlovian learning elicited by EtOH.

  15. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  16. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  17. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  18. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P < 0.05) in red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, blood platelets count and neutrophils in animals treated with Red Bull and Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  19. The genome sequencing of an albino Western lowland gorilla reveals inbreeding in the wild

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is still unknown. Here, we study the genetic cause of his albinism and making use of whole genome sequencing data we find a higher inbreeding coefficient compared to other gorillas. Results We successfully identified the causal genetic variant for Snowflake’s albinism, a non-synonymous single nucleotide variant located in a transmembrane region of SLC45A2. This transporter is known to be involved in oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans. We provide experimental evidence that shows that this amino acid replacement alters the membrane spanning capability of this transmembrane region. Finally, we provide a comprehensive study of genome-wide patterns of autozygogosity revealing that Snowflake’s parents were related, being this the first report of inbreeding in a wild born Western lowland gorilla. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate how the use of whole genome sequencing can be extended to link genotype and phenotype in non-model organisms and it can be a powerful tool in conservation genetics (e.g., inbreeding and genetic diversity) with the expected decrease in sequencing cost. PMID:23721540

  20. Cold exposure impairs dark-pulse capacity to induce REM sleep in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Zamboni, Giovanni; Cerri, Matteo; Del Sindaco, Elide; Dentico, Daniela; Jones, Christine Ann; Luppi, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Amici, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    In the albino rat, a REM sleep (REMS) onset can be induced with a high probability and a short latency when the light is suddenly turned off (dark pulse, DP) during non-REM sleep (NREMS). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent DP delivery could overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS occurrence during exposure to low ambient temperature (Ta). To this aim, the efficiency of a non-rhythmical repetitive DP (3 min each) delivery during the first 6-h light period of a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle in inducing REMS was studied in the rat, through the analysis of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, hypothalamic temperature and motor activity at different Tas. The results showed that DP delivery triggers a transition from NREMS to REMS comparable to that which occurs spontaneously. However, the efficiency of DP delivery in inducing REMS was reduced during cold exposure to an extent comparable with that observed in spontaneous REMS occurrence. Such impairment was associated with low Delta activity and high sympathetic tone when DPs were delivered. Repetitive DP administration increased REMS amount during the delivery period and a subsequent negative REMS rebound was observed. In conclusion, DP delivery did not overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS in the cold. These results underline the crucial physiological meaning of the mutual exclusion of thermoregulatory activation and REMS occurrence, and support the hypothesis that the suspension of the central control of body temperature is a prerequisite for REMS occurrence.

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark. PMID:23284212

  2. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  3. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats exposed to malathion and spinosad in stored wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Nour El-Hoda A

    2015-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

  4. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg.

  5. Pathological and biochemical effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of celecoxib in Wistar albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, Evrim A; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz; Kismet, Kemal; Akay, M Turan

    2010-10-01

    Celecoxib is intended for acute pain, menstrual cramps, pain, and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of celecoxib (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) treatment on rats orally for 28 days. We examined effects on some biochemical parameters and kidney and liver tissues of celecoxib-treated Wistar albino male rats. At the end of the study, hepatic and renal function tests were performed and liver and kidney of rats were microscopically examined to detect systemic toxicity of celecoxib. Celecoxib-treated rats had statistically significant decreases of cholesterol, total bilirubin, total protein, urea, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase levels increased in 10- and 50-mg/kg/day celecoxib-treated rats. Histological examinations showed mononuclear cell infiltration, hyperplasia, and cellular degeneration in liver and tubular damage and mononuclear cell infiltration in kidney. We suggest that high doses of celecoxib may cause changes in liver and kidney histopathology, liver function, and in some biochemical parameters.

  6. [Learning and chronobiological regulation following experimental damage to the coronary-artery wall of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Hecht, K; Choinowski, S; Kunde, D; Meyer, R; Moritz, V; Schlegel, T; Wenzelides, K; Götze, J

    1976-01-01

    Forty male albino rats were used to study the relationship between experimentally (concentrated hydrochloric acid) produced local structural changes of the coronary artery wall and central nervous information processing and chronobiological events, respectively. The alterations of the coronary arteries caused by this treatment did not produce infarction but initiated on the whole length of the arterial branch proliferative processes that are complete within 12 weeks following the intervention. Central nervous information processing and chronoregulatory processes showed, immediately after exposure to hydrochloric acid, pronounced malfunctions followed by a stage of hyperreactivity (4 weeks following the damage). At 8 weeks from the intervention, the parameters of information processing and chronobiological events of the CNS again equalled the control values. Since the central nervous functions were back to normal earlier than the structural alterations, the results are interpreted as reflecting CNS-controlled interactions between the complex of visceral afference and efference, the regulation of which is determined by the CNS after coronary damage in such a way as to restore the adaptational capacity of the organism by a predominance of sanogenetic processes.

  7. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.

  8. Effects of continuous environmental illumination on the albino rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M L; Smith, J E; Sokhansanj, A; Rusch, P; Landis, C; Hatton, G I

    1995-01-01

    Continuous environmental illumination or constant light (LL) exposure causes a suppression of daily water intake, and long-term exposure of greater than 19 days produces a hypertrophy of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) in the hypothalamus. These findings led Glantz to hypothesize that LL increases the secretion of vasopressin (VP). We wanted to determine whether LL could trigger morphological changes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) seen with other manipulations that result in enhanced hormone release. The posterior pituitary of male albino rats that were exposed to LL for 24 or 48 h were examined ultrastructurally for evidence of enhanced hormone release. In addition, water intake, plasma VP levels, and MNC size within the supraoptic nucleus (SON) were measured. After LL exposure, the posterior pituitary morphology was different, suggesting enhanced hormone release. LL exposure did not affect plasma VP or the size of SON MNCs, but did suppress drinking behavior. These data show that posterior pituitary morphology is affected rapidly by LL exposure. The HNS response to LL exposure may consist of changes within the first 24 h of LL found within the posterior pituitary followed later by hypertrophy of the SON MNCs.

  9. Number and spatial distribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Romero, C; Jiménez-López, M; García-Ayuso, D; Salinas-Navarro, M; Nadal-Nicolás, F M; Agudo-Barriuso, M; Villegas-Pérez, M P; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Vidal-Sanz, M

    2013-03-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light and are responsible of the synchronization of the circadian rhythm with the photic stimulus and for the pupillary light reflex. To quantify the total population of rat-ipRGCs and to assess their spatial distribution we have developed an automated routine and used neighbour maps. Moreover, in all analysed retinas we have studied the general population of RGCs - identified by their Brn3a expression - and the population of ipRGCs - identified by melanopsin immunodetection - thus allowing the co-analysis of their topography. Our results show that the total mean number ± standard deviation of ipRGCs in the albino rat is 2047 ± 309. Their distribution in the retina seems to be complementary to that of Brn3a(+)RGCs, being denser in the periphery, especially in the superior retina where their highest densities are found in the temporal quadrant, above the visual streak. In addition, by tracing the retinas from both superior colliculi, we have also determined that 90.62% of the ipRGC project to these central targets.

  10. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  11. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-02-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( (/sup 3/H)DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. (/sup 3/H)DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of (/sup 3/H)DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of (/sup 3/H) DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT.

  12. Setaria equina: in vivo effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate on microfilariae in albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Shahawi, G A; Abdel-Latif, M; Saad, A H; Bahgat, M

    2010-12-01

    Although diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) is successful drug in eliminating human filariasis, yet, its mode of action is still debatable. Herein, the effect of DEC to treat albino rats infected with the animal filarial parasite Setaria equina was tested. Microfilarial (mf) counts and sections from liver, lung, kidney as well as spleen were investigated at different time points after treatment by light microscopy. After 45 and 300min of treatment, a significant decrease in blood mf was observed accompanied by adherence of degenerated mf to both kupffer cells and leukocyte in liver sections. In lung sections, loss of sheath was observed at 45min, while degeneration was observed at later time points. In kidney sections, more mf counts and less matrix were observed in the glomeruli at all time points after treatment. Degenerated mf were observed in spleen sections only at, late time point, 480min after treatment. In conclusion, one of the possible mechanisms by which DEC reduces blood microfilarial count is trapping larvae in organs and killing them through cellular adherence.

  13. Role of Antibody Response in Recovery from K-Papovavirus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarian, Foroozan; Shah, Keerti V.

    1980-01-01

    Intraperitoneal inoculation of mouse K papovavirus into infant (2 to 4 days old) Swiss albino mice produced a high-titered viremia which persisted until death due to pneumonitis on day 9 postinfection. Lungs and livers of these mice had virus-specific immunofluorescence and histological lesions. K-virus antibody was undetectable. Three- to four-week-old mice, although as susceptible to infection as infant mice, remained healthy and developed a much lower-titered viremia, a transient lung infection, and K-virus antibody on 4 to 5 days postinfection. Three- to four-week-old mice treated with cyclophosphamide developed a high-titered viremia with death 10 to 17 days postinfection and no detectable antibodies. A single intraperitoneal inoculation of K-virus antibody at 5 h or 1 day postinfection completely protected the infant Swiss albino mice. Partial protection was achieved when antibody was transferred on days 2, 3, and 4 postinoculation. Transfer of antibody to cytoxan-treated Swiss albino mice on days 3 and 6 postinfection completely portected them against K-virus-induced lesions and mortality. Transfer of normal adult BALB/c splenocytes to syngeneic infant mice before K-virus infection did not protect from death but increased survival time. Transfer of 4- to 12-day K-virus-primed adult splenocytes before infection gave a nearly 100% protection. When given before infection, the protection afforded by T-cell-enriched and B-cell-enriched adult primed splenocytes was 0 and 100%, respectively. Transfer of primed B cells on day 1 post-inoculation completely protected the infant mice. This protection decreased to 86, 57, and 56% when the primed B cells were transferred on days 2, 3, and 4 post-inoculation, respectively. These data suggest that the antibody response is of critical importance in the recovery of mice from K-virus infection. Antibody probably acts by aborting viremia, thereby preventing extensive seeding of lungs with virus. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2 PMID

  14. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to

  15. Alcohol significantly lowers the seizure threshold in mice when co-administered with bupropion hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, Peter H; Williams, Robert; McMahon, Louis; Fleming, Rosanna; Fogarty, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Background Bupropion HCl is a widely used antidepressant that is known to cause seizures in a dose-dependent manner. Many patients taking antidepressants will consume alcohol, even when advised not to. Previous studies have not shown any interactions between bupropion HCl and alcohol. However, there have been no previous studies examining possible changes in seizure threshold induced by a combination of alcohol and bupropion HCl. Methods Experimentally naïve female Swiss albino mice (10 per group) received either single doses of bupropion HCl (ranging from 100 mg/kg to 120 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection in a dose volume of 10 ml/kg, and single-dose ethanol alone (2.5 g/kg), or vehicle, 5 min prior to bupropion dosing. The presence or absence of seizures, the number of seizures, the onset, duration and the intensity of seizures were all recorded for 5 h following the administration of ethanol. Results The results show that administration of IP bupropion HCl alone induced seizures in mice in a dose-dependent manner, with the 120 mg/kg dose having the largest effect. The percentage of convulsing mice were 0%, 20%, 30% and 60% in the 0 (vehicle), 100, 110, and 120 mg/kg dose groups, respectively. Pretreatment with ethanol produced a larger bupropion HCl-induced convulsive effect at all the doses (70% each at 100, 110 and 120 mg/kg) and a 10% effect in the ethanol + vehicle only group. The convulsive dose of bupropion HCl required to induce seizures in 50% of mice (CD50), was 116.72 mg/kg for bupropion HCl alone (CI: 107.95, 126.20) and 89.40 mg/kg for ethanol/bupropion HCl (CI: 64.92, 123.10). Conclusion These results show that in mice alcohol lowers the seizure threshold for bupropion-induced seizures. Clinical implications are firstly that there may be an increased risk of seizures in patients consuming alcohol, and secondly that formulations that can release bupropion more readily in alcohol may present additional risks to patients

  16. Anti-Leishmanial Activity (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Allicin and Allicin Cream Using Leishmania major (Sub-strain Zymowme LON4) and Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Dina M.; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M.; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Alkathiri, Badriah

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania is a unicellular protozoan parasite that produces several human diseases, ranging from localized self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections. Objective The effect of allicin on the growth of Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. Moreover, the efficacy of a topical allicin cream was examined in BALB/c (Bagg albino, laboratory-bred strain of the House Mouse) mice with cutaneous leishmanial lesions compared to the currently used drug, sodiumstibogluconate (pentostam). Methods Cytotoxiciy and promastigote proliferation were measured. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, and 200 μM) of liquid allicin were tested on L. major promastigotes twice: after 24 and 48 hours using an MTT colorimetric assay. In the in vivo condition, the efficacies of allicin cream and liquid allicin at two concentrations (0.15 μM/mouse and 0.30 μM/mouse) were evaluated. Serum factors of the control and treated groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of allicin on the liver and kidney. Results Allicin at a concentration of 50 μM inhibited the growth of Leishmania promastigotes. Topical application of allicin cream reduced lesion sizes in mice. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. Conclusions Allicin has antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical applications. PMID:27537199

  17. Chromatophore distribution and inferior performance of albino Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with special reference to different chromatophore expression between albinism and pseudo-albinism.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Takahito; Shimada, Yukinori; Nakamura, Aiko

    2007-05-01

    Albinism with a large variation in body color was found in a hatchery population of Japanese flounder. In addition to albinism, ambicoloration and pseudo-albinism were simultaneously observed in some individuals. Albinos had a remarkably lower number of melanophores on the scales of ocular side than wild-type individuals did, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of xanthophores and iridophores. The intensity of body color significantly correlated with the number of melanophores among the albinos. No significant differences were observed in the intensity of body color and the number of melanophores between the ocular side and the ambicoloration area. Pseudo-albinism was accompanied by the reductions of melanophores and xanthophores, indicating the different expression patterns of chromatophores between albinism and pseudo-albinism. The combined effects of albinism and pseudo-albinism caused the disappearances of melanophores and xanthophores in the pseudo-albinism area of albinos. In addition to chromatophores, the different characteristics of several phenotypic traits were observed between albinos and wild-type individuals. Growth-related traits of the albinos were inferior to those of the wild-type individuals. Furthermore, the albinos had a larger pseudo-albinism area and a higher vertebral deformed rate than the wild-type individuals did. Individual multilocus heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient measured by microsatellite loci did not show any indication that the albinos had higher inbreeding coefficient than the wild-type individuals did. This study demonstrated the expression patterns of chromatophores in the body color abnormalities of a flatfish species and the potential pleiotropic effects of an albinism gene on some phenotypic traits.

  18. Observing the development of the temporomandibular joint in embryonic and post-natal mice using various staining methods

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a specialized synovial joint that is essential for the movement and function of the mammalian jaw. The TMJ develops from two mesenchymal condensations, and is composed of the glenoid fossa that originates from the otic capsule by intramembranous ossification, the mandibular condyle of the temporal bone and a fibrocartilagenous articular disc derived from a secondary cartilaginous joint by endochondral ossification. However, the development of the TMJ remains unclear. In the present study, the formation and development of the mouse TMJ was investigated between embryonic day 13.5 and post-natal day 180 in order to elucidate the morphological and molecular alterations that occur during this period. TMJ formation appeared to proceed in three stages: Initiation or blastema stage; growth and cavitation stage; and the maturation or completion stage. In order to investigate the activity of certain transcription factors on TMJ formation and development, the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), sex determining region Y-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2, Indian hedgehog homolog, Osterix, collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-9 and MMP-13 were detected in the TMJ using in situ and/or immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the transcription factors, ECM and MMP serve critical functions in the formation and development of the mouse TMJ. In summary, the development of the mouse TMJ was investigated, and the molecular regulation of mouse TMJ formation was partially characterized. The results of the present study may aid the systematic understanding of the physiological processes underlying TMJ formation and development in mice. PMID:26893634

  19. Development and validation of an HPLC method for quantitation of BA-TPQ, a novel iminoquinone anticancer agent, and an initial pharmacokinetic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Ezell, Scharri J; Zhang, Xiangrong; Wang, Wei; Xu, Hongxia; Rayburn, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xu; Gurpinar, Evrim; Yang, Xinyi; Sommers, Charnell I; Velu, Sadanandan E; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2011-05-01

    We herein describe the development and validation of an HPLC method for the quantitation of 7-(benzylamino)-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo [4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one (BA-TPQ), a newly synthesized iminoquinone anticancer agent. BA-TPQ was extracted from plasma and tissue samples by first precipitating proteins with acetonitrile followed by a liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was carried out using a gradient flow rate on a Zorbax SB C(18) column, and the effluent was monitored by UV detection at 346 nm. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific, with a linear range of 3.91-1955.0  ng/mL in plasma, 19.55-1955.0  ng/mL in spleen, brain, and liver homogenates and 19.55-3910.0  ng/mL in heart, lung and kidney homogenates. The method was stable under all relevant conditions. Using this method, we also carried out an initial study determining plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of BA-TPQ in mice following intravenous administration. In summary, this simple and sensitive HPLC method can be used in future preclinical and clinical studies of BA-TPQ.

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seeds) against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Jawad Hassan; Abdulmajeed, Isra Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective effect of Nigella sativa (NS) against nephrotoxicity of methotrexate (MTX) in mice. Materials and Methods: Four groups of Swiss albino male mice, eight in each group were used. The study was carried on between October 2014 and April 2015. Group 1 (control) were administered 0.3 ml distilled water orally daily for 21 days and injected with normal saline (0.25 ml) IP weekly. Group 2 (MTX group) were treated with MTX, 10 mg/kg IP weekly, while Group 3 were treated with 0.125 ml of NS oil by mouth daily and injected with normal saline (0.25 ml) IP weekly. Group 4 received 0.125 ml of NS oil by mouth daily and injected with 10 mg/kg MTX IP weekly. Oral treatments were administered using a special curved smooth tip nontraumatic metal needle and IP injections were given for 3 weeks at days 7, 14 and 21. Animals were sacrificed at day 23. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) measurements were performed on kidney homogenate. Histopathology of the kidneys were prepared and examined. Results: MTX has resulted in a small elevation in MDA and reduction in GSH levels in kidney homogenate which was returned back to control values when NS and MTX were administered in combination. Statistical significance was achieved with elevation of GSH by MTX and NS compared to MTX alone. MTX caused histopathological changes suggesting nephrotoxicity in 6 animals out of 8, while no changes were found in all animals treated with MTX and NS. Conclusion: NS is protective against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:28163954

  1. The effect of local UVB skin irradiation on the rate of formazan deposition in the epidermis of hairless mice studied by means of a tetrazolium-reduction method.

    PubMed

    Fosså, J; Iversen, O H; Thune, P O

    1980-01-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty hairless mice were irradiated with UVB (310 nm, exposure 60 mJ/cm2) on a limited area of the dorsal skin. At different time intervals after irradiation, the rate of endogenous dehydrogenase activity per mg dry epidermis was measured by the tetrazolium reduction method. The amount of formazan deposited remained normal for 18 h, and then increased, reaching a peak significantly higher than normal at 24 h, and thereafter returned to normal. At day 8 there was a new, probably significant peak. The reaction was followed for 14 days. It was concluded that UVB irradiation provokes a period of increased formazan deposition in the epidermis, similar to what has been observed after ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The validity of the tetrazolium test for skin carcinogenic irritaments was thus also confirmed.

  2. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: sensitivity of C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Çağla, Büyüklü

    2015-05-01

    Food intake triggers convulsions in fasted BALB/c mice and Wistar albino rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine. Inbred strain studies have yielded considerable information regarding genetic influences on seizure susceptibility and factors contribute to epileptogenesis in rodents. This study, therefore, investigated sensitivity to antimuscarinic-induced seizures in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Food deprivation for 48h in mice and 52h in rats did not produce strain differences in body weight loss. Fasted animals treated i.p. with 3mg/kg scopolamine developed convulsions after food intake. The incidence of convulsions was indifferent in comparison to BALB/c mice and Wistar albino rats. Number of animals developing stage 5 was more and onset of convulsions was longer in C57BL/6J mice than in BALB/c mice. Strain-related differences in sensitivity to seizures in C57BL/6J mice may need further evaluation for investigating genetic influences on scopolamine-induced seizures.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2014-09-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby.

  4. Difference in leptin hormone response to nutritional status in normal adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Sowyan, Noorah S

    2009-01-15

    The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E) and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn't show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) obesity and also protect the liver

  5. Atorvastatin improves Y-maze learning behaviour in nicotine treated male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das S, Syam; Nair, Saritha S; Kavitha, S; Febi, John; Indira, M

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid present in tobacco which can induce hyperlipidemia and has a direct effect on neural functions. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, are cholesterol lowering drugs. It has some neuroprotective effects. Hence we analysed the combined effect of nicotine and statin on the learning behaviour of male albino rats. We employed Y-Maze conditional discrimination task. Rats were divided into 4 groups with six rats in each group. (1) Control, (2) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt), (3) Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt) and (4) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt)+Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt). After 30days of treatment rats from each group were selected for behavioural study and they were observed for 30days. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, and brain and liver were dissected out for further biochemical analysis. Nicotine treated group showed least performance in learning in comparison with control, atorvastatin and atorvastatin+nicotine treated groups. Co-administration of atorvastatin and nicotine improved learning behaviour compared to nicotine treated group. Reactive oxygen species level was significantly increased in nicotine group compared to control. The level of neurotransmitter serotonin which has a significant role in learning was found to be decreased in nicotine treated group compared to the control group. Activity of Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and glutathione content was significantly reduced in nicotine treated group compared to control. The activity of acetylcholine esterase was significantly increased in the nicotine treated group. Expression studies showed significant decrease in N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and increase in mono amine oxidase-A and mono amine oxidase-B in nicotine treated group and was reversed in atorvastatin + nicotine treated group. It can be concluded that co-administration of nicotine with statin ameliorates the neural functional alterations caused

  6. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  7. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  8. Metabolic response to optic centers to visual stimuli in the albino rat: anatomical and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Toga, A.W.; Collins, R.C.

    1981-07-10

    The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections /sup 14/C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers.

  9. Immunobiological changes of in vivo glucocorticoid depleted male Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, Biswadev; Ghosh, Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Whether endogenous deficiency of adrenal corticosteroid by unilateral adrenalectomy leads to any modulation of macrophage response is not clear and needs investigation in detail. We performed unilateral adrenalectomy on male Swiss albino rats. Fractions of splenic macrophages were isolated and their functional activities were determined. To test the effect of adrenal hormone insufficiency (after unilateral adrenalectomy) on the cell mediated and humoral immune response, sheep red blood cells were injected, then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the number of antibody secreting plasma cells were determined. Studies reported herein indicate that in vivo glucocorticoid (GC) insufficiency due to unilateral adrenalectomy decreases chemotactic migration, myeloperoxidase enzyme release, and lysozyme release from rat splenic macrophages that were also related to the induction of cell mediated and humoral immune responses. The maximum number of plaque was obtained from control cells isolated from spleen after 10 days from the control rats, whereas the number of plaque was decreased in spleens isolated 20 days after unilateral adrenalectomy. Our study also showed time dependent decrease in foot pad swelling in the unilaterally adrenalectomized rats where endogenous GC was reduced with respect to control indicating reduced DTH response in case of GC insufficiency. We found slower clearance of bacterial burden from the blood and spleen isolated from unilaterally adrenalectomized rats with respect to control. Thus on one hand partially GC insufficient animals show altered macrophage response and on the other hand it heightens the persistence (in vivo) of Staphylococus aureus. The study may be helpful in understanding that adrenal corticosteroid insufficiency due to adrenalectomy interferes with immune functions, which may also support the hypothesis that endogenous GC plays a role in regulating immune response.

  10. Biosterilant effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 extract on male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Peki, Vanlal; Devi, Maibam Sunita; Sanjeev, Sanasam; Khusboo, Maurya; Zothansanga, R; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2017-01-15

    Chemosterilants have long been used in sterilization programs for managing pet, stray, and wild animals but adverse effects such as trauma, incomplete responses to treatment, and complete abolition of gonadal sources of testosterone often occurs. This study describes the biosterilant effects of administering three doses of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 (Bt 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg; 20 rats/dose) extract in adult male Wistar albino rats on testicular parameters, function, histology, and a number of biochemical markers of overall health, free radical production, and cell proliferation. Intratesticular administration of Bt extract to rats induces testicular oxidative stress and damages and consequently, perturb spermatogenesis, degeneration of testis, reduction in testes size, and depletion of testosterone and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in a dose-dependent manner because of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. No morbidity or mortality adverse effects were observed in both the saline control and Bt extract-treated rats. Significant variation was noted in clinical manifestations, weight and volume of testes, and hormonal and biochemical profiles between Bt doses in comparison with the saline control. Aspermia/azoospermia (100%) resulted in Bt-treated rats without any adverse effects. Histopathological analysis showed degeneration, necrosis, vacuolation, fewer germ cells, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and a lack of elongated spermatids in atrophic seminiferous tubules in Bt extract-treated groups in the presence of low concentrations of testosterone, antioxidant enzymes, and suppression of germ cell proliferation. Dose-dependent effects were evident in most parameters that were measured. The vast array of tests that were undertaken also provides some important indicators of the physiological effects associated with the treatments that were applied. Intratesticular injection of Bt extract impairs spermatogenesis and induces permanent sterility

  11. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Egwurugwu, J N; Nneli, R O; Oguike, F; Osim, E E

    2013-12-20

    This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) and water while the test group was fed on rat feed, water and honey ( 1 ml of honey to every 10 ml initial drinking water daily) for twenty two (22) weeks after which the rats were starved over night before the experiment and sacrificed by stunning. Laparatomy was immediately performed, proximal and distal portions of the intestine identified, cut and put in aerated tyrode solution. Cut sections of the ileum (2-3cm) were mounted on organ bath instrument for motility experiment with varying concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol. Contractions were recorded as well as the intestinal transit in each group and lengths of intestine with total mean values calculated. Results obtained showed that honey significantly decreased (p<0.01 ) intestinal transit in the test group (21.15±0.75 ) compared with the control group ( 35.96±1.15); decreased intestinal motility in the test group compared with the control and caused significant percentage reduction of intestinal motility with varied concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol in the test group ( Ach-75.00±0.75%; Carbachol-79.00±0.28%) compared with the control group (Ach-62.00±0.39%; Carbachol-51.00±0.39%). In conclusion, unprocessed Nigerian honey decreased intestinal transit, caused intestinal smooth muscle inhibition and motility and reduced sensitivity of gastrointestinal tract to cholinergic agents.

  12. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  13. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruknuddin, Galib; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a promising remedy in these cases. There is a need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. Considering this, a polyherbal Ayurvedic compound formulation (Dashanga Ghana) has been studied in experimental animals to evaluate anti-arthritic activity. Materials and Methods: Dashanga Ghana has been prepared in the laboratory by following standard guidelines. Charles Foster albino rats were used to evaluate the activity through Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Results and Conclusions: Dashanga Ghana is found to possess significant anti-arthritic activity. Further studies are required to identify and characterize exact active phyto-constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action, which is responsible for the observed pharmacological profile. PMID:26862275

  14. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  15. Teratogenic Effect of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on Nissl Substances of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Ekanem, Theresa B; Udoh, Paul B; Ekong, Moses B; Asuquo, Olaitan R; Akpantah, Amabe O; Nwakanma, Agnes O

    2013-01-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used for the treatment of insanity. The possible adverse effects of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of the plant on Nissl substances of albino Wistar rat fetuses were studied using 25 mature female Wistar rats. The animals were divided equally into 5 groups, labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A was the control, while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with the males overnight, and the sperm positive day was designated as day zero of pregnancy. Oral doses of 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the root bark extract were administered to groups B and C animals, respectively, while groups D and E animals received 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract, respectively, from day 7 to 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses brains extracted, and the cerebral cortices excised and routinely processed for Nissl substances using Cresyl fast violet staining method. Results showed reduced staining intensity of Nissl substances in the treated groups, especially those that received the root extract. Thus, the herbs may have adverse effects on protein synthesis within the cerebral cortex.

  16. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of ni