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Sample records for albino mice methods

  1. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  2. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  3. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  4. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  5. Reproductive toxic potential of panmasala in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Mojidra, Bn; Gautam, Ak; Verma, Y; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-09-01

    Some ingredients of panmasala have the ability to penetrate the blood-testis barrier but the reproductive toxic potential of panmasala has not been studied. This study is aimed to assess the possible damage caused by panmasala to male reproductive system in mice. Swiss albino male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving either standard control diet or panmasala-containing diet. Three doses (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%) of panmasala plain (PMP) as well as panmasala with tobacco (PMT)-gutkha were given for a period of 6 months. Assessment of organ weight, sperm count and morphology, spermatid count, sperm production, testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity and histology were conducted. A nonsignificant decrease in absolute and relative weight of testis and epididymis was observed. Spermatid count, sperm count and production were significantly decreased and 17β-HSD activity was found considerably declined at 3% of both PMP- and PMT-treated groups as compared to control. The histological observations revealed panmasala induced testicular damage. Abnormal morphology of sperm head shape was significantly elevated in higher doses of both types of panmasala-treated groups than control. The results suggests that panmasala has reproductive toxic potential and more alteration is seen with gutkha as compared to panmasala plain, indicating that similar effects might also be possible in humans. PMID:21343226

  6. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  8. Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity. PMID:24130380

  9. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  10. Development of dog mammary tumor xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajmani, R S; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, G Ravi; Sahoo, Aditya P; Santra, Lakshman; Saxena, Shikha; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Saxena, Lovleen; Desai, G S; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Jadon, N S; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    Development and study of dog mammary tumour xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice adds a new dimension in cancer research as dog tumors have many similarities with human tumors regarding progression, histopathology, molecular mechanism, immune response and therapy. Failure of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells leads to cancer progression and the fight between immune cells and cancer cells has a great role in understanding the mechanism of cancer progression and elimination. Rejection and acceptance of tumour xenograft depends on efficiency of CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell populations. In the present investigation, dog mammary tumor xenograft in cyclosporine-A and gamma-irradiated, immunosuppressed Swiss Albino mice was developed and the immune cell status of graft accepted and rejected mice was assessed. It was observed that all the major immune cells (CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells) play an equal role in tumour rejection. PMID:25345242

  11. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al Gurabi, Mohammed A; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intraperitoneal toxicity of AgNPs (26 mg per kg of body weight, 52 mg per kg of body weight, and 78 mg per kg of body weight) over 72 hours in Swiss albino mice. AgNPs induced a significant increase in serum liver injury markers including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Induction of DNA damage was also studied in mice injected with AgNPs. Apoptosis (detected by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphatase nick end labeling assay method) in liver tissue and DNA strand breaks (detected by using the comet assay method) in lymphocytes revealed that a concentration of 78 mg of AgNPs per kg body weight can cause significant apoptosis and DNA damage. The DNA damage and apoptosis raise the concern about the safety associated with application of the AgNPs. Significantly more alterations were induced in the hepatocytes of animals exposed to AgNP doses than in the control animals. The induced histological and apoptotic changes may be due to AgNP toxicity. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural of AgNP. PMID:25674004

  12. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25 nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  13. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of Xanthium indicum stem extract in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthium indicum stem is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum stems (XISE) in mice. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice. Results The methanol extract of stems showed dose-dependent and statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight (p values, respectively, < than 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.01). Highest reduction in blood glucose level (31.2%) was observed with the highest dose (400 mg) of the extract. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose levels by 46.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract when administered at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice, respectively, by 41.7, 50.0, 54.2, and 61.0%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 37.5%. Conclusion The experimental results obtained in the present study validate the use of X. indicum stems in folk medicines of Bangladesh to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. PMID:24171758

  14. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hitender; Garg, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes. PMID:26069368

  15. Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinesis in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C M; Murthy, D R; Patil, S B

    1997-11-01

    The benzene chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the flowers of H.r.sinensis were administered (i.p.) at two different dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult male albino mice for 20 days. The results have shown decrease in the spermatogenic elements of testis and epididymal sperm count. High content of testicular cholesterol may be due to lowered androgen synthesis. The increase in the weight of accessory reproductive organs indicates the androgenicity of the plant extract itself, which is proved in the present study by testing the benzene extract in immature mice. PMID:9567744

  16. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  17. Simple generation of albino C57BL/6J mice with G291T mutation in the tyrosinase gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Seiya; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kato, Kanako; Mizuno-Iijima, Saori; Tanimoto, Yoko; Daitoku, Yoko; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) are associated with a variety of human diseases. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system is expected to be useful as a genetic modification method for production of SNM-induced mice. To investigate whether SNM-induced mice can be generated by zygote microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor, we attempted to produce albino C57BL/6J mice carrying the Tyr gene SNM (G291T) from pigmented C57BL/6J zygotes. We first designed and constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for the Tyr gene (px330-Tyr-M). DNA cleavage activity of px330-Tyr-M at the target site of the Tyr gene was confirmed by the EGxxFP system. We also designed an ssDNA donor for homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated gene modification. The px330-Tyr-M vector and ssDNA donor were co-microinjected into the pronuclei of 224 one-cell-stage embryos derived from C57BL/6J mice. We obtained 60 neonates, 28 of which showed the ocular albinism and absence of coat pigmentation. Genomic sequencing analysis of the albino mice revealed that the target of SNM, G291T in the Tyr gene, occurred in 11 mice and one founder was homozygously mutated. The remaining albino founders without Tyr G291T mutation also possessed biallelic deletion and insertion mutants adjacent to the target site in the Tyr locus. Simple production of albino C57BL/6J mice was provided by C57BL/6J zygote microinjection with px330-Tyr-M DNA vector and mutant ssDNA (G291T in Tyr) donor. A combination of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and optional mutant ssDNA could be expected to efficiently produce novel SNM-induced mouse models for investigating human diseases. PMID:24879364

  18. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  19. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice. PMID:22609855

  20. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  1. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  2. Capsaicin provokes apoptosis and restricts benzo(a)pyrene induced lung tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Anandakumar, P; Kamaraj, S; Jagan, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Devaki, T

    2013-10-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), a constituent of red chilli and red pepper is exposed to exert compelling anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumorigenic potential of CAP on benzo(a)pyrene-induced mice lung tumorigenesis by analyzing the markers of apoptosis. Intraperitoneal administration of CAP (10mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice suppressed the development of lung carcinoma by amending the protein expressions of apoptotic regulators p53, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The apoptotic-inducing nature of CAP was further confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopic study and ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. The results obtained from the present study show that CAP inhibits the development of mice lung carcinogenesis through its ability to induce apoptosis. Our present findings provide the basis for further clinical exploration of CAP as an anti-carcinogenic compound against lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23747734

  3. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease. PMID:26799747

  4. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; Bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-10-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  5. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health. PMID:23000350

  6. Generating Chimeric Mice by Using Embryos from Nonsuperovulated BALB/c Mice Compared with Superovulated BALB/c and Albino C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Michael Y; Qi, Peimin; Connor, Aurora Burds; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyr(tm1Arte) (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age. Key parameters measured included the average number of injectable embryos per donor, the percentage of live pups born from the total number of embryos transferred to recipients, and the number of chimeric pups with high embryonic-stem-cell contribution by coat color. Although albino B6 donors produced significantly more injectable embryos than did BALB/c donors, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor produced high-percentage (at least 70%) chimeras more than 2.5 times as often as did albino B6 mice and 20 times more efficiently than did 4-wk-old BALB/c donors. These findings clearly suggest that 12-wk-old BALB/c mice be used as blastocyst donors to reduce the number of mice used to generate each chimera, reduce the production of low-percentage chimeras, and maximize the generation of high-percentage chimeras from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. PMID:27423145

  7. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes. PMID:26827586

  8. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  9. Antitumour effect of Diospyros cordifolia bark on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Pramanik, Goutam; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. (Ebenaceae), commonly known as Indian ebony, is used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In this study, the methanol extract of D. cordifolia bark (MEDC) was evaluated for its antitumour effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumour (EAC) cells in mice, MEDC was administered intraperitoneally at 25 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ bodyweight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumour volume, viable and non-viable tumour cell counts, and rest were kept alive for the assessment of median survival time and increase in life span. Haematological profiles were also determined. MEDC exhibited a marked decrease in tumour growth parameters and increased the survival rate of EAC-bearing animals. MEDC normalised the haematological parameters as compared with the EAC control mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that D. cordifolia bark possessed remarkable antitumour efficacy. PMID:21985607

  10. Vetiver oil (Java) attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Chatterji, Urmi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2015-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of the widely used anticancer drug cisplatin is limited due to its adverse side effects in normal tissues mediated by oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of vetiver acetate oil, Java (VO) against cisplatin-induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. The ameliorating potential was evaluated by orally priming the animals with VO at doses 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg bw for 7 days prior to cisplatin treatment. Acute toxicity in mice was induced by injecting cisplatin (3 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Significant attenuation of renal toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, lowered levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and reduced DNA damage. VO also compensated deficits in the renal antioxidant system. VO intervention significantly inhibited DNA damage, clastogenic effects, and cell cycle arrest in the bone marrow cells of mice. Hematological parameters indicated attenuation of cisplatin-induced myelosuppression. Overall, this study provides for the first time that VO has a protective role in the abatement of cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice which may be attributed to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25910835

  11. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65)

    PubMed Central

    Gboeloh, Lebari Barine; Okon, Okpok Eta; Udoh, Samuel Effiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65). Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G) were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property. PMID:24900913

  12. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Anita; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-06-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. PMID:15988142

  13. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  14. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  15. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  16. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1(st), 2(nd), 4(th), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  17. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  18. Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2003-12-01

    Radiomodulatory effect of Rajgira leaf extract against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation has been evaluated by 30 day survival of Swiss albino mice. Animals of control groups (untreated irradiated) showed diarrhoea, ruffled hairs, epilation, facial edema and consistent decrease in body weight. These signs were less severe/absent in experimental groups (Rajgira treated irradiated), and recovery in body weight was also early and faster. Thirty day survivability was 66 per cent in control group, exposed to 6 Gy, whereas no animal survived beyond 14 and 10 days after irradiation with 8 and 10 Gy gamma rays respectively. However, 100, 60 and 25 percent survivability was observed in experimental groups at 6, 8 and 10 Gy respectively. Regression analysis of survival data showed that the LD50/30 values were 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for control and experimental animals respectively. The dose reduction factor (DRF) was computed as 1.36. A significant decrease in GSH content and increase in LPO level was observed in control animals, whereas in Rajgira pretreated irradiated animals the level of GSH was recorded significantly higher but LPO level decreased significantly. The results from the present study suggest that Rajgira pretreatment provide protection against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:14669247

  19. Patulin in apple juice and its risk assessments on albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A

    2014-07-01

    The contamination of apple juice with patulin mycotoxin is a major risk factor in food safety. This study focuses to assess the biochemical and histopathological effects of patulin in apple juice samples collected from different outlets retailing in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the basis of the selected dose level, 152.5 ppb patulin/ml was administered daily orally for up to 6 weeks to male albino mice. The exposure to contaminated samples revealed significant elevation of all the studied blood parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as creatinine, urea and uric acid contents). On the other hand, and with regard to the accumulated neuronal toxicity of the tested dose level, the toxic signs were recorded as significant increase in the aggressive and locomotor behavioral changes. In addition, the brain areas monoamines concentration revealed variable increased changes. The potential maximal changes in norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin5-hydroxytryptamine levels attained in cortex, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, midbrain and pons and medulla were assessed. Moreover, the histological examination revealed degeneration and necrosis in liver tissues and degenerated glomeruli and hemorrhage between the tubules of the cortical region in kidney tissues. The study declared that patulin-contaminated (152.5 ppb) apple juice exhibited liver, kidney and neurotoxicological effects in 6 weeks orally administered mice. PMID:23012343

  20. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P < .05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow. PMID:20107585

  1. Tuftsin Augments Antitumor Efficacy of Liposomized Etoposide against Fibrosarcoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif; Khan, Aijaz A; Dwivedi, Varun; Ahmad, Manzoor G; Hakeem, Seema; Owais, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are generally plagued by toxic manifestations at doses necessary for control of various forms of cancer. Incorporating such drugs into liposomes not only reduces toxicity but also enhances the therapeutic index. Some antioxidants and potent immunomodulators have also been shown to impart significant antitumor activity presumably by nonspecific activation of the host immune system. In the present study, we evaluated augmentation of the antitumor activity of etoposide (ETP) by the immunomodulator tuftsin in Swiss albino mice with fibrosarcoma. The efficacies of the free form of ETP, liposomized ETP (Lip-ETP), and tuftsin-bearing liposomized ETP (Tuft-Lip-ETP) formulations were evaluated on the basis of tumor regression, effect on expression level of p53wt and p53mut, and survival of the treated animals. Tuft-Lip-ETP, when administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for five days, significantly reduced tumor volume, delayed tumor growth, and also up-regulated the expression of p53wt. In contrast, although Lip-ETP delayed tumor growth, it did not decrease tumor size. The results of the present study suggest that tuftsin incorporation in drug-loaded liposomes is a promising treatment strategy for various forms of cancers, including fibrosarcoma. PMID:17622310

  2. [Comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions in albino mice with experimental larval alveococcosis].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkoliar, N A; Legon'kov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions (AOS and MOS) was studied in an experimental model of experimental larval alveococcosis in albino mice. The animals were intragastrically injected with the agents once daily for 40 days on day 35 after intraperitoneal inoculation with E. multilocularis acephalocysts. They were dissected 29 days after treatment termination (103 days following inoculation) and the rate of infestation and viability and the degree of maturity of developed alveococcosis larvocysts (AL) were determined. The AOS and MOS efficiency estimated by the mean mass of AL per animal was 83.3 and 98.1%, respectively; whereas the similar indicator calculated by one largest AL weight per animal found among all the animals in the compared groups was equal to 57.7 and 96.9%, respectively. Under the equal conditions of solubilization in vegetable oil, the biological activity and bioavailability of mebendazole were shown to increase to a much greater extent than those of albendazole. The findings suggest that the use of mebendazole is promising for designing new vegetable oil-based formulations of the agent. PMID:24003516

  3. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one. PMID:26827585

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight) by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p.) also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo) in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora

  5. Assessment of chromosomal aberration in the bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino mice treated by 4-methylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, Mostafa; Topaktas, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Mehmet Bertan

    2016-07-01

    4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI) is formed during the production of certain caramel coloring agents used in many food and drink products. It may also be formed during the cooking, roasting, or other processing of some foods and beverages. So it was unintentionally consumed in worldwide. This study was aimed to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 4-MEI using chromosome aberration (CA) and mitotic index (MI) in Swiss Albino mice. In this research, CA and MI of the mouse bone marrow cells were analyzed after treating the animals with 4-MEI (100, 130 and 160 mg/kg) for 12 h and 24 h treatment times. All data were analyzed using statistical methods. 4-MEI significantly increased the percentage of CAs at all concentrations for 12 h and at highest concentration for 24 h treatment periods. 4-MEI at highest concentration for 12 h and at all concentrations for 24 h decreased the MI in comparison with control. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 4-MEI at 24 h treatment periods were concentration dependent. Consequently, it can be said that 4-MEI have genotoxic and cytotoxic effect in mouse. PMID:26634952

  6. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Alrobai, Ali A.; Almalki, Daklallah A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  7. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Alrobai, Ali A; Almalki, Daklallah A

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  8. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078

  9. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  10. An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Effect of Memantine in Animal Models of Anxiety in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    AK, Afzal Khan; Shivaramegowda, Rekha M

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the adverse effects produced by the present conventional medicines for anxiety disorders, research for newer drugs is still desirable. From the literature it is evident that NMDA receptors play a key role in animal models of anxiety. Aim The present study is done to evaluate the antianxiety effect of memantine in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015. Animals were divided into four groups. Twelve mice were randomly allotted in each group. Animals in the first group received normal saline as a control 10ml/kg, lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to second group, memantine 3mg/kg as a test drug was given to the third group and memantine 3mg/kg + lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to the fourth group. All the drugs were given for 7 consecutive days by intraperitoneal route. Results Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test. On the 1st day, memantine treated group did not show statistical significant anxiolytic effect in both the behavioural paradigms when compared to control group. On the 8th day, the animals showed significant decrease p<0.001 in step down latency period in shock free zone (185.4±3.87 Vs 278.3±5.49), significant increase p<0.001 in step down errors (6.8±0.78 Vs 1.4±0.19) and significant increase p<0.001 in total time spent in shock zone (32.1±2.22 Vs 5.6±0.6). In open field test, on 8th day the animals treated with memantine when compared to control group, showed significant increase p<0.001 in number of squares crossed (112.7± 2.69 Vs 83.2±2.96), time spent in central square (11.5±1.26 Vs 3.4±0.65), no. of rearings (32.4±2.61 Vs 17±1.81) and significant decrease p<0.001 in freezing time (15.2±1.12 Vs 20.2±2.29). Memantine showed synergistic antianxiety effect when combined with lorazepam. Conclusion Memantine showed significant anxiolytic effect in open field and passive avoidance response tests which are

  11. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

  12. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Konger, Raymond L; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Hojati, Delaram; Lutz, Cathleen; Sundberg, John P

    2016-09-01

    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hr(hr) mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J]. Histologically, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J skin is indistinguishable from that of SKH1 mice. The skin of both SKH1 and B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice exhibited a reduction in hypodermal adipose tissue, the presence of utricles and dermal cystic structures, the presence of dermal granulomas and epidermal thickening. In response to a single 1500 J/m(2) ultraviolet B dose, the oedema and apoptotic responses were equivalent in both mouse strains. However, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice exhibited a more robust delayed sunburn reaction, with an increase in epidermal erosion, scab formation and myeloperoxidase activity relative to SKH1 mice. Compared with SKH1 mice, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J also exhibited an aberrant proliferative response to this single UV exposure. Epidermal Ki67 immunopositivity was significantly suppressed in B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice at 24 h post-UV. A smaller non-significant reduction in Ki67 labelling was observed in SKH1 mice. Finally, at 72 h post-UV, SKH1 mice, but not B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice, exhibited a significant increase in Ki67 immunolabelling relative to non-irradiated controls. Thus, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice are suitable for photobiology experiments. PMID:27095432

  13. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE. PMID:24266407

  14. Differential effects of retinal degeneration on sleep and wakefulness responses to short light-dark cycles in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, F-C; Liao, Y-H; Tsai, L-L

    2013-09-17

    This study characterizes the different response patterns of sleep and wakefulness (W) to short light-dark (LD) cycles in albino mice and examines whether retinal degeneration resulting from prolonged bright light treatment and/or rd/rd mutation alters such response patterns. Eight young male Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice with normal eyes, seven young male rd/rd Friend Virus B type (FVB) mice, six young ICR and five young rd/rd FVB mice receiving 48-h bright light treatment, and five older rd/rd FVB mice were implanted with skull and muscle electrodes to record sleep and W. All the mice were maintained in 12-h-12-h LD cycles at baseline and received 2 days of short LD cycle treatment, which included 5-min-5-min LD cycles for a total of 24 cycles presented 4h after lights-on and again 4h after lights-off. All the five mouse groups maintained photo-entrainment of sleep and W rhythms at the baseline and showed a preference for paradoxical sleep (PS) occurrence in the 5-min dark period and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in the 5-min light period and a brief alerting effect of light onset on experimental days. Retinal degeneration rising from bright light treatment and/or genetic mutation failed to eliminate or reduce the response of PS and NREMS to short LD cycles, although it enhanced the LD contrast of W, i.e., bright light treatment prolonged the alerting effect of light and the rd mutation increased the suppressing effect of the dark on W. These results suggest that sleep responses to short LD cycles and the brief alerting effect of light were independent of the photoreceptors in the outer retina. Furthermore, the residual photoreceptors in the outer retina and/or the photosensitive cells in the inner retina may actively modulate the effect of light and dark signals on W. PMID:23811394

  15. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Artesunate-Induced Subchronic Toxicity in Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.

    2015-01-01

    India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice. PMID:26673878

  16. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia. PMID:20016249

  17. Functional and morphological effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension in retinas of adult albino Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; de la Villa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) on the survival and retrograde axonal transport of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), as well as on the function of retinal layers. Methods Adult albino Swiss mice (35–45 g) received laser photocoagulation of limbal and episcleral veins in the left eye. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 17, 35, and 63 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes was measured with a Tono-Lab before LP and at various days after LP. Flash electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic threshold response (STR) and a- and b-wave amplitudes were recorded before LP and at various times after LP. RGCs were labeled with 10% hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt) applied to both superior colliculi before sacrifice and in some mice, with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR) applied to the ocular stump of the intraorbitally transected optic nerve. Retinas were immunostained for RT97 or Brn3a. Retinas were prepared as whole-mounts and photographed under a fluorescence microscope. Labeled RGCs were counted using image analysis software, and an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. Results IOP increased to twice its basal values by 24 h and was maintained until day 5, after which IOP gradually declined to reach basal values by 1 wk. Similar IOP increases were observed in all groups. The mean total number of OHSt+ RGCs was 13,428±6,295 (n=12), 10,456±14,301 (n=13), 12,622±14,174 (n=21), and 10,451±13,949 (n=13) for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively; these values represented 28%, 23%, 26%, and 22% of the values found in their contralateral fellow retinas. The mean total population of Brn3a+ RGCs was 24,343±5,739 (n=12) and 10,219±8,887 (n=9), respectively, for groups I and III; these values represented 49% and 20%, respectively, of the values found in their fellow eyes. OHT retinas showed an absence of OHSt+ and DTMR+ RGCs in both focal wedge-shaped and diffuse regions of the retina. By 1

  18. Histopathological evaluation of gastro protective effect of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds against aspirin induced ulcer in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Wafa; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Khaliq, Tanweer; Muhammad, Faqir; Ali, Asghar; Raza, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole. PMID:26639472

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  20. A comparison of the phototumorigenic potential of 8-MOP and 5-MOP in hairless albino mice exposed to solar simulated radiation.

    PubMed

    Young, A R; Magnus, I A; Davies, A C; Smith, N P

    1983-05-01

    Hairless albino mice have been treated with topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen at two concentrations and exposed to solar simulated radiation. Both these compounds significantly increased the incidence of cutaneous tumours when compared with controls irradiated after treatment with vehicle. This effect was related to psoralen concentration and at the two concentrations investigated there was no significant difference between the compounds. PMID:6849820

  1. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  2. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

  3. Antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of hesperetin against benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Barua, Chandana C; Karnam, Kalyani Chowdary; Dahiya, Vicky; Ellutla, Maheswara

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer mortality and is a growing economic burden worldwide. Chemoprevention, employing the use of natural, dietary or synthetic agents has become an appealing strategy to combat the increasing cases of cancers worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism-based chemopreventive nature of hesperetin (HSP) against B[a]P induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. We analyzed the chemopreventive potential of HSP by estimating the status of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST), nonenzymic antioxidants (GSH, Vit C and Vit E), proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), western blotting (CYP1A1, PCNA, Nrf2 and NF-κB expression) and histopathology of lung tissues of control and experimental mice. Administration of B[a]P (50 mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in an increase in lung weight, LPO with concomitant decrease in body weight, enzymic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST) and non-enzymic (GSH, Vit C and Vit E) antioxidants. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B[a]P-induced mice. Further, elevated levels of TNF-α along with activated expression of NF-κB, PCNA and CYP1A1, and downregulation of Nrf2 was observed in B[a]P intoxicated animals. Pre- and post-treatment with HSP effectively suppressed B[a]P induced lung carcinoma and the associated preneoplastic lesions by alleviating LPO, modulating antioxidants and decreasing the expression of NF-κB, PCNA and CYP1A1. These findings demonstrate that HSP possesses a potential chemopreventive activity against B[a]P induced lung cancer and this is attributed to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties. PMID:26546711

  4. Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Zari, Talal A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the crude tea leaves extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The average body weight of animals with diabetes and their percentage changes of body weight gain after 15 and 30 days were significantly lower than that of the normal control mice. In diabetic mice, supplementation with tea leaves extract decreased the loss of body weight. After 15 and 30 days, significant increases in the levels of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) were noted in STZ-diabetic mice fed with normal diet. Also, the values of total protein in this group were statistically declined after 15 and 30 days. The levels of serum glucose and GPT were significantly elevated after 15 and 30 days in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Moreover, the level of serum GOT was notably increased after 30 days. Insignificant alterations were observed in the levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Thus, the present results have shown that tea leaves extract has the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antihyperproteinemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and kidney damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes in mice. PMID:23961092

  5. Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Chavan, Sulakshan S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Thakar, A. B.; Chandola, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety. PMID:22529654

  6. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-01-01

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities. PMID:27188870

  7. Antioxidative effect of Rajgira leaf extract in liver of Swiss albino mice after exposure to different doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2005-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rajgira leaf extract (800 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in the liver of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals between day 1 and 30 after its oral administration for 15 consecutive days prior to whole body gamma irradiation with 6, 8 and 10 Gy of gamma rays. In this study, abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes were counted in both the control and experimental sets because these hepatocytes are good indicators of radiation-induced damage. In the experimental (RLE + irradiation) sets, the percentage of abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes was lower compared with their respective control (irradiation alone) sets at each autopsy interval with all three radiation doses studied. The increase in the percentage of these hepatocytes was also found to be dose-dependent in the control as well as in the RLE treated (experimental) sets. Thus, Rajgira leaf extract (RLE) treatment given before irradiation protects mouse liver against radiation-induced lesions by increasing the GSH content and decreasing the LPO level. PMID:16177977

  8. The effect of mycotoxins found in some herbal plants on biochemical parameters in blood of female albino mice.

    PubMed

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2009-04-15

    In this study, twenty five samples ofwell-known herbs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were collected and analyzed for Total Fungi Count (TFC). Mycotoxins were extracted and screened using SMKY liquid medium. One hundred and thirty adult female albino mice were grouped into three wherein one group (n = 110) was fed with an aqueous extract from herbal plants. The second group (n = 15) was fed with an aqueous extract of the isolated fungal species. The third group comprised the control group which was given water only (n = 5). All mice were fed with mice breeding diet by Pillsbury, UK. After 5 weeks, mice were fasted and blood was withdrawn for biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), serum creatinine and urea. Calligonum comosum with 2 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) fungus spore, grained mixed herbs (24 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) and Salvia officinalis (23 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) were the most contaminated samples. The genus Aspergillus was the most dominant genus recovered (142 isolates) followed by Penicillium (14 isolates) and these two genera were found in 85.0 and 11.0% of the samples analyzed. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus were the most dominant and frequently isolated (47.3, 46.5 and 18.1%, respectively), followed by Aspergillus citrinum (11.0%). Aspergillus ochraceus had 21.7 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 7.25 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A, whereas Aspergillus flavus had 7.45 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and Aspergillus fumigatus had 3.5 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 3.8 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A. Mean creatinine, urea, ALT, AST and GGT were higher in mice fed or treated with herbal and fungal extracts group than the control group. This study confirms previous studies demonstrating the predominance of Aspergillus species in herbal and medicinal plants and its capability in the production of aflatoxin with induction of nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in

  9. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  10. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  11. Squaraine PDT induces oxidative stress in skin tumor of swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, T. R.; Gayathri, Devi D.; Ramaiah, D.; Abraham, Annie

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using a sensitizing drug is recognized as a promising medical technique for cancer treatment. It is a two step process that requires the administration of a photosensitizer followed by light exposure to treat a disease. Following light exposure the photosensitizer is excited to a higher energy state which generates free radicals and singlet oxygen. The present study was carried out to assess the oxidative damage induced by bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6- trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine in skin tumor tissues of mice with/ without light treatment. Skin tumor was induced using 7, 12-Dimethyl Benz(a)anthracene and croton oil. The tumor bearing mice were given an intraperitoneal injection with the squaraine dye. After 24h, the tumor area of a few animals injected with the dye, were exposed to visible light from a 1000 W halogen lamp and others kept away from light. All the mice were sacrificed one week after the PDT treatment and the oxidative profile was analyzed (TBARS, SOD, catalase, GSH, GPx and GR) in tumor/ skin tissues. The dye induces oxidative stress in the tumor site only on illumination and the oxidative status of the tumor tissue was found to be unaltered in the absence of light. The results of the study clearly shows that the tumor destruction mediated by PDT using bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6-trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine as a photosensitizer is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, produced by the light induced changes in the dye.

  12. Honey bee is a potential antioxidant against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoheir, Khairy Mohamed Abdallah; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Abo-Salem, Osama Mohamed; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2015-05-01

    The protective effects of honey bee (HB) and pollen grains against cyclophosphamide (CPM) -induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in mice were investigated. This was achieved through study the effects of CPM and HB on oxidative status, chromosomal aberrations and gene expression of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL1β), interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in mice. In addition, the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde were determined. The results of this study revealed that CPM decrease in GSH level and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver and kidney tissues. Moreover, CPM induced sperm abnormality, chromosomal aberrations and down regulated the expression of the studied cytokine genes. HB treatment in association with CPM ameliorates GSH, MDA, chromosomal aberrations and regulated the expression of IL-1-β, IL-17A, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Thus, HB inhibits the cytotoxic and genotoxic risks associated with CPM treatment in mice. PMID:26004732

  13. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Adkar, Prafulla P; Jadhav, Pranita P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Bhaskar, V H; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders. PMID:27379263

  14. Evaluation of antitussive potential of Jussiaea suffruticosa linn. extract in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, T; Ghosh, L; Mukherjee, P K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2000-11-01

    The antitussive activity of a methanol extract of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. (MEJS) (family Onagraceae) leaves has been evaluated for its potential on a cough induced by sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) gas model in mice. The extract (MEJS) showed significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner. The antitussive potential of MEJS was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg), a standard drug. The extract (MEJS) at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed appreciable inhibition on the cough reflex by 48.52% and 59.8% respectively during 120 min of the experiment. PMID:11054846

  15. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue–gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead-exposed mice were significantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days), the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight) and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate-exposed group and treatment with garlic improved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate. PMID:21483544

  16. Toxicity and inflammatory response in Swiss albino mice after intraperitoneal and oral administration of polyurethane nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adny H; Locatelli, Claudriana; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola B; Martin, Philip; Liptrott, Neill J; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina G; Benetti, Luana C; Nazari, Evelize M; Albuquerque, Cláudia A C; Pasa, André A; Owen, Andrew; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2016-03-30

    In this work in vivo experiments were conducted in order to characterize the biocompatibility of polyurethane nanoparticles (PU-NPs) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral administration. Additionally, ex vivo assays were performed to assess human blood compatibility as well as in vitro assays to assess protein binding. Our results indicated that administration of three different concentrations of PU-NPs induced a significant increase in visceral fat accumulation after oral dosing. In addition, fat tissue of mice intraperitoneally treated with the highest concentration of nanoparticles showed diffuse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate in the fat tissue. Histopathological assessment showed inflammatory infiltrate and hepatocyte vacuolization in the liver, inflammatory infiltration and vascular congestion in the lung and glomerular necrosis in the kidney. Hepatic enzymes related with liver function were significantly increased in both groups of mice treated with PU-NPs. The PU-NPs did not affect the human blood cells number as well as coagulation time but showed a susceptibility to bind in proteins commonly found in the blood stream. In addition, increased amounts of pro inflammatory cytokines in vivo, as well as ex vivo in human cells were observed. Further studies to establish the consequences of long-term exposure to PU-NPs are warranted. PMID:26820842

  17. Acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Swami, D; Kumar, P; Meena, M K; Maurya, C K; Gupta, P K; Ganesan, K; Jain, A K; Bhattacharya, R

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide) is a synthetic, potent narcotic analgesic agent. However, it is known to have several side effects, which led to synthesis and evaluation of its new analogs for the management of pain. We have earlier reported the comparative bioassay of fentanyl and its eight 1-substituted analogs (1-8) in mice. Three compounds, viz., N-(1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide (2), N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), and N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6) were found to be more effective and less toxic compared to fentanyl. The present study reports the comparative acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its three analogs, viz., 2, 5, and 6 in mice. Animals were exposed to different concentrations of smoke generated by heating the compounds. Exposure was performed in a head only all glass static exposure assembly for 15 min to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50). The breathing pattern and various respiratory parameters of the animals were also monitored online using a polygraph. Out of three compounds tested, analog 5 was found to be most toxic (LC50 = 2820 mg/m3) while 2 was least toxic (LC50 = >8000 mg/m3). All the compounds caused long lasting respiratory depression in a dose-dependent manner, which did not completely resolve even after discontinuation of exposure. Aerodynamic median diameter and geometric standard deviation of smoke particles was determined employing eight-stage Andersen sampler. The particles were found to be within the respirable range. The study, however, concludes that due to possible decomposition of the compounds by heating or its poor absorption by the alveolar surface, the present inhalation technique cannot be employed to generate smoke of fentanyl and its analogs for any medical or surreptitious use. PMID:25208041

  18. Analysis of bacopaside I in biomatrices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Swiss-albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhateria, Manisha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Puttrevu, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Rajbir; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2016-06-01

    Bacopaside I (BP-I) is the major pseudojujubogenin glycoside of Bacopa monniera (BM) extract which has been widely used as a nerve tonic to improve the memory and intellect of human beings from ancient times. A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of BP-I in mouse plasma and brain homogenate has been developed and validated. All biosamples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographed on C18- reversed phase column using mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate (10mM, pH 4) - acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization mode and the precursor/product ion transitions of BP-I and internal standard (IS) hydrochlorothiazide were quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using QTRAP-5500 MS/MS. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 0.5-2000ng/mL (r(2)>0.990), with lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.5ng/mL in both plasma and brain matrix. Within- and between-run precision and accuracy were well within the acceptable limits of variation. Consistent and reproducible recovery (>70%) was obtained with insignificant matrix effect for BP-I and IS. The method fulfilled US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines for bioanalytical method validation in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, dilution integrity, carry-over effect and stability. Further, the method was successfully applied to execute the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of BP-I in Swiss-albino mice following intravenous administration at a dose of 5mg/kg. PMID:27017568

  19. Biochemical and histopathological responses of the Swiss albino mice treated with uranyl nitrate and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha Vijayan, P; Rekha, P D; Dinesh, U; Arun, A B

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal ubiquitous in the natural environment. In its chemical form, it is known to induce nephrotoxicity both in human and in animals. Its toxicity is dose and time dependent, also varies with form of uranium. In the present study, we assessed the nephrotoxicity induced by a single dose of uranyl nitrate (UN) in mice at different time intervals and recovery from its toxicity. Two doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight of uranyl nitrate was injected intraperitoneally and animals were sacrificed after 1, 3, 5, 14, and 28 d of administration. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of post-UN dosing in comparison to control were evaluated. Tubular damage to about 75% was observed after 3 d (4 mg/kg) and the biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased. Progression of tubular damage was not found after 5 d. Dose-dependent recovery of uranyl nitrate-treated animals was observed after 14 and 28 d of dosing. The concentration of uranium retained in kidney correlates with biochemical and histopathological analysis. PMID:26984368

  20. Chemopreventive effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Al-Hazimi, Awdah; Al-Mogbel, Mohammed; Hossain, Ashfaque; Bagchi, Debasis

    2012-06-01

    The chemopreventive potential of cardamom was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mouse skin papillomagenesis. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor yield and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated orally with 0.5 mg of cardamom powder in suspension continuously at pre-, peri-, and post-initiational stages of papillomagenesis compared with the control group. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were also comparatively lower in the cardamom-treated mouse group. Treatment of cardamom suspension by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation level of the liver (P < .01). In addition, the reduced glutathione level was significantly elevated in comparison with the control group (P < .05) following cardamom suspension treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate the potential of cardamom as a chemopreventive agent against two-stage skin cancer. PMID:22404574

  1. Effect of prenatal lead toxicity on surface ultrastructural features, elemental composition and infrared absorption characteristics of the skin of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Arjun, J; Das, M; Bhattacharjee, C R; Dkhar, P S

    2001-01-01

    The epidermis and dermis of albino mice born to females receiving oral sublethal doses of lead during pregnancy developed several abnormalities. These included perforations, tissue damage, cell deformity, and disordered organization of collagen bundles, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. An increase in the concentrations of zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium and a decrease in that of copper was evident from atomic absorption spectroscopical analysis, when entire skin tissues were examined. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of split bands in the spectra at 1,200-1,000 cm(-1), suggesting a reduction in the symmetry of the sulphate group (glycosaminoglycans) of skin probably caused by covalent bonding of it with lead. PMID:11545451

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel 1-substituted fentanyl analogs in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Maurya, Chandra Kant; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Ajai Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl [N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide] is a potent opioid analgesic agent, but a has narrow therapeutic index. We reported earlier on the synthesis and bioefficacy of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs (1–4) in mice. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of four additional analogs, viz. N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6), isopropyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (7) and t-butyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (8). The median lethal dose (LD50) determined by intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes suggests these analogs to be comparatively less toxic than fentanyl. On the basis of observational assessment on spontaneous activities of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, all the analogs were found to be similar to fentanyl. Naloxone hydrochloride abolished the neurotoxic effects of these analogs, thereby ascertaining their opioid receptor-mediated effects. All the analogs displayed significant analgesic effects, measured by formalin-induced hind paw licking and tail immersion tests at their respective median effective dose (ED50). They also exhibited 8–12 fold increase in therapeutic index over fentanyl. However, 5 and 6 alone produced lower ED50 (20.5 and 21.0 µg/kg, respectively) and higher potency ratio (1.37 and 1.33, respectively) compared to fentanyl. They could thus be considered for further studies on pain management. PMID:26109885

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-03-11

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15±1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4±3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and offspring

  4. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  5. Delineating the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic potentials of 4-methylimidazole against ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity in bone marrow cell of swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, M; Topaktas, M; Yilmaz, M B; Hajipour, O; Valipour, E

    2016-01-01

    4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI) is mostly used in beverages and coloring food, dark beers and common brands of cola drinks, which may contain more than 100 μg of this compound per 12-ounce serving. This study was aimed to investigate the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects of 4-MEI (100, 130 and 160 mg/kg) against ethyl methanesulfonate (240 mg/kg) using chromosome aberrations (CAs) and Mitotic index (MI) tests in bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino Mice at 12 h and 24 h treatment periods. So, the t-test was used for the statistical analysis.In this research, 4-MEI at all concentrations for 12 h treatment period reduced chromosomal aberrations and at 130 and 160 mg/kg concentrations for 24 h treatment period increased chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg/kg), but th ese reductions and increases were not significant. Also, intraperitoneal injection of 4-MEI at doses of 100, 130 and 160 mg/kg combined with EMS (240 mg/kg) showed that the mitotic index was decreased at 100 and 130 mg/kg for 12h and 130 mg/kg for 24 h treatment periods, when compared to positive sample (EMS), but did not show any statistically difference from the EMS treated group. It can be concluded that 4-MEI might not be antigenotoxic and protective effects in bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino Mice, because 4-MEI could not reduce the chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS. PMID:27215965

  6. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  7. [Effects of a new derivative of 5-alkyl-3N-furanones on the colonization resistance of the intestine in albino mice].

    PubMed

    Tomnikov, A Iu; Shub, G M

    1990-05-01

    By its antagonistic function normal microflora provides the intestine with resistance to colonization with exogenic opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. The drug was effective in inducing a decrease in the intestine colonization resistance which in its turn leads to filling of free ecological niches with exogenic microflora. In this connection the suggestion that specification of a new chemical agent should include along with other criteria its effect on colonization resistance is valid. It was shown with the use of indicator microorganisms that when administered per os in doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg daily for 3 and 6 days, respectively, a new original compound 1929, a derivative of 5-alkyl-3H-furanones, with high antimicrobial activity induced no significant or more pronounced changes in the colonization resistance of the gastrointestinal tract of noninbred albino mice than furagin used as the reference drug. PMID:2200373

  8. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    PubMed

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination. PMID:26891552

  9. Inhibition of Hep G2 hepatic cancer cell growth and CCl₄ induced liver cytotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Mahua extract.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sudipta; Murmu, Nabendu; Adhikari, Jyotirmay; Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Adhikari, Sumanto; Banerjee, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Mahua flower extract may provide protective effects against hepatotoxicity. The effect of Mahua flower extract (ME) was investigated on Hep G2 cell line and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damages in Swiss albino mice. To investigate its cytotoxic effect in liver cancer, Hep G2 cells were treated with different doses of ME, and cell proliferation as well as colony formation assays demonstrated dose-dependent cytotoxicity of ME towards Hep G2 cells in tissue culture. Further gene expression studies showed significant down-regulation of AKT1/2/3, p-AKT, and COX-2 proteins including up-regulation of active caspase-3 in ME treated Hep G2 cells. In in vivo experiments, the mice were pretreated with ME for 15 days. On the 16th day CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally and after 24 h all mice were sacrificed. The antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in liver homogenates. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GST, GSH, SOD, CAT, and GPx. Histological studies showed CCl4-induced centrilobular necrosis and formation of fatty vacuoles in cirrhotic mice liver. Treatment with ME at a dose of 2 mg and 4 mg/kg exhibited the potential to prevent significant liver toxicity. The expression of active caspase-3 protein was down-regulated in ME treated groups compared to CCl4 exposed animals. This study demonstrated ME mediated antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects; therefore it could be used in the future for treating hepatic disorders including liver cancer, especially in combination with chemotherapeutics. PMID:25404377

  10. Electron microscopic ultrastructural study on the toxicological effects of AgNPs on the liver, kidney and spleen tissues of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Shukla, Arun Kumar; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Haris M

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the intraperitoneal administration of 500, 1000, 3000, and 5000mg/kg of AgNPs in albino mice for 28 days to evaluate the potential toxicological effects of AgNPs on blood biochemical parameters and to investigate the light and electron microscopic histopathological alterations on three major targets organs i.e., liver, kidney and spleen. The AgNPs was well tolerated and no mortality was observed even at the highest dose i.e., 5000mg/kg. Mice treated with 500 and 1000mg/kg AgNPs did not show significant behavioral, biochemical and ultrastructural pathological changes. Mice treated with 1000mg/kg AgNPs produces little ultrastructural alteration in liver, kidney and spleen. However, mice treated with 3000 and 5000mg/kg AgNPs revealed significant changes in biochemical parameters. Electron microscopic ultrastructural investigation of liver and kidney shows that the administration of 3000 and 5000mg/kg AgNPs revealed irregularity in the nuclear membrane, nuclear chromatin condensations, degenerated hepatocytes, swollen and pleomorphic mitochondria with distorted cristae, extensive dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, destructed cytoplasm, hypertrophied and fused podocytes and thickened basement membrane in the endothelial cells of the proximal tubules. The spleen sections at 3000 and 5000mg/kg AgNPs revealed megakaryocytes hyperplasia, lobulations, invaginations and folding of nuclei and nuclear membrane. The present research indicates that AgNPs were well tolerated at the lower doses, but significant alterations in liver, kidney and spleen were observed at the higher doses tested. It is, therefore, suggested that further studies are needed for the minimization of the observed side effects, especially at higher doses before AgNPs being applied in pharmaceutical application. PMID:27100208

  11. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  12. Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Meena, Punar Dutt; Kaushik, Pallavi; Shukla, Shalini; Soni, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    We report the chemopreventive activity of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) gum, flower and leaf aqueous extracts, on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into following groups: Group I (Controls) given DMBA and croton oil, with no extract ; Group II (treatment) animals treated with Acacia nilotica gum (Group II-a) (800 mg/kg body weight), flowers (Group II-b) (800 mg/kg body weight), or leaves (Group II-c) (800 mg/kg body weight) during the peri- and post initiation periods of DMBA and croton oil application. A significant reduction in the values of tumor burden, tumor incidence and cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the Acacia nilotica gum, flower and leaf extracts as compared with the control group. The latency period in treatment Group-II (b) and Group-II (c) was significantly increased as compared with the control group. A significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was also observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the aqueous extracts, along with significant decrease in total chromosomal aberrations in the form of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, acentric fragments and exchange. Treatment with Acacia nilotica flower (Group II-B) and leaf (Group II-C) aqueous extracts by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a highly significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the liver, but this was less evident with the gum (Group II-A) . Conversely, reduced glutathione (GSH) content was observed to be significantly elevated as compared with the control group with leaves (Group II-C) and flowers (Group II-B). The chemopreventive and antimutagenic activity of the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica was most significant followed by the flower extract and then by gum. PMID:17250441

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Cross-Tolerance Delays Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Sudden Death in Swiss Albino Mice: Involvement of Cyclooxygenase in Cross-Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Shancy Petsel; Lakshmikanth, Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana; Chaithra, Vyala Hanumanthareddy; Kumari, Titus Ruth Shantha; Chen, Chu-Huang; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Marathe, Gopal Kedihitlu

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling through Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. Some believe that TLR-mediated pathogenicity is due, in part, to the lipid pro-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), but this has been questioned. To test the direct contribution of PAF in endotoxemia in murine models, we injected PAF intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice in the presence and absence of LPS. PAF alone (5 μg/mouse) caused death within 15–20 min, but this could be prevented by pretreating mice with PAF-receptor (PAF-R) antagonists or PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). A low dose of LPS (5 mg/kg body wt) did not impair PAF-induced death, whereas higher doses (10 or 20 mg/kg body wt) delayed death, probably via LPS cross-tolerance. Cross-tolerance occurred only when PAF was injected simultaneously with LPS or within 30 min of LPS injection. Tolerance does not appear to be due to an abundant soluble mediator. Histologic examination of lungs and liver and measurement of circulating TNF-α and IL-10 levels suggested that the inflammatory response is not diminished during cross-tolerance. Interestingly, aspirin, a non-specific cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, partially blocked PAF-induced sudden death, whereas NS-398, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, completely protected mice from the lethal effects of PAF. Both COX inhibitors (at 20 mg/kg body wt) independently amplified the cross-tolerance exerted by higher dose of LPS, suggesting that COX-derived eicosanoids may be involved in these events. Thus, PAF does not seem to have a protective role in endotoxemia, but its effects are delayed by LPS in a COX-sensitive way. These findings are likely to shed light on basic aspects of the endotoxin cross-tolerance occurring in many disease conditions and may offer new opportunities for clinical intervention. PMID:27064683

  14. Attenuation of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in diabetes STZ-induced type 1 by biotin in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldahmash, Badr Abdullah; El-Nagar, Doaa Mohamed; Ibrahim, Khalid Elfakki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems. This study was designed to investigate the effect of biotin to regulate blood glucose level, reduced toxicity and oxidative stress in liver of diabetic mice STZ-induced type 1. Male mice were divided into three groups, the first one served as the control group, the second and the third groups received single ip dose of 150 mg/kg of STZ, the second group served as the untreated diabetic group, the third group received daily oral dose of 15 mg/kg of biotin, livers and liver index showed insignificant difference among groups. Blood glucose level showed a significant decrease in treated diabetic mice compared to untreated diabetic mice. Biochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in liver enzymes AST and ALT compared to the control group. Histopathological examination showed severe changes in untreated diabetic liver tissue manifested by dilated portal vein, leukocytic infiltration, fatty degeneration and moderate to severe histopathological score, whereas, treated diabetic mice with biotin showed reduction in hepatotoxicity represented by appearance of relative healthy hepatocytes and normal histopathological score. Immunohistochemistry of acrolein showed intense immunoreactions in liver section of untreated diabetic mice and faint immunoreactions in treated diabetic mice with biotin as evidence to oxidative stress reduction. PMID:26981014

  15. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  16. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) enhances the carcinogenic potential of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and accelerates the onset of tumor development in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Hasan, Shirin; Ahmad, Ausaf; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Banu, Naheed

    2015-11-01

    Social stressors evolving from individual and population interactions produce stress reactions in many organisms (including humans), influencing homeostasis, altering the activity of the immunological system, and thus leading to various pathological states including cancer and their progression. The present study sought to validate the effectiveness of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in cancer promotion and to assess oxidative stress outcomes in terms of various in vivo biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers, DNA damage, and the development of skin tumors in Swiss albino mice. Animals were randomized into different groups based on their exposure to CUS alone, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) alone (topical), and DMBA-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (topical) and exposure to CUS prior to DMBA or DMBA-TPA treatments and sacrificed after 16 weeks of treatment. Prior exposure to CUS significantly increased the pro-oxidant effect of carcinogen, depicted by compromised levels of antioxidants in the circulation and skin, accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation, plasma corticosterone, and marker enzymes as compared to DMBA-alone or DMBA-TPA treatments. DNA damage results corroborated the above biochemical outcomes. Also, the development of skin tumors (in terms of their incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden) in mice in the presence and absence of stress further strongly supported our above biochemical measurements. CUS may work as a promoter of carcinogenesis by enhancing the pro-oxidant potential of carcinogens. Further studies may be aimed at the development of interventions for disease prevention by identifying the relations between psychological factors and DNA damage. PMID:26272695

  17. The course of experimental staphylococcus infection in albino mice during action of certain factors of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, V. Y.; Shilov, V. M.; Borman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of certain factors of space flight, acceleration and hypokinesia, on the course of experimental staphylococcus infection in mice. Combined action of hypokinesia and acceleration caused a marked depression of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and formation of a considerable amount of alpha toxin.

  18. Effect of benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on the estrous cycle and ovarian activity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murthy, D R; Reddy, C M; Patil, S B

    1997-07-01

    The benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers was administered intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult mice and resulted in an irregular estrous cycle with prolonged estrus and metestrus. An increase in the atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea indicate the antiovulatory effect of the extract. The extract also showed estrogenic activity in immature mice by early opening of the vagina, premature cornification of the vaginal epithelium and an increase in uterine weight. Therefore the antiovulatory effect may be due to an imbalance in the hormonal environment, as there may be an increase in the endogenous secretion of estrogen by atretic follicles, and also to the estrogenicity of the flower extract. PMID:9255415

  19. Influence of environmental enrichment vs. time-of-day on behavioral repertoire of male albino Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Loss, Cássio Morais; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Muccini, Eduarda; Martins, Wagner Carbolin; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Tasca, Carla Inês; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Costa-Schmidt, Luiz Ernesto; de Oliveira, Diogo Losch; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-11-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a non-pharmacological manipulation that promotes diverse forms of benefits in the central nervous system of captive animals. It is thought that EE influences animal behavior in a specie-(strain)-specific manner. Since rodents in general present different behaviors during distinct periods of the day, in this study we aimed to investigate the influence of time-of-day on behavioral repertoire of Swiss mice that reared in EE. Forty male Swiss mice (21days old) were housed in standard (SC) or enriched conditions (EC) for 60days. Behavioral assessments were conducted during the light phase (in presence of light) or dark phase (in absence of light) in the following tasks: open field, object recognition and elevated plus maze. First, we observed that the locomotor and exploratory activities are distinct between SC and EC groups only during the light phase. Second, we observed that "self-protective behaviors" were increased in EC group only when mice were tested during the light phase. However, "less defensive behaviors" were not affected by both housing conditions and time-of-day. Third, we showed that the performance of EE animals in object recognition task was improved in both light and dark conditions. Our findings highlight that EE-induced alterations in exploratory and emotional behaviors are just evident during light conditions. However, EE-induced cognitive benefits are remarkable even during dark conditions, when exploratory and emotional behaviors were similar between groups. PMID:26247375

  20. Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23961152

  1. The in vivo genotoxicity of cisplatin, isoflurane and halothane evaluated by alkaline comet assay in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Brozovic, Gordana; Orsolic, Nada; Knezevic, Fabijan; Horvat Knezevic, Anica; Benkovic, Vesna; Sakic, Katarina; Borojevic, Nikola; Dikic, Domagoj

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of repeated exposure to isoflurane or halothane and compare it with the genotoxicity of repeated exposure to cisplatin. We also determined the genotoxicity of combined treatment with inhalation anaesthetics and cisplatin on peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), brain, liver and kidney cells of mice. The mice were divided into six groups as follows: control, cisplatin, isoflurane, cisplatin-isoflurane, halothane and cisplatin-halothane, and were exposed respectively for three consecutive days. The mice were treated with cisplatin or exposed to inhalation anaesthetic; the combined groups were exposed to inhalation anaesthetic after treatment with cisplatin. The alkaline comet assay was performed. All drugs had a strong genotoxicity (P<0.05 vs. control group) in all of the observed cells. Isoflurane caused stronger DNA damage on the PBL and kidney cells, in contrast to halothane, which had stronger genotoxicity on brain and liver cells. The combination of cisplatin and isoflurane induced lower genotoxicity on PBL than isoflurane alone (P<0.05). Halothane had the strongest effect on brain cells, but in the combined treatment with cisplatin, the effect decreased to the level of cisplatin alone. Halothane also induced the strongest DNA damage of the liver cells, while the combination with cisplatin increased its genotoxicity even more. The genotoxicity of cisplatin and isoflurane on kidney cells were nearly at the same level, but halothane caused a significantly lower effect. The combinations of inhalation anaesthetics with cisplatin had stronger effects on kidney cells than inhalation anaesthetics alone. The observed drugs and their combinations induced strong genotoxicity on all of the mentioned cells. PMID:21509577

  2. Chemopreventive Effect of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) Against Benzo(α)Pyrene-Induced Forestomach Papillomagenesis in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Dhanarasu, Sasikumar; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention has recently gained significant recognition. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), a dietary phytoproduct, is a popular spice that is regularly used as a flavoring agent in various cuisines, and is much valued for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the cancer chemopreventive potential of cardamom was investigated against benzo(α)pyrene [B(α)P]-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. Results showed that treatment with cardamom [(B(α)P + cardamom] reduced tumor incidence and multiplicity significantly (P<0.001) by 41.67% and 74.55%, respectively, compared to that of the B(α)P control group. Biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the hepatic activities of glutathione-S-transferases (P<0.01), superoxide dismutase (P<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (P<0.001), and catalase (P<0.001) in mice treated with cardamom compared with the control. Furthermore, the nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione was significantly (P<0.001) increased in the cardamom-treated group, whereas the lipid peroxidation level along with lactate dehydrogenase activity exhibited a significant (P<0.01) reduction with cardamom treatment compared to the control. These results suggest that cardamom has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent against forestomach cancer. PMID:26081028

  3. The preventive effect of linalool on acute and chronic UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of linalool in acute ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation-induced inflammation and chronic UVB-mediated photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. Acute UVB-irradiation (180 mJ cm(-2)) causes hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion, and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in mouse skin. Topical or intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of linalool prevented acute UVB-induced hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant depletion in mouse skin. Further, linalool treatment prevented UVB-induced overexpression of COX-2 and ODC in mouse skin. In the chronic study, mice were subjected to UVB-exposure thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Chronic UVB-exposure induced tumor incidence and expression of proliferative markers such as NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF, TGF-β1, Bcl-2 and mutated p53 in mouse skin. Treatment with linalool before each UVB-exposure significantly prevented the expression of these proliferative markers and subsequently decreased the tumor incidence in mice skin. Histopathological studies confirmed the development of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the chronic UVB-exposed mouse skin; and this was prevented by both topical and i.p. linalool treatment. Therefore, linalool may be considered as a photochemopreventive agent against UVB radiation induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:27251985

  4. Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Saha, Partha Pratim; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Gomes, Antony

    2014-08-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68-122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1 > NKCT1 > Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1. PMID:25141538

  5. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad; Fareed, Sheeba; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR],13 C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6’→1”)-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50 of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01. PMID:26957871

  6. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  7. Potential O-acyl-substituted (-)-Epicatechin gallate prodrugs as inhibitors of DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandeep; Manon, Benu; Vir Singh, Tej; Dev Sharma, Pritam; Sharma, Manu

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (1) is one of the principal catechins of green tea and exhibits cancer-preventive activities in various animal models. However, this compound is unstable in neutral or alkaline medium and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability. To improve its stability, O-acyl derivatives of 1 were prepared by isolating the partially purified tea catechin fraction from green tea extract and treating it with a variety of acylating agents. The resulting derivatives, compounds 2-6, were screened for their antitumor potential against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis of skin in mice. The results showed that the antitumor activity decreased with the increase in size of the chain length of the acyl groups, i.e., from compound 2, derivative with an Ac group, to compound 6, possessing a valeryl group. Moreover, the C(4) derivative with a branched acyl chain, 5, had a lower activity than the linear C(4) derivative 4. This reduction in the inhibitory activity may be due to the steric hindrance by the two Me groups. Moreover, significant increases in the protein levels analyzed by ELISA of c-Jun, p65, and p53 were observed in the skin of DMBA/TPA treated mice, whereas mice treated with 2 and DMBA/TPA had a similar expression of these transcription factors than the control mice. The prodrug potential of the O-acyl derivatives 2-6 showed that they were adequately stable to be absorbed intact from the intestine, more stable at gastric pH, and suitable for oral administration. PMID:21480506

  8. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns. PMID:26966507

  9. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ahmed A.; Maodaa, Salah N.; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns. PMID:26966507

  10. Method of identification and isolation of organs of endocrine secretion in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kashirina, N.K.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe a procedure based on electron autoradiography for isolating and determining the morphology of the adrenal, pituitary, and thyroid glands in albino mice, and use the procedure to give a description, in this paper, of the configuration, location, and physiological interaction of these glands relative to the other organs in these laboratory animals. The procedure overcomes the difficulties encountered in such determinations owing to factors such as smallness.

  11. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera. PMID:19583991

  12. The central nervous system effects of carbon disulfide in male albino rats utilizing the tritiated 2-deoxyglucose method

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, W.E. III.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology employed was the autoradiographic 2-deoxyglucose method. Due to the coupling between functional activity and energy metabolism, these autoradiographs can be likened to a stain for functional activity under varying physiological and pathological states. Exposure regimes consisted of intraperitoneal injections of: (1) 400 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight five days per week for eight weeks; (2) 600 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight for five consecutive days; (3) 800 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight for only a single injection. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the autoradiograms were employed. Appropriate statistical techniques were then be used to test for significant differences in the optical densities of structures between experimental and control radiographs. The results indicate a significant effect across all levels of analyses for the eight week group and the five day group for the auditory and olfactory central pathways.

  13. A new, albino-beige mouse: giant granules in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Robison, W G; Kuwabara, T

    1978-04-01

    Albino-beige mice were produced in order to combine two experimentally useful characteristics, albinism and lysosomal dysfunction, in the same animal. The retinal pigment epithelium of albino-beige mice formed giant intracellular granules. Exposure of albino-beige mice to white light of 150 foot-candles for 3 to 10 hr induced marked phagocytosis of rod outer segment fragments by the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in intracellular accumulations of undigested disk membranes within the giant granules. Additional, incompletely processed membranes accumulated as the mice aged or were exposed to 150 foot-candle light for longer periods. Such accumulations of ingested membranes were not observed in the pigment epithelium of exposed or aging albino mice heterozygous for the beige gene. Because of its altered processing of ingested outer segment membranes, this new albino mouse should be useful for studying the possible roles of the retinal pigment epithelium in the maintenance of photoreceptor cells and in their recovery from light damage and other insults. PMID:640784

  14. Anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity of Alstonia scholaris on the albino mice bone marrow cells and peripheral human lymphocyte culture against methyl methane sulfonate induced genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Md. Sultan; Ahmad, Sheeba; Ali, Afsar; Afzal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in modern medicine for the prevention and treatment of cancer is an important aspect. For this reason, it is important to identify antitumor promoting agents present in medicinal plants commonly used by the human population. Materials and Methods: We used in vivo and in vitro methods using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and replication index (RI) as markers, exposed by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as well as alcoholic extract of Alstonia scholaris in five increasing concentrations (200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg/kg body weight for in vivo and 150, 200, 250 and 300 μg/ml of culture) and of three different durations of 24, 48 and 72 h in the presence as well absence of S9 mix. Results: Extracts of Alstonia reduces the total aberrant cells ranges from 10.0% to 41.84% and frequencies of aberration in the aberrant cells ranges from 220 to 124 against 290 aberrations causes due to MMS in vivo. Similarly in the in vitro, it reduces CAs (39.62%, 32.83%, and 38.48%) and (45.31%, 44.46%, and 38.34%) at 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure respectively; in the absence as well as presence of liver S9 fraction. It also reduces SCE from 7.70 to 4.20 per cell and enhances RI from 1.45 to 1.64. Conclusion: Extracts of Alstonia significantly reduces the number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberration per cell at each concentration and duration of exposure in vivo; and CAs and SCE in vitro and enhances RI. PMID:27308264

  15. Synthesis, Structure, Electrochemistry, and Spectral Characterization of Bis-Isatin Thiocarbohydrazone Metal Complexes and Their Antitumor Activity Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sathisha, M. P.; Revankar, V. K.; Pai, K. S. R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry, and biological studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of thiocarbohydrazone ligand are described. The ligand is synthesized starting from thiocarbohydrazide and isatin. It is evident from the IR data that in all the complexes, only one part of the ligand is coordinated to the metal ion resulting mononuclear complexes. The ligand coordinates essentially through the carbonyl oxygen of the isatin fragment, the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group, and sulfur atom after deprotonation to give five membered rings. H1 NMR spectrum of the ligand shows only one set of signals for the aromatic protons, while the NH of isatin and NH of hydrazone give rise to two different singlets in the 11–14 ppm range. The formulations, [Cu(L)Cl]·2H2O, [Cu(L)(CH3COO)]·2H2O, [Ni(L)Cl], [Ni(L)(CH3COO)], [Co(L2)], and [Zn(L2)]·2H2O are in accordance with elemental analyses, physical, and spectroscopic measurements. The complexes are soluble in organic solvents. Molar conductance values in DMF indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes. Copper complex displays quasireversible cyclic voltametric responses with Ep near −0.659 v and 0.504 v Vs Ag/AgCl at the scan rate of 0.1 V/s. Copper(II) complexes show a single line EPR signals. For the observed magnetic moment and electronic spectral data possible explanation has been discussed. From all the available data, the probable structures for the complexes have been proposed. The compounds synthesized in present study have shown promising cytotoxic activity when screened using the in vitro method and at the same time were shown to have good activity when tested using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model. The antimicrobial screening showed that the cobalt complex possesses enhanced antimicrobial activity towards fungi. PMID:18320020

  16. Methods to measure olfactory behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-01-01

    Mice rely on the sense of olfaction to detect food sources, recognize social and mating partners, and avoid predators. Many behaviors of mice including learning and memory, social interaction, fear, and anxiety are closely associated with their function of olfaction, and behavior tasks designed to evaluate those brain functions may use odors as cues. Accurate assessment of olfaction is not only essential for the study of olfactory system but also critical for proper interpretation of various mouse behaviors especially learning and memory, emotionality and affect, and sociality. Here we describe a series of behavior experiments that offer multidimensional and quantitative assessments for mouse’s olfactory function, including olfactory habituation, discrimination, odor preference, odor detection sensitivity, and olfactory memory, to both social and nonsocial odors. PMID:25645244

  17. Methods to Record Circadian Rhythm Wheel Running Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siepka, Sandra M.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic approaches (phenotype to gene) are powerful methods to identify mouse circadian clock components. The success of these approaches, however, is highly dependent on the quality of the phenotype— specifically, the ability to measure circadian rhythms in individual mice. This article outlines the factors necessary to measure mouse circadian rhythms, including choice of mouse strain, facilities and equipment design and construction, experimental design, high-throughput methods, and finally methods for data analysis. PMID:15817291

  18. Screening methods to identify TALEN-mediated knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Kimi; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sakuma, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system, is becoming the new standard for targeted genome modification in various organisms. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of knockout mice would be greatly aided by simple and easy methods for genotyping of mutant and wild-type pups among litters. However, there are no detailed or comparative reports concerning the identification of mutant mice generated using genome editing technologies. Here, we genotyped TALEN-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) knockout mice using a combination of approaches, including fluorescence observation, heteroduplex mobility assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. The detection sensitivities for TALEN-induced mutations differed among these methods, and we therefore concluded that combinatorial testing is necessary for the screening and determination of mutant genotypes. Since the analytical methods tested can be carried out without specialized equipment, costly reagents and/or sophisticated protocols, our report should be of interest to a broad range of researchers who are considering the application of genome editing technologies in various organisms. PMID:24521866

  19. Screening Methods to Identify TALEN-Mediated Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Kimi; Takeda, Naoki; Ohmuraya, Masaki; Sakuma, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided nucleases, such as the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system, is becoming the new standard for targeted genome modification in various organisms. Application of these techniques to the manufacture of knockout mice would be greatly aided by simple and easy methods for genotyping of mutant and wild-type pups among litters. However, there are no detailed or comparative reports concerning the identification of mutant mice generated using genome editing technologies. Here, we genotyped TALEN-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) knockout mice using a combination of approaches, including fluorescence observation, heteroduplex mobility assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. The detection sensitivities for TALEN-induced mutations differed among these methods, and we therefore concluded that combinatorial testing is necessary for the screening and determination of mutant genotypes. Since the analytical methods tested can be carried out without specialized equipment, costly reagents and/or sophisticated protocols, our report should be of interest to a broad range of researchers who are considering the application of genome editing technologies in various organisms. PMID:24521866

  20. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, Ankush; Walunj, Manisha; Aghera, Hetal; Nariya, Mukesh; Goyal, Mandip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triphalādi kvātha is well known herbal Ayurvedic formulation used in Prameha (~type 2 diabetes mellitus). In the present study, kvātha was converted into granules and assessed for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Triphalādi granules (650 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered in normal albino mice for assessment of hypoglycemic activity. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules was assessed in glucose (5 g/kg, p.o.) solution overloaded mice. The blood sugar level (BSL) was measured with the help of one touch easy glucometer. Results: Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease in blood glucose level after one hour in comparison to initial values while decreasing BSL by 27.92% in comparison to control group in normal albino mice. In hyperglycemic study, Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease the BSL after 2 hr. of administration compared to control group. Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level. PMID:27621517

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Methods for Diversity Outbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Daniel M.; Svenson, Karen L.; Shabalin, Andrey; Wu, Long-Yang; Valdar, William; Simecek, Petr; Goodwin, Neal; Cheng, Riyan; Pomp, Daniel; Palmer, Abraham; Chesler, Elissa J.; Broman, Karl W.; Churchill, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies in the mouse and other model organisms are used to search for genes underlying complex phenotypes. Traditional genetic mapping studies that employ single-generation crosses have poor mapping resolution and limit discovery to loci that are polymorphic between the two parental strains. Multiparent outbreeding populations address these shortcomings by increasing the density of recombination events and introducing allelic variants from multiple founder strains. However, multiparent crosses present new analytical challenges and require specialized software to take full advantage of these benefits. Each animal in an outbreeding population is genetically unique and must be genotyped using a high-density marker set; regression models for mapping must accommodate multiple founder alleles, and complex breeding designs give rise to polygenic covariance among related animals that must be accounted for in mapping analysis. The Diversity Outbred (DO) mice combine the genetic diversity of eight founder strains in a multigenerational breeding design that has been maintained for >16 generations. The large population size and randomized mating ensure the long-term genetic stability of this population. We present a complete analytical pipeline for genetic mapping in DO mice, including algorithms for probabilistic reconstruction of founder haplotypes from genotyping array intensity data, and mapping methods that accommodate multiple founder haplotypes and account for relatedness among animals. Power analysis suggests that studies with as few as 200 DO mice can detect loci with large effects, but loci that account for <5% of trait variance may require a sample size of up to 1000 animals. The methods described here are implemented in the freely available R package DOQTL. PMID:25237114

  2. Quantitative trait locus mapping methods for diversity outbred mice.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Daniel M; Svenson, Karen L; Shabalin, Andrey; Wu, Long-Yang; Valdar, William; Simecek, Petr; Goodwin, Neal; Cheng, Riyan; Pomp, Daniel; Palmer, Abraham; Chesler, Elissa J; Broman, Karl W; Churchill, Gary A

    2014-09-01

    Genetic mapping studies in the mouse and other model organisms are used to search for genes underlying complex phenotypes. Traditional genetic mapping studies that employ single-generation crosses have poor mapping resolution and limit discovery to loci that are polymorphic between the two parental strains. Multiparent outbreeding populations address these shortcomings by increasing the density of recombination events and introducing allelic variants from multiple founder strains. However, multiparent crosses present new analytical challenges and require specialized software to take full advantage of these benefits. Each animal in an outbreeding population is genetically unique and must be genotyped using a high-density marker set; regression models for mapping must accommodate multiple founder alleles, and complex breeding designs give rise to polygenic covariance among related animals that must be accounted for in mapping analysis. The Diversity Outbred (DO) mice combine the genetic diversity of eight founder strains in a multigenerational breeding design that has been maintained for >16 generations. The large population size and randomized mating ensure the long-term genetic stability of this population. We present a complete analytical pipeline for genetic mapping in DO mice, including algorithms for probabilistic reconstruction of founder haplotypes from genotyping array intensity data, and mapping methods that accommodate multiple founder haplotypes and account for relatedness among animals. Power analysis suggests that studies with as few as 200 DO mice can detect loci with large effects, but loci that account for <5% of trait variance may require a sample size of up to 1000 animals. The methods described here are implemented in the freely available R package DOQTL. PMID:25237114

  3. FASTER: an unsupervised fully automated sleep staging method for mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Genshiro A; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the stages of sleep, or sleep staging, is an unavoidable step in sleep research and typically requires visual inspection of electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) data. Currently, scoring is slow, biased and prone to error by humans and thus is the most important bottleneck for large-scale sleep research in animals. We have developed an unsupervised, fully automated sleep staging method for mice that allows less subjective and high-throughput evaluation of sleep. Fully Automated Sleep sTaging method via EEG/EMG Recordings (FASTER) is based on nonparametric density estimation clustering of comprehensive EEG/EMG power spectra. FASTER can accurately identify sleep patterns in mice that have been perturbed by drugs or by genetic modification of a clock gene. The overall accuracy is over 90% in every group. 24-h data are staged by a laptop computer in 10 min, which is faster than an experienced human rater. Dramatically improving the sleep staging process in both quality and throughput FASTER will open the door to quantitative and comprehensive animal sleep research. PMID:23621645

  4. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  5. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Thomas; Taube, Christian; Braun, Armin; Mitzner, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn); measurement of low-frequency forced oscillations (LFOT)) and noninvasive technologies in conscious animals (head-out body plethysmography; barometric whole-body plethysmography). Outlined are the technical principles, validation and applications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology. Reviewed is the current set of invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring murine pulmonary function, with particular emphasis on practical considerations that should be considered when applying them for phenotyping in the laboratory mouse. PMID:17868442

  6. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  7. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  8. Dual Infections with Pigmented and Albino Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Piyali; Banerjee, Uma; Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus of worldwide distribution. Melanin production is an important virulence factor of C. neoformans. We report the identification of distinct cryptococcal isolates with either pigmented or white colony phenotypes on l-dihydroxyphenylalanine agar plates in three patients who presented with meningitis to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in India. Two of the patients were also infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Biochemical studies, India ink analysis, immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to capsular antigen, and serotyping confirmed that the melanotic and albino strains were C. neoformans serotypes A and D, respectively. Genotyping with M13 and [GACA]4 primers revealed that all the C. neoformans isolates were genetically different. The CNLAC1 gene associated with melanin production was identified in all the strains by PCR. Standard MIC testing revealed that the strains had similar susceptibilities to amphotericin B, but time-kill assays with the antifungal showed reduced susceptibility in melanin-producing strains. Infection studies with A/Jcr mice showed that the melanin-lacking yeast were less virulent than melanin-producing isolates. These findings indicate that these patients had dual infections with pigmented and albino strains of C. neoformans that were phenotypically and biologically different. Continued surveillance of primary isolates from patients with cryptococcosis by analyzing phenotypic differences and by molecular methods may reveal that mixed infections occur more commonly than is currently realized. PMID:16145139

  9. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  10. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  11. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  12. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  13. Methods to Study Metastasis in Genetically Modified Mice.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farhia; Beverly, Levi J; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Podsypanina, Katrina

    2016-02-01

    Metastasis is often modeled by xenotransplantation of cell lines in immunodeficient mice. A wealth of information about tumor cell behavior in the new environment is obtained from these efforts. Yet by design, this approach is "tumor-centric," as it focuses on cell-autonomous determinants of human tumor dissemination in mouse tissues, in effect using the animal body as a sophisticated "Petri dish" providing nutrients and support for tumor growth. Transgenic or gene knockout mouse models of cancer allow the study of tumor spread as a systemic disease and offer a complimentary approach for studying the natural history of cancer. This introduction is aimed at describing the overall methodological approach to studying metastasis in genetically modified mice, with a particular focus on using animals with regulated expression of potent human oncogenes in the breast. PMID:26832689

  14. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  15. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medaka Oryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  16. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  17. Anti hyperalgesic potentials of Laggera aurita in Swiss Albino mice.

    PubMed

    Olurishe, Temidayo Olutoyin; Mati, Fatima Guiet

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Laggera aurita (LA), including its anti-nociceptive properties have been documented in literature. This study evaluated the anti-hyperalgesic effects of the methanolic extract of LA (MELA) using chemically and mechanically induced hyperalgesia models. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were also conducted. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose was found to be 3807.88 mg/kg, while saponins, tannins and carbohydrates were found to be present in the plant material. MELA exhibited significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing and Randall-Siletto tests. The 400 mg/kg dose of MELA exhibited a significant (p<0.001) analgesic activity which offered 19.75% inhibition above piroxicam in the acetic acid test. At 200 and 400 mg/kg MELA demonstrated comparative analgesia with pentazocine in the Randall-Siletto test. The study shows that MELA possesses anti-nociceptive principles and the presence of saponins, tannins and carbohydrates which have been previously associated with anti-hyperalgesia may be responsible for the pharmacological actions, thus authenticating the ethnomedical rationale for its anti-nociceptive uses. PMID:24374444

  18. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  19. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  20. A novel quantitative method for diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy assessment in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chon, Ki H; Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Siu, Kin L; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  1. A Novel Quantitative Method for Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Assessment in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bufan; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F.; Siu, Kin L.; Rolle, Marsha; Brink, Peter; Birzgalis, Aija; Moore, Leon C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we used a sensitive and noninvasive computational method to assess diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) from pulse oximeter (photoplethysmographic; PPG) recordings from mice. The method, which could be easily applied to humans, is based on principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Unlike the power spectral density, PDM has been shown to be able to separately identify the activities of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems without pharmacological intervention. HRV parameters were measured by processing PPG signals from conscious 1.5- to 5-month-old C57/BL6 control mice and in Akita mice, a model of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, and compared with the gold-standard Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The PDM results indicate significant cardiac autonomic impairment in the diabetic mice in comparison to the controls. When tail-cuff PPG recordings were collected and analyzed starting from 1.5 months of age in both C57/Bl6 controls and Akita mice, onset of DCAN was seen at 3 months in the Akita mice, which persisted up to the termination of the recording at 5 months. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses also showed a reduction in nerve density in Akita mice at 3 and 4 months as compared to the control mice, thus, corroborating our PDM data analysis of HRV records. Western blot analysis of autonomic nerve proteins corroborated the PPG-based HRV analysis via the PDM approach. In contrast, traditional HRV analysis (based on either the power spectral density or time-domain measures) failed to detect the nerve rarefaction. PMID:25097056

  2. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  3. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  4. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D.; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training—a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  5. An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Novak, Janja; Bailoo, Jeremy D; Melotti, Luca; Rommen, Jonas; Würbel, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural tests to assess affective states are widely used in human research and have recently been extended to animals. These tests assume that affective state influences cognitive processing, and that animals in a negative affective state interpret ambiguous information as expecting a negative outcome (displaying a negative cognitive bias). Most of these tests however, require long discrimination training. The aim of the study was to validate an exploration based cognitive bias test, using two different handling methods, as previous studies have shown that standard tail handling of mice increases physiological and behavioural measures of anxiety compared to cupped handling. Therefore, we hypothesised that tail handled mice would display a negative cognitive bias. We handled 28 female CD-1 mice for 16 weeks using either tail handling or cupped handling. The mice were then trained in an eight arm radial maze, where two adjacent arms predicted a positive outcome (darkness and food), while the two opposite arms predicted a negative outcome (no food, white noise and light). After six days of training, the mice were also given access to the four previously unavailable intermediate ambiguous arms of the radial maze and tested for cognitive bias. We were unable to validate this test, as mice from both handling groups displayed a similar pattern of exploration. Furthermore, we examined whether maze exploration is affected by the expression of stereotypic behaviour in the home cage. Mice with higher levels of stereotypic behaviour spent more time in positive arms and avoided ambiguous arms, displaying a negative cognitive bias. While this test needs further validation, our results indicate that it may allow the assessment of affective state in mice with minimal training-a major confound in current cognitive bias paradigms. PMID:26154309

  6. A Simple and Reliable Method for Early Pregnancy Detection in Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyne, Galen W; Plisch, Erin H; Melberg, Cal G; Sandgren, Eric P; Peter, Jody A; Lipinski, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The study of normal and abnormal development typically requires precise embryonic staging. In mice, this task is accomplished through timed matings and the detection of a copulation plug. However, the presence of a plug is not a definitive indicator of true pregnancy, particularly in inbred mice, in which false-pregnancy rates have been reported to be 50% or higher, depending on the strain. This high rate poses considerable financial and animal use burdens because manipulation of the putative dam is often required before pregnancy can be confirmed by palpation or visual inspection. To address this problem, we examined weight gain in a population of 275 wildtype C57BL/6J mice (age, 12 wk or older) between the time of plug detection and during early embryogenesis (gestational days 7 to 10). In this population, assessing pregnancy according to the presence of a plug alone yielded a 37.1% false-positive rate. Pregnant mice gained an average of 3.49 g, whereas nonpregnant mice gained only 1.15 g. Beginning at gestational day 7.75, implementing an optimal weight-gain discrimination threshold of 1.75 g reduced the false-positive rate to 10.5%, without excluding any pregnant mice. These results were consistent with those from younger (age, 8 wk) wildtype C57BL/6J and FVB/NTac female mice, suggesting broad applicability of this method across age and strain. Our findings provide a simple and effective method for reducing animal use and study costs. PMID:26224435

  7. A Simple and Reliable Method for Early Pregnancy Detection in Inbred Mice.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Galen W; Plisch, Erin H; Melberg, Cal G; Sandgren, Eric P; Peter, Jody A; Lipinski, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    The study of normal and abnormal development typically requires precise embryonic staging. In mice, this task is accomplished through timed matings and the detection of a copulation plug. However, the presence of a plug is not a definitive indicator of true pregnancy, particularly in inbred mice, in which false-pregnancy rates have been reported to be 50% or higher, depending on the strain. This high rate poses considerable financial and animal use burdens because manipulation of the putative dam is often required before pregnancy can be confirmed by palpation or visual inspection. To address this problem, we examined weight gain in a population of 275 wildtype C57BL/6J mice (age, 12 wk or older) between the time of plug detection and during early embryogenesis (gestational days 7 to 10). In this population, assessing pregnancy according to the presence of a plug alone yielded a 37.1% false-positive rate. Pregnant mice gained an average of 3.49 g, whereas non-pregnant mice gained only 1.15 g. Beginning at gestational day 7.75, implementing an optimal weight-gain discrimination threshold of 1.75 g reduced the false-positive rate to 10.5%, without excluding any pregnant mice. These results were consistent with those from younger (age, 8 wk) wildtype C57BL/6J and FVB/NTac female mice, suggesting broad applicability of this method across age and strain. Our findings provide a simple and effective method for reducing animal use and study costs. PMID:26224435

  8. The effect of handling method on the mouse grimace scale in two strains of laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Pain assessment in laboratory animals is an ethical and legal requirement. The mouse grimace scale (MGS) is a new method of pain assessment deemed to be both accurate and reliable, and observers can be rapidly trained to use it. In order for a new pain assessment technique to be effective, we must ensure that the score awarded by the technique is only influenced by pain and not by other husbandry or non-painful but integral aspects of research protocols. Here, we studied 16 male mice, housed under standard laboratory conditions. Eight mice were randomly assigned to tail handling and eight to tube handling on arrival at the unit. On each occasion the mice were removed from their cage for routine husbandry, they were picked up using their assigned handling method. Photographs of the mouse faces were then scored by treatment-blind observers as per the MGS manual (see Nature Methods 2010, Vol. 7, pp 447–449), and scores from the two groups were compared. There was no significant difference in MGS scores between the mice that had been handled using a tube compared with the tail. Consequently, these methods of handling did not influence the baseline grimace score given, suggesting that these handling techniques are not confounding factors when establishing baseline MGS scores, further validating this technique. PMID:26657061

  9. Of Mice and Meth: A New Media-Based Neuropsychopharmacology Lab to Teach Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Daniel L.; Zschau, Tony; Hays, Arthur; McAllister, Kristin; Harrison, Michelle; Cate, Kelly L.; Shanks, Ryan A.; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an innovative neuropsychopharmacology laboratory that can be incorporated into any research methods class. The lab consists of a set of interconnected modules centered on observations of methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes in mice and is designed to provide students with an opportunity to acquire basic skills…

  10. A simplified method to detect epididymal sperm aneuploidy (ESA) in mice using three-chromosome fish

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; O`Hogan, S.; Wyrobek, A.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a new method (ESA) to detect aneuploidy and polyploidy in epididymal sperm of mice using three-chromosome FISH. In comparison to a previous method (TSA-testicular spermatid aneuploidy), which required late-step spermatids, the ESA method utilizes epididymal sperm, which are easier to collect than testicular cells. The ESA method also provides a homogenous population of cells, which significantly speeds up the scoring procedure. A total of 6 mice were investigated by the ESA method and results compared with those obtained by the TSA method: 2 mice each of Robertsonian (8.14) heterozygotes, Rb(8.14) homozygotes and B6C3F1. About 10,000 sperm were scored per mouse. For the ESA method, epididimides were cut into small pieces and filtered. Sperm were prepared for hybridization by sonication and a modification of the DTT/LIS method previously described. Sperm aneuploidy was detected by multi-color FISH using three DNA probes specific for mouse chromosomes X, Y and 8. The sex ratio of X8(49.7%) and Y8(49.6%) did not differ from the expected 1:1. The efficiency of ESA was very high; -0.3% of the cells showed no hybridization domain. Hyperhaploidy frequencies for chromosomes X, Y and 8 compared well between the ESA and TSA methods for Rb(8.14) heterozygous (p=0.79) and B6C3F1 mice (p>0.05). The data obtained from Rb(8.14) homozygotes were similar to those from B6C3F1, as predicted (p=0.3). This highly efficient ESA assay is therefore, recommended for future studies of the mechanism of induction of aneuploidy in male germ cells. It also lays a solid foundation for automated scoring.

  11. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  12. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  13. Using improved serial blood sampling method of mice to study pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Watari, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Keiko; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yukari; Takai, Nozomi; Nezasa, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    In pharmacokinetic evaluation of mice, using serial sampling methods rather than a terminal blood sampling method could reduce the number of animals needed and lead to more reliable data by excluding individual differences. In addition, using serial sampling methods can be valuable for evaluation of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of drug candidates. In this study, we established an improved method for serially sampling the blood from one mouse by only one incision of the lateral tail vein, and investigated whether our method could be adapted to pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. After intravenous and oral administration of ibuprofen and fexofenadine (BCS class II and III), the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by our method and a terminal blood sampling method, with the result that both methods gave comparable results (ibuprofen: 63.8 ± 4.0% and 64.4%, fexofenadine: 6.5 ± 0.7% and 7.9%, respectively, in bioavailability). In addition, our method could be adapted to DDI study for cytochrome P450 and organic anion transporting polypeptide inhibition. These results demonstrate that our method can be useful for pharmacokinetic evaluation from the perspective of reliable data acquisition as well as easy handling and low stress to mice and improve the quality of pharmacokinetic and DDI studies. PMID:25452230

  14. Lentiviral transgenesis in mice via a simple method of viral concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yu-Fan; Mao, Su-Han; Lin, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Yang, Shang-Hsun

    2016-10-01

    Transgenic animals are important in vivo models for biological research. However, low transgenic rates are commonly reported in the literature. Lentiviral transgenesis is a promising method that has greater efficiency with regard to generating transgenic animals, although the transgenic rate of this approach is highly dependent on different transgenes and concentrated lentiviruses. In this study, we modified a method to concentrate lentiviruses using a table centrifuge, commonly available in most laboratories, and carried out analysis of the transgenic efficiency in mice. Based on 26 individual constructs and 627 live pups, we found that the overall transgenic rate was more than 30%, which is higher than obtained with pronuclear microinjection. In addition, we did not find any significant differences in transgenic efficiency when the size of inserts was less than 5000 bp. These results not only show that our modified method can successfully generate transgenic mice but also suggest that this approach could be generally applied to different constructs when the size of inserts is less than 5000 bp. It is anticipated that the results of this study can help encourage the wider laboratory use of lentiviral transgenesis in mice. PMID:27264740

  15. Iohexol plasma clearance, a simple and reliable method to measure renal function in conscious mice.

    PubMed

    Luis-Lima, Sergio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana Elena; Martín-Higueras, Cristina; Sierra-Ramos, Catalina; Carrara, Fabiola; Arnau, María Rosa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Salido, Eduardo; Gaspari, Flavio; Porrini, Esteban

    2016-09-01

    In mice, renal function evaluated by serum creatinine has limitations. Gold standard methods using radioactive markers are cumbersome. We aimed to develop the iohexol plasma clearance as a simple assessment of renal function in conscious mice. We used two groups of mice: testing and validation, formed by 16 animals (8 male and 8 female) each. Iohexol was injected intravenously into the tail vein (6.47 mg), and tail tip blood samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 35, 55, and 75 min. Iohexol plasma clearances were calculated in two ways: (1) two-compartment model (CL2) using all time points and (2) one-compartment model (CL1) using only the last four points. In the testing group, CL1 overestimated the true clearance (CL2). Therefore, CL1 was recalculated applying a correction factor calculated as the ratio between CL2/CL1. The latter was considered as the simplified method. CL2 averaged 223.3 ± 64.3 μl/min and CL1 252.4 ± 76.4 μl/min, which lead to a CF of 0.89. Comparable results for CL2, CL1, and simplified method were observed in the validation group. Additionally, we demonstrated the capacity of the simplified method to quantitatively assess different degrees of renal function in three mouse models: hyperoxaluric-CKD (87.4 ± 28.3 μl/min), heminephrectomized (135-0 ± 50.5 μl/min), and obese (399.6 ± 112.1 μl/min) mice. We have developed a simple and reliable method to evaluate renal function in conscious mice under diverse clinical conditions. Moreover, the test can be repeated in the same animal, which makes the method useful to examine renal function changes over time. PMID:27315812

  16. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2014-01-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast. PMID:24744503

  17. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  18. Semi-automated method to measure pneumonia severity in mice through computed tomography (CT) scan analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johri, Ansh; Schimel, Daniel; Noguchi, Audrey; Hsu, Lewis L.

    2010-03-01

    Imaging is a crucial clinical tool for diagnosis and assessment of pneumonia, but quantitative methods are lacking. Micro-computed tomography (micro CT), designed for lab animals, provides opportunities for non-invasive radiographic endpoints for pneumonia studies. HYPOTHESIS: In vivo micro CT scans of mice with early bacterial pneumonia can be scored quantitatively by semiautomated imaging methods, with good reproducibility and correlation with bacterial dose inoculated, pneumonia survival outcome, and radiologists' scores. METHODS: Healthy mice had intratracheal inoculation of E. coli bacteria (n=24) or saline control (n=11). In vivo micro CT scans were performed 24 hours later with microCAT II (Siemens). Two independent radiologists scored the extent of airspace abnormality, on a scale of 0 (normal) to 24 (completely abnormal). Using the Amira 5.2 software (Mercury Computer Systems), a histogram distribution of voxel counts between the Hounsfield range of -510 to 0 was created and analyzed, and a segmentation procedure was devised. RESULTS: A t-test was performed to determine whether there was a significant difference in the mean voxel value of each mouse in the three experimental groups: Saline Survivors, Pneumonia Survivors, and Pneumonia Non-survivors. It was found that the voxel count method was able to statistically tell apart the Saline Survivors from the Pneumonia Survivors, the Saline Survivors from the Pneumonia Non-survivors, but not the Pneumonia Survivors vs. Pneumonia Non-survivors. The segmentation method, however, was successfully able to distinguish the two Pneumonia groups. CONCLUSION: We have pilot-tested an evaluation of early pneumonia in mice using micro CT and a semi-automated method for lung segmentation and scoring system. Statistical analysis indicates that the system is reliable and merits further evaluation.

  19. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  20. Visualization of chorioretinal vasculature in mice in vivo using a combined OCT/SLO imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Mayank; Zhang, Pengfei; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Chorioretinal blood vessel morphology in mice is of great interest to researchers studying eye disease mechanisms in animal models. Two leading retinal imaging modalities -- Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) -- have offered much insight into vascular morphology and blood flow. OCT "flow-contrast" methods have provided detailed mapping of vascular morphology with micrometer depth resolution, while OCT Doppler methods have enabled the measurement of local flow velocities. SLO remains indispensable in studying blood leakage, microaneurysms, and the clearance time of contrast agents of different sizes. In this manuscript we present results obtained with a custom OCT/SLO system applied to visualize the chorioretinal vascular morphology of pigmented C57Bl/6J and albino nude (Nu/Nu) mice. Blood perfusion maps of choroidal vessels and choricapillaris created by OCT and SLO are presented, along with detailed evaluation of different OCT imaging parameters, including the use of the scattering contrast agent Intralipid. Future applications are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of intrinsic respiratory signal determination methods for 4D CBCT adapted for mice

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachael; Pan, Tinsu; Rubinstein, Ashley; Court, Laurence; Ahmad, Moiz

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: 4D CT imaging in mice is important in a variety of areas including studies of lung function and tumor motion. A necessary step in 4D imaging is obtaining a respiratory signal, which can be done through an external system or intrinsically through the projection images. A number of methods have been developed that can successfully determine the respiratory signal from cone-beam projection images of humans, however only a few have been utilized in a preclinical setting and most of these rely on step-and-shoot style imaging. The purpose of this work is to assess and make adaptions of several successful methods developed for humans for an image-guided preclinical radiation therapy system. Methods: Respiratory signals were determined from the projection images of free-breathing mice scanned on the X-RAD system using four methods: the so-called Amsterdam shroud method, a method based on the phase of the Fourier transform, a pixel intensity method, and a center of mass method. The Amsterdam shroud method was modified so the sharp inspiration peaks associated with anesthetized mouse breathing could be detected. Respiratory signals were used to sort projections into phase bins and 4D images were reconstructed. Error and standard deviation in the assignment of phase bins for the four methods compared to a manual method considered to be ground truth were calculated for a range of region of interest (ROI) sizes. Qualitative comparisons were additionally made between the 4D images obtained using each of the methods and the manual method. Results: 4D images were successfully created for all mice with each of the respiratory signal extraction methods. Only minimal qualitative differences were noted between each of the methods and the manual method. The average error (and standard deviation) in phase bin assignment was 0.24 ± 0.08 (0.49 ± 0.11) phase bins for the Fourier transform method, 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.31 ± 0.08) phase bins for the modified Amsterdam shroud method, 0

  2. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  3. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mozafar; Montaseri, Azadeh; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khanahmadi, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliative and anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The present study aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental) received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control) received ethanol and group 4 (positive control) was administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups were sacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histological examinations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbers of ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE), 27.2 ± 4.1 for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE), 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control) and 17.2 ± 3.9 for the saline control group (group 4). The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increased significantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05), however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups. The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMS analysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound. Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number of growing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect. PMID:25101154

  4. Comparison of four diagnostic methods for detection of Helicobacter species in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Mähler, M; Bedigian, H G; Burgett, B L; Bates, R J; Hogan, M E; Sundberg, J P

    1998-02-01

    Four species of Helicobacter--H. muridarum, "H. rappini," H. hepaticus, and H. bilis--have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents. The association of Helicobacter species with chronic gastrointestinal diseases in mice has raised concern about their impact on research results. In this study, different methods for detection of Helicobacter species in the mouse intestinal tract were compared: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, bacterial culture, electron microscopy, and histologic examination (Steiner stain). The PCR method was more sensitive in detecting murine Helicobacter species than was culture, electron microscopy, or histologic examination. Of the cecal specimens identified as Helicobacter species-positive by PCR, approximately 60% were identified as positive by each of the other methods. An 87.5% concordance was obtained by PCR screening of DNA from fecal and cecal specimens. Differentiation among murine Helicobacter species by colony morphologic or histologic features was not possible. Scanning electron microscopy and histologic examination indicated greater numbers of helical microorganisms, specifically H. hepaticus, in the cecum than in the colon. These results indicate that the PCR assays used can be performed on feces as a noninvasive means for rapidly screening large numbers of colony mice for murine Helicobacter species. PMID:9517897

  5. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  6. An Improved Method for Rapid Intubation of the Trachea in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vandivort, Tyler C; An, Dowon; Parks, William C

    2016-01-01

    Despite some anatomical and physiological differences, mouse models continue to be an essential tool for studying human lung disease. Bleomycin toxicity is a commonly used model to study both acute lung injury and fibrosis, and multiple methods have been developed for administering bleomycin (and other toxic agents) into the lungs. However, many of these approaches, such as transtracheal instillation, have inherent drawbacks, including the need for strong anesthetics and survival surgery. This paper reports a quick, reproducible method of intratracheal intubation that involves mild inhaled anesthesia, visualization of the trachea, and the use of a surrogate spirometer to confirm exposure. As a proof of concept, 8-12 week old C57BL/6 mice were administered either 2.0 U/kg of bleomycin or an equivalent volume of PBS, and both damage and fibrotic endpoints were measured post-exposure. This procedure allows researchers to treat a large cohort of mice in a relatively short period with little expense and minimal post-procedure care. PMID:26968019

  7. Methods for long-term 17β-estradiol administration to mice.

    PubMed

    Ingberg, E; Theodorsson, A; Theodorsson, E; Strom, J O

    2012-01-01

    Rodent models constitute a cornerstone in the elucidation of the effects and biological mechanisms of 17β-estradiol. However, a thorough assessment of the methods for long-term administration of 17β-estradiol to mice is lacking. The fact that 17β-estradiol has been demonstrated to exert different effects depending on dose emphasizes the need for validated administration regimens. Therefore, 169 female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and administered 17β-estradiol using one of the two commonly used subcutaneous methods; slow-release pellets (0.18 mg, 60-day release pellets; 0.72 mg, 90-day release pellets) and silastic capsules (with/without convalescence period, silastic laboratory tubing, inner/outer diameter: 1.575/3.175 mm, filled with a 14 mm column of 36 μg 17β-estradiol/mL sesame oil), or a novel peroral method (56 μg 17β-estradiol/day/kg body weight in the hazelnut cream Nutella). Forty animals were used as ovariectomized and intact controls. Serum samples were obtained weekly for five weeks and 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. The peroral method resulted in steady concentrations within--except on one occasion--the physiological range and the silastic capsules produced predominantly physiological concentrations, although exceeding the range by maximum a factor three during the first three weeks. The 0.18 mg pellet yielded initial concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the physiological range, which then decreased drastically, and the 0.72 mg pellet produced between 18 and 40 times higher concentrations than the physiological range during the entire experiment. The peroral method and silastic capsules described in this article constitute reliable modes of administration of 17β-estradiol, superior to the widely used commercial pellets. PMID:22137913

  8. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout. PMID:23106502

  9. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Muluken Walle; Walle, Bizuayehu; Rebba, Kidist

    2016-01-01

    Background Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated. Methods Essential oil (EO) of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg) was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg). Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively. Results There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. PMID:27574478

  10. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of skin tumor of mice treated with several medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the differences between cancerous tissue, drug treated tissue and its corresponding normal tissue by infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods Methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Aloe barbandesis, Tinospora cordifolia and Triticum aestivum were assessed for the isolation and purification of active compound. After that, combine crude and combine isolated samples were prepared. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of different drugs, it was administered at a concentration of 400 mg/kg body weight daily up to 16 weeks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to differentiate the drug treated tissues with the normal and cancerous tissue. In the present study, spectra of different tissues were recorded in the range of 400-4 000 cm−1. Results The results of the present study have shown that the remarkable difference exists between the IR spectra of normal, drugs treated and cancerous tissue in terms of frequencies and intensities of prominent bands of cellular biomolecules. Conclusions Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests the chemopreventive effect of above treated drugs and the best result was observed in combine crude sample and in combine isolated sample or synergistic effect of individual crude and isolated extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

  11. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  12. Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar

    2010-01-01

    Aim Gentamycin, a widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is recognized as possessing significant nephrotoxic potential in human beings. Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity is suggested to be mediated via reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the possible antioxidant nephroprotective effect of lacidipine as a calcium-channel blocker in a gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. Methods Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2 received gentamycin 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 3 received lacidipine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally 3 days before and 14 days concurrently with gentamycin. This dose does not affect the blood pressure of rats, as evidenced in the pilot study. Results Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a marked reduction in creatinine clearance. Treatment with lacidipine improved creatinine clearance compared to the gentamycin-treated group. In addition, it reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, as an index of lipid peroxidation, with significant increases in superoxide dismutase enzyme in erythrocyte lysates and kidney catalase enzyme activities. Conclusion This study recommends the use of lacidipine in prophylaxis against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  13. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  14. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  15. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  16. A High-Throughput Method to Measure NaCl and Acid Taste Thresholds in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    To develop a technique suitable for measuring NaCl taste thresholds in genetic studies, we conducted a series of experiments with outbred CD-1 mice using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and two-bottle preference tests. In Experiment 1, we compared conditioning procedures involving either oral self-administration of LiCl or pairing NaCl intake with LiCl injections and found that thresholds were the lowest after LiCl self-administration. In Experiment 2, we compared different procedures (30-min and 48-h tests) for testing conditioned mice and found that the 48-h test is more sensitive. In Experiment 3, we examined the effects of varying strength of conditioned (NaCl or LiCl taste intensity) and unconditioned (LiCl toxicity) stimuli and concluded that 75–150 mM LiCl or its mixtures with NaCl are the optimal stimuli for conditioning by oral self-administration. In Experiment 4, we examined whether this technique is applicable for measuring taste thresholds for other taste stimuli. Results of these experiments show that conditioning by oral self-administration of LiCl solutions or its mixtures with other taste stimuli followed by 48-h two-bottle tests of concentration series of a conditioned stimulus is an efficient and sensitive method to measure taste thresholds. Thresholds measured with this technique were 2 mM for NaCl and 1 mM for citric acid. This approach is suitable for simultaneous testing of large numbers of animals, which is required for genetic studies. These data demonstrate that mice, like several other species, generalize CTA from LiCl to NaCl, suggesting that they perceive taste of NaCl and LiCl as qualitatively similar, and they also can generalize CTA of a binary mixture of taste stimuli to mixture components. PMID:19188279

  17. Euthanasia Method for Mice in Rapid Time-Course Pulmonary Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schoell, Adam R; Heyde, Bruce R; Weir, Dana E; Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Tung, David K

    2009-01-01

    To develop a means of euthanasia to support rapid time-course pharmacokinetic studies in mice, we compared retroorbital and intravenous lateral tail vein injection of ketamine–xylazine with regard to preparation time, utility, tissue distribution, and time to onset of euthanasia. Tissue distribution and time to onset of euthanasia did not differ between administration methods. However, retroorbital injection could be performed more rapidly than intravenous injection and was considered to be a technically simple and superior alternative for mouse euthanasia. Retroorbital ketamine–xylazine, CO2 gas, and intraperitoneal pentobarbital then were compared as euthanasia agents in a rapid time-point pharmacokinetic study. Retroorbital ketamine–xylazine was the most efficient and consistent of the 3 methods, with an average time to death of approximately 5 s after injection. In addition, euthanasia by retroorbital ketamine–xylazine enabled accurate sample collection at closely spaced time points and satisfied established criteria for acceptable euthanasia technique. PMID:19807971

  18. Euthanasia method for mice in rapid time-course pulmonary pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Schoell, Adam R; Heyde, Bruce R; Weir, Dana E; Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Tung, David K

    2009-09-01

    To develop a means of euthanasia to support rapid time-course pharmacokinetic studies in mice, we compared retroorbital and intravenous lateral tail vein injection of ketamine-xylazine with regard to preparation time, utility, tissue distribution, and time to onset of euthanasia. Tissue distribution and time to onset of euthanasia did not differ between administration methods. However, retroorbital injection could be performed more rapidly than intravenous injection and was considered to be a technically simple and superior alternative for mouse euthanasia. Retroorbital ketamine-xylazine, CO(2) gas, and intraperitoneal pentobarbital then were compared as euthanasia agents in a rapid time-point pharmacokinetic study. Retroorbital ketamine-xylazine was the most efficient and consistent of the 3 methods, with an average time to death of approximately 5 s after injection. In addition, euthanasia by retroorbital ketamine-xylazine enabled accurate sample collection at closely spaced time points and satisfied established criteria for acceptable euthanasia technique. PMID:19807971

  19. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  20. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in Mice under Various Ratio- and Time-Based Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression…

  1. YOHIMBINE ATTENUATES THE DELAYED LETHALITY INDUCED IN MICE BY AMITRAZ, A FORMAMIDINE PESTICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have found that a single dose of amitraz, a formamidine pesticide, produces death in mice which begins about two days after dosing and continues for up to 5 more days. To further examine the phenomenon, adult albino mice of both sexes were treated with either yohimbin...

  2. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  3. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced carcinogenesis in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Ali, Shaikh Mohummad Mohsin; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone (ASC) in vivo in normal and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing male Swiss albino mice. Methods Drug-induced changes in biochemical and behavioral parameters at dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 14 d and nullifying the toxicity induced by EAC cells were studied. The histopathology studies of the protective effects of ASC on vital organs were also assessed. Results The administration of ASC made insignificant changes in body weight and behavioral (salivation, diarrhea, muscular numbness) changes during treatment period due to minor toxicity were minimized after the treatment in normal mice. The biochemical parameters, including serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloactate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and billirubin changed modestly in normal mice receiving ASC. Though the treatment continued, these values gradually decreased to normal level after the treatment. In EAC bearing mice, the toxic effects due to EAC cells in all cases were nullified by treatment with the ASC. Significant abnormalities were not detected in histology of the various organs of the normal mice treated with ASC. Conclusions ASC can, therefore, be considered safe in formulating novel anticancer drug, as it exhibits strong protective effect against EAC cell bearing mice. PMID:23593588

  5. Methods employed for induction and analysis of experimental myocardial infarction in mice.

    PubMed

    Borst, Oliver; Ochmann, Carmen; Schönberger, Tanja; Jacoby, Christoph; Stellos, Konstantinos; Seizer, Peter; Flögel, Ulrich; Lang, Florian; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia und subsequent reperfusion is followed by a complex sequence of pathophysiological responses involving inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine release as well as postinfarction wound healing and myocardial tissue remodeling. With the development of gene targeted mice the contribution of individual gene products to the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion can be defined leading to an increasing interest in the widely-used mouse model of myocardial infarction. This methological paper describes in detail the required equipment, surgical instruments, drugs and additional material, the methods of anesthesia and analgesia, the procedures involved in preparation of the animal, tracheotomy, intubation, thoracotomy, occlusion of the left descending artery, removal of the heart, determination of infarct size, analysis of cardiac functional parameters with echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as determination of the morphological consequences utilizing gelatin zymography, histology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:21865843

  6. The therapeutic effect of curcumin in male albino rats and its putative mechanisms on cerebral microvascular flow.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qi-Mei; Zheng, Zheng; Han, Zhong-Mou

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on hypertension and its putative mechanisms in the cerebral microcirculation. The surgical preparation was made to generate a cranial window for observation of the capillary network in the cerebral cortex region. Digital image processing, intravital videomicroscopy, and laser Doppler flow meter were used in this investigation. The number of open capillaries, arterial blood pressure, red cell velocity, microvascular diameter, circulating endothelial cells, relative blood flow and frequency were determined. Control rats showed severe dysfunction in the microcirculation with increased blood pressure. In curcumin treated mice, the blood pressure significantly reduced compared to their respective controls. Curcumin significantly increased blood velocity and LDF flow in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Curcumin significantly altered the circulating endothelial cells and open capillaries number in the male albino rats. Our results suggested that the curcumin exerts its therapeutic effect in male albino rats by regulating vasomotion function, increasing blood perfusion, releasing the peripheral resistance and opening efficiently capillaries. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the curcumin might be useful in the regulation of the cerebral microcirculatory function and hypertension. PMID:27017961

  7. A Method to Study the Impact of Chemically-induced Ovarian Failure on Exercise Capacity and Cardiac Adaptation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Perez, Jessica N.; Constantopoulos, Eleni; McKee, Laurel; Regan, Jessica; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Brooks, Heddwen L.; Konhilas, John

    2014-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases in post-menopausal women, yet, the role of exercise, as a preventative measure for CVD risk in post-menopausal women has not been adequately studied. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of voluntary cage-wheel exercise and forced treadmill exercise on cardiac adaptation in menopausal mice. The most commonly used inducible model for mimicking menopause in women is the ovariectomized (OVX) rodent. However, the OVX model has a few dissimilarities from menopause in humans. In this study, we administered 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to female mice, which accelerates ovarian failure as an alternative menopause model to study the impact of exercise in menopausal mice. VCD selectively accelerates the loss of primary and primordial follicles resulting in an endocrine state that closely mimics the natural progression from pre- to peri- to post-menopause in humans. To determine the impact of exercise on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in VCD-treated female mice, two methods were used. First, we exposed a group of VCD-treated and untreated mice to a voluntary cage wheel. Second, we used forced treadmill exercise to determine exercise capacity in a separate group VCD-treated and untreated mice measured as a tolerance to exercise intensity and endurance. PMID:24747886

  8. A method to study the impact of chemically-induced ovarian failure on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Perez, Jessica N; Constantopoulos, Eleni; McKee, Laurel; Regan, Jessica; Hoyer, Patricia B; Brooks, Heddwen L; Konhilas, John

    2014-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases in post-menopausal women, yet, the role of exercise, as a preventative measure for CVD risk in post-menopausal women has not been adequately studied. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of voluntary cage-wheel exercise and forced treadmill exercise on cardiac adaptation in menopausal mice. The most commonly used inducible model for mimicking menopause in women is the ovariectomized (OVX) rodent. However, the OVX model has a few dissimilarities from menopause in humans. In this study, we administered 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to female mice, which accelerates ovarian failure as an alternative menopause model to study the impact of exercise in menopausal mice. VCD selectively accelerates the loss of primary and primordial follicles resulting in an endocrine state that closely mimics the natural progression from pre- to peri- to post-menopause in humans. To determine the impact of exercise on exercise capacity and cardiac adaptation in VCD-treated female mice, two methods were used. First, we exposed a group of VCD-treated and untreated mice to a voluntary cage wheel. Second, we used forced treadmill exercise to determine exercise capacity in a separate group VCD-treated and untreated mice measured as a tolerance to exercise intensity and endurance. PMID:24747886

  9. [Investigation of the presence of Francisella tularensis by culture, serology and molecular methods in mice of Thrace Region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unal Yilmaz, Gülizar; Gurcan, Saban; Ozkan, Beytullah; Karadenizli, Aynur

    2014-04-01

    Tularemia is a disease that has been reported in Turkey since 1936. Although mice are considered to have a role in the transmission of Francisella tularensis to man, this has not been exactly confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of F. tularensis in mice by using culture, serology and molecular methods. For this purpose, four villages (Edirne-Demirkoy, Kirklareli-Kaynarca, Tekirdag-Muzruplu, Tekirdag-Sinanli) were selected in Thrace Region of Turkey where tularemia cases had been reported previously. A total of 126 live-catch mouse traps were established in warehouses, barns, areas near wells, water tanks and creeks in the villages in December 2012. Traps were kept overnight and the next day the animals collected were identified at species-level. The live-captured mice were anesthetized and their heart blood samples were obtained. Subsequently, liver and spleen tissues were removed from every mouse under aseptic conditions in the class-2 safety cabinet. These tissues were cultivated in Francis medium containing 5% sheep blood, 0.1% cystein, 1% glucose and incubated for seven days in both normal atmosphere and 5% carbondioxide incubator at 37°C. Tularemia microagglutination test was performed by using the sera which were obtained from live-captured mice. Finally, DNAs were isolated from both liver and spleen tissues of mice, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Tularemia RT-PCR; Public Health Agency of Turkey, Ankara) were performed. In our study, a total of 19 mice were captured and of these 11 were alive. Ten mice were identified as Apodemus flavicollis, seven were Mus macedonicus and two were Mus musculus. There were no Francisella tularensis isolation in the cultures of mice liver and spleen tissues. Serological tests yielded negative results for 10 mice whose serum samples could be obtained. In RT-PCR, positivity were detected in spleen tissues of two mice which were captured from Kaynarca where first tularemia cases in

  10. A method for noninvasive longitudinal measurements of [Ca2+] in arterioles of hypertensive optical biosensor mice

    PubMed Central

    Mauban, Joseph R. H.; Fairfax, Seth T.; Rizzo, Mark A.; Zhang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We used two-photon (2-p) Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy to provide serial, noninvasive measurements of [Ca2+] in arterioles of living “biosensor” mice. These express a genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator (GECI), either FRET-based exMLCK or intensity-based GCaMP2. The FRET ratios, Rmin and Rmax, required for in vivo Ca2+ calibration of exMLCK were obtained in isolated arteries. For in vivo experiments, mice were anesthetized (1.5% isoflurane), and arterioles within a depilated ear were visualized through the intact skin (i.e., noninvasively), by 2-p excitation of exMLCK (at 820 nm) or GCaMP2 (at 920 nm). Spontaneous or agonist-evoked [Ca2+] transients in arteriolar smooth muscle cells were imaged (at 2 Hz) with both exMLCK and GCaMP2. To examine changes in arteriolar [Ca2+] that might accompany hypertension, five exMLCK mice were implanted with telemetric blood pressure transducers and osmotic minipumps containing ANG II (350 ng·kg−1·min−1) and fed a high (6%)-salt diet for 9 days. [Ca2+] was measured every other day in five smooth muscle cells of two to three arterioles in each animal. Prior to ANG II/salt, [Ca2+] was 246 ± 42 nM. [Ca2+] increased transiently to 599 nM on day 2 after beginning ANG II/salt, then remained elevated at 331 ± 42 nM for 4 more days, before returning to 265 ± 47 nM 6 days after removal of ANG II/salt. In summary, two-photon excitation of exMLCK and GCaMP2 provides a method for noninvasive, longitudinal quantification of [Ca2+] dynamics and vascular structure in individual arterioles of a particular animal over an extended period of time, a capability that should enhance future studies of hypertension and vascular function. PMID:24858846

  11. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  12. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  13. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  14. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  15. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  16. Pharmacological investigation of memory restorative effect of riluzole in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rinwa, Puneet; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Streptozotocin (STZ) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) treatment have been positively correlated with higher incidence of memory loss and experimental dementia. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of the Riluzole, an inhibitor of glutamatergic neurotransmission and activator of TWIK-Related K+ channels with incidences of memory deficits associated with dementia in mice. Materials and Methods: Dementia was induced in Swiss albino mice by intracerebroventricular STZ (ICV) and by subcutaneous NaNO2 in separate groups of animals. Morris water maze was employed to assess learning and memory of the animals. Biochemical analysis of brain homogenate was performed so as to assess brain acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity. Brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured to assess total oxidative stress. Results: Treatment of ICV STZ and NaNO2 produced a significant decrease in water maze performance of mice hence reflecting loss of learning and memory. Furthermore, higher levels of brain AChE activity and oxidative stress were observed in these animals. Administration of riluzole (5 and 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) successfully attenuated memory deficits as well as ICV STZ- and NaNO2 -induced changes in the levels of brain AChE, TBARS, and GSH. Conclusion: The memory restorative effects of riluzole in dementia may involve its multiple functions including anti-oxidative and anticholinesterase properties. PMID:22701248

  17. The antioxidant effects of silver, gold, and zinc oxide nanoparticles on male mice in in vivo condition

    PubMed Central

    Negahdary, Masoud; Chelongar, Reyhaneh; Zadeh, Shahrzad Kabiri; Ajdary, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: We studied the effects of different doses of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on oxidative stress markers including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) on male mice. Materials and Methods: Male albino mice of Wistar strain (N = 60), weighing 17-32 g, were used for this study. The mice were randomly assigned to three classes such that in each class, there were four groups of which one was control and the other three groups were fed with ZnONPs and AgNPs at 500, 250, and 125 ppm concentration and AuNPs at 100, 50, and 25 ppm concentration for 15 days. The heart blood was taken to measure GPX and CAT enzyme activities at the end of the treatment. Results: In male mice treated with AgNPs, the GPX and CAT activities were significantly increased, while significant decreases were seen in the GPX and CAT activities in mice treated with ZnONPs (P < 0.05) and in mice treated with AuNPs (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that AuNPs and ZnONPs caused decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, while nanosilver had the reverse effect and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities and caused decreased stress oxidative. PMID:25878994

  18. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Ahmad, Nagwa Abdel Wahab; Maadawi, Zeinab Mohamad El; Mohamady, Yasmin Kamal; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disorder. Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 DM. Topical insulin application did not affect apoptosis and necrosis levels in corneal epithelium. Autologous cell transplantation is not a viable option for diabetic patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed at assessing the possible effect of hemopoeitic stem cell (HSC) therapy on induced diabetic keratopathy in albino rat. Methods and Results: Fifteen male albino rats were divided into control group of 2 rats, diabetic group of 8 rats receiving single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 3 animals were sacrificed 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes to confirm keratopathy and 5 rats were sacrificed 4 weeks following confirmation of keratopathy. SC therapy group included 5 rats injected with HSCs 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes and sacrificed 4 weeks following SC therapy. Cord blood collection, stem cells isolation and labeling were performed. Eye specimens were subjected to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical studies. In diabetic group, the central cornea showed multiple cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei, focal epithelial discontinuity, reduced corneal thickness and less number of layers of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. In stem cell therapy group, few cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei were found in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia with more number of epithelial layers. Conclusions: A definite ameliorating effect of HSC therapy was detected on diabetic keratopathy. The therapeutic cells were effective in limiting corneal epithelial changes. PMID:24298355

  19. Comparison of standard laminectomy with an optimized ejection method for the removal of spinal cords from rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Heather S; Jones, Charles; Caplazi, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    For researchers seeking to collect spinal cord samples from mice and rats while avoiding acid decalcification, few options are available. Laminectomy is the standard method which yields high quality samples, yet is time consuming and technically difficult. Ejection of the cord from the vertebral column is another technique commonly used; however, the literature suggests that this method can damage the spinal tissues and is typically avoided when histology of samples is the desired endpoint. Here, we describe an optimized method for ejection of spinal cords from rats and mice, and compare histological quality of these samples with those collected via laminectomy. Our results show that ejection can yield high quality spinal cord samples and may be suitable for use as an alternative to laminectomy. PMID:24039319

  20. Reduction of Sodium Arsenite-Mediated Adverse Effects in Mice using Dietary Supplementation of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Root Powder

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Methods Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Results Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Conclusion Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human. PMID:23407303

  1. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device. PMID:23781766

  2. Protective effect of Triphala Rasayana against paracetamol-induced hepato–renal toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dewasya Pratap; Mani, Dayanandan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, is known to cause liver and renal injury in humans when administered in higher and repeated doses that cause acute liver injury. Triphala is a well-known Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation that is prescribed for balancing of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of liver and kidney diseases. Objective: The present study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of Triphala extract against paracetamol-induced hepato–renal injury in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice (weight 20–25 g) were used in this study. The mice were divided into five groups of six animals each. The aqueous extract of Triphala was given orally at two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for seven consecutive days, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) to induce hepato–renal toxicity. Serum levels of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were measured as indices of liver and renal injury. All the statistical analyses were performed with the help of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student–Newman–Keuls test as post hoc test. Results were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05. Results: Pre-treatment with Triphala extract at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant (P < 0.01) hepatoprotective activity. The protective effect of Triphala extract at 300 mg/kg body weight appears more effective than 100 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The present study gives an evidence of the protective role of Triphala extract against paracetamol-induced hepato–renal toxicity and validates its traditional claim in the Ayurveda system. PMID:26604553

  3. Notch intracellular domain overexpression in adipocytes confers lipodystrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V.; Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Notch family of intermembrane receptors is highly conserved across species and is involved in cell fate and lineage control. Previous in vitro studies have shown that Notch may inhibit adipogenesis. Here we describe the role of Notch in adipose tissue by employing an in vivo murine model which overexpresses Notch in adipose tissue. Methods Albino C57BL/6J RosaNICD/NICD::Adipoq-Cre (Ad-NICD) male mice were generated to overexpress the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) specifically in adipocytes. Male RosaNICD/NICD mice were used as controls. Mice were evaluated metabolically at the ages of 1 and 3 months by assessing body weights, serum metabolites, body composition (EchoMRI), glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Histological sections of adipose tissue depots as well as of liver were examined. The mRNA expression profile of genes involved in adipogenesis was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results The Ad-NICD mice were heavier with significantly lower body fat mass compared to the controls. Small amounts of white adipose tissue could be seen in the 1-month old Ad-NICD mice, but was almost absent in the 3-months old mice. The Ad-NICD mice also had higher serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids. These differences were more prominent in the older (3-months) than in the younger (1-month) mice. The Ad-NICD mice also showed severe insulin resistance along with a steatotic liver. Gene expression analysis in the adipose tissue depots showed a significant repression of lipogenic (Fasn, Acacb) and adipogenic pathways (C/ebpα, C/ebpβ, Pparγ2, Srebf1). Conclusions Increased Notch signaling in adipocytes in mice results in blocked expansion of white adipose tissue which leads to ectopic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, thus to a lipodystrophic phenotype. These results suggest that further investigation of the role of Notch signaling in adipocytes could lead to the manipulation of this pathway for

  4. A simple and inexpensive method for determining cold sensitivity and adaptation in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Vogt, Sherri K; Gereau, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice. PMID:25867969

  5. A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Determining Cold Sensitivity and Adaptation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Daniel S.; Golden, Judith P.; Vogt, Sherri K.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice. PMID:25867969

  6. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats.

    PubMed

    al-Yahya, M A; Rafatullah, S; Mossa, J S; Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Tariq, M

    1989-01-01

    The cytoprotective and gastric anti-ulcer studies of ginger have been carried out in albino rats. Cytodestruction was produced by 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl. Whereas gastric ulcers were produced by ulcerogenic agents including indomethacin, aspirin and reserpine, beside hypothermic restraint stress and by pylorus ligated Shay rat technique. The results of this study demonstrate that the extract in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl induced gastric lesions. The extract also prevented the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypothermic restraint stress. These observations suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect of the ginger. PMID:2589236

  7. Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Induced Weight Changes: A Dose and Duration Dependent Study on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, S.L.; Rohatgi, R.K.; Kalra, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most significant and safe drugs among the antidepressants. Fluoxetine is the prototype drug of SSRIs. Various clinical studies showed that SSRI causes change in body weight in patients. This study was conducted to know the extent of weight change with different doses for different durations. Aim The aim of this study was to find out whether fluoxetine causes weight gain or weight loss, and to deduce the comparative weight change after intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine for different duration and doses. Materials and Methods Present study was conducted on 72 adult (36 males and 36 females) albino rats, in 3 phases of 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks duration. Each phase consisted of 24 (12 males and 12 females) albino rats. These 24 rats were further randomly subdivided into 4 Groups of 6 albino rats each (3 males & 3 females). Group 1(Control) received normal saline (vehicle). Rest 18 rats of each phase were experimental rats, of Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 (6 rats each). Group 2, group 3 and group 4 experimental rats received 10mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40mg/kg of intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine respectively. All rats were weighed on each day for growth monitoring. Data was subjected to statistical analysis (Mean, standard deviation and Student’s t-Test). Results All experimental group rats which received fluoxetine showed decrease of body weight. Rats which received high doses of fluoxetine could not tolerate the drug for more than two weeks and died due to excessive body weight loss, loose stools and muscle twitching. Conclusion Present study conclude that SSRIs can cause weight change in the form of decrease of body weight. This property of SSRIs can be used clinically by prescribing these drugs to obese psychiatric patient without any fear of withdrawal of drug. PMID:27134853

  8. Copper-deficient mice have higher cardiac norepinephrine turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, A.M.; Prohaska, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Male Swiss albino mice were studied at 6 weeks of age. Their dams were fed a copper-deficient diet (modified AIN-76A) starting 4 days after birth and given deionized water (-Cu) or water with CuSO{sub 4} added (+Cu) (20 {mu}g Cu/ml). When 3 weeks of age mice were weaned and housed in stainless steel cages on the respective treatment of their dams. Turnover of norepinephrine (NE) was studied in 8 experiments using 2 separate techniques. The first procedure used {alpha}-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (300 mg/kg i.p.) to inhibit tyrosine hydroxlase activity. The loss of residual NE was determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Regression lines were constructed and fractional turnover (%/h) and calculated turnover (ng/g/h) were determined for heart, cerebellum and adrenal gland. In 4 experiments loss of NE in cerebellum of -Cu ad +Cu mice was equivalent. Loss of NE from adrenal gland could not be detected in the 8 h time course. Loss of NE, both fractional turnover and calculated turnover, from heart of -Cu mice was 4-5 fold higher compared to +Cu controls. A second method using m- hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) (100 mg/kg i.p.), which inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, confirmed the results. For all 4 experiments the cardiac accumulation of L-DOPA (measured by HPLC) was faster in -Cu mice compared to controls. The higher turnover rate of NE in heart and perhaps other sympathetic nerves may contribute to the higher urinary NE output observed previously.

  9. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8%) patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8%) patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5%) patients. Twenty-seven (42.2%) of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0%) patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7%) patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive measures, early

  10. Expression of HMGB1 in the periodontal tissue subjected to orthodontic force application by Waldo's method in mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shengyu; Li, Juan; Feng, Wei; Liu, Hongrui; Du, Juan; Sun, Jing; Cui, Jian; Sun, Bao; Han, Xiuchun; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Xu, Xin; Li, Minqi

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) originating from periodontal ligament (PDL) cells can be a potential regulator in the process of orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal tissue remodeling. The aim of this study is to investigate HMGB1 expression in periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement in mice according to Waldo's method. Six 7-week-old C57BL6 mice were used in these experiments. The elastic band was inserted into the teeth space between the right first and second maxillary molars. After 3 days of mechanical loading, mice were fixed with transcardial perfusion of 4 % paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the maxillary was extracted for histochemical analyses. The histological examination revealed local PDL tear at the tension side and the formation of extensive cell-free hyaline zones at the compression side. The immunolocalization of HMGB1 was significantly presented at tension side of PDL, apical area and dental pulp, whereas at the compression side of PDL, the labeling of HMGB1 was almost undetectable as the presence of hyaline zone. Taken together, we concluded that the orthodontic tooth movement by Waldo's method leads to histological changes and HMGB1 expression pattern that differ from those of coil spring method, including PDL tear and extensive hyaline zone which may severely destroy periodontal tissue and in turn impede tooth movement. PMID:25523715

  11. [A method for reproducing amnesia in mice by the complex extremal exposure].

    PubMed

    Iasnetsov, V V; Provornova, N A

    2003-01-01

    It is suggested to reproduce a retrograde amnesia in mice by means of a complex extremal action: emaciating swim in cold water with simultaneous wheel rotation. It was found that nootropes such as pyracetam, mexidol, semax, nooglutil, acephen, and noopept fully or completely prevent from the amnesia development. PMID:12924240

  12. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  13. Effects of glycowithanolides on lipid peroxidation and lipofuscinogenesis in male reproductive organs of mice

    PubMed Central

    Walvekar, Madhuri; Shaikh, Nilofar; Sarvalkar, Priti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Glycowithanolides (Withaferin A), is one of the main withanolides active principle isolated from plant Withania somnifera and is claimed that it possess the aphrodisiac, sedative, rejuvenate and life prolonging properties. Objective: In the present investigation, antioxidant activity of active principles of Withania somnifera was tested against D-galactose induced oxidative stress in mouse testes, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation Swiss male albino mice Mus musculus (Linn) were used. They were grouped in to control (I), D-galactose treated (II), protective (III) and curative groups (IV). Oxidative stress was induced in six month old mice by injecting a low dose of D-galactose. Antioxidant effect of plant extract was studied in testes, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of oxidative stressed mice on Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and fluorescence product. Results: In the present study, both total as well as mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and fluorescence product in testes, epididymis and seminal vesicle were increased in D-galactose induced mice. After the treatment of glycowithanolides there was significantly decrease in total as well as mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and fluorescence product in protective and curative groups. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Withania somnifera has a capability of preventing oxidative stress and also combating stress induced infertility. PMID:24639810

  14. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  15. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  16. An Efficient Purification Method for Quantitative Determinations of Protodioscin, Dioscin and Diosgenin in Plasma of Fenugreek-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Keiko; Hoshino, Shohei; Uemura, Taku; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    An efficient purification method for simultaneous recovery of polar saponins, protodioscin (PD) and dioscin (DC), and non-polar aglycon, diosgenin (DG), from plasma of mice fed diets containing seed flours of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was established for subsequent quantitative analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Mice plasma samples were first deproteinated by addition of acetonitrile, and the supernatant was applied to a carbon-based solid phase extraction tube. After successive washing with methanol and 35% chroloform/methanol (v/v), PD, DC and DG were eluted simultaneously with 80% chroloform/methanol (v/v). The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and re-dissolved in 80% methanol (v/v). The filtered sample was analyzed with an LC-ESI-MS/MS system. After the purification procedure, recovery rates between 89.3 to 117.4% were obtained without notable ion suppression or enhancement. The use of internal standards was therefore not necessary. The utility of the method was demonstrated by analyzing plasma of mice from a fenugreek feeding study. PMID:26875488

  17. Performance Comparison of Ultrasound-Based Methods to Assess Aortic Diameter and Stiffness in Normal and Aneurysmal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trachet, Bram; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Londono, Francisco J.; Swillens, Abigaïl; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Segers, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several ultrasound-based methods are currently used to assess aortic diameter, circumferential strain and stiffness in mice, but none of them is flawless and a gold standard is lacking. We aimed to assess the validity and sensitivity of these methods in control animals and animals developing dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods and Results We first compared systolic and diastolic diameters as well as local circumferential strains obtained in 47 Angiotensin II-infused ApoE -/- mice with three different techniques (BMode, short axis MMode, long axis MMode), at two different abdominal aortic locations (supraceliac and paravisceral), and at three different time points of abdominal aneurysm formation (baseline, 14 days and 28 days). We found that short axis BMode was preferred to assess diameters, but should be avoided for strains. Short axis MMode gave good results for diameters but high standard deviations for strains. Long axis MMode should be avoided for diameters, and was comparable to short axis MMode for strains. We then compared pulse wave velocity measurements using global, ultrasound-based transit time or regional, pressure-based transit time in 10 control and 20 angiotensin II-infused, anti-TGF-Beta injected C57BL/6 mice. Both transit-time methods poorly correlated and were not able to detect a significant difference in PWV between controls and aneurysms. However, a combination of invasive pressure and MMode diameter, based on radio-frequency data, detected a highly significant difference in local aortic stiffness between controls and aneurysms, with low standard deviation. Conclusions In small animal ultrasound the short axis view is preferred over the long axis view to measure aortic diameters, local methods are preferred over transit-time methods to measure aortic stiffness, invasive pressure-diameter data are preferred over non-invasive strains to measure local aortic stiffness, and the use of radiofrequency data improves the accuracy

  18. A method for longitudinal, transcranial imaging of blood flow and remodeling of the cerebral vasculature in postnatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Letourneur, Annelise; Chen, Victoria; Waterman, Gar; Drew, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the weeks following birth, both the brain and the vascular network that supplies it undergo dramatic alteration. While studies of the postnatal evolution of the pial vasculature and blood flow through its vessels have been previously done histologically or acutely, here we describe a neonatal reinforced thin‐skull preparation for longitudinally imaging the development of the pial vasculature in mice using two‐photon laser scanning microscopy. Starting with mice as young as postnatal day 2 (P2), we are able to chronically image cortical areas >1 mm2, repeatedly for several consecutive days, allowing us to observe the remodeling of the pial arterial and venous networks. We used this method to measure blood velocity in individual vessels over multiple days, and show that blood flow through individual pial venules was correlated with subsequent diameter changes. This preparation allows the longitudinal imaging of the developing mammalian cerebral vascular network and its physiology. PMID:25524276

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  20. Incidence of plutonium-induced bone cancer in neutered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Charrier, K.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence of bone cancer, after a single i.p. injection of monomeric /sup 239/Pu citrate, is significantly higher in female than in male mice. To evaluate the role of the gonads in this sex-related difference, male and female C57BL/Do (albino) mice were castrated at 40 days of age. Fifty days later, they were given injections of /sup 239/Pu. After castration, the frequency of bone sarcomas in the two sexes was approximately equal. This resulted from an increased incidence in the castrated males and a decreased incidence in the ovariectomized females as compared to the intact plutonium-treated mice.

  1. Cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation and comparison of different methods to evaluate baroreflex gain in conscious mice using telemetry.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A; Burmeister, Melissa A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid bodies are the primary sensors of systemic hypoxia. Although the pattern of responses elicited by peripheral chemoreceptor activation is well established in rats, lambs, and rabbits, the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation in conscious mice have not been delineated. Here we report that stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by potassium cyanide (KCN) in conscious mice elicits a unique biphasic response in blood pressure that is characterized by an initial and robust rise followed by a decrease in blood pressure, which is accompanied by a marked reduction in heart rate. The depressor and bradycardic responses to KCN were abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine, and the pressor response was abolished by alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin, suggesting that vagal and sympathetic drive to the heart and sympathetic drive to the vasculature mediate these cardiovascular responses. These studies characterized the chemoreflex in conscious mice and established the reliability of using them for studying hypoxia-related diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea. In another series of experiments, two methods for analyzing baroreflex sensitivity were compared: the classical pharmacological approach using phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside (i.e., the Oxford technique) or the sequence method for analyzing spontaneous baroreflex activity. Our findings indicate that both methods are reliable, and the sequence method certainly has its benefits as a predictive tool in the context of long-term noninvasive studies using telemetry. However, for absolute determination of baroreflex function, analysis of spontaneous baroreflex activity should be complemented by the classical pharmacological method. PMID:18667715

  2. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  3. Learning and memory impairment in albino rats after potassium ethylxanthogenate. Effects of nootropic agents.

    PubMed

    Genkova-Papasova, M; Lazarova-Bakarova, M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the nootropic agents piracetam, aniracetam, meclofenoxate and fipexide on the cognitive functions impaired after potassium ethylxanthogenate, inhibitor of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, were tested in experiments on albino rats. The changes in learning and memory were traced by the active conditioned avoidance method with negative reinforcement (shuttle-box) and the passive avoidance method (step-down). Potassium ethylxanthogenate, injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 100 mg/kg, markedly impaired learning and memory with both methods used. Piracetam (600 mg/kg), aniracetam (50 mg/kg), meclofenoxate (100 mg/kg) and fipexide (10 mg/kg), administered orally five days before and five days during shuttle-box training, as well as five days before step-down training, completely prevented the impairing effect of potassium ethylxanthogenate on the cognitive processes. The role of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system and of other brain transmitter systems for memory disturbances caused by potassium ethylxanthogenate, as well as the protective effect of the nootropic drugs used, are discussed. PMID:1668136

  4. Alternative method of oral administration by peanut butter pellet formulation results in target engagement of BACE1 and attenuation of gavage-induced stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Zaleska, M M; Riddell, D R; Atchison, K P; Robshaw, A; Zhou, H; Sukoff Rizzo, S J

    2014-11-01

    Development of novel therapeutic agents aimed at treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases require chronic and preferentially oral dosing in appropriate preclinical rodent models. Since many of these disease models involve transgenic mice that are frequently aged and fragile, the commonly used oro-gastric gavage method of drug administration often confounds measured outcomes due to repeated stress and high attrition rates caused by esophageal complications. We employed a novel drug formulation in a peanut butter (PB) pellet readily consumed by mice and compared the stress response as measured by plasma corticosterone levels relative to oral administration via traditional gavage. Acute gavage produced significant elevations in plasma corticosterone comparable to those observed in mice subjected to stress-induced hyperthermia. In contrast, corticosterone levels following consumption of PB pellets were similar to levels in naive mice and significantly lower than in mice subjected to traditional gavage. Following sub-chronic administration, corticosterone levels remained significantly higher in mice subjected to gavage, relative to mice administered PB pellets or naive controls. Furthermore, chronic 30day dosing of a BACE inhibitor administered via PB pellets to PSAPP mice resulted in expected plasma drug exposure and Aβ40 lowering consistent with drug treatment demonstrating target engagement. Taken together, this alternative method of oral administration by drug formulated in PB pellets results in the expected pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with attenuated stress levels, and is devoid of the detrimental effects of repetitive oral gavage. PMID:25242810

  5. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Pioglitazone (Actos) is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects. This study investigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder. Materials and Methods: 120 albino mice were divided into four groups; 30 in each. The first group (control) received water, second (diabetic) group received alloxan only, while the third and the fourth groups received alloxan with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of pioglitazone, respectively for 90 days. Results: Prolonged use of pioglitazone induced significant abnormalities of hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers and some hematological indices associated with histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, and bladder that increased based on administered dose. Conclusion: Subchronic use of pioglitazone leads to hepatic, renal, cardiac, hematological, and bladder affection depending on the applied dose.

  6. Evaluation of the foetal time to death in mice after application of direct and indirect euthanasia methods.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mediavilla, C; Cámara, J A; Salazar, S; Segui, B; Sanguino, D; Mulero, F; de la Cueva, E; Blanco, I

    2016-04-01

    Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that the killing of mammal foetuses during the last third of their gestational period should be accomplished through effective and humane methods. The fact that murine foetuses are resistant to hypoxia-mediated euthanasia renders the current euthanasia methods ineffective or humane for the foetuses when these methods are applied to pregnant female mice. We have assessed the time to death of foetuses after performing either indirect (dam euthanasia) or direct (via intraplacental injection - a new approach to euthanasia) euthanasia methods in order to determine a euthanasia method that is appropriate, ethical and efficient for the killing of mouse foetuses. The respective times to death of foetuses after performing the three most commonly used euthanasia methods (namely cervical dislocation, CO2inhalation and intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital administration) were recorded. Absence of foetal heartbeat was monitored via ultrasound. We consider that the most effective and humane method of foetal euthanasia was the one able to achieve foetal death within the shortest possible period of time. Among the indirect euthanasia methods assessed, the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose to pregnant female mice was found to be the fastest for foetuses, with an average post-treatment foetal death of approximately 29.8 min. As for the direct euthanasia method assessed, foetal time to death after intraplacental injection of sodium pentobarbital was approximately 14 min. Significant differences among the different mouse strains employed were found. Based on the results obtained in our study, we consider that the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose by intraplacental injection to be an effective euthanasia method for murine foetuses. PMID:26265244

  7. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R.; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with

  8. Effect of Croatian propolis on diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined the antioxidant effect of water soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) and ethanolic (EEP) extract of propolis on renal and liver function in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, we examined whether different extract of propolis could prevent diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vivo. Methods Diabetes was induced in Swiss albino mice with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (75 mg kg-1). Two days after alloxan injection, propolis preparations (50 mg kg-1 per day) were given intraperitoneally for 7 days in diabetic mice. Survival analysis and body weights as well as hematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The renal and liver oxidative stress marker malonaldehyde levels and histopathological changes were monitored in the liver and kidney of treated and control mice. Results Administration of propolis to diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase of body weight, haematological and immunological parameters of blood as well as 100% survival of diabetic mice. Alloxan-injected mice showed a marked increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidney homogenate, as determined by lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation of the liver sections of alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed several lesions including cellular vacuolization, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltrations, but with individual variability.Treatment of diabetic mice with propolis extracts results in decreased number of vacuolized cells and degree of vacuolization; propolis treatment improve the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in diabetes. Renal histology showed corpuscular, tubular and interstitial changes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Test components did not improve renal histopathology in diabetic mice. Conclusions Propolis preparations are able to attenuate diabetic hepatorenal damage, probably through its anti-oxidative action and its detoxification

  9. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Haq, A.K.; Pomerantz, S.H.; Halaban, R.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a lambdagt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were form related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase.

  10. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  11. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  12. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  13. Possible Therapeutic Effect of Stem Cell in Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis due to not fully understood mechanisms. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including vascular diseases. Aim The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on atherosclerosis. Material and Methods Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into control group (I), atherogenic group (II): subjected to high cholesterol fed diet (200~300 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks and 1.8 million units of vitamin D / kg of diet for 6 weeks. Stem cell therapy group (III): injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of atherosclerosis. Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed were conducted. Results Atherogenic group (II) showed increased aortic thickness, intimal proliferation, smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Increased area % of collagen fibers, iNOS and vimentin immunoreactions were recorded and proved morphometrically. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusion A definite therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells was found on atherosclerosis. PMID:26634068

  14. Route and method of delivery of DNA vaccine influence immune responses in mice and non-human primates.

    PubMed Central

    McCluskie, M. J.; Brazolot Millan, C. L.; Gramzinski, R. A.; Robinson, H. L.; Santoro, J. C.; Fuller, J. T.; Widera, G.; Haynes, J. R.; Purcell, R. H.; Davis, H. L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the large number of studies that have evaluated DNA-based immunization, few have directly compared the immune responses generated by different routes of immunization, particularly in non-human primates. Here we examine the ability of a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-encoding plasmid to induce immune responses in mice and non-human primates (rhesus monkeys: Macaca mulatta) after delivery by a number of routes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight different injected [intraperitoneal (IP), intradermal (ID), intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), intraperineal (IPER), subcutaneous (SC), sublingual (SL), vaginal wall (VW)] and six noninjected [intranasal inhalation (INH), intranasal instillation (INS), intrarectal (IR), intravaginal (IVAG), ocular (Oc), oral feeding (oral)] routes and the gene gun (GG) were used to deliver HBsAg-expressing plasmid DNA to BALB/c mice. Sera were assessed for HBsAg-specific antibodies (anti-HBs, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity measured. Three of the most commonly used routes (IM, ID, GG) were compared in rhesus monkeys, also using HBsAg-expressing vectors. Monkeys were immunized with short (0-, 4- and 8-week) or long (0-, 12- and 24-week) intervals between boosts, and in the case of GG, also with different doses, and their sera were assessed for anti-HBs. RESULTS: In one study, anti-HBs were detected in plasma of mice treated by five of eight of the injected and none of the six noninjected routes. The highest levels of anti-HBs were induced by IM and IV injections, although significant titers were also obtained with SL and ID. Each of these routes also induced CTL, as did IPER and VW and one noninjected route (INH) that failed to induce antibodies. In a second study, GG (1.6 microg) was compared to ID and IM (100 microg) delivery. Significant titers were obtained by all routes after only one boost, with the highest levels detected by IM. Delivery to the skin by GG induced exclusively IgG1

  15. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  16. Modulating Effects of Spirulina platensis against Tilmicosin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic used to treat cattle for pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease. However, overdoses of this medication have been reported to induce cardiac damage. Our experimental objective was to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) administration against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Materials and Methods Our experimental in vivo animal study used 40 male albino mice that were divided into five groups of eight mice per group. The first group served as a control group and was injected with saline. The second group received SP at dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for five days. The third group received a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Groups 4 and 5 were given SP at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days just before administration of TIL at the same dose and regimen used for group 3. Results TIL treated animals showed a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, however they had evidence of an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. SP normalized elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB. Furthermore, SP reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Administration of SP minimized the toxic effects of TIL by its free radicalscavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25870843

  17. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON IMMUNOBLOT VERSUS PCR IN DIAGNOSIS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mousa A M; Mousa, Wahed Mohammed Ali; Abu-Sarea, Enas Yahia; Basyouni, Maha M A; Mohammed, Samah Sayed

    2016-04-01

    This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1st week to the 8th week post infection. The study found that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. Thus, PCR diagnosed schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able to diagnose. PMID:27363045

  19. Genetic and Physical Interaction Studies Reveal Functional Similarities between ALBINO3 and ALBINO4 in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trösch, Raphael; Töpel, Mats; Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ALBINO3 (ALB3) is a well-known component of a thylakoid protein-targeting complex that interacts with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and the cpSRP receptor, chloroplast filamentous temperature-sensitive Y (cpFtsY). Its protein-inserting function has been established mainly for light-harvesting complex proteins, which first interact with the unique chloroplast cpSRP43 component and then are delivered to the ALB3 integrase by a GTP-dependent cpSRP-cpFtsY interaction. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a subsequently discovered ALB3 homolog, ALB4, has been proposed to be involved not in light-harvesting complex protein targeting, but instead in the stabilization of the ATP synthase complex. Here, however, we show that ALB3 and ALB4 share significant functional overlap, and that both proteins are required for the efficient insertion of cytochrome f and potentially other subunits of pigment-bearing protein complexes. Genetic and physical interactions between ALB4 and ALB3, and physical interactions between ALB4 and cpSRP, suggest that the two ALB proteins may engage similar sets of interactors for their specific functions. We propose that ALB4 optimizes the insertion of thylakoid proteins by participating in the ALB3-cpSRP pathway for certain substrates (e.g. cytochrome f and the Rieske protein). Although ALB4 has clearly diverged from ALB3 in relation to the partner-recruiting C-terminal domain, our analysis suggests that one putative cpSRP-binding motif has not been entirely lost. PMID:26265777

  20. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  1. Simplified methods for obtaining purified oocysts from mice and for growing Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meloni, B P; Thompson, R C

    1996-10-01

    Seven- to 8-day-old Arc/Swiss mice were infected with 100,000-120,000 Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. At 8 days postinfection (PI) the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum were removed. Using a simple extraction procedure and purification by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, we rountinely obtained between 3-6 million and up to 15 million purified oocysts per mouse. For in vitro cultivation, purified oocysts were pretreated in a low pH (2.5-3) 0.5% trypsin solution for 20 min, resuspended in supplemented RPMI-1640 containing glucose 0.1 g (5.55 mM), sodium bicarbonate 0.3 g, bovine bile 0.02 g, folic acid 25 micrograms, 4-aminobenzoic acid 100 micrograms, calcium pantothenate 50 micrograms, ascorbic acid 875 micrograms, penicillin G 10,000 U and streptomycin 0.01 g per 100 ml, and 1% fetal bovine serum (pH 7.4 before filtration), and used to inoculate confluent monolayers of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-8. Incubation was in a candle jar at 37 C. We tested numerous supplements to RPMI-1640, different pHs, and atmospheric conditions and found the parameters described above produced the greatest parasite numbers in vitro. We obtained significantly superior growth of C. parvum grown in HCT-8 cells using the conditions described above than in culture conditions described previously. PMID:8885885

  2. A rapid ultra HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation and pharmacokinetic analysis of 3-deazaneplanocin A in mice.

    PubMed

    Peer, Cody J; Rao, Mahadev; Spencer, Shawn D; Shahbazi, Shandiz; Steeg, Patricia S; Schrump, David S; Figg, William D

    2013-05-15

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to have anti-cancer activity in numerous cancer types and its continued preclinical, and eventual clinical, drug development will require rapid and sensitive bioanalytical methods in order to quantitate this drug for pharmacokinetic analyses. The ultra HPLC with positive thermospray tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection affords the most sensitive (limit of quantitation 5ng/mL) and rapid (3min run time) bioanalytical method to date for DZNep. Due to the polar nature of this drug and the internal standard (tubercidin), a hydrophilic-interaction column (HILIC) was used. The method was accurate, with less than 10% deviation from nominal values, as well as precise, where both within-day and between-day precisions were less than 15%. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was able to recover ∼90% of drug from a small volume (50μL) of mouse plasma. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice intravenously injected with DZNep. PMID:23352636

  3. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  4. Effects of photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative-HPD) and light dose on vascular targets in the albino mouse ear

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.K.; Davis, K.; Straight, R.C.; Waner, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic damage to normal tissues, including skin, appears to occur by photooxidative damage to the normal microvasculature as the primary target sensitized by HPD bound to the vascular wall or endothelial cell. Initial damage to the microvasculature was measured by the increase in vascular permeability (VP) as measured by Evans Blue dye (EB) extravasation as a function of HPD and laser light (632 nm) dose. Albino, Swiss-Webster mice (female 122-25 g, 5 mice per group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with incremental doses of HPD (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg). After 48 hours the left ear of each mouse was masked as a control and the right ear was irradiated at 632 nm using the Aurora-Lexel Argon-dye laser with an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 and light doses of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 J/cm2 directed to a 3-mm spot on the mouse ear. No EB leakage occurred in the absence of HPD at any light dose or in the absence of light at any HPC dose. Vascular permeability increased as a function of HPD dose up to 30 mg/kg. AT 50 mg/kg HPD, there was a decrease in VP. At each HPD dose above 10 mg/kg, the VP increased as a function of light dose up to 75 J/cm2. Further increase in light dose was without effect. The amount of HPD porphyrin recovered from irradiated ears decreased as a function of light dose. There appeared to be an irreversible photo destruction of the porphyrin exposed to light.

  5. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual’s exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  6. [Phase morphometric differences among Locusta migratoria cinerascens, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and their mutant albinos (Orthoptera)].

    PubMed

    Rakotondrainibe, K; Nicolas, G; Fuzeau-Braesch, S

    1975-12-22

    A first canonical variate analysis (factor analysis) of two geographic strains of L. m. shows that the same axes distinguish crowded from isolated animals as well as their geographical origins. Two other analyses between normal and albino strains of both localities show no differences for one strain; however for the other strain, the pigmentary mutation coincides with a solitary tendency. PMID:816517

  7. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  8. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  9. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26952426

  10. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  11. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  12. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidences for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Rekha; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil, commonly known as Malkangni or Jyotishmati, was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders. Celastrus paniculatus seed oil has significant antidepressant-like activity in chronic unpredictable stressed mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil in unstressed mice and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The seed oil (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, PO) and fluoxetine per se were administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On the 14th day, 60 min after drug administration, animals were subjected to Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swim Test (FST). The mechanism of action was also studied. Results: The oil significantly decreased immobility period of mice in both tail suspension test and forced swim test, indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (P<0.0001). ED50 value of celastrus seed oil using FST and TST were 17.38 and 31.62 mg/kg, respectively. The oil did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. It significantly inhibited brain MAO–A activity and decreased plasma corticosterone levels. Sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor), and baclofen (GABAB agonist) significantly attenuated the oil-induced antidepressant-like effect, when assessed during TST. Discussion: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice possibly through interaction with dopamine D2, serotonergic, and GABAB receptors; as well as inhibition of MAO–A activity and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:27303599

  13. Topical Mydriatics Affect Light-Evoked Retinal Responses in Anesthetized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mojumder, Deb Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize effects of the muscarinic antagonist atropine (A) and the α-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (P), on mydriasis and light-evoked signaling in mice anesthetized by ketamine and xylazine (K+X). Methods. Pupillary areas of anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were measured, with or without topical application of A or A+P. Dark-adapted ERGs were recorded from 2- to 4-month-old C57BL/6 and 7.5-month-old albino hrhoG/hrhoG mice after application of A or P singly or in combination, before or after induction of K+X anesthesia. Effects of GABA were tested in the hrhoG/hrhoG mice. Results. K+X anesthesia resulted in maximum mydriasis that was not enhanced by A or A+P. Dark-adapted b-wave amplitudes (−1.3 log sc td s) after K+X anesthesia were similar with or without A or P. A+P in the presence of K+X produced a slow growth in b-wave amplitude, reaching a plateau of twofold enhancement in 1 hour. Recordings of responses to varying flash energies revealed that the effects of A+P were on the maximum amplitude of the a- and b-waves and not on their sensitivity. Scotopic threshold responses were augmented as well. In photoreceptor-degenerated mice (hrhoG/hrhoG), an electronegative ERG wave recorded with K+X+A, was converted to a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-sensitive response with two electropositive components with A+P after K+X. Conclusions. Topical administration of A and P together, but not separately, in the presence of K+X, leads to a slow, dramatic enhancement of a- and b-waves by an unknown mechanism independent of pupil dilation. PMID:19661232

  14. Surgical Methods for Full-Thickness Skin Grafts to Induce Alopecia Areata in C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of humans and many domestic and laboratory animal species. C3H/HeJ inbred mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata at a low frequency (approximately 20% by 12 mo of age). Transferring full-thickness skin grafts from affected, older mice to young mice of the same strain reliably reproduces alopecia areata, thus enabling investigators to study disease pathogenesis or intervention with a variety of therapeutic approaches. We here describe in detail how to perform full-thickness skin grafts and the follow-up procedures necessary to consistently generate mice with alopecia areata. These engrafted mice can be used to study the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune disease and for drug-efficacy trials. This standard protocol can be used for many other purposes when studying abnormal skin phenotypes in laboratory mice. PMID:24210015

  15. Method for counting motor units in mice and validation using a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Major, Lora A; Hegedus, Janka; Weber, Douglas J; Gordon, Tessa; Jones, Kelvin E

    2007-02-01

    Weakness and atrophy are clinical signs that accompany muscle denervation resulting from motor neuron disease, peripheral neuropathies, and injury. Advances in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of these disorders have led to the development of therapeutic alternatives designed to slow denervation and promote reinnervation. Preclinical in vitro research gave rise to the need of a method for measuring the effects in animal models. Our goal was to develop an efficient method to determine the number of motor neurons making functional connections to muscle in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We developed a novel protocol for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) using incremental stimulation. The method involves analysis of twitch waveforms using a new software program, ITS-MUNE, designed for interactive calculation of motor unit number. The method was validated by testing simulated twitch data from a mathematical model of the neuromuscular system. Computer simulations followed the same stimulus-response protocol and produced waveform data that were indistinguishable from experiments. We show that our MUNE protocol is valid, with high precision and small bias across a wide range of motor unit numbers. The method is especially useful for large muscle groups where MUNE could not be done using manual methods. The results are reproducible across naïve and expert analysts, making it suitable for easy implementation. The ITS-MUNE analysis method has the potential to quantitatively measure the progression of motor neuron diseases and therefore the efficacy of treatments designed to alleviate pathologic processes of muscle denervation. PMID:17151224

  16. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities

  17. Assessing skin sensitization hazard in mice and men using non-animal test methods.

    PubMed

    Urbisch, Daniel; Mehling, Annette; Guth, Katharina; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Honarvar, Naveed; Kolle, Susanne; Landsiedel, Robert; Jaworska, Joanna; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Sensitization, the prerequisite event in the development of allergic contact dermatitis, is a key parameter in both hazard and risk assessments. The pathways involved have recently been formally described in the OECD adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization. One single non-animal test method will not be sufficient to fully address this AOP and in many cases the use of a battery of tests will be necessary. A number of methods are now fully developed and validated. In order to facilitate acceptance of these methods by both the regulatory and scientific communities, results of the single test methods (DPRA, KeratinoSens, LuSens, h-CLAT, (m)MUSST) as well for a the simple '2 out of 3' ITS for 213 substances have been compiled and qualitatively compared to both animal and human data. The dataset was also used to define different mechanistic domains by probable protein-binding mechanisms. In general, the non-animal test methods exhibited good predictivities when compared to local lymph node assay (LLNA) data and even better predictivities when compared to human data. The '2 out of 3' prediction model achieved accuracies of 90% or 79% when compared to human or LLNA data, respectively and thereby even slightly exceeded that of the LLNA. PMID:25541156

  18. Expression of distinct α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the iris of pigmented and albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, I; Suzuki, F; Nishimune, A; Anisuzzaman, ASM; Yoshiki, H; Su, T-H; Chang, C-K; Morishima, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The expression of multiple pharmacological phenotypes including α1L-adrenoceptor has recently been reported for α1-adrenoceptors. The purpose of the present study was to identify α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the irises of pigmented and albino rabbits. Experimental approach: Radioligand binding and functional bioassay experiments were performed in segments or strips of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits, and their pharmacological profiles were compared. Key results: [3H]-silodosin at subnanomolar concentrations bound to intact segments of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits at similar densities (approximately 240 fmol·mg−1 protein). The binding sites in the iris of a pigmented rabbit were composed of a single component showing extremely low affinities for prazosin, hydrochloride [N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-α,α-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethamine hydrochloride (RS-17053)] and 5-methylurapidil, while two components with high and low affinities for prazosin, RS-17053 and 5-methylurapidil were identified in irises from albino rabbits. In contrast, specific binding sites for [3H]-prazosin were not clearly detected because a high proportion of non-specific binding and/or low affinity for prazosin occurred. Contractile responses of iris dilator muscle to noradrenaline were antagonized by the above ligands, and their antagonist affinities were consistent with the binding estimates at low-affinity sites identified in both strains of rabbits. Conclusions and implications: A typical α1L phenotype with extremely low affinity for prazosin is exclusively expressed in the iris of pigmented rabbits, while two distinct phenotypes (α1A and α1L) with high and moderate affinities for prazosin are co-expressed in the iris of albino rabbits. This suggests that a significant difference in the expression of phenotypes of the α1-adrenoceptor occurs in the irises between the two strains of rabbits. PMID:19466984

  19. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  20. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  1. A method for measuring disease-specific iduronic acid from the non-reducing end of glycosaminoglycan in mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yohta; Wakabayashi, Taichi; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Hoshina, Hiroo; Higuchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in multiple tissues. Accumulated GAGs are generally measured as the amount of total GAGs. However, we recently demonstrated that GAG accumulation in the brain of MPS II model mice cannot be reliably detected by conventional dye-binding assay measuring total GAGs. Here we developed a novel quantitative method for measurement of disease-specific GAGs based on the analysis of 2-sulfoiduronic acid levels derived from the non-reducing terminal end of the polysaccharides by using recombinant human IDS (rhIDS) and recombinant human iduronidase (rhIDUA). This method was evaluated on GAGs obtained from the liver and brain of MPS II mice. The GAGs were purified from tissue homogenates and then digested with rhIDS and rhIDUA to generate a desulfated iduronic acid from their non-reducing terminal end. HPLC analysis revealed that the generated iduronic acid levels were markedly increased in the liver and cerebrum of the MPS II mice, whereas the uronic acid was not detected in wild-type mice. These results indicate that this assay clearly detects the disease-specific GAGs in tissues from MPS II mice. PMID:26051019

  2. Familial clustering of mice consistent to known pedigrees enabled by the genome profiling (GP) method

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Harshita; Ohtani, Fumihito; Kumari, Parmila; Diwan, Deepti; Ohara, Naoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Miho; Nemoto, Naoto; Matsushima, Yoshibumi; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Familial clustering without any prerequisite knowledge becomes often necessary in Behavioral Science, and forensic studies in case of great disasters like Tsunami and earthquake requiring body-identification without any usable information. However, there has been no well-established method for this purpose although conventional ones such as short tandem repeats (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which might be applied with toil and moil to some extent. In this situation, we could find that the universal genome distance-measuring method genome profiling (GP), which is made up of three elemental techniques; random PCR, micro-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (μTGGE), and computer processing for normalization, can do this purpose with ease when applied to mouse families. We also confirmed that the sequencing approach based on the ccgf (commonly conserved genetic fragment appearing in the genome profile) was not completely discriminative in this case. This is the first demonstration that the familial clustering can be attained without a priori sequence information to the level of discriminating strains and sibling relationships. This method can complement the conventional approaches in preliminary familial clustering. PMID:27493499

  3. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  4. GONAD: Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery system: a novel microinjection independent genome engineering method in mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Gou; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Microinjection is considered the gold standard technique for delivery of nucleic acids (NAs; transgenes or genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems) into embryos, for creating genetically modified organisms. It requires sophisticated equipment as well as well-trained and highly skilled personnel to perform the micro-injection technique. Here, we describe a novel and simple microinjection-independent technique, called Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (GONAD). Using GONAD, we show that NAs (e.g., eGFP mRNA or Cas9 mRNA/sgRNAs) can be effectively delivered to pre-implantation embryos within the intact mouse oviduct by a simple electroporation method, and result in the desired genetic modification in the embryos. Thus GONAD can bypass many complex steps in transgenic technology such as isolation of zygotes, microinjection of NAs into them, and their subsequent transfer to pseudo-pregnant animals. Furthermore, this method can potentially be used for genome editing in species other than mice. PMID:26096991

  5. GONAD: Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery system: a novel microinjection independent genome engineering method in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Gou; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Microinjection is considered the gold standard technique for delivery of nucleic acids (NAs; transgenes or genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems) into embryos, for creating genetically modified organisms. It requires sophisticated equipment as wel as well-trained and highly skilled personnel to perform the micro-injection technique. Here, we describe a novel and simple microinjection-independent technique, called Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (GONAD). Using GONAD, we show that NAs (e.g., eGFP mRNA or Cas9 mRNA/sgRNAs) can be effectively delivered to pre-implantation embryos within the intact mouse oviduct by a simple electroporation method, and result in the desired genetic modification in the embryos. Thus GONAD can bypass many complex steps in transgenic technology such as isolation of zygotes, microinjection of NAs into them, and their subsequent transfer to pseudo-pregnant animals. Furthermore, this method can potentially be used for genome editing in species other than mice. PMID:26096991

  6. Orthotopic bone transplantation in mice. III. Methods of reducing the immune response and their effect on healing

    SciTech Connect

    Kliman, M.; Halloran, P.F.; Lee, E.; Esses, S.; Fortner, P.; Langer, F.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of reducing the immune response to allogeneic bone grafts, either by pretreating the graft or by immunosuppressing the recipient, were compared. Tibial grafts from B10.D2 mice, either untreated or pretreated in various ways, were transplanted into B10 recipients. The antibody response was followed and the extent of bone healing at 4 months was assessed. Pretreatment of the graft by X-irradiation, freezing, or by incubation in alloantisera (either anti-H-2 or anti-Ia) reduced or abolished the immunogenicity of the graft. Immunosuppression of the recipient with methotrexate or antilymphocyte serum (ALS) also greatly depressed the antibody response. But when healing was assessed, none of these treatments except ALS improved the delayed healing of the bone allografts. The reason for this failure was probably that X-irradiation, freezing, alloantiserum pretreatment, and methotrexate all interfered with bone healing directly, whereas ALS did not. We conclude that many methods will reduce the immune response to allogeneic bone, but that only ALS will improve the healing of the allogeneic bone. Furthermore, as a corollary to the observation that pretreatment with anti-Ia serum markedly reduced the immunogenicity of bone allografts, we conclude that much of the immunogenicity of bone allografts is attributable to a population of Ia-positive cells.

  7. Possible role of trazodone and imipramine in sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Garg, R

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is one of the key regulators for maintaining physical, mental and emotional health. Nonrefreshing sleep and depression are common problems nowadays. The present study was designed to explore the protective effects of trazodone and imipramine on 72-h sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. Albino mice were sleep-deprived for a period of 72 h using the grid suspended over water method. Animals were divided into different groups, each consisting of six animals. Trazodone (5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg i.p.) were administered for 5 days starting 2 days before 72-h sleep deprivation. Various behavioral tests (elevated plus maze, zero maze, mirror chamber for anxiety and actophotometer), followed by oxidative parameter tests (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein), were assessed in sleep-deprived animals. Treatment with trazodone and imipramine significantly improved locomotor activity and exerted anxiolytic-like effects in all paradigm tasks (mirror chamber, elevated plus maze, zero maze) as compared to untreated 72-h sleep-deprived animals (P < 0.05). Biochemically, both trazodone and imipramine significantly restored depleted reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase activity and attenuated raised lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations as compared to untreated sleep-deprived animals. The results of the present study suggest a protective effect for trazodone and imipramine on sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice. PMID:19798453

  8. Biological methods for archiving and maintaining mutant laboratory mice. Part I: conserving mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Fray, Martin D

    2009-01-01

    The mouse is now firmly established as the model organism of choice for scientists studying mammalian biology and human disease. Consequently, a plethora of novel, genetically altered (GA) mouse lines have been created. In addition, the output from the large scale mutagenesis programmes currently under way around the world will increase the collection of GA mouse strains still further. Because of the implications for animal welfare and the constraints on resources, it would be unreasonable to expect anything other than those strains essential for ongoing research programmes to be maintained as breeding colonies. Unfortunately, unless the redundant strains are preserved using robust procedures, which guarantee their recovery, they will be lost to future generations of researchers.This chapter describes some of the preservation methods currently used in laboratories around the world to archive novel mouse strains. PMID:19504080

  9. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Gaskill, Brianna N; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female's dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001). Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis, pair mating

  10. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.; Gaskill, Brianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male’s territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female’s dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001). Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis, pair mating

  11. Method for optic nerve intensity characterization in mice from Mn2+ enhanced MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D.; Ribic, J.; Butzkueven, H.; Fang, K.; Kilpatrick, T. J.; Egan, G. F.; Salvado, O.

    2009-02-01

    Investigating whether manganese transport is impaired in the optic nerve of small animal model is a new approach for evaluating optic neuritis. One needs to quantify signal intensity enhancement due to Mn2+ after intra-orbital injection, along the optic nerve from MR images. Quantification is very challenging as the optic nerve (ON) is not straight, its location does not correspond to standard slice orientation, the noise is substantial, and the signal is subject to inhomogeneity from the coil sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method whereby 1) the retina point and the start of the chiasm in a mouse brain MR image are defined manually in a 3D visualization environment, 2) optic nerve in reformatted slices perpendicular to the optic nerve segment is semi-manually selected, 3) an automatic algorithm extracts the intensities along the optic nerve while correcting for intensity inhomogeneity, and 4) a model for the Mn2+ diffusion with a exponential decay function is fitted to the intensity profile. Results for the study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are reported whereby statistically significant differences were found between the EAE and the control group.

  12. A Method to Target and Isolate Airway-innervating Sensory Neurons in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kaelberer, Melanie Maya; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Somatosensory nerves transduce thermal, mechanical, chemical, and noxious stimuli caused by both endogenous and environmental agents. The cell bodies of these afferent neurons are located within the sensory ganglia. Sensory ganglia innervate a specific organ or portion of the body. For instance, the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located in the vertebral column and extend processes throughout the body and limbs. The trigeminal ganglia are located in the skull and innervate the face, and upper airways. Vagal afferents of the nodose ganglia extend throughout the gut, heart, and lungs. The nodose neurons control a diverse array of functions such as: respiratory rate, airway irritation, and cough reflexes. Thus, to understand and manipulate their function, it is critical to identify and isolate airway specific neuronal sub-populations. In the mouse, the airways are exposed to a fluorescent tracer dye, Fast Blue, for retrograde tracing of airway-specific nodose neurons. The nodose ganglia are dissociated and fluorescence activated cell (FAC) sorting is used to collect dye positive cells. Next, high quality ribonucleic acid (RNA) is extracted from dye positive cells for next generation sequencing. Using this method airway specific neuronal gene expression is determined. PMID:27168016

  13. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. PMID:22778509

  14. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg), Tc (100 mg/kg), Pe (300 mg/kg), 1 formulation (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg) and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg) daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further. PMID:26834422

  15. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  16. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained. PMID:16830507

  17. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  18. Synthesis and psychobiological evaluation of modafinil analogs in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent with low potential for abuse and dependence, has a reliable structure to find some novel derivatives with better activity and lower potential for abuse and risk of dependency. This study was designed to evaluate psychobiological activity of some novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives. Methods Seven novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives were synthesized through three reactions: a) preparation of benzhydrylsulfanyl acetic acid through reaction of benzhydrol with thioglycolic acid, b) formation of desired amide by adding the substituted aniline to activated acid with EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl amino propyl) carbodiimide). This reaction was catalyzed by HOBt (N- hydroxylbenzotriazole), and c) oxidation of sulfur to sulfoxide group with H2O2. Then, their psychobiological effect on the performance of male albino mice were compared to that of modafinil as following: wakefulness by determining the effects of derivatives on phenobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex (LOPR); exploratory activity by measuring activity in the open field test (OFT); depression by measuring immobility time (IT) during forced swimming test (FST) and the anxiogenic and anxiolytic like effects by using elevated plus-maze test (EPM). All tests were videotaped and analyzed for the frequency and duration of the behaviors during the procedures. Conclusions 2-(Benzhydrylsulfonyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)acetamide (4c) showed comparable result in LOPR test. However, all analogs were found to be stimulant except 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-phenylacetamide (4a). Also 4c led the most exploratory activity in mice among derivatives. FST results showed that 4a had the longest IT while modafinil, 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(3-chlorophenyl) acetamide (4b) and 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(4-ethylphenyl) acetamide (4d) had the shortest IT. In EPM, all derivatives showed anxiogenic-like behavior since they decreased open arms time and open arms

  19. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  20. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  1. Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, FC; wuanyanwu, KC Patrick-I; Nnodu, CK; Erhabor, O

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D) of experimental male Wistar albino rats (n = 8) for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8) served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01) > B (0.18 ± 0.01) > C (0.14 ± 0.01) > D (0.10 ± 0.01). The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male Wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine) produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.

  2. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  3. The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Duygu; Saatci, Ali Osman; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Durak, Ismet; Berk, Ayse Tulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model. Methods: Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments. Results: Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247). Conclusion: In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina. PMID:27014381

  4. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haitao; Patel, Shyam; Roberts, Robin; Berkowitz, Bruce A.; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM) is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm) daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo. Results PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers. Conclusions PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit

  5. Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Naga; Babu, S. Manohar; Rao, M.E. Bhanoji

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Materials and Methods: In this study, Wistar albino rats (180–200 g) were used. Plasma corticosterone and monoamines—5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of brain were determined in animals under different stressful conditions. Ethanolic fruit extract of MC, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, was used. The oxidative stress paradigms used in in vivo models were acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Panax quinquefolium (PQ) was used as a standard in in vivo models and ascorbic acid was used as a reference standard in the in vitro method. Results: Subjecting the animals to AS (immobilization for 150 min once only) resulted in significant elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and brain monoamine levels. Pretreatment with MC at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly countered AS-induced changes and a similar effect was exhibited by PQ at 100 mg/kg p.o. In the CUS regimen (different stressors for 7 days), plasma corticosterone levels were significantly elevated whereas the levels of 5-HT, NE, E, and DA were depleted significantly. Pretreatment with MC (200 and 400 mg/kg) attenuated the CUS-induced changes in the levels of above monoamines in cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus regions of brain and plasma corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MC extract (1000–5000 μg/mL) exhibited a significant quenching effect on in vitro lipid peroxidation indicating its strong antioxidant activity which was compared with ascorbic acid. Conclusions: This study reveals the antistress activity of MC as it significantly reverted the stress-induced changes, and the activity might be attributed

  6. Analysis of the Albino-Locus Region of the Mouse. I. Origin and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Liane B.; Russell, W. L.; Kelly, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous specific-locus experiments designed to test the mutagenic effect of external radiation have yielded, in over 3,600,000 animals observed, altogether 119 presumed mutations involving the c locus. Of these, 55 were viable and albino (cav), 13 were viable and of various intermediate pigment types (cxv), four were subvital (cas and cxs), seven were neonatally lethal albinos (cal), 28 prenatally lethal albinos (cal); 12 died untested. All of the prenatally lethal and at least one of the neonatally lethal c-locus mutations (cal classes) are probably deficiencies that we have analyzed extensively in other experiments. Since absence of the locus mimics albino in phenotype, the intermediates (cxv and cxs groups) probably resulted from intragenic changes. The class of viable albino mutants (cav) might include, in addition to intragenic changes, some extremely small deficiencies.—The effects on viability of c-locus lethals (cal's) in heterozygous condition are not drastic enough to be perceived in stocks of mixed genetic background except in the case of the two longest known deficiencies and a few others.—Analysis of the relation between radiation treatment and type of c-locus mutants obtained shows that the relative frequency of viable mutations, for each germ-cell type, is greater for low-LET than for neutron irradiation; however, the difference for any individual cell type is not significant. The majority (66.7%) of mutations derived from X- or γ-ray irradiated spermatogonia are viable, and the proportion of "intermediates" among these viables is similar to that among presumed spontaneous c-locus mutations. No significant dose-rate effect on the proportion of lethals could be demonstrated within the set of mutants induced by low-LET irradiation of spermatogonia. Although sets from other germ-cell stages are too small for statistical tests, the results for oocytes are similar, as far as they go. Furthermore, most of the c-locus mutations induced in

  7. [Age-dependent changes of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, T A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain the normative data on the age-dependent transformation of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia in albino rats. Cell cross-sectional area, activities of cholinesterase (demonstrated with thioacetic acid method) monoamine oxidase (demonstrated with Glenner method) were measured in neurocytes of stellate, spinal, trigeminal and gastric ganglia in rats aged 2 to 360 days. Measurements were made with the help of "Bioscan" videoanalyzer. Informational analysis was used for the evaluation of the degree of maturation of neurocyte systems. General features, age- and organ-related peculiarities of morphometric and enzyme-histochemical characteristics were established for neurocytes of different ganglia, as well as a heterochronism of their definitive state attainment. The time of stabilization for neurocytes of stellate and I thoracic spinal ganglia was the age of 60 days, for those of trigeminal ganglion and intramural gastric ganglia -90 and 120 days, respectively. By this time, neurocyte systems turned from a determined state into a probabilistic-determined one, this transformation being considered as a population stabilization. PMID:15359692

  8. Generation of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Andrew; Haruyama, Naoto; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2009-01-01

    This unit describes detailed step-by-step protocols, reagents, and equipment required for successful generation of transgenic mice using pronuclear injection. The experimental methods and practical tips given here will help guide beginners in understanding what is required and what to avoid in these standard protocols for efficiently generating transgenic mice. PMID:19283729

  9. CNS Depressant and Antinociceptive Effects of Different Fractions of Pandanus Foetidus Roxb. Leaf Extract in Mice

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Md Mominur; UDDIN, Muhammad Erfan; ISLAM, Abu Mohammed Taufiqual; CHOWDHURY, Md Ashraf Uddin; RAHMAN, Md Atiar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various parts of Pandanus foetidus Roxb. are used as traditional medicines. However, scientific reports concerning the effect of this plant on central nervous system (CNS) depression and analgesia are unavailable. This study investigated the CNS depressant and antinociceptive effects of Pandanus foetidus leaf extracts in a rodent model. Methods: The sedative and anxiolytic activities of Pandanus foetidus extract (500 g) were tested using behavioural models of Swiss albino mice, and the analgesic activity was assessed by formalin-induced pain and tail immersion tests at 200 mg/kg body weight of the mice. The data were analysed by a one-way ANOVA, a repeated measure of ANOVA and a non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) using the SPSS software. Acute toxicity was tested using an established method. Results: Compared with the aqueous fraction, the methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of the extract exhibited a more significant (P < 0.001) reduction of locomotor activity in the mice in the open field, hole-cross, and elevated plus maze (EPM). The methanol fraction maximized the duration of sleeping time caused by the thiopental sodium induction. The extract produced a significant step-down in pain, as shown by the paw licking time in the early and late phases of the formalin test. In the tail immersion test, the chloroform fraction maximally reduced the heat-induced analgesia. The extract was found to be non toxic. Conclusion: The methanol, petroleum ether, and chloroform fractions of P. foetidus have strong CNS depressant and antinociceptive effects and thus merit further pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26715894

  10. Protective Assessment of Euphorbia neriifolia and its Isolated Flavonoid Against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced Hepatic Carcinogenesis in Male Mice: A Histopathological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Janmeda, Pracheta

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA), a potent environment carcinogen on liver tissue of mice which was attenuated by isolated flavonoid and hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (HEEN) leaves. Materials and Methods: Carcinogenicity was induced in albino mice by a single oral administration of DENA (50 mg/kg body weight). The HEEN (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; 0.5 and 1%) and E. neriifolia flavonoid (ENF; 50 mg/kg body weight) were estimated to examine the possible anti-cancer potential. Results: DENA exposed animals showed alterations in normal hepatic histo-architecture, which comprised of necrosis (N), dilated sinusoids and vacuolization of the cells. Mice treated with E. neriifolia lower (ENL) and higher (ENH) dose and ENF before intoxicated with DENA showed that the liver cells were normal, with very little necrosis (Day 31). On the other hand, BHA higher (BHAH) and lower (BHAL) dose failed to diminish the abnormalities caused by the DENA. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggests that the ENH and ENF protects the hepatic tissue against DENA-induced hepatic carcinoma. The results could also be expressed in the order of ENH> ENF> ENL> BHAH> BHAL. PMID:24748733

  11. Effects of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae on the degranulation of dermal mast cells in mice; an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Yusuf; Kalender, Suna; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Ogutcu, Ayşe; Açikgoz, Fatma

    2004-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) is found in pine woods. Hairs of the T. pityocampa caterpillar cause a cutaneous reaction in humans and animals. Mast cells are responsible for allergic reactions in mammals. In this study male swiss albino mice were divided into two groups: 5 mice in the control group and 25 mice in the experimental group. The dorsal skin of mice was shaved. The mice in the experimental group and T. pityocampa larvae (fifth instar, approximately n=100) were put in the same cage. Dermal mast cells of mice exposed to T. pityocampa were examined with a transmission electron microscope and compared to the control group 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after exposure. Dermal mast cell degranulation in mice was observed 12 and 24 hours after exposure. PMID:15521642

  12. White versus blue: Does the wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) differ in fruit quality compared to the blue one?

    PubMed

    Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-11-15

    Wild albino and blue bilberry fruit were analyzed to compare different fruit characteristics linked to the composition of primary and secondary metabolites. Compounds were identified using HPLC-MS and standard quality parameters were determined. Albino berries were significantly smaller, accumulated less water and were characterized by 23% higher dry weight. Soluble solids content and pH value were higher in albino bilberry and their surface was lighter and characterized by a yellow hue. Both bilberry forms accumulated identical individual sugars and organic acids; however, the albino form had 33% higher content of total sugars and 9% higher content of total organic acids compared to the blue type. Fifteen anthocyanins were identified in both forms, but in albino bilberries, individual anthocyanins were only detected in traces. Blue bilberry contained 1.6-fold higher levels of flavanols, 2.1-fold higher levels of flavonols, 2.5-fold higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and consequently, 4.6-fold higher total phenolic content. PMID:27283708

  13. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Imrana; Siddiqui, Zeba N.; Rizvi, Shamim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result: Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days). Restraint stress-induced (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion: O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. PMID:21206619

  14. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  15. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

  16. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  17. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  18. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes. PMID:25858073

  19. Modulation of muscarinic system with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant attenuates depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Paramdeep; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several studies suggest that muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine is a rapidly acting antidepressant for the treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of synergistic potential of scopolamine with antidepressants for the treatment of depression without memory impairment in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressants such as citalopram, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, and venlafaxine at their median effective dose that is 12.5, 42.8, 17.5, 15.7 mg/kg p.o., respectively, were evaluated in combination with scopolamine 0.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally for the synergistic potential for ameliorating depression in Swiss albino mice. A battery of tests including forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were performed in all the groups comprising vehicle control, scopolamine, antidepressants per se, and the combinations of antidepressants with scopolamine. This was followed by the locomotor activity and memory tests. Results: Behavioral studies indicated that only antidepressant venlafaxine with scopolamine resulted in 95.5% and 93.6% reduction in immobility time compared to the vehicle control in FST and TST, respectively. This is significant (P < 0.0001) synergistic hyper-additive antidepressive-like effect compared to scopolamine per se and venlafaxine per se treatment effects in antidepressant paradigms. All the data were evaluated using the one-way analysis of variance followed by individual comparisons using Tukey's post-hoc test. Control open field studies demonstrated no significant increase in general locomotion after co-administration of the compounds. Step down avoidance paradigm confirmed that scopolamine at the selected dose has no cognition deficit in any mice. Conclusions: The dose of scopolamine selected for synergistic potential has no detrimental effect on memory. The present results suggest the concoction of scopolamine with venlafaxine for enhanced synergistic antidepressive

  20. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

  1. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of α-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. α-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5–20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10–100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of α-mangostin was poor and the distribution of α-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. α-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated α-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of α-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of α-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  2. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Yon; You, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of α-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. α-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5-20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10-100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of α-mangostin was poor and the distribution of α-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. α-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated α-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of α-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of α-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  3. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Ramesh, V.; Sridhar, M. P.; Sasikala, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC) in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal PMID:26015745

  4. Preserving GABAergic interneurons in acute brain slices of mice using the N-methyl-D-glucamine-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Geng; Li, Yue; Geng, Hong-Yan; Yang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ke-Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Defects in the function and development of GABAergic interneurons have been linked to psychiatric disorders, so preservation of these interneurons in brain slices is important for successful electrophysiological recording in various ex vivo methods. However, it is difficult to maintain the activity and morphology of neurons in slices from mice of >30 days old. Here we evaluated the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG)-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) method for the preservation of interneurons in slices from mice of up to ∼6 months old and discussed the steps that may affect their quality during slicing. We found that the NMDG-aCSF method rescued more cells than sucrose-aCSF and successfully preserved different types of interneurons including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons. In addition, both the chemical and electrical synaptic signaling of interneurons were maintained. These results demonstrate that the NMDG-aCSF method is suitable for the preservation of interneurons, especially in studies of gap junctions. PMID:25648546

  5. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Boitet, Evan R.; Turner, Ashley N.; Johnson, Larry W.; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R.; Hymel, Katherine M.; Gross, Alecia K.; Kesterson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  6. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  7. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  8. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  9. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ≥17.00 mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2 g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3 g, 42.6 g, and 85.2 g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  10. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Edu, F E; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol-kolanut interaction on sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group and used for the study. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 6 were treated for a period of 21 days, with (10% v/v) of alcohol (group 2), 50mg/kg body weight of kolanut (group 3), 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (group 4), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight kolanut (group 5), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. A day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain responsible for neuronal function, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, was inhibited by alcohol-kolanut co-administration relative to control, resulting in a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, ATP production, ion transport and action potential, leading to loss of neuronal activities. PMID:18379627

  11. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  12. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  13. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization method for the identification of a new strain of murine hepatitis virus from xenografted SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Toohey, Brendan; Purcell, Damian F J; Kannourakis, George

    2015-12-01

    During attempts to clone retroviral determinants associated with a mouse model of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify unique viruses in the liver of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with LCH tissues. A partial genomic sequence of a murine coronavirus was identified, and the whole genome (31428 bp) of the coronavirus was subsequently sequenced using PCR cloning techniques. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the genome sequence of the new virus was 91-93% identical to those of known murine hepatitis viruses (MHVs). The predicted open reading frame from the nucleotide sequence encoded all known proteins of MHVs. Analysis at the protein level showed that the virus was closely related to the highly virulent MHV-JHM strain. The virus strain was named MHV-MI. No type D retroviruses were found. Degenerate PCR targeting of type D retrovirus and 5'-RACE targeting of other types of retroviruses confirmed the absence of any retroviral association with the LCH xenografted SCID mice. PMID:26347284

  15. Development of a sensitive, accurate and robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric method for profiling of angiotensin peptides in plasma and its application for atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Olkowicz, Mariola; Radulska, Adrianna; Suraj, Joanna; Kij, Agnieszka; Walczak, Maria; Chlopicki, Stefan; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2015-05-01

    Quantification of angiotensin (Ang) peptides in biological matrices is a challenge due to their low picomolar (pM) concentration and poor analytical performance of current methods. This work aimed to select an optimal strategy for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) quantification of major angiotensins in plasma of wild type and atherosclerotic mice. Optimal LC/MS set-up for Ang quantification was chosen, based on analytical performance, from: nanoflow/orbitrap, nanoflow/triple quadrupole and preconcentration nanoflow/triple quadrupole. The best LC/MS configuration (preconcentration nanoflow/triple quadrupole) was validated and used for measurement of angiotensins (Ang I, II, III, IV and (1-7)) in plasma of 6-month-old atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E/LDL receptor double knock-outs (ApoE/LDLR (--/--)) and wild type C57BL/6J (WT) mice. The method established for Ang quantification was selective, accurate and highly sensitive with LLOQ of 5pgmL(-1). The peak area intra-day precisions for Ang II and Ang-(1-7) were in the range 3.0-5.1 and 3.5-5.8, respectively, with corresponding accuracy of 95.4-103.5% and 95.6-106.3%. Plasma angiotensin profile was substantially modified in ApoE/LDLR knock-out mice with increase in concentration of Ang II from 37.6±21.3pgmL(-1) in WT to 200.2±47.6pgmL(-1). Concentrations of Ang I, III and IV were also increased 3-10 fold in ApoE/LDLR (--/--) mice while that of Ang-(1-7) was unchanged. We conclude that the method developed could be effectively used for accurate, comprehensive profiling of angiotensin peptides in mouse plasma. We identified substantial changes in renin-angiotensin system in a genetic mouse model of atherosclerosis consistent with the overactivation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the impairment of ACE2. PMID:25817477

  16. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect. PMID:22494845

  17. Effect of drugs modulating serotonergic system on the analgesic action of paracetamol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Yogita S.; Belsare, Peeyush; Panditrao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult albino mice were assigned to five groups: Normal saline, PCT, fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) + PCT, buspirone (5-HT1A Agonist) + PCT, and ondansetron (5HT3 antagonist) + PCT. Hot-plate and formalin test were used to determine pain threshold, tests being conducted 60 min after the last treatment. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Coadministration of buspirone with PCT attenuated the antinociceptive activity of PCT (P < 0.001), whereas fluoxetine + PCT increased pain threshold in the hot-plate and formalin test (P = 0.0046). Analgesic effect of PCT was not affected by ondansetron in formalin models. It attenuated analgesic action of PCT in hot-plate test (P = 0.0137). Conclusion: The results suggest that 5-HT1 receptors could also be responsible for the analgesic effect of PCT. Also, higher analgesia is produced by co-administration of SSRI (fluoxetine) + PCT. PMID:27298498

  18. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  19. A Comparative Study of Variables Influencing Ischemic Injury in the Longa and Koizumi Methods of Intraluminal Filament Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Gary P.; Gladbach, Amadeus; Ittner, Lars M.; Vissel, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    The intraluminal filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and rats has been plagued by inconsistency, owing in part to the multitude of variables requiring control. In this study we investigated the impact of several major variables on survival rate, lesion volume, neurological scores, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and body weight including filament width, time after reperfusion, occlusion time and the choice of surgical method. Using the Koizumi method, we found ischemic injury can be detected as early as 30 min after reperfusion, to a degree that is not statistically different from 24 h post-perfusion, using 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. We also found a distinct increase in total lesion volume with increasing occlusion time, with 30–45 min a critical time for the development of large, reproducible lesions. Furthermore, although we found no significant difference in total lesion volume generated by the Koizumi and Longa methods of MCAO, nor were survival rates appreciably different between the two at 4 h after reperfusion, the Longa method produces significantly greater reperfusion. Finally, we found no statistical evidence to support the exclusion of data from animals experiencing a CBF reduction of <70% in the MCA territory following MCAO, using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Instead we suggest the main usefulness of laser-Doppler flowmetry is for guiding filament placement and the identification of subarachnoid haemorrhages and premature reperfusion. In summary, this study provides detailed evaluation of the Koizumi method of intraluminal filament MCAO in mice and a direct comparison to the Longa method. PMID:26870954

  20. A Comparative Study of Variables Influencing Ischemic Injury in the Longa and Koizumi Methods of Intraluminal Filament Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gary P; Wright, Amanda L; Tan, Richard P; Gladbach, Amadeus; Ittner, Lars M; Vissel, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    The intraluminal filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and rats has been plagued by inconsistency, owing in part to the multitude of variables requiring control. In this study we investigated the impact of several major variables on survival rate, lesion volume, neurological scores, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and body weight including filament width, time after reperfusion, occlusion time and the choice of surgical method. Using the Koizumi method, we found ischemic injury can be detected as early as 30 min after reperfusion, to a degree that is not statistically different from 24 h post-perfusion, using 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. We also found a distinct increase in total lesion volume with increasing occlusion time, with 30-45 min a critical time for the development of large, reproducible lesions. Furthermore, although we found no significant difference in total lesion volume generated by the Koizumi and Longa methods of MCAO, nor were survival rates appreciably different between the two at 4 h after reperfusion, the Longa method produces significantly greater reperfusion. Finally, we found no statistical evidence to support the exclusion of data from animals experiencing a CBF reduction of <70% in the MCA territory following MCAO, using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Instead we suggest the main usefulness of laser-Doppler flowmetry is for guiding filament placement and the identification of subarachnoid haemorrhages and premature reperfusion. In summary, this study provides detailed evaluation of the Koizumi method of intraluminal filament MCAO in mice and a direct comparison to the Longa method. PMID:26870954

  1. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  2. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  3. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  4. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

  5. Stem cell factor rescues dark epidermal pigmentation in discreet anatomic locations in albino and fair-skinned mice

    PubMed Central

    Vanover, Jillian C.; Spry, Malinda L.; Hamilton, Laura; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D’Orazio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a transgenic animal model of variant pigmentation based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and well-characterized coat color genes bred into the C57Bl/6 background. In this system, constitutive expression of SCF by epidermal keratinocytes results in the maintenance of epidermal melanocytes in the interfollicular basal epidermal layer and subsequent pigmentation of the epidermis itself. In this report, we describe extending this animal model by developing a compound mutant transgenic amelanotic animal defective at both the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and tyrosinase (Tyr) loci. We have observed SCF-dependent pigment deposition in specific anatomic regions regardless of tyrosinase (Tyr) or Mc1r genetic status. Thus, in the presence of K14-Scf, tyrosinase-null animals (previously thought incapable of synthesizing melanin) exhibited progressive robust epidermal pigmentation with age in the ears and tails. Furthermore, in the presence of the K14-Scf transgene, Tyr-defective animals demonstrated tyrosinase activity, suggesting that the c2j Tyr promoter defect is leaky and that Tyr expression can be rescued in part by SCF in the ears and tail. Lastly, we found that UV sensitivity of K14-Scf congenic animals differing only at the Mc1r or Tyr loci depended mainly on the amount of eumelanin present in the skin. These findings suggest that c-kit signaling can overcome the c2j Tyr promoter mutation in the ears and tails of aging animals but that UV resistance depends on accumulation of epidermal eumelanin. PMID:19682281

  6. Ultraviolet emission and excitation fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of DMBA-treated Swiss Albino mice skin carcinogenesis for measuring tissue transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruna, Prakasa R.; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2002-05-01

    The ultraviolet fluorescence emission spectra of skin tissues under different pathological conditions were measured at 280nm excitation. At this excitation wavelength, the normal skin showed a primary peak emission at 352nm and this primary peak emission from neoplastic skin shows a blue shift with respect to normal tissue. This blue shift increases as the stage of abnormality increases and it is maximum (19nm) for well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. This alteration is further confirmed from fluorescence excitation spectra of the tissues for 340nm emission. The study concludes that the change in the emission of tryptophan around 340nm may be due to partial unfolding of protein.

  7. Assessment of hepatoprotective potential of N. indicum leaf on haloalkane xenobiotic induced hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyankar; Dutta, Somit; Sarkar, Mousumi Poddar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2015-06-25

    CCl4 is a potent environmental toxin which cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. In this study, hepatoprotective capacity of Nerium indicum leaf extract (NILE) was evaluated on CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity in murine model. Animals were divided into 5 groups and treated as following: control group (received only normal saline), CCl4 group (received only CCl4), silymarin group (received CCl4 and 100mg/kg silymarin), NILE low group (received CCl4 and 50mg/kg NILE) and NILE high group (received CCl4 and 200mg/kg NILE). After 10 consecutive days of treatment, the levels of hepatic biochemical markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase and catalase activities were measured as well as histopathological study was performed. Furthermore, liver explant cultures were set up as following: control (no treatment), CCl4 group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4), silymarin group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 100 μg/ml silymarin), NILE low group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 25 μg/ml NILE) and NILE high group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 100 μg/ml NILE). Hepatic transaminases and phosphatases, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, nitric oxide (NO) release and cell viability were studied on the explant cultures. Phytochemical fingerprinting of NILE was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the biochemical parameters were overexpressed due to CCl4 administration, which were significantly normalized by NILE treatment. The findings were further supported by histopathological evidences showing less hepatocellular necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis in NILE and silymarin treated groups, compared to CCl4 group. GC-MS analysis revealed presence of different bioactive phytochemicals with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the present study indicate that NILE possesses potent hepatoprotective capacity to ameliorate haloalkane xenobiotic induced injured liver in murine model. PMID:25871905

  8. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to

  9. Chemopreventive Role of Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn) and its Isolated Flavonoid Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced Renal Histopathological Damage in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Janmeda, Pracheta

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study is an attempt to evaluate the tissue protective efficacy of isolated flavonoid and hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (HEEN) leaves against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA) induced renal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Carcinogenicity was induced in Albino mice by oral administration of DENA (50 mg/kg body weight). The HEEN (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight), Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; 0.5 and 1%), and Euphorbia neriifolia flavonoid (ENF; 50 mg/kg body weight) were evaluated for their possible tissue carcinogenesis protective potential. Results: DENA treated animals showed alterations in normal renal histo-architecture, which comprised of necrosis (N) and vacuolization of the cells. On the other hand, the mice treated with Euphorbia neriifolia lower (ENL) and higher (ENH) dose and ENF before intoxicated with DENA showed that the renal cells were normal (Day 31). Whereas, BHA higher (BHAH) and lower (BHAL) dose failed to diminish the abnormalities caused by DENA. Conclusions: The findings of the present study Suggested that ENH and ENF showed highest renal-protective activity among all the pretreatments. The results could also be expressed in the order of ENH > ENF > ENL > BHAH > BHAL. PMID:23833445

  10. Anti-Leishmanial Activity (In Vitro and In Vivo) of Allicin and Allicin Cream Using Leishmania major (Sub-strain Zymowme LON4) and Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Dina M.; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M.; El-Khadragy, Manal F.; Alkathiri, Badriah

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania is a unicellular protozoan parasite that produces several human diseases, ranging from localized self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections. Objective The effect of allicin on the growth of Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. Moreover, the efficacy of a topical allicin cream was examined in BALB/c (Bagg albino, laboratory-bred strain of the House Mouse) mice with cutaneous leishmanial lesions compared to the currently used drug, sodiumstibogluconate (pentostam). Methods Cytotoxiciy and promastigote proliferation were measured. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, and 200 μM) of liquid allicin were tested on L. major promastigotes twice: after 24 and 48 hours using an MTT colorimetric assay. In the in vivo condition, the efficacies of allicin cream and liquid allicin at two concentrations (0.15 μM/mouse and 0.30 μM/mouse) were evaluated. Serum factors of the control and treated groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of allicin on the liver and kidney. Results Allicin at a concentration of 50 μM inhibited the growth of Leishmania promastigotes. Topical application of allicin cream reduced lesion sizes in mice. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. Conclusions Allicin has antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical applications. PMID:27537199

  11. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  12. Identification of the gregarization-associated dark-pigmentotropin in locusts through an albino mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Amer I.; Tanaka, Seiji; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Waelkens, Etienne; Derua, Rita; Milner, Yoram; Yerushalmi, Yoram; Pener, M. Paul

    1999-01-01

    In response to crowding, locusts develop characteristic black patterns that are well discernible in the gregarious phase at outbreaks. We report here a dark-color-inducing neuropeptide (dark-pigmentotropin) from the corpora cardiaca of two plague locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. The chromatographic isolation of this neuropeptide was monitored by using a bioassay with an albino mutant of L. migratoria. The neurohormone, consisting of 11 amino acids, is identical to [His7] corazonin, previously isolated from corpora cardiaca of another acridid without known function. The present results show that even in isolated (solitary) nymphs, [His7] corazonin induces gregarious black patterns. Its primary structure shows some similarity with the vertebrate melanophore stimulating hormone. PMID:10359842

  13. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  14. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive. PMID:25675391

  15. Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

  16. Impact of acute and chronic stress hormone on male albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Li; Chen, Ling; Dong, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of stress (stress hormone) in male albino rat brain. Nor-epinephrine was used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Nor-epinephrine was dissolved in the saline and administered orally to the rats. Following nor-epinephrine administration, the brain was removed surgically at 6 h, 12 h and 45 days. Alanine tansaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly altered in the rats. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), showed altered lipid peroxidation. Hematological markers such as packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly altered compared to controls. Altered serum biochemical and hematological markers, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities leads to adverse effect in the cellular metabolism and physiological activities of rats. PMID:26261571

  17. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  18. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported. PMID:7991311

  19. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zemin; Tan, Jianjie; Shi, Zhenying; Xie, Qingjun; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3' untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  20. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  1. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed. PMID:26529681

  2. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  3. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino Zebrafish Line to Characterize In Vivo Expression of neurod

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Ochocinska, Margaret J.; Hitchcock, Peter F.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults. PMID:22235264

  4. A novel method to derive and expand mice neural stem cells efficiently without neuro-sphere formation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhi-Zhao; Fan, Lin; Huang, Jun-Ling; Pan, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multi-potent stem cells able to self-renew and generate immature and differentiated cell populations by asymmetric division. The NSCs are of considerable interest for cell replacement in neuro-degenerative diseases. NSCs are usually identified and expanded by their ability to generate free-floating aggregates termed neurospheres. However, neurospheres are not a pure population of NSCs with as little as 1% population in primary spheres. Neurospheres also contain neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The heterogeneity of these cells may hinder their repopulation potential when used in cell transplantation. Furthermore, to obtain 1 million NSCs by the neurosphere protocol usually takes one month, which is inconvenient for future clinical trials. In this study, we tried to derive the NSCs from mice embryo neuroepithelium without neurosphere formation. Three different protocols were compared. We generated a direct and efficient NSCs generation, expanding and freezing protocol. This protocol can provide sufficient amount of the NSCs from first a few passages for cell transplantation. PMID:26550198

  5. A novel method to derive and expand mice neural stem cells efficiently without neuro-sphere formation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Zhao; Fan, Lin; Huang, Jun-Ling; Pan, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multi-potent stem cells able to self-renew and generate immature and differentiated cell populations by asymmetric division. The NSCs are of considerable interest for cell replacement in neuro-degenerative diseases. NSCs are usually identified and expanded by their ability to generate free-floating aggregates termed neurospheres. However, neurospheres are not a pure population of NSCs with as little as 1% population in primary spheres. Neurospheres also contain neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The heterogeneity of these cells may hinder their repopulation potential when used in cell transplantation. Furthermore, to obtain 1 million NSCs by the neurosphere protocol usually takes one month, which is inconvenient for future clinical trials. In this study, we tried to derive the NSCs from mice embryo neuroepithelium without neurosphere formation. Three different protocols were compared. We generated a direct and efficient NSCs generation, expanding and freezing protocol. This protocol can provide sufficient amount of the NSCs from first a few passages for cell transplantation. PMID:26550198

  6. The role of nitric oxide on the oxytocin induce analgesia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Kianmehr, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Analgesic effects of oxytocin and it's the other physiological effects were well-known. The aim of present study was determination of nitric oxide role on analgesic effects of oxytocin in mice. Materials and Methods: 216 male Albino mice were divided randomly into two experimental groups, tail flick and formalin test. Each experimental group consists of three main groups including: saline, L-arginine (50 mg/kg) and L-NAME (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (IP) injection. 15 min after injection in each of the following groups, the animals in each groups divided to the three subgroups including: saline (n=12), oxytocin (1 mg/kg) (n=12) and oxytocin (1 mg/kg) + atosiban (1 mg/kg) (n=12) was injected IP and then after 30 min of use the formalin test and tail flick were to evaluate the response to pain. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) in the late phase of the formalin test, in sub-groups oxytocin + saline and L-NAME were significantly decreased compared with saline + saline group (P<0.05 to P< 0.001), and AUC in L-arginine + saline and atosiban + saline + oxytocin were significantly increased compared with oxytocin + saline group (P<0.05). Tail flick tests as well as a significant reduction in the AUC in oxytocin + L-arginine and atosiban + saline + oxytocin groups were compared with Oxytocin + Saline group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Oxytocin has analgesic effects in the acute and late phase of pain in the formalin test. Moreover, exogenous increasing of nitric oxide reduced the analgesic effect of oxytocin. PMID:27114792

  7. Observing the development of the temporomandibular joint in embryonic and post-natal mice using various staining methods

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, WENNA; LI, XIHAI; GAO, BIZHEN; GAN, HUIJUAN; LIN, XUEJUAN; LIAO, LINGHONG; LI, CANDONG

    2016-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a specialized synovial joint that is essential for the movement and function of the mammalian jaw. The TMJ develops from two mesenchymal condensations, and is composed of the glenoid fossa that originates from the otic capsule by intramembranous ossification, the mandibular condyle of the temporal bone and a fibrocartilagenous articular disc derived from a secondary cartilaginous joint by endochondral ossification. However, the development of the TMJ remains unclear. In the present study, the formation and development of the mouse TMJ was investigated between embryonic day 13.5 and post-natal day 180 in order to elucidate the morphological and molecular alterations that occur during this period. TMJ formation appeared to proceed in three stages: Initiation or blastema stage; growth and cavitation stage; and the maturation or completion stage. In order to investigate the activity of certain transcription factors on TMJ formation and development, the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), sex determining region Y-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2, Indian hedgehog homolog, Osterix, collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), MMP-9 and MMP-13 were detected in the TMJ using in situ and/or immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the transcription factors, ECM and MMP serve critical functions in the formation and development of the mouse TMJ. In summary, the development of the mouse TMJ was investigated, and the molecular regulation of mouse TMJ formation was partially characterized. The results of the present study may aid the systematic understanding of the physiological processes underlying TMJ formation and development in mice. PMID:26893634

  8. Co-infection with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei increases severity of malaria and trypanosomiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi; Odeniran, Paul Olalekan

    2016-07-01

    Individuals in natural populations may be infected with multiple different parasites at a time. These parasites may interact with each other or act independently in the host, and this may result to varying outcomes on host health and survival. This study therefore aimed at investigating the health impact of co-infection of mice with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei. Forty Swiss albino mice (14-17g) were divided into four groups of ten. Mice in groups A and B received 10(6)P. berghei and groups B and C 10(5)T. brucei, while group D were uninfected. The co-infected mice had higher P. berghei and T. brucei parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice. The co-infected mice had significantly (p<0.05) lower survival rate compared with the mono-infected mice. Co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei resulted in rapid P. berghei and T. brucei development and increased parasitaemia. The leukocyte numbers significantly (p<0.05) reduced on days 12 and 15 post infection among P. berghei infected mice, in the presence or absence of T. brucei. Anaemia and hypoglycaemia was more severe in the co-infected mice. Therefore, co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei may increase pathologic impact to the host by increasing parasitaemia. PMID:27021269

  9. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. PMID:7883302

  10. New translational assays for preclinical modelling of cognition in schizophrenia: the touchscreen testing method for mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, TJ; Holmes, A; Lyon, L; Mar, AC; McAllister, KAL; Nithianantharajah, J; Oomen, CA; Saksida, LM

    2011-01-01

    We describe a touchscreen method that satisfies a proposed ‘wish-list’ of desirables for a cognitive testing method for assessing rodent models of schizophrenia. A number of tests relevant to schizophrenia research are described which are currently being developed and validated using this method. These tests can be used to study reward learning, memory, perceptual discrimination, object-place associative learning, attention, impulsivity, compulsivity, extinction, simple Pavlovian conditioning, and other constructs. The tests can be deployed using a ‘flexible battery’ approach to establish a cognitive profile for a particular mouse or rat model. We have found these tests to be capable of detecting not just impairments in function, but enhancements as well, which is essential for testing putative cognitive therapies. New tests are being continuously developed, many of which may prove particularly valuable for schizophrenia research. PMID:21530550

  11. A standardized method to automatically segment amyloid plaques in Congo Red stained sections from Alzheimer transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Teboul, Olivier; Feki, Abdelmonem; Dubois, Albertine; Bozon, Bruno; Faure, Alexis; Hantraye, Philippe; Dhenain, Marc; Delatour, Benoit; Delzescaux, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Automated detection of amyloid plaques (AP) in post mortem brain sections of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) or in mouse models of the disease is a major issue to improve quantitative, standardized and accurate assessment of neuropathological lesions as well as of their modulation by treatment. We propose a new segmentation method to automatically detect amyloid plaques in Congo Red stained sections based on adaptive thresholds and a dedicated amyloid plaque/tissue modelling. A set of histological sections focusing on anatomical structures was used to validate the method in comparison to expert segmentation. PMID:18003280

  12. A registration-based segmentation method with application to adiposity analysis of mice microCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bing; Joshi, Anand; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D.; Conti, Peter S.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a global health problem, particularly in the U.S. where one third of adults are obese. A reliable and accurate method of quantifying obesity is necessary. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are two measures of obesity that reflect different associated health risks, but accurate measurements in humans or rodent models are difficult. In this paper we present an automatic, registration-based segmentation method for mouse adiposity studies using microCT images. We co-register the subject CT image and a mouse CT atlas. Our method is based on surface matching of the microCT image and an atlas. Surface-based elastic volume warping is used to match the internal anatomy. We acquired a whole body scan of a C57BL6/J mouse injected with contrast agent using microCT and created a whole body mouse atlas by manually delineate the boundaries of the mouse and major organs. For method verification we scanned a C57BL6/J mouse from the base of the skull to the distal tibia. We registered the obtained mouse CT image to our atlas. Preliminary results show that we can warp the atlas image to match the posture and shape of the subject CT image, which has significant differences from the atlas. We plan to use this software tool in longitudinal obesity studies using mouse models.

  13. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  14. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  15. Biological methods for archiving and maintaining mutant laboratory mice. Part II: recovery and distribution of conserved mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Fray, Martin D

    2009-01-01

    The mouse is now firmly established as the model organism of choice for scientists studying mammalian biology and human disease. Consequently, large collections of novel genetically altered mouse lines have been deposited in secure archives around the world. If these resources are to be of value to the scientific community, they must be easily accessible to all researchers regardless of their embryological skills or geographical location.This chapter describes how the archiving centres attempt to make the strains they hold visible and accessible to all interested parties, and also outlines the methods currently used in laboratories around the world to recover mouse strains previously archived using the methods highlighted in this manual (see Chapter 20). PMID:19504081

  16. Effect of micro-computed tomography voxel size and segmentation method on trabecular bone microstructure measures in mice.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-12-01

    Micro-computed tomography (μCT) is currently the gold standard for determining trabecular bone microstructure in small animal models. Numerous parameters associated with scanning and evaluation of μCT scans can strongly affect morphologic results obtained from bone samples. However, the effect of these parameters on specific trabecular bone outcomes is not well understood. This study investigated the effect of μCT scanning with nominal voxel sizes between 6-30 μm on trabecular bone outcomes quantified in mouse vertebral body trabecular bone. Additionally, two methods for determining a global segmentation threshold were compared: based on qualitative assessment of 2D images, or based on quantitative assessment of image histograms. It was found that nominal voxel size had a strong effect on several commonly reported trabecular bone parameters, in particular connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and bone tissue mineral density. Additionally, the two segmentation methods provided similar trabecular bone outcomes for scans with small nominal voxel sizes, but considerably different outcomes for scans with larger voxel sizes. The Qualitatively Selected segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness across different voxel sizes, but the Histogram segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular number, trabecular separation, and structure model index. Altogether, these results suggest that high-resolution scans be used whenever possible to provide the most accurate estimation of trabecular bone microstructure, and that the limitations of accurately determining trabecular bone outcomes should be considered when selecting scan parameters and making conclusions about inter-group variance or between-group differences in studies of trabecular bone microstructure in small animals. PMID:27430011

  17. Effects of male social status on reproductive success and on behavior in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    D'Amato, F R

    1988-06-01

    Differences in reproduction as well as in behavior in the presence of females were evaluated according to dominant and subordinate male rank in albino mice, in the temporary absence of each male's antagonist. Dominant males reproduced more successfully than subordinate males. Subordinate males were generally inactive, except for displacement activities, during the first 15 min they were exposed to female partners. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than male-male interference or mating order may be operating or influencing behavior and reproductive results. PMID:3396312

  18. Effect of Trichodesma indicum extract on cough reflex induced by sulphur dioxide in mice.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, K; Murugesan, T; Kumar, Ch Anil; Suba, V; Das, A K; Sinha, S; Arunachalam, G; Manikandan, L

    2002-01-01

    The effect of methanol extract of whole plants of Trichodesma indicum R. Br. has been investigated on sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough reflex in Swiss albino mice. The extract has demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of cough in all the tested doses when compared with untreated control group. The effect persisted up to 90 min of its oral administration and also comparable to that of the effect exhibited by the standard drug (Codeine phosphate). This study confirmed the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of cough. Determination of underlying mechanism of beneficial effect is major topic requiring further comprehensive investigation. PMID:11924768

  19. Reproductive activities of Heliotropium indicum isolate against Helopeltis theivora and toxicity evaluation in mice.

    PubMed

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, Manabendra; De, B; Kumar, Atul

    2012-05-01

    A new compound E was isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum by chromatographic fractionation. In the present study, the effect of the compound E on reproduction of Helopeltis theivora has been evaluated. The acute toxicity study (LD50) and sub-acute toxicity studies (haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters) in albino Swiss mice were carried out to evaluate the safety aspect of the compound E. The compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the reproductive life of H. theivora. The oviposition period, fecundity and hatching percentage of H. theivora were found to be 15.67 days, 39.33 and 28.00% respectively after treatment with 2% compound E, whereas the control value were found to be 20.33 days, 77.67 and 77.33% respectively. The LD50 of the compound was found to be 780 mg kg(-1) in Swiss albino female mice. The compound did not show any toxicity in mice at sub-lethal dose treatment (78 mg kg(-1) b. wt., once daily) for 21 days as evident from different haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in compound E treated group when compared with control. PMID:23029910

  20. Sensitive method for the determination of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Dixit, Abhishek; Devaraj, V C; Zainuddin, Mohd; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Hallur, Mahanandeesha S; Dewang, Purushottam; Rajagopal, Sridharan; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma (20 μL) using vorinostat as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Sample preparation was accomplished through a protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatography was achieved on Prodigy ODS-2 column using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (0.2% formic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.38 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 4.1 min and the elution of rocilinostat and IS occurred at ~3.2 and 2.9 min, respectively. A linear response function was established in the concentration range of 0.28-1193 ng/mL in mouse plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the ranges of 3.12-8.93 and 6.41-11.6%, respectively. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26633099

  1. An entirely automated method to score DSS-induced colitis in mice by digital image analysis of pathology slides.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Cleopatra; Jeet, Surinder; Beyer, Joseph; Guerrero, Steve; Lesch, Justin; Wang, Xiaoting; Devoss, Jason; Diehl, Lauri

    2013-05-01

    The DSS (dextran sulfate sodium) model of colitis is a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Microscopic symptoms include loss of crypt cells from the gut lining and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the colon. An experienced pathologist requires several hours per study to score histological changes in selected regions of the mouse gut. In order to increase the efficiency of scoring, Definiens Developer software was used to devise an entirely automated method to quantify histological changes in the whole H&E slide. When the algorithm was applied to slides from historical drug-discovery studies, automated scores classified 88% of drug candidates in the same way as pathologists' scores. In addition, another automated image analysis method was developed to quantify colon-infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells in immunohistochemical stains of serial sections of the H&E slides. The timing of neutrophil and macrophage infiltration had the highest correlation to pathological changes, whereas T and B cell infiltration occurred later. Thus, automated image analysis enables quantitative comparisons between tissue morphology changes and cell-infiltration dynamics. PMID:23580198

  2. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

  3. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  4. Microspore embryogenesis: assignment of genes to embryo formation and green vs. albino plant production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, M; Svensson, J T; Castillo, A M; Close, T J; Vallés, M P

    2009-08-01

    Plant microspores can be reprogrammed from their normal pollen development to an embryogenic route in a process termed microspore embryogenesis or androgenesis. Stress treatment has a critical role in this process, inducing the dedifferentiation of microspores and conditioning the following androgenic response. In this study, we have used three barley doubled haploid lines with similar genetic background but different androgenic response. The Barley1 GeneChip was used for transcriptome comparison of these lines after mannitol stress treatment, allowing the identification of 213 differentially expressed genes. Most of these genes belong to the functional categories "cell rescue, defense, and virulence"; "metabolism"; "transcription"; and "transport". These genes were grouped into clusters according to their expression profiles among lines. A principal component analysis allowed us to associate specific gene expression clusters to phenotypic variables. Genes associated with the ability of microspores to divide and form embryos were mainly involved in changes in the structure and function of membranes, efficient use of available energy sources, and cell fate. Genes related to stress response, transcription and translation regulation, and degradation of pollen-specific proteins were associated with green plant production, while expression of genes related to plastid development was associated with albino plant regeneration. PMID:19229567

  5. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  6. Maturation of convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the albino rat

    PubMed Central

    De Casrilevitz, Mira; Engelhardt, E.; Esbérard, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Maturation of the excitatory and inhibitory neuromechanisms at various levels of the central nervous system was demonstrated by the convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the developing albino rat. 2. The somatomotor end points considered (myoclonic jerk, myoclonic seizure, tonic seizure and catalepsy) were not observed in all age groups. Tonic seizure was seen at birth, myoclonic jerks at 2 weeks of age, myoclonic seizure and catalepsy at 3 weeks of age. 3. The convulsive sequences described presented three different patterns, defining three age groups: the infant pattern (infant group: newborn-1 week old animals); the transitional pattern (transitional group: 2 week old animals); and the adult pattern (adult group: 3 week old-adult animals). 4. Effective doses were determined for the three types of convulsive sequence: MJ50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic jerk), MS50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic seizure) and the TS50 for the myoclonic-tonic-clonic sequence (maximal end point: tonic seizure). 5. The correlation of the convulsive patterns with the dose and latency variations suggests that: (a) the neuromechanisms responsible for the tonic seizure and clonic seizure, located at brainstem and spinal cord levels, function at birth and reach maturity at 3 weeks of age; (b) the neuromechanisms responsible for the myoclonic manifestations and for catalepsy, located at the striato-thalamocortical level, start functioning at 2-3 weeks of age, indicating the later maturation of the more cephalic structures. PMID:5104003

  7. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  8. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  9. Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V) Derivative in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj K.; Rehwani, H.; Rai, A. K.; Gupta, R. S.; Singh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Triphenylantimony(V) derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri) [SC6H4N : C(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC⎴(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P < .01) alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V) derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V) derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a. PMID:17496999

  10. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-02-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( (/sup 3/H)DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. (/sup 3/H)DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of (/sup 3/H)DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of (/sup 3/H) DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT.

  11. The genome sequencing of an albino Western lowland gorilla reveals inbreeding in the wild

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is still unknown. Here, we study the genetic cause of his albinism and making use of whole genome sequencing data we find a higher inbreeding coefficient compared to other gorillas. Results We successfully identified the causal genetic variant for Snowflake’s albinism, a non-synonymous single nucleotide variant located in a transmembrane region of SLC45A2. This transporter is known to be involved in oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans. We provide experimental evidence that shows that this amino acid replacement alters the membrane spanning capability of this transmembrane region. Finally, we provide a comprehensive study of genome-wide patterns of autozygogosity revealing that Snowflake’s parents were related, being this the first report of inbreeding in a wild born Western lowland gorilla. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate how the use of whole genome sequencing can be extended to link genotype and phenotype in non-model organisms and it can be a powerful tool in conservation genetics (e.g., inbreeding and genetic diversity) with the expected decrease in sequencing cost. PMID:23721540

  12. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Lambert, J K; Brown, S W; Quinn, J M

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the "local" satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement. PMID:3438124

  13. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  14. A method for eliciting indurated DTH reactions to soluble protein antigens in the flank skin of mice: correlation of visual measurements with 125I-UdR uptake indices.

    PubMed

    Brummer, E; Bhardwaj, N; Lawrence, H S

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for eliciting specific indurated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to soluble protein antigens in the flank skin of mice is reported here. We show that immunization with soluble antigens emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant emulsion allows elicitation of indurated reactions upon intracutaneous test of sensitized mice with antigen on alum precipitates. With this method it is possible to measure simultaneously the gross induration of the cutaneous DTH reactions and correlate it with the degree of mononuclear cell infiltration as quantitated by the cPM of 125I-UdR uptake in mononuclear cells at biopsied reaction sites and confirmed by histological examination. PMID:7216506

  15. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, R. P.; Kalaria, M. V.; Karkare, V. P.; Parmar, S. K.; Sheth, N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley (LS), commonly known as “bottle gourd” (English), possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive) activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina) Standley (LS) using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD) activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant. PMID:21731398

  16. Clinicopathological investigations on mice envenomed with scorpion venom (Androctonus amoreuxi).

    PubMed

    Hamedy, A F; Kilany, Omnia E; Mohallal, Mahmoud E; Soliman, Belal A; Shoukry, Nahla M; Khaled, Howayda S

    2012-12-01

    The present study assessed the toxicity of Androctonus amoreuxi crude venom on blood and biochemical serum parameters of mice. Adult male Albino mice were divided into three groups, in the control group mice were injected S.C. with saline solution. The second group and the third were injected with the venom S.C. in mice in the following doses 1/4 and 1/2 dose of LD50 respectively. Blood and serum samples were taken after 3 hours, 6 hours, 9 hours, 12 hours, 4 days and 7 days. Hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH & MCHC were performed. Serum biochemical parameters, the levels of total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, uric acid and urea were measured. RBCs, Hob, PCV, MCV, MCH & MCHC showed significant increase, and increase in total protein, albumin and globulin within the experiment. Glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly increase from the beginning. Triglycerides showed significant decrease after 6 hours. Liver enzymes and kidney functions revealed significant changes post-injection. PMID:23469627

  17. Development and validation of a rapid HPLC method for quantitation of SP-141, a novel pyrido[b]indole anticancer agent, and an initial pharmacokinetic study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Subhasree; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Wang, Ming-Hai; Sharma, Horrick; Patil, Shivaputra; Buolamwini, John K.; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in targeting the MDM2 oncogene for cancer therapy. SP-141, a novel designed small molecule MDM2 inhibitor, exerts excellent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. To facilitate the preclinical development of this candidate anticancer agent, we have developed an HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of SP-141. The method was validated to be precise, accurate, and specific, with a linear range of 16.2–32,400 ng/mL in plasma, 16.2–6480 ng/mL in homogenates of brain, heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, muscle and tumor, and 32.4–6480 ng/mL in spleen homogenates. The lower limit of quantification was 16.2 ng/mL in plasma and all the tissue homogenates, except for spleen homogenates, where it was 32.4 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (coefficient of variation) were between 0.86 and 13.39%, and accuracies (relative errors) ranged from −8.50 to 13.92%. The relative recoveries were 85.6–113.38%. SP-141 was stable in mouse plasma, modestly plasma bound and metabolized by S9 microsomal enzymes. We performed an initial pharmacokinetic study in tumor-bearing nude mice, demonstrating that SP-141 has a short half-life in plasma and wide tissue distribution. In summary, this HPLC method can be used in future preclinical and clinical investigations of SP-141. PMID:25294254

  18. Correlation of X-Ray Computed Tomography with Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods for Pre-Clinical Measurement of Adipose and Lean Tissues in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Metzinger, Matthew N.; Miramontes, Bernadette; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yueying; Chapman, Sarah; Sun, Lucy; Sasser, Todd A.; Duffield, Giles E.; Stack, M. Sharon; Leevy, W. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Numerous obesity studies have coupled murine models with non-invasive methods to quantify body composition in longitudinal experiments, including X-ray computed tomography (CT) or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QMR). Both microCT and QMR have been separately validated with invasive techniques of adipose tissue quantification, like post-mortem fat extraction and measurement. Here we report a head-to-head study of both protocols using oil phantoms and mouse populations to determine the parameters that best align CT data with that from QMR. First, an in vitro analysis of oil/water mixtures was used to calibrate and assess the overall accuracy of microCT vs. QMR data. Next, experiments were conducted with two cohorts of living mice (either homogenous or heterogeneous by sex, age and genetic backgrounds) to assess the microCT imaging technique for adipose tissue segmentation and quantification relative to QMR. Adipose mass values were obtained from microCT data with three different resolutions, after which the data were analyzed with different filter and segmentation settings. Strong linearity was noted between the adipose mass values obtained with microCT and QMR, with optimal parameters and scan conditions reported herein. Lean tissue (muscle, internal organs) was also segmented and quantified using the microCT method relative to the analogous QMR values. Overall, the rigorous calibration and validation of the microCT method for murine body composition, relative to QMR, ensures its validity for segmentation, quantification and visualization of both adipose and lean tissues. PMID:25299952

  19. Gas chromatographic method using nitrogen-phosphorus detection for the measurement of tramadol and its O-desmethyl metabolite in plasma and brain tissue of mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Q; Stone, D J; Borenstein, M R; Jean-Bart, V; Codd, E E; Coogan, T P; Desai-Krieger, D; Liao, S; Raffa, R B

    2001-11-01

    A method that allows the measurement of plasma and brain levels of the centrally-acting analgesic tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyl tramadol) in mice and rats was developed using gas chromatography equipped with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD). Plasma samples were extracted with methyl tert.-butyl ether (MTBE) and were injected directly into the GC system. Brain tissue homogenates were precipitated with methanol, the resulting supernatant was dried then acidified with hydrochloric acid. The aqueous solution was washed with MTBE twice, alkalinized, and extracted with MTBE. The MTBE layer was dried, reconstituted and injected into the GC system. The GC assay used a DB-1 capillary column with an oven temperature ramp (135 to 179 degrees C at 4 degrees C/min). Dextromethorphan was used as the internal standard. The calibration curves for tramadol and O-desmethyl tramadol in plasma and brain tissue were linear in the range of 10 to 10000 ng/ml (plasma) and ng/g (brain). Assay accuracy and precision of back calculated standards were within +/- 15%. PMID:11710575

  20. Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Prashant Y.; Bigoniya, Papiya; Panchal, Shital S.; Muchhandi, Irrappa S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI) in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg) and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), Lee index of obesity (LIO), food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine), organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad) and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming) and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg) supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid): Methanol (30:70 v/v) at 360 nm. Conclusion: Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity. PMID:24082700

  1. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  2. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures. PMID:25572733

  3. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity. PMID:25829765

  4. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruknuddin, Galib; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a promising remedy in these cases. There is a need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. Considering this, a polyherbal Ayurvedic compound formulation (Dashanga Ghana) has been studied in experimental animals to evaluate anti-arthritic activity. Materials and Methods: Dashanga Ghana has been prepared in the laboratory by following standard guidelines. Charles Foster albino rats were used to evaluate the activity through Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Results and Conclusions: Dashanga Ghana is found to possess significant anti-arthritic activity. Further studies are required to identify and characterize exact active phyto-constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action, which is responsible for the observed pharmacological profile. PMID:26862275

  5. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  6. Vitronectin absorbed on nanoparticles mediate cell viability/proliferation and uptake by 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rosso, F; Marino, G; Grimaldi, A; Cafiero, G; Chiellini, E; Chiellini, F; Barbarisi, M; Barbarisi, A

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts with polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate cellular behaviour in terms of viability/cytotoxicity, cell cycle, NPs uptake, MAP kinase (ERK1/2), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. After incubation of NPs with cell culture media, western blot analysis showed that Vitronectin is retained by NPs, while Fibronectin is not detected. From cytotoxicity studies (MTT and BrdU methods) an LD50 of about 1.5 mg/mL results for NPs. However, NPs in the range 0.01-0.30 mg/mL are able to trigger a statistically significant increase in proliferation and cell cycle progression in dose and time depending manner. Also, biochemical evaluation of ERK1/2 and FAK clearly shows an increasing phosphorylation in a dose and time depending manner. Finally, we found by transmission electron microscopy that NPs are internalised by cells. Competitively blocking VN-integrin receptors with echistatin (1 μg/mL) results in a decrease of viability/proliferation, cell cycle progression, cellular uptake, and FAK/ERK activation showing the involvement of Vitronectin receptors in signal transduction. In conclusion, our results show that cell surface NPs interactions are mediated by absorbed plasma proteins (i.e., Vitronectin) that represent an external stimuli, switched to the nucleus by FAK enzyme, which in turn modulate fibroblasts viability/proliferation. PMID:23710450

  7. [Blood flow changes in the optic nerve head of albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Nirei, M

    1996-02-01

    The blood flow changes in the optic nerve head in adult albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism, were investigated employing the hydrogen clearance method. In the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, the blood flow in the optic nerve head increased soon after injection and reached the maximal value of 124.2 +/- 7.3% against the value before injection, at 20 minutes after injection, followed by a gradual decrease in the blood flow. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the blood flow at 10 to 40 minutes after injection, compared with the value before injection in the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, but no significant increases in the blood flow were observed in either the brovincamine fumarate (0.5 mg/kg)-administered group or the control group given no brovincamine fumarate throughout the course. No significant changes in the mean values of the blood pressure in the femoral artery, pulse rate, respiratory rate or rectal temperature were observed in any group through the experiment. To learn the mechanism of the different efficacy of the two doses, further studies are needed in light of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) changes induced by brovincamine fumarate administration or in light of the receptor responsiveness to the drug concentration. PMID:8851150

  8. Identification of crotamine in the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus by three different methods.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sayonara Ay More; Magalhães, Marta Regina; Salazar, Vania Cristina Rodríguez; Valadares, Marize Campos; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2015-03-01

    The use of mice for the identification of crotamine has been the motive of discussions of bioethical character and technical (efficiency), so that a reassessment of the use of animals in experiments is global trend the search for alternative tests. The objective of this study was to standardize a method for HPLC-PDA to identify the presence of crotamine in the venom of rattlesnakes, aiming to propose an alternative methodology to reduce or replace the use of animals. The Cdc was evaluated as to the presence of crotamine by 3 methods: traditional test lethality in mice (Mus musculus) swiss albino male, 18-22 g (i.p.), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC-PDA. The venoms of 50 specimens of Crotalus durissus collilineatus, held in the serpentarium CEPB/PUC Goiás, were obtained by manual massage of the gland, making the collection individually. To identify the band corresponding to crotamine, the venoms of specimens, analysis was performed on SDS-PAGE and references. Procedure in mice with 20% of the samples tested positive for crotamine, 24% negative and 56% uncertain outcome. With the SDS-PAGE was identified crotamine in 26% of samples, 26% negative and 48% continued with uncertain outcome. By HPLC method showed the presence myotoxin in 86% of samples, with 14% negative. The tests conducted in this study indicated that methodology which utilizes animals for identifying the presence of crotamine the venom of C. durissus can safely be replaced by the test SDS-PAGE and HPLC, since the methods are reproducible, and do not undergo any interference biological animal and mainly contribute to reducing the number of animals used for laboratory tests. PMID:25553594

  9. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

  10. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  11. Lipid peroxidation in various organs and tissues of albino rats with cadmium intoxication in winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Sokolova, N G; Kotelnikov, A V

    2008-09-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidneys, brain, and gonads of outbred albino rats was studied in winter and summer. Cadmium chloride in a daily dose of 2 mg per 100 g body weight was administered intragastrically for 15 days. Administration of cadmium chloride was followed by an increase in peroxide radical production in the liver during the summer period. Lipid peroxidation remained unchanged in the liver, but increased in the ovaries of animals receiving the same dose of cadmium chloride during the winter period. PMID:19240842

  12. Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

  13. Transcription profiling using RNA-Seq demonstrates expression differences in the body walls of juvenile albino and normal sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina; Chen, Muyan

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus are one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Their normal body color is black to fit their surroundings. Wild albinos are rare and hard to breed. To understand the differences between albino and normal (control) sea cucumbers at the transcriptional level, we sequenced the transcriptomes in their body-wall tissues using RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 4.876 million (M) and 4.884 M 200-nucleotide-long cDNA reads were produced in the cDNA libraries derived from the body walls of albino and control samples, respectively. A total of 9 561 (46.89%) putative genes were identified from among the RNA-Seq reads in both libraries. After filtering, 837 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified in the albino library compared with in the control library, and 3.6% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to have changed those more than five-fold. The expression levels of 10 DEGs were checked by real-time PCR and the results were in full accord with the RNA-Seq expression trends, although the amplitude of the differences in expression levels was lower in all cases. A series of pathways were significantly enriched for the DEGs. These pathways were closely related to phagocytosis, the complement and coagulation cascades, apoptosis-related diseases, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell adhesion. The differences in gene expression and enriched pathways between the albino and control sea cucumbers offer control targets for cultivating excellent albino A. japonicus strains in the future.

  14. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ikai, K.; Danno, K.; Horio, T.; Narumiya, S.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on the skin was investigated in (WB-W/+) X (C57BL/6J-Wv/+)F1-W/Wv mice, which are genetically deficient in tissue mast cells. Their congenic littermates (+/+) and normal albino mice (ICR or BALB/c) were used as controls. Mice were irradiated with 500 mJ/cm2 of UVB and the increment of ear thickness was measured before and 6, 12, and 24 h after irradiation. Ear swelling in W/Wv mice at 12 and 24 h after irradiation was significantly smaller than that in +/+ and ICR mice. In contrast, the number of sunburn cells formed 24 h after UVB irradiation (200 or 500 mJ/cm2) was similar in W/Wv, +/+ and ICR mice. On the other hand, when mice were treated with 8-methoxy-psoralen (0.5%) plus UVA irradiation (4 J/cm2) (topical PUVA), ears of W/Wv and BALB/c mice, which were both white in color, were thickened similarly 72 h after treatment, but less swelling was observed in +/+ mice, which were black in skin color. The amount of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in ears, determined by radioimmunoassay specific for PGD2, was elevated 3-fold in +/+ and ICR mice at 3 h after irradiation with 500 mJ/cm2 of UVB in comparison with basal level without irradiation. However, such elevation was not observed in W/Wv mice. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in UVB-induced inflammation, and PGs from mast cells are responsible at least in part for the development of this reaction. However, neither mast cells nor PGs contribute to the sunburn cell formation and ear swelling response by PUVA treatment.

  15. Anticancer activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris, on skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Swafiya; Chaudhary, Ranu; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2009-09-01

    Alstonia scholaris, commonly known as sapthaparna, has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of various disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible chemopreventive and anti-oxidative properties of this medicinal plant on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single application of 7, 12-dimethyabenz(a)anthrecene (100 lg/100 ll acetone), and two weeks later, promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/thrice a week) till the end of the experiment (16 weeks) in Swiss albino mice.The tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas were found to be higher in the carcinogen treated control (without ASE treatment) as compared to experimental animals (ASE treated). Furthermore, a significant increase in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase but decrease in lipid peroxidation was measured in ASE administered experimental groups than the carcinogen treated control. The present study demonstrates the chemopreventive potential of Alstonia scholaris bark extract in DMBA-induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. PMID:19815597

  16. Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure. PMID:23825891

  17. Mouse gallbladder emptying by egg yolk: a possible new rapid method for antispasmodic activity evaluation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, B; Toson, G

    1982-05-01

    Gallbladder emptying was induced in female albino mice by single oral administrations of 30% lyophylized egg yolk suspension. Mice were killed 15 min later, their gallbladders removed and then weighed. Gallbladder emptying was assessed by comparing weights from control and egg yolk administered mice. The ability of the antispasmodic drugs atropine, N-butylscopolamine, papaverine, trimebutine, dicyclomine, and rociverine to delay gallbladder emptying was determined by administering them either intraperitoneally or orally 7.5 or 15 min prior to egg yolk. PMID:7109644

  18. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

  19. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress. PMID:21476888

  20. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  1. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  2. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced albino (c)-locus mutations that cause death at preimplantation stages of development

    SciTech Connect

    Rinchik, E.M. ); Toenjes, R.R.; Paul, D. ); Potter, M.D. )

    1993-12-01

    Deletion mutations at the albino (c) locus have been useful for continuing the development of fine-structure physical and functional maps of the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. This report describes the molecular analysis of a number of radiation-induced c deletions that, when homozygous, cause death of the embryo during preimplantation stages. The distal extent of these deletions defines a locus, pid, (preimplantation development) genetically associated with this phenotype. The proximal breakpoints of eight of these deletions were mapped with respect to the Tyr (tyrosinase; albino) gene as well as to anonymous loci within the Fah-Tyr region that are defined by the Pmv-31 viral integration site and by chromosome-microdissection clones. Rearrangements corresponding to the proximal breakpoints of two of these deletions were detected by Southern blot analysis, and a size-altered restriction fragment carrying the breakpoint of one of them was cloned. A probe derived from this deletion fusion fragment defines a locus, D7Rn6, which maps within (or distal to) the pid region, and which discriminates among the distal extents of deletions eliciting the pid phenotype. Extension of physical maps from D7Rn6 should provide access both to the pid region and to loci mapping distal to pid that are defined by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lethal mutations. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Effects of composite root extract on histological structures of graffian follicle and endometrial epithelium in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-05-01

    This study attempted in vivo testing of a group of plant root extracts in composite form on the reproductive organs of the female albino rat. These roots in composite form have been used by the folk women of Assam to prevent pregnancy. Firsthand knowledge revealed that the dry powder of these roots in composite form can induce sterility in women temporarily (reversible) or permanently which is dose-dependent when taken through oral route. The study revealed that administration of ethanolic crude extract of these composite roots in a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, consecutively for 12 days, can modulate histological changes in the structures of ovary and uterus. This dose has previously been detected as the threshold dose to induce sterility (reversible) in albino rat. The ovarian follicle showed structural disparity in thecal cells and granulosa cells, and formation of zona pellucida. In the uterus, the endometrial epithelium on the luminal surface showed pseudostratification, vacuolation of the cells, and irregular desquamation from the stroma. Infiltration of a large number of polymorphs in the endometrial stroma and necrosis of endometrial gland tissues indicated structural and functional aberrations of the uterus. PMID:10906505

  4. Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawy, Sayed M; Morsy, Gamal M; Elshibani, Majda M

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, μg/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, μg) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver. PMID:22317823

  5. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

  6. 2,5-hexanedione-induced immunomodulatory effect in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Upreti, R.K.; Shanker, R.

    1987-06-01

    The immunotoxic potential of 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-Hxdn), the end metabolite of n-hexane/methyl n-butyl ketone, was evaluated in a mouse model involving multiple pathomorphological, hematological, and immunological assays. Young adult male Swiss albino mice were given either single or seven consecutive oral doses of 0.2 x LD/sub 50/ of 2.5-Hxdn. None of the treated mice exhibited any sign of hind limb weakness up to 1 week. On the eighth day, half the animals were sacrificed for initial pathomorphological studies of various organs and the other half were subjected to several immune function tests. The results revealed treatment-related reduction in cellularity of spleen, thymus, and mesentric lymph nodes and pathotoxicological changes. Further, immune function tests such as delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, plaque-forming cell assay, phagocytosis by adherent peritoneal exudate cells, and resistance to endotoxin shock were considerably impaired. These results suggest that 2,5-Hxdn treatment causes profound impairment of immunity in mice even before the onset of peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Low Concentration of a Dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8 TCDD) Affects the Glycosidases and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Mice Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jigyasi, Jyoti; Kundu, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Present communication reports the effects of environmentally available, low doses of tetra chloro di benzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) to lysosomal enzymes in mice liver. The study tests the hypothesis, in vivo exposure of low dose TCDD provokes dose and duration dependent toxic effects to key lysosomal enzymes and thereby causes cellular apoptotic changes. Three groups of female Swiss albino mice were subjected to two doses of TCDD (0.004 mg/kg bw/d, 0.04 mg/kg bw/d) for 2, 4 and 6 days of exposure durations. The results indicated significant exposure duration dependent effects of TCDD in mice liver cells. The results suggested that TCDD possibly induced an increase in intracellular ions or ROS which in turn altered different physiological activities by affecting different metabolic pathway of the liver cells. The altered functions of key lysosomal enzymes by TCDD may also evoke the process of cellular apoptosis. PMID:25552958

  8. Low concentration of a dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8 TCDD) affects the glycosidases and Acid phosphatase activity in mice hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jigyasi, Jyoti; Kundu, Rahul

    2014-12-01

    Present communication reports the effects of environmentally available, low doses of tetra chloro di benzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) to lysosomal enzymes in mice liver. The study tests the hypothesis, in vivo exposure of low dose TCDD provokes dose and duration dependent toxic effects to key lysosomal enzymes and thereby causes cellular apoptotic changes. Three groups of female Swiss albino mice were subjected to two doses of TCDD (0.004 mg/kg bw/d, 0.04 mg/kg bw/d) for 2, 4 and 6 days of exposure durations. The results indicated significant exposure duration dependent effects of TCDD in mice liver cells. The results suggested that TCDD possibly induced an increase in intracellular ions or ROS which in turn altered different physiological activities by affecting different metabolic pathway of the liver cells. The altered functions of key lysosomal enzymes by TCDD may also evoke the process of cellular apoptosis. PMID:25552958

  9. EFFECT OF DIET AND STRAIN DIFFERENCE ON THE VIRULENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FOR MICE.

    PubMed

    NUTINI, L G; BERBERICH, N J

    1965-07-01

    Years of intensive investigations in our laboratories on staphylococcal infections in mice have indicated a gradual decrease in the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus for this animal, particularly the strain we were using, the random-bred BT mouse. The present investigations, based on changes in diet and strain differences in mice, were undertaken in an attempt to improve susceptibility of our stock strain, on the one hand, and to determine whether susceptibility was influenced by genetic strain differences, on the other. In the first series of experiments, littermate mice of the BT strain were placed on different diets: one group received a commercial diet; the other, a basic diet previously established in our laboratories as adequate for growth requirements of the animals. An increase in the susceptibility of the animals to staphylococcal infection was noted in the mice receiving the basic diet. In the second series of investigations, three other strains of mice (the Swiss albino, the C3H/HeJ, and the C57B1) previously not used by our laboratories in staphylococcal experiments were studied for staphylococcal susceptibility. These experiments revealed that all of these strains of mice were highly susceptible to the infection, even though they were maintained on a commercial diet. PMID:14341596

  10. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  11. Histopathology effects of nickel nanoparticles on lungs, liver, and spleen tissues in male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdari, Marziyeh; Ziaee Ghahnavieh, Marziyeh

    2014-09-01

    Because of the classification of the nickel compounds as carcinogenic substances, there is a need for in vivo tests to nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) for observing their effects on health experimentally. Spherical NiNPs with 10 nm in diameter and 75 ppm concentration were applied for investigating their toxicities within male albino mice as an in vivo model. We randomly made sham group, control group, and 75 ppm group (with five animals in each group). Then, the nanoparticles were injected into mice intraperitonealy for 7 days and after that their lungs, liver, and spleen were removed for histopathological observations. At the end of the test, section microscopic observations of liver, spleen, and lung in sham and control groups showed normal tissues but these tissues underwent significant abnormal effects in 75 ppm group. NiNPs can cause undesirable effects in lungs, liver, and spleen tissues with same condition of this study.

  12. [Features of the B chromosome in Korean wood mice Apodemus peninsulae (Thomas, 1906) from Transbaikalia and the Far East identified by the FISH method].

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, N B; Kartavtseva, I V; Roslik, G V; Karamysheva, T V; Pavlenko, M V; Iwasa, M A; Koh, H S

    2015-03-01

    Korean field mice (Apodemus peninsulae) are widely distributed throughout northeastern Asia, including the Russian Far East, northern China, the Korean peninsula, Sakhalin, and Hokkaido. This mouse species is characterized by a high frequency of animals with B chromosomes differing in their number, morphology, and DNA composition in different geographical regions. For the first time a comparative analysis of DNA probes from B chromosomes with metaphase chromosomes of mice from Transbaikalia, the Far East (including the Russian Far East), Japan, and South Korea was conducted by in situ hybridization. B chromosomes in mice from the Russian Far East were shown to exhibit low variability in DNA content; however, the DNA composition of B chromosomes in species from Transbaikalia and Japan were highly variable. B chromosomes in A. peninsulae from the South Korean population demonstrate minor differences from those from the Russian Far East. We discuss the origin of B chromosomes in the studied region in comparison with previously obtained data for mice from Siberia and the Baikal region, as well as the dispersal routes of the Korean field mouse. PMID:26027373

  13. Use of a safe, reproducible, and rapid aerosol delivery method to study infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in mice.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, Eric R; Zimmerman, Shawn M; Shaffer, Teresa L; Michel, Frank; Gao, Xiudan; Hogan, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium readily isolated from wet soils of countries bordering the equator. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted clone of B. pseudomallei that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir and causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by these organisms typically occurs via percutaneous inoculation or inhalation of aerosols, and the most common manifestation is severe pneumonia leading to fatal bacteremia. Glanders and melioidosis are difficult to diagnose and require prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species, and there is concern regarding their use as biological warfare agents given that B. mallei has previously been utilized in this manner. Hence, experiments were performed to establish a mouse model of aerosol infection to study the organisms and develop countermeasures. Using a hand-held aerosolizer, BALB/c mice were inoculated intratracheally with strains B. pseudomallei 1026b and B. mallei ATCC23344 and growth of the agents in the lungs, as well as dissemination to the spleen, were examined. Mice infected with 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) organisms were unable to control growth of B. mallei in the lungs and bacteria rapidly disseminated to the spleen. Though similar results were observed in mice inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) B. pseudomallei cells, animals infected with 10(2) organisms controlled bacterial replication in the lungs, dissemination to the spleen, and the extent of bacteremia. Analysis of sera from mice surviving acute infection revealed that animals produced antibodies against antigens known to be targets of the immune response in humans. Taken together, these data show that small volume aerosol inoculation of mice results in acute disease, dose-dependent chronic infection, and immune responses that correlate

  14. Use of a Safe, Reproducible, and Rapid Aerosol Delivery Method to Study Infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, Eric R.; Zimmerman, Shawn M.; Shaffer, Teresa L.; Michel, Frank; Gao, Xiudan; Hogan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium readily isolated from wet soils of countries bordering the equator. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted clone of B. pseudomallei that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir and causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by these organisms typically occurs via percutaneous inoculation or inhalation of aerosols, and the most common manifestation is severe pneumonia leading to fatal bacteremia. Glanders and melioidosis are difficult to diagnose and require prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species, and there is concern regarding their use as biological warfare agents given that B. mallei has previously been utilized in this manner. Hence, experiments were performed to establish a mouse model of aerosol infection to study the organisms and develop countermeasures. Using a hand-held aerosolizer, BALB/c mice were inoculated intratracheally with strains B. pseudomallei 1026b and B. mallei ATCC23344 and growth of the agents in the lungs, as well as dissemination to the spleen, were examined. Mice infected with 102, 103 and 104 organisms were unable to control growth of B. mallei in the lungs and bacteria rapidly disseminated to the spleen. Though similar results were observed in mice inoculated with 103 and 104 B. pseudomallei cells, animals infected with 102 organisms controlled bacterial replication in the lungs, dissemination to the spleen, and the extent of bacteremia. Analysis of sera from mice surviving acute infection revealed that animals produced antibodies against antigens known to be targets of the immune response in humans. Taken together, these data show that small volume aerosol inoculation of mice results in acute disease, dose-dependent chronic infection, and immune responses that correlate with those

  15. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D) Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Carolyn M.; Maeda, Yuuki; Horiuchi, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture) for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture). We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-), A (Membrane/activin+), M (Matrigel/activin-), and M+A (Matrigel/activin+). We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A). Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A) than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A). In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A) success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian culture

  16. Optical properties of mice skin for optical therapy relevant wavelengths: influence of gender and pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, C. P.; Deana, A. M.; Silva, D. F. T.; França, C. M.; Yoshimura, T. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Red and near-infrared light have been widely employed in optical therapies. Skin is the most common optical barrier in non-invasive techniques and in many cases it is the target tissue itself. Consequently, to optimize the outcomes brought by lightbased therapies, the optical properties of skin tissue must be very well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the dorsal skin optical properties of albino (BALB/c) and pigmented (C57BL/6) mice using the Kubelka-Munk photon transport model. We evaluated samples from male and female young mice of both strains. Analysis was performed for wavelengths at 630, 660, 780, 810 and 905 nm due to their prevalent use in optical therapies, such as low-level light (or laser) and photodynamic therapies. Spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse transmittance and reflectance were performed using a single integrating sphere coupled to a proper spectrophotometer. Statistic analysis was made by two-way ANOVA, with Tukey as post-test and Levenne and Shapiro-Wilks as pre-tests. Statistical significance was considered when p<0.05. Our results show only a slight transmittance increment (<10 %) as wavelengths are increased from 630 to 905 nm, and no statistical significance was observed. Albino male mice present reduced transmittance levels for all wavelengths. The organization and abundance of skin composing tissues significantly influence its scattering optical properties although absorption remains constant. We conclude that factors such as subcutaneous adiposity and connective tissue structure can have statistically significant influence on mice skin optical properties and these factors have relevant variations among different gender and strains.

  17. Theaflavin Synthesized in a Selective, Domino-Type, One-Pot Enzymatic Biotransformation Method with Camellia sinensis Cell Culture Inhibits Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Masumi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Saijo, Ryoyasu

    2016-08-01

    The polyphenolic compound theaflavin, which is the main red pigment present in black tea, is reported to elicit various physiological effects. Because of the extremely low concentration of theaflavin present in black tea, its extraction from black tea leaves in quantities sufficient for use in medical studies has been difficult. We have developed a simple, inexpensive, selective, domino-type, one-pot enzymatic biotransformation method for the synthesis of theaflavin that is suitable for use in medical studies. Subsequent administration of this synthetic theaflavin to high-fat diet-induced obese mice inhibited both body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation, with no significant difference in the amount of faeces between the experimental and control mice. PMID:27237789

  18. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20th and 15th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  19. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Laizuman; Nasrin, Fatema; Zahan, Ronok; Haque, Anamul; Haque, Ekramul; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress. PMID:24761124

  20. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  1. Histological Study on Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy on Experimental Renal Injury Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion in Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Eman Mostafa; Afifi, Noha Mohamed; Elfattah, Lamiaa Ibrahim Abd; Mohsen, Manal Ali Abd-El

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a major clinical problem with high mortality and limited treatment protocols. This study was planned to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of bone marrow - derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) AKI. Methods and Results This study was carried out on thirty adult male albino rats. Animals were divided equally into three groups. Group I (control sham-operated group) (n=10), were subdivided equally into two subgroups; Ia and Ib. The experimental group (n=20) were all subjected to I/R injury by clamping both renal pedicles for 40 minutes. Half of the I/R animals did not receive MSC therapy (group II) [non-MSC treated group]. The other half of the I/R animals received single intravenous injection of PKH26 labelled BM-MSCs immediately after removal of the clamps and visual confirmation of reflow (group III) [MSC treated group]. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs (subgroups IIa & IIIa) and 72 hrs (subgroups IIb & IIIb) after intervention. Serological measurements included serum urea and creatinine. Kidney specimens were processed for H&E, PAS and PCNA. Mean % of renal corpuscles with affected glomeruli, mean % of affected tubules, mean area % of PAS-positive reaction and mean area % of PCNA immunoreactivity were measured by histomorphometric studies and statistically compared. MSCs-treated group exhibited protection against renal injury serologically and histologically. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest a potential reno-protective capacity of MSCs which could be of considerable therapeutic promise for cell-based management of clinical AKI. PMID:24298374

  2. Protective effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats: a histological and immunohisochemical study

    PubMed Central

    El-Mahalaway, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem. Chronic aflatoxin exposure is associated with kidney damage. Curcumin is a herbal agent, used in medicine with a wide range of beneficial therapeutic effects. Objective: to evaluate the effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty adult male rats were included and they were divided equally into 4 groups (10 rats each): Group I (control group), group II (Curcumin group): The rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally by gastric tube for 5 days/week, group III (Aflatoxin B1 group): The rats received aflatoxin B1 (250 μg/kg b.w./day) orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks, group IV (Aflatoxin B1 and Curcumin group): The rats received aflatoxin and curcumin orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff, immunohistochemical detection of desmin and Bcl2. Results: The tubules of group III showed degenerative and necrotic changes with disruption of basal lamina. There was a significant decrease Bcl2 expression in the tubules, but the glomeruli showed an enlargement with dilation of their capillaries lumina in some areas, while the other areas showed glomerular atrophy with obliteration of their capillaries lumina. There was a significant increase in desmin expression in the glomerular cells. The interstitium showed hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Group IV showed improvement of the histological and immunohistochemical changes described before. Conclusion: Aflatoxin B1 has deleterious effects of on the histological structure of the rat’s renal cortex and curcumin minimized these effects as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. We advise eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of curcumin and regulation must implement to

  3. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Materials and Methods Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Results Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Conclusion Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. PMID

  4. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12–16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Results: Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. Conclusions: We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects. PMID:25821308

  5. Addition of Propolis to Irinotecan Therapy Prolongs Survival in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lisičić, Duje; Đikić, Domagoj; Blažević, Ana Sofia; Mihaljević, Josipa; Oršolić, Nada; Knežević, Anica Horvat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated possible synergistic action of anticancer drug Irinotecan (IRI) combined with ethanolic (EEP) and water-soluble (WSDP) derivate of propolis on Swiss albino mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). For survival analysis mice were administered WSDP and EEP (100 mg/kg) daily for 3 consecutive days, beginning on 3rd day after EAT cell (1×106) injection. IRI was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg on days 1, 13, and 19. We simultaneously studied peripheral white blood cell count, cell types washed from the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages from peritoneal cavity, and the level of primary DNA damage in leukocytes, kidney, and liver cells using the alkaline comet assay. Three out of 9 mice per group survived the entire duration of the experiment (90 days) in groups treated with IRI combined with WSDP and EEP. All test components increased survival of mice by 7.53% to 231.54%. Combined treatment with IRI and/or WSDP and EEP significantly decreased percentage of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice. All treated animals had significantly higher percentage of neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity in comparison to nontreated EAT-injected mice. We observed significantly higher value of DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with IRI and combination of IRI and/or WSDP and EEP as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice, while the same treatment decreased DNA damage in kidney. Our results showed that addition of propolis to IRI treatment enhanced antitumor activity of IRI and prolongs survival in EAT-bearing mice, which definitely deserve further studies to clarify the possible mechanisms of antitumor actions of combined herb–drug treatments. PMID:24383762

  6. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

  7. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  8. Influence of teak (Tectona grandis; family: Verbenaceae) seed protein on some enzymes and liver lipids of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R

    1985-09-01

    The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763

  9. Protective effect of a high protein diet against the toxicity of some organophosphorus compounds in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A K; Kaveeshwar, U

    1991-10-01

    The present investigation deals with determining the efficacy of a high protein diet (HPD) in combating toxicity in albino rats of some organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) that follow dissimilar metabolic patterns in a living system. As assessed by an increase or decrease in the levels of some biochemical and nutritional parameters, the high protein diet containing 59% protein seems to have a beneficial effect in alleviating toxicity of low but prolonged doses of OPCs over the standard diet (SD) containing 19% protein. OPCs undergoing direct detoxication in a living system like diisopropyl phosphoro-fluoridate (DFP) appear to be more susceptible to HPD than those undergoing biotoxication like EPN (O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl-phosphonothioate) and malathion (S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethyldithiophosphate). PMID:1812296

  10. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jianjie; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3′ untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on some kidney and liver functional indicies of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nafiu, Mo; Akanji, M A; Yakubu, M T

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as 'markers'. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A-F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A-E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P<0.05) decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver leading to 80.95% loss by the end of the experimental period. While there was no consistent pattern in the kidney ALP activity and serum bilirubin level, the serum enzyme compared well (P>0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy. PMID:22238479

  12. Effect of Embelin Against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Sickness Behaviour in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ashique; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S; Thippeswamy, B S; Patil, Jagadevappa S

    2016-05-01

    Sickness behaviour is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioural changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection. It is relevant to understanding depression and some aspects of the suffering that in cancer. Embelin has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and anxiolytic assets and has been shown to inhibit nuclear factor κB pathway and cytokine production. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of embelin isolated from Embelia ribes Burm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were pre-treated with embelin (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then challenged with LPS (400 µg/kg, i.p.). At different time intervals of post-LPS challenge, sickness behaviour was evaluated in the animals by battery of behavioural tests (plus maze, open field, light-dark box, forced swim, social behaviour assessment, sucrose preference and food and water intake). Levels of oxidative stress makers (reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation) in mice brain were also analysed. LPS induced behavioural alterations, anhedonia and anorexia, in mice. Pre-treatment with embelin attenuated behavioural changes induced by LPS. In addition, embelin prevented anhedonia, anorexia and ameliorated brain oxidative stress markers. The experimental outcomes of the present study demonstrated protective effect of embelin in LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26890475

  13. Anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to tannery wastewater: The effect of photoelectrooxidation treatment.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Vanzella, Cláudia; Bianchetti, Paula; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; Stülp, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The leather industry is a major producer of wastewaters and releases large quantities of many different chemical agents used in hide processing into the environment. Since the central nervous system is sensitive to many different contaminants, our aim was to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of exposure of mice to tannery effluents using animal models of depression and anxiety, namely forced swim and elevated plus-maze. In order to propose a clean technology for the treatment of this effluent, we also investigated the exposure of mice to effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation process (PEO). Adult male Swiss albino mice (CF1 strain) were given free access to water bottles containing an effluent treated by a tannery (non-PEO) or PEO-treated tannery wastewater (0.1 and 1% in drinking water). Exposure to tannery wastewater induced behavioural changes in the mice in elevated plus-maze. Exposure to non-PEO 1% decreased the percentage of time spent in the open arms, indicating anxiety-like behaviour. Exposure to tannery wastewater did not alter immobility time in the forced swim test, suggesting that tannery effluents did not induce depression-like behaviour in the mice. These behavioural data suggest that non-PEO tannery effluent has an anxiogenic effect, whereas PEO-treated tannery effluents do not alter anxiety levels. PMID:21664271

  14. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Ajonijebu, Duyilemi Chris; Ogundele, Olalekan Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain) were divided into four groups of five (n = 5) mice each. A set of mice (Nic) received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) while a separate set (Cd) was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous). For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n = 5; control) received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28–P56). At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory. PMID:25477708

  15. Functional and biochemical indicators of pneumoconiosis in mice: comparison with rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Raub, J.A.; Graham, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mice were injected intratracheally with silica or Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash (0.2 mg/g body weight) and examined 6 months later for changes in pulmonary function, histology, and hydroxyproline content. Results were compared with a similar study using rats. Mice injected with volcanic ash showed significant changes only in wet lung weights. Those injected with silica showed an approximate doubling of lung wet weight and dry weight and hydroxyproline content. Larger increases in lung weight were seen if lymph nodes were left attached. Lung compliance, total lung capacity, and the shape of the pressure-volume curves of the lung were changed as much as 22% in the silica-treated mice. A mild degree of fibrosis with no dense lung consolidation was noted microscopically in silica-treated mice. In contrast, silica-treated rats showed dense lung consolidation, threefold to fivefold increases in both wet and dry lung weights and hydroxyproline content, and up to 40% reductions in pulmonary function measurements. It is concluded that Swiss albino mice developed a milder degree of fibrosis than similarly treated Sprague-Dawley rats and that both biochemical and functional indicators are effective in detecting pneumoconiosis in these species. 32 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Comparison of Gavage, Water Bottle, and a High-Moisture Diet Bolus as Dosing Methods for Quantitative D-xylose Administration to B6D2F1 (Mus musculus) Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, J. Paul; Lewis, Sherry M.; Moyer, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    Gavage, water bottle, and diet incorporation are 3 dosing methods used orally to administer test compounds to rodents. These 3 methods were compared in mice to determine which represented the most quantitative delivery system. For dietary incorporation, a high-moisture bolus form of NIH-31 rodent meal was developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as an autoclave-stable binding agent. A high-moisture bolus were selected to increase the acceptability of the dosed diet and to promote quantitative consumption through reduced wastage. The test compound used was D-xylose, a pentose sugar that may be quantitatively detected, colorimetrically, in urine following oral dosing. Six male and 6 female B6D2FI mice were placed in metabolism cages and dosed with a known quantity of D-xylose by each of the 3 methods. Urine was collected before and after each method of administration and analysed for total D-xylose; the per cent recovery was based upon the amount of D-xylose consumed. Quantitative consumption was apparently greatest for water bottle dosing with an average recovery of 56.0% of the original D-xylose dose. High-moisture bolus incorporation ranked second with 50.0% D-xylose recovery, and gavage was third with 41.0% D-xylose recovery.

  17. Suppression of Locomotor Activity in Female C57Bl/6J Mice Treated with Interleukin-1β: Investigating a Method for the Study of Fatigue in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bonsall, David R.; Kim, Hyunji; Tocci, Catherine; Ndiaye, Awa; Petronzio, Abbey; McKay-Corkum, Grace; Molyneux, Penny C.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease, and is also common in patients with traumatic brain injury, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Little is known about the neurobiology of fatigue, in part due to the lack of an approach to induce fatigue in laboratory animals. Fatigue is a common response to systemic challenge by pathogens, a response in part mediated through action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). We investigated the behavioral responses of mice to IL-1β. Female C57Bl/6J mice of 3 ages were administered IL-1β at various doses i.p. Interleukin-1β reduced locomotor activity, and sensitivity increased with age. Further experiments were conducted with middle-aged females. Centrally administered IL-1β dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity. Using doses of IL-1β that caused suppression of locomotor activity, we measured minimal signs of sickness, such as hyperthermia, pain or anhedonia (as measured with abdominal temperature probes, pre-treatment with the analgesic buprenorphine and through sucrose preference, respectively), all of which are responses commonly reported with higher doses. We found that middle-aged orexin-/- mice showed equivalent effects of IL-1β on locomotor activity as seen in wild-type controls, suggesting that orexins are not necessary for IL-1β -induced reductions in wheel-running. Given that the availability and success of therapeutic treatments for fatigue is currently limited, we examined the effectiveness of two potential clinical treatments, modafinil and methylphenidate. We found that these treatments were variably successful in restoring locomotor activity after IL-1β administration. This provides one step toward development of a satisfactory animal model of the multidimensional experience of fatigue, a model that could allow us to determine possible pathways through which inflammation induces fatigue, and could lead to novel treatments for

  18. Endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin gold through mice peritoneal mesothelium.

    PubMed

    Gotloib, L; Shostak, A

    1995-05-01

    The present transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was designed to investigate whether mesothelial cells of mice diaphragmatic, parietal and mesenteric peritoneum are actively coupled to the mechanisms involved in the transerosal absorption of albumin gold complexes (Alb-Au). Five albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of a suspension of Alb-Au. In three animals, in vivo fixation was done 10 minutes after injection of Alb-Au, whereas in the remaining two, fixation was performed 45 minutes after injection of the tracer. At both time intervals, a substantial part of Alb-Au complexes was observed within plasmalemmal and coated vesicles, mainly attached to the luminal aspect of the internal luminal membranes. The amount of Alb-Au contained in plasmalemmal vesicles was significantly higher than that detected in intermesothelial junctions. Plasmalemmal vesicles were observed discharging Alb-Au complexes in the submesothelial interstitium, showing a significantly higher proportion of the tracer associated with non-junctional areas. Evidence presented in this study supports the idea of local degradation of Alb-Au in mesothelial cells after endocytosis, and that of a continuously transcytotic mechanism transporting polymerized albumin across the mesothelial layer. In this sense, transcytotic vesicles could represent the large pore equivalent. PMID:7637257

  19. Deltamethrin Increases Candida albicans infection susceptibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Rehman, H; Mohan, A; Tabassum, H; Ahmad, F; Rahman, S; Parvez, S; Raisuddin, S

    2011-05-01

    Deltamethrin, an alpha-cyano type II synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is used to control a wide range of insects on a variety of crops and vectors of diseases. Deltamethrin has been previously reported for its immunotoxic effects and therefore its exposure may affect the host resistance to infection and tumour challenge. Effect of exposure of deltamethrin on host resistance to Candida albicans infection was examined in Swiss albino mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory action of deltamethrin in C. albicans infected mice. The dose of deltamethrin was initially tested and selected from our previous study (18 mg/kg). Percentage of infection in deltamethrin treated animals increased faster when compared to that of the controls. Deltamethrin exposure along with C. albicans infection caused alteration of humoral immune response. The number of colony forming unit in liver and spleen were also found to be significantly increased in the treated group. The results from our present study suggest that deltamethrin exhibits an immunosuppressive effect and has a negative impact on host resistance to C. albicans infection. PMID:21272049

  20. Fractal analysis and Gray level co-occurrence matrix method for evaluation of reperfusion injury in kidney medulla.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor; Nesic, Zorica; Paunovic Pantic, Jovana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Cetkovic, Mila; Basta Jovanovic, Gordana

    2016-05-21

    Fractal analysis and Gray level co-occurrence matrix method represent two novel mathematical algorithms commonly used in medical sciences as potential parts of computer-aided diagnostic systems. In this study, we tested the ability of these methods to discriminate the kidney medullar tissue suffering from reperfusion injury, from normal tissue. A total of 320 digital micrographs of Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) - stained kidney medulla from 16 Wistar albino mice (20 per animal), were analyzed using National Institutes of Health ImageJ software (NIH, Bethesda, MD) and its plugins. 160 micrographs were obtained from the experimental group with induced reperfusion injury, and another 160 were obtained from the controls. For each micrograph we calculated the values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, as well as five GLCM features: angular second moment, entropy, inverse difference moment, GLCM contrast, and GLCM correlation. Discriminatory value of the parameters was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, by measuring the area below ROC curve. The results indicate that certain features of GLCM algorithm have excellent discriminatory ability in evaluation of damaged kidney tissue. Fractal dimension and lacunarity as parameters of fractal analysis also had a relatively good discriminatory value in differentiation of injured from the normal tissue. Both methods have potentially promising application in future design of novel techniques applicable in cell physiology, histology and pathology. PMID:26964774

  1. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis water extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Nisa, M; Akbar, S; Tariq, M; Hussain, Z

    1986-10-01

    Cuscuta chinensis, known as Aftimun, is reputed to have antitumour activity in the Unani system of medicine in India. The effect of a hot water extract of C. chinensis on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in Swiss albino mice was studied. Oral administration of the extract (1 g/kg body wt) thrice a week in 22 mice, started on the tenth day after the first application of DMBA to the 252nd day, markedly delayed the appearance and retarded the growth of papillomas and the incidence of carcinoma, relative to a control group with 28 mice, in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. Its prophylactic effect was found to be statistically significant. PMID:3102856

  2. Evaluation of antitussive activity of formulations with herbal extracts in sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough model in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y K; Katyal, Jatinder; Kumar, Gajendra; Mehla, Jogender; Katiyar, C K; Sharma, Naveen; Yadav, Satpal

    2009-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of combination of herbal drugs as formulations in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into eight groups, (n = 6). Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 mice were given distilled water, group 3 was positive control and received codeine sulphate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and group 4, 5, 6, 7 received coded 1 formulations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively at a dose of 0.3 ml/mice, orally, while group VIII was the vehicle control. Thirty minutes later, the mice were exposed to sulphur dioxide again for 45 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts, by two independent observers, for five minutes. All the formulations used showed significant antitussive activity in sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, these formulations can prove to be useful for alleviating cough. PMID:19810578

  3. Protective effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Kumaraguruparan, Ramasamy; Abraham, Suresh K; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei, the extent of hepatic lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidants-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate biomarkers of chemoprotection. In DMBA-treated mice, the increases in micronuclei and lipid peroxides were accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced DMBA-induced micronuclei and lipid peroxides and enhanced GSH-dependent antioxidant activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract exerts protective effects against DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:16635967

  4. Chemopreventive potential of Tribulus terrestris against 7,12- dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Soni, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Shalini; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, the chemopreventive potential of aqueous extracts of the root and fruit of Tribulus terrestris (an Ayurvedic medicinal plant) on 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice was studied. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with Tribulus terrestris suspension continuously at pre, peri and post-initiation stages of papillomagenesis as compared to the control group treated with DMBA and croton oil alone. Treatment with Tribulus terrestris suspension by oral gavage for 7 days resulted in a significant increase in the reduced glutathione content in the liver (P< 0.001 for both root and fruit extracts). Conversely, lipid peroxidation levels were significantly decreased (P< 0.001). PMID:16839225

  5. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977

  6. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  7. Zinc metabolism in genetically obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Recent reports indicate that the concentrations and total amounts of several essential trace metals in various tissues of genetically obese rodents differ markedly from lean controls. In the present studies the absorption, retention and tissue distribution of zinc was compared in obese (ob/ob) and lean (+/.) C57BL/6J mice. When administered 0.1 and 1 umole /sup 65/Zn by stomach tube and killed after 4 h, fasted 10 week old obese mice had 2.7 and 2.2 times more radioactivity in their carcasses, respectively, than age-matched lean mice. Higher levels of /sup 65/Zn were also present in the intestinal mucosa of obese mice. To eliminate possible differences in the effects of fasting and gastric emptying rates between the phenotypes, zinc absorption and retention were determined according to the method of Heth and Hoekstra. Analysis of data revealed that obese and lean mice absorbed 43 and 18% of the oral dose, respectively. Also, the rate of /sup 65/Zn excretion between 2 and 6 days post-treatment was similar for obese and lean mice. After 6 days obese mice had significantly lower levels of radioisotope in skin, muscle plus bone, spleen and testes and higher levels of /sup 65/Zn in liver, small intestine and adipose tissue compared to tissues from lean mice. These results demonstrate increased absorption, altered tissue distribution and similar excretion of zinc in ob/ob mice.

  8. Oral immunization of mice against Schistosoma mansoni using drinking water from trays containing Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Noureldin, M S

    1999-01-01

    Water collected from trays containing Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni at the time of cercariae shedding (SmISW) and trays containing clean, non-infected, B. alexandrina (NISW) and underground water (UW), were filtered used as a drinking water for 3 groups of albino mice males. After two months, blood samples were collected from the 3 groups and serum was tested for anti-cercarial IgG, then mice were infected with 150 S. mansoni cercariae. Eight weeks after infection, mice were perfused and adult S. mansoni worms were counted. Anti-cercarial IgG was positive in 23 (82.1%) out of the 28 samples collected from mice drinking SmISW and only in 2 (9.5%) out of the 21 samples collected from mice drinking NISW, while all samples collected from mice drinking UW were negative for anti-cercarial IgG (X2=45.897; P<0.001). Worm load was significantly lower in the group of mice drinking SmISW than mice drinking NISW (P=0.032) and mice drinking UW (P=0.02). In mice drinking SmISW, adult worm count showed significant negative correlation with anti-cercarial IgG concentration (Kendall's taub =-0.325 and P=0.018). The results indicate that antigens present in drinking water stimulate a level of immunity against schistosomiasis, (inhabitants of endemic areas) resulting in a lower intensity and severity of infection. Also, it may reduce the specificity of serological tests used for diagnosis of Schistosoma infection, based on antibody determination. PMID:12561896

  9. Escherichia hermannii (ATCC 33651) polysaccharide-protein conjugates: comparison of two conjugation methods for the induction of humoral responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Jacques, I; Dubray, G

    1991-08-01

    Escherichia hermannii (ATCC 33651) LPS O-polysaccharide was covalently linked to a carrier (bovine serum albumin) to form conjugates either directly or with a spacer arm (adipic acid dihydrazide). The immunogenicity of both conjugates at three different doses was tested in mice. Antibodies to the conjugate were produced and were shown to react with free lipopolysaccharide. The directly-coupled conjugate was found to be more immunogenic than the indirect one (i.e. lower dose necessary for a similar response). The antibody response elicited by the directly coupled conjugate (1 microgram/animal) began at 21 days and was sustained for at least 4 months. The mouse model described here may be applicable to the testing of other conjugates composed of bacterial cell wall polysaccharides and LPS O-chains. PMID:1771969

  10. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  11. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Streblus asper bark against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.B. Suresh; Kar, Biswakanth; Dolai, Narayan; Karmakar, Indrajit; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2015-01-01

    Streblus asper Lour (Moraceae), commonly known as Siamee Rough Brush in English is widely distributed in subtropical Asia and traditionally used for several medicinal purposes. In the present study, the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract from Streblus asper bark (EASA) was evaluated for antitumor effect against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of DAL cells in mice, EASA was administered intraperitoneally at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumor growth parameters, and the rest were kept alive for survival assessment. Hematological, serum biochemical and tissue (liver, kidney) antioxidant profiles were also determined. EASA exhibited significant and dose dependent decrease in tumor growth parameters and increased survival of DAL bearing animals. EASA significantly and dose-dependently normalized the altered hematological, serum biochemical and tissue antioxidant parameters as compared with the DAL control mice. From the present study it may be concluded that S. asper bark possesses remarkable antitumor efficacy mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms. PMID:27486371

  12. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Babita; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek; Indap, Madhavi Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME) on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham) group and six ovariectomised (OVX) subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day); OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day). Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphatase (ACP), serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. PMID:24995144

  13. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  14. Ultrastructural Changes of Caudate Nucleus in Mice Chronically Treated with Manganese.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Virginia; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan Pablo; Bonilla, Ernesto; Medina-Leendertz, Shirley; Mora, Marylu; Mosquera, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and induces functional and structural alterations during the intoxication by this metal. Therefore, the effects of chronic administration of Mn in the caudate nucleus of mice were evaluated by electron microscopy. Male albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with MnCl2 (5 mg/kg/d) 5 d per week during 9 weeks. The control group received only 0.9% of NaCl solution. The caudate nuclei were extracted and subsequently processed to be observed on a conventional transmission electron microscope at 2, 4, 6, and 9 weeks after treatment. A high percentage of vacuolated and swollen mitochondria were found throughout all the analyzed periods. Myelin disarrangement and ultrastructural alterations related to edema were observed increased in Mn-treated mice at week 9. Granular degeneration of myelin at week 9 accompanied with deposition of electron dense granules in the neuropil was also observed. Edema in neuropil and glial cells was detected from week 2 to week 9 accompanied by swollen mitochondria. Neuronal bodies, synaptic terminals, and perivascular cells were found swollen. Decreased electron density in postsynaptic areas and decreased and dispersed synaptic vesicles in presynaptic areas were noted in Mn-treated animals. Some neurons from Mn-treated mice showed cisternae dilation of the Golgi apparatus. These results suggest that Mn-treatment produces structural alterations in the caudate nucleus that could be responsible for some of the neurotoxic effects of this metal. PMID:25569534

  15. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bouguezza, Yacine; Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-09-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  16. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA. PMID:23091357

  17. Probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strain GS4 alleviates azoxymethane-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit R; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic treatment has been gaining attention due to its remarkable effects in alleviating toxicity and carcinogenesis. The novel strain Pediococcus pentosaceus GS4 has been reported for probiotic, survivability in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and antioxidative and biohydrogenation properties. Therefore, we hypothesize that this specific strain might be able to assuage the effect of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced toxicity in mice. Twenty-eight Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups and were studied for 32 weeks. Azoxymethane (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally twice (0th and 14th days), and probiotic GS4 (1.1 × 10(9) colony-forming unit/mL) was given orally for the respective groups. Mice who served as the normal control received only normal saline. GS4-intervened AOM-induced mice showed marked improvement at the histopathologic level, in the liver and kidney. Moreover, probiotic GS4 intervention in AOM-induced mice exhibited a significant reduction in the liver function biomarker when compared with the AOM-induced mice. Probiotic GS4 intervention reduced the intestinal structural deformities as evident from the elevated brush border membrane-associated disaccharidases (sucrase, lactase) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities, which were found disrupted by AOM intoxication. Fecal bacterial load was found to be reduced in AOM-induced mice which were subsequently replenished by the probiotic GS4 intervention as apparent from the enhanced fecal bacterial load. There were no adverse effects observed in the probiotic control group. Conclusively, novel probiotic strain GS4 exhibited safe and beneficial effects against the toxicity threats posed by AOM. Thus, GS4 could be considered as a potential food supplement/additive for therapeutic purposes in gastrointestinal disorders related to inflammation and cancer. PMID:26319614

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Baker's Yeast, suppresses the growth of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in immunocompetent mice. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. At day 8, mice bearing Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma tumor (SEC) were intratumorally (IT) injected with killed S. cerevisiae (10 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) cells) for 35 days. Histopathology of yeast-treated mice showed extensive tumor degeneration, apoptosis, and ischemic (coagulative) and liquefactive necrosis. These changes are associated with a tumor growth curve that demonstrates a significant antitumor response that peaked at 35 days. Yeast treatment (20 x 10(6) cells) three times a week resulted in a significant decrease in tumor volume (TV) (67.1%, P < 0.01) as compared to PBS-treated mice. The effect was determined to be dependent on dose and frequency. Yeast administered three and two times per week induced significant decrease in TV as early as 9 and 25 days post-treatment, respectively. Administration of yeast significantly enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, including macrophages, into the tumors and triggered apoptosis in SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry (78.6%, P < 0.01) at 20 x 10(6) cells, as compared to PBS-treated mice (42.6%). In addition, yeast treatment elevated TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma plasma levels and lowered the elevated IL-10 levels. No adverse side effects from the yeast treatment were observed, including feeding/drinking cycle and life activity patterns. Indeed, yeast-treated mice showed significant final body weight gain (+21.5%, P < 0.01) at day 35. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancer with yeast, which is known to be safe for human consumption. PMID:17891396

  19. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  20. Comparison of methods for detecting mitomycin C- and ethyl nitrosourea-induced germ cell damage in mice: sperm enzyme activities, sperm motility, and testis weight

    SciTech Connect

    Ficsor, G.; Oldford, G.M.; Loughlin, K.R.; Panda, B.B.; Dubien, J.L.; Ginsberg, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Testes weights, sperm motility and enzyme activities in single sperm were compared with respect to their ability to detect either developmental or mutational damage to germ cells. Male mice were injected i.p. with 2.5 mg/kg mitomycin C (MC) or 50 or 100 mg/kg ethylnitrosourea (ENU) or saline and were then killed at times such that sperm derived from treated vas sperm (SZ), spermatids (ST), preleptotene-late-spermatogonial cells (PLSG), spermatogonial cells (SG), or spermatogonial stem cells (SGS) could be evaluated. The authors conclude that testis weight, which is easily obtained, is a sensitive indicator of germ cell damage by these agents. Sperm from each animal were evaluated for sperm motility, acrosin activity, succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity with or without the competitive inhibitor malonate or after exposure to 60/sup 8/C for 10 min. The latter two assays were to detect sperm enzymes resistant to the inhibitor or heat. The presence of the acrosin protein was also detected immunologically. Of the sperm assays, acrosin activity proved to be the most sensitive indicator of germ cell damage and was the simplest to measure.

  1. Altered host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice exposed to 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, P.; Zachariah, K.; Rai, G.P.; Vijayraghavan, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Short term repeated exposure of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours at a concentration of 0.153 mg per litre for 15 minutes daily on 10 consecutive days in Swiss albino male mice resulted in increased mortality to Listeria monocytogenes. Significantly elevated bacterial growth was observed in the spleen and liver of the CN exposed animals. The increased bacterial count in these organs was evident within 4-6 days post challenge as compared to vehicle exposed infected and unexposed infected animals. Increased susceptibility to infection has been considered to be the function of immune alteration due to cumulative short term effects of CN vapour inhalation. This may be attributed to immunotoxic effects of CN on T-cells mediated macrophage functions.

  2. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent. PMID:27441210

  3. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  4. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  5. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24760706

  6. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  7. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  8. Cognitive effects of acute restraint stress in male albino rats and the impact of pretreatment with quetiapine versus ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; Gamal, Sarah Mahmoud; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Abdel; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Stress is any condition that seriously affects the balance of the organism physiologically and psychologically. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) releasing glucocorticoid hormones that produce generalized effects on different body systems including the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute restraint stress (ARS) on cognitive performance by measuring spatial working memory in Y-maze, behavior (anxiety and exploratory behavior) in open field test, expression of synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry, dopaminergic receptors (D2) in the basal ganglia by gene expression and comparing the effect of ghrelin and quetiapine on the previous parameters. 36 adult male albino rats constituted the animal model of this work and have been divided into six groups: control group, control group exposed to ARS, quetiapine group, quetiapine group exposed to ARS, ghrelin group and ghrelin group exposed to ARS. We demonstrated more neuroprotective effect for quetiapine compared to ghrelin on stress response, anxiety behavior and working spatial memory impairment due to ARS. PMID:25391717

  9. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  10. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology. PMID:26884820

  11. Does rosmarinic acid treatment have protective role against sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar Albino rats?

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, M; Aydın, S; Taner, G; Göktaş, H G; Şahin, T; Başaran, A A; Başaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are thought to be possible therapeutic agents against sepsis because of their antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants, which has many biological activities including antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RA on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes and liver and kidney cells of Wistar albino rats by alkaline comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues and an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level in plasma were also evaluated. It is found that DNA damage in the lymphocytes, livers, and kidneys of the RA-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the sepsis-induced rats. RA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the livers and kidneys of the sepsis-induced rats. Plasma TNF-α level was found to be decreased in the RA-treated rats. It seems that RA might have a role in the attenuation of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only